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ART “4” “2”-DAY  02 October v.9.b0
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DEATHS: 1968 DUCHAMP1953 MARIN
BIRTHS: 1839 THOMA — 1874 BERNINGHAUS
+ ZOOM IN +^ Born on 02 October 1839: Hans Thoma, German painter, printmaker, and museum director, who died on 07 November 1924.
— Born in the Black Forest, Thoma was the son of a miller, craftsman and smallholder and studied briefly as a lithographer in Basle in 1854 before being apprenticed to a watchcase painter in Furtwangen. Returning home the same year, he started to draw and paint in his spare time. In 1859 he enrolled at the Kunstschule in Karlsruhe, where he studied until 1866 under Ludwig Des Coudres [1820–1878] and the landscape painter Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, by whom he was especially influenced. He spent his summer vacations drawing and painting in Bernau, and his landscapes, portraits and genre pictures from this time record his transition from amateur painter to accomplished artist. His pictures of his mother and his sister Agathe, which he produced from about 1864 onwards, show increasing similarities with the painterly realism of contemporary French painting (e.g. the double portrait of his Mother and Sister Reading the Bible, 1866). Thoma went to Paris in 1868 to study under Courbet who was a major influence on him. In 1874 he visited Italy. From 1899 Thoma was Director of the Karlsruhe Academy. He developed a highly individual style, not being influenced by the major schools of his time. His landscapes, genre paintings and prints all have a slightly ethereal quality.
— Hans Thoma wurde in Bernau geboren. Sein Vater war als Schindelmacher tätig, die Mutter entstammte einer bäuerlichen Kunsthandwerkerfamilie. Thoma hatte noch zwei Geschwister, einen älteren Bruder und eine jüngere Schwester.
      Nachdem er die Volksschule in Bernau besucht hatte, verließ der junge Thoma mit 14 Jahren seine Heimat um bei einem Lithographen und einem Maler in Basel in die Lehre zu gehen. Nach kurzer Zeit kehrte er jedoch wieder nach Bernau zurück und nahm zunächst Zeichenunterricht. Eine neue Lehre, die er 1855 bei einem Uhrenschildmaler in Furtwangen begann, musste er nach vier Wochen wieder abbrechen, da sein Vater gestorben war und die Mutter das Lehrgeld nicht mehr bezahlen konnte.
      Hans Thoma blieb zu Hause in Bernau, bildete sich mit eigenen Mal- und Zeichenstudien weiter und arbeitete wie besessen. Während dieser Zeit beispielsweise die Bilder Ansicht von St. Blasien (1858) und In Bernau Dorf (1859). Inzwischen war man auf den jungen Maler aufmerksam geworden und schickte einige seiner Bilder zur Begutachtung an die Kunstschule Karlsruhe, wo diese positiv beurteilt wurden.
      Dadurch erhielt Hans Thoma 1859 ein Stipendium des Großherzogs Friedrich I. von Baden. Seine Lehrer in Karlsuhe waren Wilhelm Schirmer und Ludwig des Coudres. Die Bilder, die Thoma meist während der Sommermonate in Bernau malte, stießen jedoch an der Kunstschule auf große Kritik und er sah keine Möglichkeit dort künstlerisch weiterzukommen. Schließlich ging Thoma 1867 nach Düsseldorf und lernte dort den Maler Otto Scholderer kennen, der als einer der ersten sein großes Talent erkannte. Dieser nahm ihn ein Jahr später mit auf eine Reise nach Paris, wo Thoma unter anderem mit Gustave Courbet und dessen Werk bekannt wurde. Diese für ihn wichtige Begegnung beschrieb er später so: "Nun glaubte ich meine Bilder malen zu können. Es war eine schöne Zeit aufblühender Hoffnung."
     Diese erfüllte sich jedoch nicht, denn die folgenden zwei Jahre verbrachte Thoma in finanzieller Not und ohne künstlerische Anerkennung in Bernau, Säckingen und Karlsruhe. Erst der Wechsel in die "Malerstadt" München im Jahre 1870 brachte ihm den Zuspruch gleichgesinnter Künstler. In dieser Zeit entstanden die bekannten Bilder Der Rhein bei Laufenburg (1870) und Der Rhein bei Säckingen (1873). Thoma hielt sich wiederholt gerne am Hochrhein auf und erwies unserer Heimatstadt mit dem Satz: "Wie schön ist doch Laufenburg!" seine Referenz.
      Im Sommer 1873 lernte Thoma den Franfurter Arzt Dr. Otto Eiser kennen, der sein lebenslanger Förderer wurde und ihm zahlreiche Aufträge verschaffte. Im Jahr darauf unternahm Hans Thoma auch seine erste Italienreise, die ihn nach Oberitalien, die Toskana und Rom führte. Im Frühjahr 1875 war er wieder in München und lernte dort Cella Berteneder kennen, die als Malermodell arbeitete und zwei Jahre später seine Frau wurde. Nach der Hochzeit, die in Säckingen stattfand, zog Thoma mit seiner Familie nach Frankfurt a.M., wo er über zwanzig Jahre verbrachte.
      In dieser Zeit, die von einer großen Schaffensenergie gekennzeichnet war, entstand der größte Teil seines künstlerischen Werkes. Und dennoch fand die erste Ausstellung mit Werken von Hans Thoma nicht in Deutschland, sondern in England statt.
      Charles Minoprio aus Liverpool, ein gebürtiger Frankfurter, kaufte1879 sein erstes Landschaftsbild von Thoma und fügte dem in den folgenden Jahren weitere Bilder hinzu. So entstand eine Sammlung von über 60 Werken in englischem Besitz, mit denen 1884 die erste Sammelausstellung im Liverpooler Kunstverein eröffnet wurde. In diesen Jahren waren die Bilder Hans Thomas von fast allen deutschen Ausstellungen zurückgewiesen worden. Minoprio war es auch, der Thoma beauftragte ein weiteres Mal nach Italien zu reisen und dort verschiedene Landschaften zu malen. Die Reise in Begleitung seiner Frau führte den Maler nach Florenz, Neapel, Rom und Siena.
      In den nächsten Jahren arbeitete Thoma überwiegend in Frankfurt und war u.a. mit der Ausmalung von Gebäuden beschäftigt. Erst 1890, Hans Thoma war inzwischen schon 51 Jahre alt geworden, gelang mit einer großartigen Ausstellung im Münchner Kunstverein der große künstlerische Durchbruch. Die meisten der 36 Gemälde wurden verkauft und brachten Thoma, der in den nächsten Jahren zahlreiche Auszeichnungen erhielt, seinen späten Ruhm. Davon profitierte auch die Heimatgemeinde, als im Jahre 1892 die von Thoma entworfene und gemalte Fahne für den Gesangverein Bernau eingeweiht wurde.
      Nach weiteren Italienreisen, längeren Aufenthalten im Schwarzwald, sowie Reisen in die Niederlande, wo Thoma die alten Meister, vor allem Rembrandt und Potter, studierte, wurde er im Jahre 1899 durch den Badischen Großherzog Friedrich nach Karlsruhe berufen und zum Direktor der Kunsthalle und Professor der Kunstschule bestellt. In die Zeit seines größten Erfolges fiel auch der Tod von Thomas Mutter, die ihm sehr viel bedeutet hatte und stets seine große Stütze war.
      Mit der Umsiedelung der Familie und Thomas Berufung nach Karlsruhe stand er als nunmehr Sechzigjähriger nicht nur auf dem Höhepunkt seiner Karriere, sondern er gehörte auch zu den beliebtesten Malern seiner Epoche. Zu seinem 70.Geburtstag im Jahre 1909 eröffnete die Karlsruher Kunsthalle das Hans-Thoma-Museum. An seinem achtzigsten Geburtstag erhielt er neben anderen Ehrungen den Ehrenbürgerbrief der Stadt Freiburg, sowie im selben Jahr den der Stadt Karlsruhe.
— Karl Hofer was a student of Thoma.

Selbstbildnis (black-and-white photo, 600x470pix, 70kb)
–- Ella mit Strohhut (1888; 629x429pix, 150kb)
–- Im Sonnenschein (1867, 108x85cm) Gemälde von Hans Thoma von seiner Schwester Agathe am Ufer.
–- Der Rhein (1027x724pix — or adjust the size to your liking — 69kb either way)
–- Landschaft (1896, 18x26cm; full size) _ This is a color alograph, the name Thoma applied to lithographs off plates of aluminum instead of stone or zinc.
–- Offenes Tal (1872, 84x114cm) compare with Offenes Tal (2000)
–- Mainlandschaft (1875, 85x123cm)
–- Rheinfall bei Schaffhausen (1876, 84x114cm)
–- Taunuslandschaft (1890)
–- Der Holzhausenpark in Frankfurt a. M. (1880, 51x72cm)
–- Der Geiger(1895 lithograph, 27x22cm; 3/4 size)
Hühnerfütterung (1867, 105x62cm) _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3 _ detail 4 _ Die Schwester des Künstlers Hans Thoma, Agathe, betrachtet liebevoll die ihr anvertraute Hühnerschar. Ihr Blick wendet sich nach links unten, zu den Küken. Sind noch alle vorhanden oder fehlt etwa eins? Der Hahn paßt schon auf, daß keins von der Katze geholt wird! Das Huhn rechts in der Mitte des Bildes, auf dem Holzbalken sitzend, kann es gar nicht abwarten mit der Fütterung. Keck blickt es zu Agathe auf, es weiß, in der Schürze sind die begehrten Körner! Die Glucke hat nur eins im Sinn: ihre Küken, die sie mit schräggelegtem Kopf betrachtet. Ganz vorn sitzt ein weißes Huhn, etwas kränklich wirkend, es betrachtet auch die Küken, hätte vielleicht selbst gern welche. Wenn ein Huhn Küken hat, steigt es in der Achtung und der Rangordnung im Hühnerhof. Der Hahn bringt der Glucke die besten Leckerbissen. Neun Küken, sieben Hühner und ein Hahn sind im Bild zu bewundern, und der Maler hat es meisterhaft verstanden, ihnen ein individuelles Aussehen zu geben. Der kleine Kerl links unten, als zweites Küken im Bild, wird mit Sicherheit ein Hahn. Stolz reckt er seinen kleinen Hals, und ein ein winzigkleiner Kamm leuchtet rot auf dem Köpfchen. Das Küken ganz rechts unten schlägt mit den Flügeln und sieht sehr wach aus, alle anderen wirken müde vom anstrengenden Herumlaufen. Das Bild ist ganz in Erdfarben gehalten, die Kleidung von Agathe korrespondiert in der Farbe mit den Federkleidern der Hühner. Rotbraun wie der Hahn ist das Kleid, die Ärmel der Bluse sind in der Farbe und in der Form eine Wiederholung des hellen Huhnes rechts unten im Bild. Welch eine sanfte Harmonie!
Der Kinderreigen (1884, 113x154cm; 400x577pix, 58kb)
Im Sonnenschein (1867, 108x85cm; 400x313pix, 43kb)
Der Bienenfreund (1864)
Bildnis der Schwester Agathe (1863; 553x461pix, 141kb)
Die Mutter des Künstlers im Stübchen (1871; 637x479pix, 141kb)
Bildnis des Kunsttheoretikers Conrad Fiedler (1884; 619x461pix, 127kb)
Charon (1876 engraving; 800x1092pix, 174kb)
Brandung (Tanz in den Wellen) (1871 engraving; 800x1115pix, 200kb)
 
^ Born on 02 October 1874: Oscar Edmund Berninghaus, US painter specialized in the US West, who died in 1952 in Taos NM. — {Did he ever paint a burning house? A Berninghaus burning house?].
— Born in Saint-Louis, Missouri, Berninghaus began drawing at an early age, inspired by the lithographs his father, a printer and lithograph salesman, kept at home. The 10 year old Berninghaus sketched local scenes for newspapers for a token sum. At 16 he left public school to work for lithographers Compton and Sons. He dreamed of becoming a commercial artist, and accepted an apprenticeship with a printing company while attending art school at night in Saint-Louis. In 1899, while painting southwest landscapes for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, Berninghaus traveled to Taos, New Mexico. Entranced by the color and beauty of the landscape and the warmth of the people, he began painting the Indians of Taos Pueblo. For twenty years he worked during the summer as an independent artist in Taos, and during the winter as a commercial artist in Saint-Louis. Berninghaus helped found the Taos Society of Artists in 1912.
— Berninghaus was one of the six founding members of the Taos Society of Artists in 1912. At an early age, Berninghaus became an apprentice in lithography. He received his formal art training through night classes at the Saint-Louis School of Fine Arts and at Washington University. While he worked successfully as a commercial artist, he also developed his skills in oil painting.
      In 1899, Berninghaus traveled through Colorado, courtesy of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. A railway employee encouraged him to visit Taos, which he did, riding by wagon for the last 40 km. Impressed with the landscape, the pueblos, and the Indians, Berninghaus decided to return to Taos, and until 1925, maintained dual residences: Saint-Louis in the winter and Taos in the summer.
      During the 1920s, Berninghaus began to develop a reputation for his Indian paintings that were being exhibited nationally through group shows of the Taos artists. Like Higgins and Blumenschein, Berninghaus changed his style of painting in the 1920s. His works remained representational, but he added texture to the surfaces and incorporated elements of abstraction into his design. Many of Berninghaus' pictures of the Pueblo Indians show a clear understanding of the crisis the Indians were facing during the first decades of the 20th century. With the encroachment of modernization and the education of the Pueblo children in Santa Fe schools, tensions developed between the traditional ways of the Indian and the ways of the white man. While other artists romanticized and idealized the Indian, Berninghaus often depicted the Native American as a 20th century man faced with this change.
— Born and raised in Saint-Louis, Missouri, Berninghaus received his only fine arts training while attending three terms of night classes at the Saint-Louis School of Fine Arts. He began his career in the applied and commercial arts. At sixteen, Berninghaus joined the lithography firm of Compton and Sons and then, three years later, labored as an apprentice and errand boy at a large and well-known printing company, Woodward and Tiernan, also in Saint-Louis.
      Between his work and self-studies, Berninghaus eventually established a diversified career that included at its extremes the production of scenes of western life to advertise the products of the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company (1910 to mid-1920s) and the design of pioneer subjects to decorate the Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City, Missouri (1924), the Federal Building in Fort Scott, Kansas (1937), and the Post Office in Phoenix, Arizona (1938).
      However, it was easel painting and the land and Pueblo people of New Mexico which finally dominated Berninghaus's artistic career. In 1899, Berninghaus traveled the Southwest as a guest of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. The brakeman, who noticed that Berninghaus stepped from the train to sketch his surroundings during the train's frequent stops, took an interest in the artist~passenger. He subsequently changed the course not only of Berninghaus's travels but of his career as well, by suggesting that Berninghaus visit the picturesque town of Taos.
      Berninghaus stayed only a week on his first trip to Taos but, thereafter, he returned from Saint-Louis each summer until 1925, when he settled in Taos permanently. Berninghaus's artistic instincts led to the depiction of commonplace incidents and scenes of daily life, in contrast to the dramatic western conflicts created by such artists as Frederic Remington (1861~1909) and Charles M. Russell, or the romantic and idealized scenes created by other Taos artists during the same time period.

LINKS
Traveling North At Sunrise (1916, 76x102cm)
Friendly Indians Watching A Wagon Train (51x61cm)
Taxco
The Faithful Ponies (1918)
Firelight Procession at the Pueblo on Christmas Eve (1951)
Chamiso Along the Roadside (1947, 63x76cm; 576x683pix, 214kb)
Red Pepper Time (1930)
Six Horse Stage (1918, 76x51cm; 373x572pix, 51kb) This differs from other Berninghaus paintings. It is full of the movement, energy and danger of a wild stagecoach ride through a Western canyon. This is a different version of Western life -- a reckless, animated drive through unexplored territory.
Pueblo Indians (1920, 41x51cm; 285x360pix) This painting conveys a deep respect for the single Amerindian figure with his ponies who is the subject of the painting. His back is turned to us, as if to protect his privacy, and he seems fully absorbed in and integrated within his natural environment.
Return to the Pueblo (1920, 51x41cm) In both Pueblo Indians and Return to the Pueblo Berninghaus depicts single Native American figures on horseback, with their backs turned to the artist. We see the figures as if we were catching them at an unguarded moment. In Return to the Pueblo the figure appears to be returning to his home, moving towards the smoke in the distance. The painting quietly gives us a vivid sense of the openness and vastness of life on the plains, in which a single figure must navigate via signs in the sky.
Winter Move (1928, 51x41 cm) Berninghaus, like many of his fellow Taos Society artists, is known for the quiet realism and understatedness of his paintings. "Winter Move" shows a different kind of romance of the West: one that doesn't hesitate to depict the hardships of life on the frontier.
The Rabbit Hunt (71 x 56 cm) Berninghaus shows the traditional method of hunting the animal which constituted the principal meat source of the Pueblo Indians. As shown in this painting, the men ritualistically painted their faces red. After riding to a mesa, they moved in four different directions. On the War Chief's signal, they rode toward each other, driving the rabbits toward the center. This painting depicts the last of the communal type hunts which the Taos Indians maintained.
Braves of the Taos Mountains (41x51cm.) This is an example of the artist's interest in seemingly routine and untroubled moments. The painting depicts-two horsemen riding through desert sagebrush in front of the Taos Mountains, located at the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo range north of Taos. Their braids identify them as Pueblo men, dressed in shirts and pants. In addition, the rider on the left wears leather chaps while the central figure has a blanket wrapped around his lower torso. The horses they ride are small ponies. Berninghaus has made no effort to glamorize either the men or beasts, but rather has presented a life of commonplace activity. While the scene may be low-key, it carries with it a nostalgia for a way of life based in nature, in contrast to the fragmentation and speed of the modern industrial world. The quiet harmony of the figures and the mountain desert landscape is paralleled by the deft balance of the composition, which divides the painting into unequal but satisfyingly arranged areas of foreground, middle ground, and background. The generally muted colors of the palette and the range of values from the whites of the desert sands to the darks of the mountains do not move to extremes, but stay in middle ranges of intensity and shade, contributing further to the scene's quietude.
(051001)
^1936 La gran sala de los consejos del palacio de la Sociedad de Naciones se inaugura en Ginebra.
      Se inaugura en Ginebra, en el nuevo palacio de la Sociedad de Naciones, la gran sala de los consejos, pintada por el catalán Josep Maria Sert i Badía, nacido en Barcelona el 24 de diciembre de 1876 (1874?), y muerto en su ciudad natal en diciembre de 1945.
      Sert era hijo de un acaudalado artista que había hecho su fortuna pintando tapices. Estudió en la Lonja y en la academia de Pedro Borrell, en Barcelona, y en 1899 viajó a París para completar su formación pictórica: estudió composición, dibujo y colorido . En 1900 decoró el pabellón del Art Nouveau en la exposición universal de Bing, y, más tarde, emprendió la magna obra de decorar la catedral de Vich, trabajó que no concluyó hasta 1929.
      Especializado en la pintura mural, Sert realizó numerosas decoraciones en mansiones europeas y norteamericanas: el palacio de los marqueses de Salamanca (Madrid), la residencia de Francisco Cambó (Barcelona), el comedor del hotel Waldorf Astoria (Nueva York), la escalinata de honor y el salón de las Crónicas del ayuntamiento de Barcelona, las dependencias del Rockefeller Center (Nueva York), la mansión de Juan March (Mallorca). De gran imaginación, al estilo de Rubens, mezcló la Biblia y la zoología fantástica, el majismo goyesco [ejemplos de Goya: Maja Vestida (1801) — La Maja y los Enmascarados (1777)] y los títeres.
— Josep Maria Sert i Badia va desenvolupar, durant la primera meitat del segle XX, una obra pictňrica per la qual se'l va considerar el millor pintor muralista dels anys trenta. La dimensió internacional del pintor queda patent en el fet que les seves teles es troben tant a Europa com a Amčrica, des del Rockefeller Center de Nova York a l'edifici de la Societat de les Nacions de Ginebra.
      Vinculat al modernisme catalŕ, Sert va viure a Paris on va tenir contacte amb els corrents més avançats del moment. La relació amb Catalunya la va mantenir a través de les seves germanes i, sobretot, pel lligam que va establir amb la ciutat de Vic, on va decorar la Catedral per encŕrrec del seu amic i protector Torras i Bages. Les diferents realitzacions d'aquesta obra van ocupar etapes decisives de la seva vida artística i, per aixň, no és gens agossarat dir que Sert es va fer com a pintor al voltant del projecte decoratiu de Vic.
      A l'actualitat, Vic ofereix la visita a tres conjunts importants: peces de les dues primeres decoracions de la Catedral a la Capella Fonda; les pintures procedents de l'hotel Waldorf Astoria de Nova York a l'edifici del Sucre i a la impressionant decoració de la Catedral. Tot plegat, la visió més completa i ŕmplia que es pot veure en tot el món d'aquest pintor.
 

Died on a 02 October:


1968 Henri~Robert~Marcel Duchamp, French painter born (full coverage) on 28 July 1887. —(051001)

1953 John Marin, US painter born (full coverage) on 23 December 1870. —(051222)

^ 1909 Theodoros Rallis (or Théodore Jacques Ralli), Greek painter born on 16 February 1852 in Constantinople. Rallis studied in Paris under Jean-Léon Gérôme, through the support and patronage of King Otto of Greece. He made his debut at the Paris Salon in 1875, and in 1900 was appointed to the Jury of the Parisian International Exhibition. Gérômes’ legendary draftsmanship and photographic finish provided a model of perfection, which Rallis emulated with great success, yet, contrary to Gérôme, ethnographical precision and exactitude were also his guiding principles. Depicting young worshippers in a Greek Church, Rallis chose a subject that was close to his heart. Rallis spent most of his working life in France and Egypt. His genre paintings, as a consequence, were often nostalgic recollections of the life and customs of his homeland, which he portrayed with a delicate and moving reverence. In nineteenth century France the circle of patronage was enormously widened by the participation of the growing and newly affluent middle class, and for these new connoisseurs the seal of success was the acceptance of an artist's work for exhibition at the prestigious Salon. The annual Parisian Salon thus became the most important vehicle for artists to gain a reputation and to earn a living. The choice of 'Church genre' was a popular one with artists at the time, as it bridged the gap between the established preference for academic history and religious painting of the Salon jury; the new currents in art, which upheld that a painting should reflect the spirit of its age; and the demands for decorative pictures of the buying public. By depicting a contemporary scene within a composition that focused on traditional costumes and religious observances.
–- Praying Before the Communion, Megara (1890, 60x93cm; 1575x2427pix, 218kb) _ Showcasing the complexity of setting for which Rallis was renowned, in the present work the scene is elaborated with great attention to detail. Rallis paid particular attention to the costumes and facial expressions of the women, the texture of fabrics, and the soft quality of the varying light sources such as the candles, the glowing ambers in the fireplace and the rays of light coming in through the window to the left. The large size of the canvas reveals that this was an ambitious and important composition for the artist, and in fact Rallis did choose it as his Salon entry in 1890. Depicting a family during prayer, Rallis has embued the scene with a contemplative mood. The little girl who looks out of the canvas engages the gaze of the viewer and draws him into the composition. Rallis thus puts the viewer in the position of a family member entering the room at prayer time, rather than that of an uninvolved onlooker. In this way he increases both the viewers' visual and emotional engagement with the scene.
–- After the Liturgy (66x100cm; 892x1391pix, 81kb) _ The people are portrayed with a delicate and moving reverence, their heads solemnly lowered as they leave the church. The sense of religious fervor is skillfully enhanced by the surroundings, which, though largely subdued in tone, are lit from the left by a shaft of bright light, evoking an atmosphere of mysticism. Showcasing the complexity of setting for which Rallis was renowned, in the present work the scene is elaborated with great attention to detail, from the costumes of the church-goers to the icons on the rear wall, the haloed figure of the Virgin and Child and a multitude of Saints being clearly visible in the background.
–- S*>#Praying in a Greek Church, Montparnasse (1876, 81x65cm; 648x510pix, 33kb) _ The present work is an important composition, which Rallis painted specifically for exhibition at the 1877 Paris Salon. It is a prime example of Rallis' genre scenes, both in its combination of religiosity, sensuousness and romantic disposition, and by virtue of its fine sense of narrative. The large scale format of the painting further denotes the importance Rallis attached to this particular work. Rallis imbued Praying in a Greek Church, Montparnasse with a sense of timelessness and peacefulness, which enhanced its appeal to a public in the midst of coping with the socio-economic changes that rapid industrialisation and urbanisation had brought about. Depicting young worshippers in a Greek Church, Rallis chose a subject that was close to his heart. Whilst most of Rallis’ Greek religious genre scenes can be seen as nostalgic recollections of the life and custom of his homeland, the title of the present work suggests that the artist chose to depict members of the local Greek emmigré community in Saint-Germain for his submission to the Salon. Indeed, Ralli’s studio at the time was located on 11 Boulevard du Mont-Parnasse. The quintessential ‘Greekness’ of the present work is perhaps heightened by the fact that the portrayed scene is set in Paris in the 1870s, yet, from a purely visual point of view, is not recognisable as such, and instead transports the viewer to rural Greece.
–- S*>#A Child Hiding Behind an Egyptian Statue (22x16cm; 900x664pix, 110kb) at Luxor.
–- S*>#Young Woman (1887, 27x19cm; 900x624pix, 116kb) — (091001)

^ 1892 Otto Didrik Ottesen, Danish artist born on 03 April 1816.
–- S*>#Still Life with Pineapple, Strawberries, and Grapes (1837, 32x44cm; 657x900pix, 53kb) very large grapes or very small pineapple. — (051001)

^ 1616 Frans Francken I, Flemish painter born in 1542. — The Francken family of Flemish painters was active in the 16th and 17th centuries, mainly in Antwerp. The individual contributions of the many artists in the family are often difficult to assess, but the two most distinguished members were Frans I and his son Frans II. The father mainly painted religious and historical compositions. His early works were frequently life-size; the late ones were small, usually done on copper, and crowded with exotic figures and accessories.
— The fact that the same Christian names occurred in three generations of painters who used identical signatures has caused a great deal of confusion in attributing their various works. It is still not possible to distinguish between all members of the family reliably, as signed and dated works are not available for some of the family members. Several of them were also active in France. Nicholas Francken [1515 – 12 March 1596] moved to Antwerp with his family in the early 1560s; he taught three of his sons to paint, Hieronymus Francken I [1540 – 01 May 1610], Frans Francken I and Ambrosius Francken I [1544 – 16 Oct 1618], who were also apprenticed to Frans Floris in Antwerp about 1560.
     In the next generation, all the sons of Frans Francken I were artists: Thomas Francken [28 Feb 1574 – 1625], of whom only one altarpiece (1618) is now known; Hieronymus Francken II [12 Sep 1578 – 17 Mar 1623]; Frans Francken II [bapt. 06 May 1581 – 06 May 1642], the best-known and most talented member of the family; and Ambrosius Francken II [1590 – 08 Aug 1632 bapt.), who painted landscapes and peasant scenes.
     The sons of Frans Francken II followed in their father’s footsteps, but were weaker artists: Frans Francken III [1607 – 04 Sep 1667 bur.], the best of the youngest generation; Hieronymus Francken III [bapt 01 Aug 1611 – >1661], who specialized in religious subjects; and Ambrosius Francken III [1614 – 1662]. There is a portrait of The Francken Family (1580) by Herman van der Mast.
— Frans Francken I became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1567 and a deacon in 1587. Together with Marten de Vos and Frans Floris, Frans I and his brother Ambrosius I were the most important painters in Catholic Antwerp during the Counter-Reformation. After the Iconoclastic Fury, the brothers received a number of ecclesiastical commissions to replace works destroyed in the churches in and around the city (e.g. for the Saint Waltrudiskerk, Herentals, and the Saint Maartenskerk, Aalst). Huge altarpieces, such as The Last Judgement for Herentals, with the figures ranged in rows as in a frieze, with very little depth or breadth, illustrate Frans I’s hieroglyphic style. His earliest surviving works are two panels of a triptych of The Last Supper (1581) painted for the high altar of the cathedral of St Bavo in Ghent. His masterpiece, a triptych of Christ among the Scribes for Antwerp Cathedral (1587), remains in situ: its figures with their reticent gestures are rather wooden in effect, but the heads indicate the artist’s skill for portraiture. Frans I’s hand has been recognized in some court portraits, which account for his talent in this area. As well as large-scale commissions, Frans I also painted small-scale cabinet pictures (e.g. Belshazzar’s Feast), a genre continued and perfected by his sons Frans II and Hieronymus II. However, Christ Carrying the Cross (1597) is so far the only known signed and dated cabinet picture by Frans I. LINKS
The Gold Jars of the Egyptians (48x65cm; 600x793pix, 77kb _ ZOOM to 1531x2024pix, 178kb)
The Story of Tobias (48x65cm; 600x784pix, 121kb _ ZOOM to 1207x1576pix, 247kb)
Jesus among the Doctors (1587 triptich, 250x220cm center, 250x97cm wings; 860x1430pix, together 183kb) _ Following the restoration of Spanish rule and Catholic worship in Antwerp in 1585, the city fathers ordered the crafts and guilds to reinstall their altars in the Cathedral. Among the first to respond were the Schoolmasters and the Soap-boilers, who shared an altar in the church. They contracted Frans Francken to paint a triptych showing Jesus among the Doctors. (The left wing depicts St Ambrose Baptising St Augustine, the right wing the Miracle of the Flowing Oil.) The scenes plainly have most to do with the schoolmasters. The center panel shows the episode from St Luke's Gospel in which the twelve-year-old Jesus debates theology with the Jewish scribes in the Temple at Jerusalem. His parents, who have found him after a long search, look somewhat dejected. The Temple is represented by a Renaissance church interior with a menorah and the Ark of the Covenant in the background. The left wing shows Ambrose, the patron saint of Antwerp's schoolmasters, baptising St Augustine in the presence of a canon-scholaster and several council members from the Schoolmasters' Guild. The only reference to the Soap-boilers is in the right wing, where the Bible story of the Miracle of the Flowing Oil is depicted. The prophet Elisha helped the widow of Zarephath out of debt by causing her oil jug to continuously replenish itself - an appropriate theme, for oil was one of the ingredients used by the soap-boilers. The style of the triptych is sober and didactic, as befits the schoolmasters, if not the soapmakers. The balanced composition with its symmetrically arranged groups and the restrained presentation of the principal theme, without many secondary scenes or symbols, is characteristic of the Italian Renaissance, the latest artistic trend at the time.
Allegory: the Ship of State (50x45cm; 793x700pix, kb) _ An allegorical painting, with a full-rigged ship curiously equipped with oars in the middle foreground, sails billowing as it moves through the water. The ship, on a green sea, steers its way through small islands of barren rock, where dangers threaten. To the right in the background is an island with a cave, wherein wolves lurk. In front to the right, a volcano spews out flames and rocks. The rock in the right foreground appears to be hit by a meteorite. In the centre foreground two mermaids (symbols of lasciviousness) with looking glasses are arranged, holding combs in their hands and resting on a rock. To the left is another rock and behind a giant, waist high, in the water. He brandishes a club with his right hand in the direction of the ship. In the left distance, two giants stand on another rock and they also brandish clubs. These represent the dangers to which the ship will succumb if she founders.
     The allegory alludes to the political disaffection between the Low Countries and Spain, and the Protestant revolt against the Roman Catholic Church, the state church of Spain; thus the ship can be equated with the Catholic Church, under Phillip II.
     In 1555, Charles V of Spain, the Holy Roman Emperor, resigned his rule over both Spain and the Netherlands to his son Philip, who disliked the northern European territories and their heretical tendencies. His oppressive rule led to the epochal war of independence waged from 1568 to 1648 by the Dutch against Spain. The Protestant movement rapidly gained ground during this period and challenged the Roman Catholic Church, particularly the Spanish Inquisition. Philip sent Spanish troops commanded by the Duke of Alva to the Netherlands but their excessively harsh policies resulted in open revolt. In 1579 the Union of Utrecht, an anti-Spanish alliance, was formed and by 1581 the Dutch provinces proclaimed their independence from Spain.
     The occupants of the ship, who may represent named individuals, are arranged in several groups representing hierarchies within the Catholic Church. In the front, rowers are seated, not actively holding the oars but gazing fixedly ahead. In the group behind them two monks stand on the far left, wearing habits from different orders, and behind them a bearded patriarch holds a crozier. He wears a mitre and stands next to a man with a crown who may be intended to represent the Duke of Alva. Next to him a man wearing a crown and holding a sceptre looks in alarm towards the meteorite landing on the rocks in the foreground to the right. He wears a red cloak with an ermine collar and may represent Phillip II. To the right two cardinals dressed in red stand in front of the last two figures in the stern. The man on the left wears robes and a mitre, and holds the triple or papal cross denoting the Pope. The robed man beside him with a blue cloak and mitre holds the Latin cross.
Crucifixion (17x15cm)
Bathsheba (33x44cm; 367x500pix, 30kb) — (051001)


Born on a 02 October:


^ 1897 Freemont (or Fremont F.) Ellis, US artist who died in 1985.
–- S*>#Autumn Haze, Santa Fe, New Mexico (60x73cm; 657x799pix, 127kb)
–- S*>#Aspens at Mill Creek (60x73cm; 637x800pix, 124kb) — (051001)

^1866 Charles de Sousy Ricketts, in Geneva, English painter, designer, writer, and collector, who died on 07 October 1931. He was trained as an illustrator at the City and Guilds Technical Art School, Lambeth, London, where he met and formed a lifelong relationship with Charles Hazelwood Shannont. He identified with the ideals of the Aesthetic Movement, finding inspiration in Renaissance art as well as in the French artists Gustave Moreau and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In 1888 he took over James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s house, The Vale, in Chelsea and drew together an artists’ colony. Inspired by the work of A. H. Mackmurdo and William Morris, he set up a small press over which he exercised complete control of design and production, producing art journals and books that included Oscar Wilde’s A House of Pomegranates (1891) and The Sphinx (1894). Ricketts later designed founts, initials, borders and illustrations for the Vale Press (1896–1904), blending medieval, Renaissance and contemporary imagery. His crisp woodcut illustrations often incorporated the swirling lines of Art Nouveau and androgynous figures. — LINKS
Orpheus and Eurydice (1922, 135x107cm; _ ZOOMable)
Don Juan (1911, 116x96cm, 512x408pix, 28kb) _ Ricketts painted a number of pictures inspired by the story of Don Juan based on Mozart’s opera, Bernard Shaw’s play Don Juan in Hell and the epic poem by Byron. Driven by his passions, Don Juan was described by Ricketts as “a profoundly significant figure, a kind of saint. Derider of all attempts to justify God’s way to man, the Don accepted the baseness of men, women, and institutions, and glorified in the power it gave him.”. — (051001)

^ 1832 Christian Friedrich Mali, in Munich, Germany, painter who died on 01 October 1906.
Dorfidylle (1860, 38x55cm, on sale for 40'000 DM).
— (small reproductions of 3 paintings auctioned on 22 June 2001)

1778 Joseph-Denis Odevaere, Flemish painter who died (main coverage) on 26 February 1830. (His date of birth is sometimes given as 02 December 1775). —(091206)

^ 1756 Jacob van Stry, Dutch animal (cows mostly) and landscape painter who died on 04 February 1815. Jacob and his brother Abraham van Stry [1753-1826], learnt the rudiments of painting in the workshop of their father Leendert van Stry, who was a house-painter and decorative painter in Dordrecht. From 1801 Jacob, together with Abraham, ran a joint studio, where they both made wall-hangings, amongst other things. Jacob went on to study under Andreas Lens [31 Mar 1739 – 30 Mar 1822] a well focused history and figure painter. Between 1774-1776 Jacob took lessons at the Antwerp Academy. On his return to Dordrecht he became a member of the ‘Pictura Drawing Society’ which had been founded in 1774 by his brother, amongst others. It is in Jacob van Strij’s landscape paintings and drawings that Cuyp’s influence makes itself felt most strongly. Jacob’s deliberate emulation of this painter is probably also to be explained to a not insignificant extent by the great interest shown in Cuyp’s work at the end of the 18th Century by collectors and dealers, especially in England. Jacob’s style is also indebted to Paulus Potter, and his painting of Meadow Landscape with Cattle is such an example.
— In the 18th century Jacob van Stry continued the tradition of a special Dutch form of bucolic, which had already been in 17th-century Dordrecht through Aelbert Cuyp. Works by Jacob van Stry had frequently been mistaken for those by the hand of his senior Aelbert Cuyp, until an increased awareness for the former master’s achievements was created by the important exhibition in Dordrecht and Enschede in 2000. Both painters produced a special and typically Netherlandish type of pastoral scenes (bucolic), exemplified by the present, high-quality painting. While in paintings of that genre from other art regions the protagonists’ parts were taken by heroes and gods in Arcadian landscapes, the Netherlandish type actually depicted cows in idyllic surroundings. This type of bucolic was especially practiced by Cuyp and his follower Jacob van Stry, whose paintings show a peaceful and tranquil atmosphere. Since then, Netherlandish art literature has referred to the cow as a sign of fertility and wealth, and as a symbol of the Netherlands in general. This tradition was continued also after the late 17th century by Jacob van Stry’s brother Abraham. Jacob was a member of the Pictura artists’ association in Dordrecht and a co-founder of the Maatschappij tot Nut van ‘t Algemeen, a society pursuing the philanthropic and philosophical goals of Enlightenment for the benefit of the general public.
Dutch River Landscape with Cows (56x79cm; 279x400pix, 15kb) formerly attributed to Aelbert Cuyp.
Landscape with Cattle, Sheep and Herders (drawing 35x47cm; 460x600pix, 48kb)
— Two Cows _ There does not seem to be on the Internet an image of this painting by Stry, but there is Two Cows and a Young Bull beside a Fence in a Meadow (1647; 143kb) by Paulus Potter [1625-1654] and a whole site devoted to mispelt too cauwz —(051001)


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updated Sunday 06-Dec-2009 17:12 UT
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