ART 4 2-DAY 01 October v.9.90
Died on 01 October 1793: Jacob More
(or Moore),in Rome, Scottish painter born in 1740, active in Italy.
— [Why isn't there more More on the Internet?]
— The son of an Edinburgh merchant, he was first apprenticed to a goldsmith and then, from 1766, to the Norie family of house-painters. He also studied under Alexander Runciman. In the 1760s More produced numerous sketches of the Scottish Lowlands, and in 1769 he designed and painted stage sets at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, for the first productions after the legalizing of the theater in Scotland. More’s Edinburgh period culminated in a series of oil paintings of The Falls of the River Clyde. These paintings are regarded as the first serious artistic interpretations of the Scottish landscape, depictions by previous artists having been essentially topographical in character. More took a set of three of them to the Society of Artists Exhibition in London in 1771, at which he gained widespread recognition and the personal encouragement of Sir Joshua Reynolds. He stayed in London for a couple of years, studying under Richard Wilson and (judging from his later style) working as a scene-painter.
— Self Portrait (1783; 198x147cm; 800x595pix, 121kb)
–- Italianate Landscape with people and donkeys in the foreground (73x98cm; 765x1035pix, 51kb)
Falls of Clyde: Stonebyres (1773; 80x101cm; 410x512pix, 20kb) _ More was Scottish but spent much of his career in Italy, pursuing the classical ideal in landscape. Here he takes a subject closer to home, on the Clyde, south-east of Glasgow. However, the people are dressed in vaguely historical costume, suggesting this is somewhere more antique than modern Scotland. Such a classical vision of the native landscape complemented the rationalism of the Scottish enlightenment; the pursuit of reason and liberty on ancient Roman or Greek models; combined with more romantic yearning for the legendary Highland past. _ Not to be confused with
_ Fall of the Clyde (1845, 89x119cm; 385x512pix, 20kb) by Joseph Mallord William Turner [1775-1851]; nor with
_ Clyde Falls (800x531pix, 185kb); nor with different
_ Clyde Falls (800x531pix, 87kb) photos by Steven Gregory; nor with
_ Stone Biers (531x800pix, 129kb) by the pseudonymous Kim Glenball; nor with
_ Stone Beers (photo; 531x800pix, 129kb _ ZOOM to 1360x2048pix, 389kb) by the pseudonymous Geo Grapher.
Tivoli, Cascatelle (1778)
Born in 1541 possibly on 01 October:
Doménikos Theotokópoulos El Greco, Greek Spanish Mannerist painter who died on 07 April 1614. He studied under Titian. El Greco's students included Juan Bautista Mayno [1569 – 01 Apr 1649] and Pedro Orrente [1580-1645].
He was a master of Spanish painting, whose highly individual dramatic and expressionistic style and elongated figures [self-portrait at age 62 >] met with the puzzlement of his contemporaries but gained newfound appreciation in the 20th century. He also worked as a sculptor and as an architect.
— Today considered one of the greatest artists of the Spanish school. El Greco “the Greek” was actually born in Candia (now Iraklion), the capital of Crete, a Greek island then under Venetian control. The artist always acknowledged this origin, signing his works with his given name, Domenikos Theotokopoulus, in Greek characters. The Kres appearing in some signatures means "Cretan." El Greco's early works demonstrate that he worked within the conservative tradition of Byzantine icon painting before exposure to Venetian High Renaissance art broadened his stylistic approach. In Venice by 1568, El Greco is documented in Rome in 1570, where he remained until 1577. There he gained entree into the influential circle of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese and in 1572 was accepted as a miniaturist into the Academy of Saint Luke. Most likely seeking royal patronage, in 1577 El Greco moved permanently to Spain and by 1579 had completed the Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) for the sacristy of the cathedral of Toledo. One of El Greco's masterpieces, this painting exhibits the full brilliance of his perfect wedding of a highly idiosyncratic style with the emotional intensity of the Counter-Reformation. Although religious works predominate in his oeuvre, El Greco was also a masterful portraitist. Failing to secure a permanent appointment at the court of Philip 11 in Madrid, El Greco worked the rest of his long career in Toledo, where he died.
— The most unusual painter in 16th-century Europe, El Greco combined the strict Byzantine style of his homeland, Greece, with influences received during his studies in Venice and the medieval tradition of the country, where he worked, Spain.
Domenicos Theotokopoulos, later called El Greco by the Spaniards, was born in 1541 (possibly on 02 September) in Candia, on the island of Crete, which was then a Venetian possession. [Being born in Crete does not make him a Cretin, but a Cretan, though it may make him a liar, if Cretan poet Epimenides, quoted by Saint Paul (Titus 1:12), said the truth when stating in the 6th century BC that All Cretans are liars. Logicians have made a big deal of this, calling it a paradox, which it isn't, for: (1) even the worst liar does sometimes tell the truth. (2) If it is false that All Cretans are liars, it does not follow that No Cretans are liars but that At least one Cretan is not a liar and that one would not be Epimenides.].
Theotokopoulos was trained as icon-maker in a monastery; he then went to Venice (soon after 1560), where Titian became his greatest mentor. El Greco, however, obtained very little influence from his master; a certain influence of Bassano, Baroccio, Veronese, or Tintoretto, could be felt but on the whole his works are very individual and distinct. In 1570 El Greco went by way of Parma (where he appreciated Correggio) to Rome, where he met Michelangelo. He criticized his Last Judgment severely, and offered to produce a better composition. But on the whole Michelangelo and the Central Italian Mannerists stimulated him. The works of his Italian period are very different in style: Christ Healing the Blind Man (1566), The Annunciation (1575), Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple (1570).
About 1576 the painter went to Spain. At first he was in the service of Philip II: The Dream of Philip II (1579). His Martyrdom of St. Maurice (1580) did not appeal to Philip, and the painter moved (in 1580) to Toledo, the old capital and then a major center of artistic, intellectual, and religious life in 16th-century Spain. He stayed in Toledo until his death. In 1586 he painted for the church of St. Thomé his famous The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586), the success of which brought him a great number of commissions from the Church, the decorations for the new church of St. Domingo el Antiguo among them. He also became a popular portraitist: Portrait of a Nobleman with His Hand on His Chest (1580, probably Major Juan da Silva, Marquise de Monte, head notary of Toledo). His painting style always stimulated much discussion.
The life of proud and independent El Greco in Spain, who always signed his pictures by his Greek name, demanded of him constant self-assertion. He rented the palace of Marquis Viliena (present Museo El Greco in Toledo), collected valuable library, was very successive in law suites against church administrations. Very brave in Catholic Spain was his union with a young aristocrat Jeronima de las Cuevas, mother of his bastard son Jorjé Manuel, the future Spanish architect. ‘Man of eccentric habits and ideas, of tremendous determination, extraordinary reticence, and extreme devoutness’ he was valued and respected by the intellectuals of Toledo.
El Greco did not have followers, and his art was forgotten for 300 years. The re-discovery of his painting was a sensation; he became one of the most popular masters of the past, his painting arose interest of collectors, artists, lovers of art and art historians. El Greco is now regarded as one of the most important representatives of European Mannerism. El Greco died in Toledo, Spain.
— Saint Francis receiving the Stigmata (105x80cm; _ ZOOMable)
–- Saint Francis Venerating the Crucifix (1595, 147x105cm; _ .ZOOM)
— The Penitent Magdalene (86x67cm; _ ZOOMable) _ detail (_ZOOMable)
— a different The Penitent Magdalene (1578, 157x121cm; 627x477pix, 76kb) _ After a short period of study in Greece, El Greco, one of the most renowned figure in Spanish art, went to Venice in the middle of the sixteenth century, where he worked in Titian's workshop, and where he became familiar with the art of Paolo Veronese, Jacopo Bassano and Tintoretto, as well as works by representatives of the North Italian Mannerist school. Later, in Rome, he was strongly influenced by the work of Michelangelo. By the time he had settled in Toledo around 1576, his art was fully developed. Like most of the painters coming from Italy, he was anxious to enter the service of King Philip II, but the Greek painter's immediacy of passion, ecstatic style, disturbing colors and visionary conceptions did not please the king's academic Italian taste. He was, however, appreciated by the religious orders and the aristocratic patrons of Toledo. The penitent Magdalene must have been painted at the beginning of his years in Toledo because the strong influence of paintings on the same theme by Titian can be observed. The ideal of beauty is still Titian's half-figure pictures of women, but the inner tension of the whole composition and the relation between man and nature already indicate the beginning of Mannerism. The arrangement of the fingers of the right hand is a characteristic feature of El Greco's painting. The sitter for the painting may have been Jerónima de las Cuevas, the mistress of the artist.
–- Saint John the Baptist (1600, 111x66cm; _ .ZOOM _ .ZOOM+)
–- Saint Peter (1610, 71x55cm; _ .ZOOM)
— The Apostle Saint Paul (1614, 97x77cm; 1174x950pix, 106kb)
— Saint Martin of Tours (1599, 191x98cm; 1600x852pix, 272kb _ ZOOM to 2961x1576pix, 479kb) This pictures the legend of the cloak which Saint Martin splits to share it with a naked beggar _ Compare
_ .Saint Martin and the Beggar (852x1600pix, 121kb) _ in a reversed format, transforming El Greco's unrealistically slender persons into unrealistically fat ones, by the pseudonymous Gordon O'Beez “El Turco”, who was born not in Turkey, but nearby in pseudonymous Kretintiger, Iraq; and
_ .Saint Martin and the Beggar (2000x568pix, 98kb) _ by the pseudonymous Paul Komopalo “El Chileno” who has gone to the opposite extreme, further slenderizing El Greco's figures; and
_ .Saint Martin and the Beggar (1363x1000pix, 105kb) by the pseudonymous Norm Al Inmedi-Ostavirtoos “El Vidente”, who makes the proportions realistic.
— Saint John the Evangelist and Saint Francis (1608, 64x50cm; 850x643pix, 80kb) from the workshop of El Greco.
— Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (1576, 117x150cm; 850x1115pix, 159kb _ ZOOM to 1200x1545pix, 1758kb _ ZOOM+ not recommended to 1783x2297pix; 3724kb) _ (Matthew, XXI, 12; the sequel is possibly the Christ healing the Blind.) _ Christ's expulsion of the money changers who were desecrating the temple in Jerusalem was a favorite theme in Counter-Reformation art. To Catholics, it symbolized purification of the church through internal reforms and the expulsion of Protestant heretics. El Greco spent the early years of his career in Italy, where he was profoundly influenced by Venetian Mannerism. In this composition (painted in Rome), the jarring lines and harsh colors, confused space, and illogical lighting are Mannerist traits that contribute to the atmosphere of anger and disruption. In 1577 El Greco settled permanently in Spain. A native of Crete, he became known as “El Greco”, but here his full signature appears in Greek letters on the step below Christ.
The four portraits at the bottom right (686x1030pix, 82kb detail) represent, from left to right, Titian, Michelangelo, Giulio Clovio and possibly El Greco himself. The introduction of Titian and Michelangelo is clearly an acknowledgment of his debt to these two artists. To his friend, Giulio Clovio, he owed his introduction to the Farnese household. The young man looking out, pointing to himself, has similar features to the self-portrait in the Christ healing the Blind at Parma, but the long hair is strange. It has also been suggested that he could represent the young Raphael. The portraits of Titian and Michelangelo (died 1564) were taken from existing portraits, and that of Giulio Clovio follows closely El Greco's portrait of his friend in the Naples Museum, painted c. 1571. El Greco does continue to include portraits in his paintings of religious subjects, but here there is no proper connection with the subject matter.
El Greco first painted the subject in Venice, some years earlier, in the small signed panel in Washington, and he was to take it up again, much later, in Spain, and adhere closely to his original design. As with the Christ Healing the Blind, inspiration for the composition as a whole is from Tintoretto. The main central group, however, is very close to a Michelangelo design, known in drawings, and also in Venusti's painting after Michelangelo's design (National Gallery, London). The figure of the woman walking with a child could be a reminiscence of a similar motif in Raphael's tapestry cartoon, the Distributing of Alms at the Golden Gate. The two men in conversation, who also appear in the middle distance of Christ healing the Blind, have become a grand subsidiary motif, and again hint at acquaintance with Raphael. The larger forms of the architecture also derive from Raphael and Rome, and are consonant with the grander conception of the one integrated action of the main group of figures. This is the most splendid painting El Greco produced before moving to Italy.
— Christ Healing the Blind Man (1566, 66x84cm; 800x1042pix, 197kb) _ Christ Healing the Blind Man (1570, 50x61cm; 588x750pix, 158kb) _ Christ Healing the Blind Man (1578, 120x146cm; 588x750pix, 158kb) _ Possibly the sequel to the Christ driving the Traders from the Temple (Matthew, XXI, 14: 'And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them'). Both subjects were treated by El Greco more than once in Italy. This is the smallest known painting on canvas by El Greco. The painting has been cut and the group on the right is incomplete. No large-scale works are known from his Italian period, and most are quite small. He does not appear to have received any important commissions before he moved to Spain.
Three versions of this subject are known, all basically the same in composition, but differing in treatment. The earliest (1566) is looser in composition, smaller in conception, and introduces genre motifs of a dog, sack and pitcher in the foreground, eliminated in subsequent versions. This painting was influenced by Venetian painting; in the 17th century it was attributed to Paolo Veronese, later to Jacopo Bassano. The second painting (1570), probably also painted in Venice, is more easily composed. The third, with its comparative largeness of conception, belongs to his Roman period, after 1570. El Greco did not again take up the subject in Spain.
The inspiration is from Venice. The dramatic use of recession behind the figures in the foreground is Tintoretto's invention. El Greco is still borrowing certain motifs, but the composition would seem to be original. The painting was probably brought to Rome by the artist, unless it was painted soon after his arrival in 1570. The figure on the extreme left, looking out towards the spectator, is certainly the young El Greco. He appears, however, nearer twenty than thirty years old.
The third painting (1578, 120x146 cm), with its comparative largeness of conception, belongs to El Greco's Roman period, after 1570. This version was earlier attributed to Tintoretto, then Veronese. There is also a 17th century copy of this painting.
— El Espolio (1579, 285x173cm; 1438x850pix, 201kb) _ Begun in the summer of 1577, and completed in the spring of 1579, for the High Altar of the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo. A document of 02 July 1577 referring to this painting is the earliest record of El Greco in Spain. It is one of the most dignified and moving portrayals of Christ in art. The powerful effect of the painting especially depends upon his original and forceful use of color. Something of the effect of the grand images of the Savior in Byzantine art is recalled. The motif of the crowding around Christ suggests an acquaintance with the works of the Northern artist, Bosch; the figure preparing the Cross could be derived from the similar figure bending forward in Raphael's tapestry cartoon of the Miraculous Draught of Fishes. This is, however, the last time that there are any hints of specific borrowings.
There is a small, signed version of El Espolio (1578, 56x35cm; 1376x800pix, 202kb), which is probably the original preliminary model for the large painting. Many other versions exist, but few can be by El Greco. The only occasion that he treated the subject was for the Cathedral, but the type of Christ created in El Espolio is taken up in the related subject of Christ carrying the Cross, and in other representations of Christ.
The initial reception of the painting, when seen by the artists brought to value it, was that it was beyond appraisal. After the artist's death, the first real recognition of the painting was some two centuries later when Goya painted his Taking of Christ for the same sacristy.
— The Apostles Peter and Paul (1592, 122x105cm) _ This painting's subject is the reconciliation between the two apostles who had been in disagreement, a fact shown by the joining of the hands, that intertwine without touching.
— Saints Peter and Paul (1608, 124x94cm; 1202x900pix, 187kb) _ The two saints, who were strongly associated with each other as the most influential leaders of the early Church. In this portrayal they are shown engaged in an animated discussion. The older, white-haired Peter, wrapped in a golden coloured cloak inclines his head thoughtfully to one side as he looks towards the text being expounded. In his left hand he holds his attribute, the key to the kingdom of Heaven. His right hand is cupped as if weighing up an idea. Paul presses his left hand down firmly on the open volume on the table, his right hand raised in a gesture of explanation as he looks directly at the viewer. Saint Peter and Saint Paul appear separately a great number of times in El Greco's oeuvre and they are depicted with remarkable consistency. Peter is always shown with white hair and beard, and he often wears his yellow cloak over a blue tunic. Paul is always shown slightly balding, with dark hair and beard, wearing a red mantle thrown over a blue or green tunic, which is here just visible at the neck.
— Holy Family (1585, 106x88cm; 1142x950pix, 173kb)
— Holy Family (1588, 178x105cm; 1457x850pix, 181kb)
— Holy Family (1595, 127x106cm; 811x672pix, 107kb)
— Holy Family (1604, 107x69cm; 1016x642pix, 138kb) _ detail (750x566pix, 109kb): Mary, head and shoulders.
— Adoration by the Shepherds (1600, 346x137cm; 1000x389pix, 121kb) _ detail (971x632pix, 161kb)
— Adoration by the Shepherds (1599, 11x47cm; 1336x550pix, 157kb) a preliminary version
— Christ Carrying the Cross (1605, 108x78cm; 900x614pix, 98kb)
— Christ Carrying the Cross (1585, 105x79cm; 1252x900pix, 158kb) _ detail (1300x951pix, 166kb)
— More than 100 images at Web Gallery of Art
Died on 01 October 1873: Sir Edwin
Henry Landseer, English painter specialized in animals [why
not landscapes? He wasn't named Beastseer after all.], born on 07 March
Landseer was born in London, the son of the engraver John Landseer [1769-1852]. Trained by his father to sketch animals from life, he began exhibiting at the Royal Academy when only 13; the same year (1815) he received a silver medal from the Society of Arts for his drawing of a hunter. Success came easily and early. By the age of 16 he was a constant and active exhibitor at the RA, already patronized by leading collectors and talked about as a rising star. His election as an Associate of the RA in 1826, when he was only 24, surprised no one but himself.
In 1824, Landseer went to Scotland for the first time to visit Sir Walter Scott. He fell in love with the Highlands, and since then every year he used to return there for inspiration, drawing, hunting, and rest. Landseer's romantic vision of border history is reflected in his work, inspired by Scott, The Hunting of Chevy Chase (1826). Landseer was elected a full Academician in 1931; the decade that followed was the most successful and the most creative of his entire career.
Major works, such as Hawking (1832), Scene in the Olden Time at Bolton Abbey (1834) won him critical acclaim, but it was often his smaller pictures of dogs such as The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner (1837) and Dignity and Impudence (1839) that captured the popular imagination. Most of Landseer's pictures were well known from excellent engravings of them by his elder brother Thomas (1796-1800). The publication of numerous prints won him a vast and devoted popular audience.
The strain of keeping up his career, of satisfying his patrons, and of maintaining his social position cost Landseer more effort than he cared to admit. In May 1840, at the height of his powers and reputation, he suffered a severe nervous breakdown. In the face of all his personal and professional problems, Landseer continued to paint pictures of high quality, which enhanced his popularity. His The Monarch of the Glen (1851) was exhibited in 1851; the bronze lions at the foot of Nelson's Monument in Trafalgar Square were modeled by him (1859-66). He was a favorite with the aristocracy, but it was his position at court, which gave him an unrivaled prestige in the eyes of the public. As well as painting a succession of royal pets Eos, A Favorite Greyhound, the Property of H.R.H. Prince Albert (1841), Macaw, Love Birds, Terrier, and Spaniel Puppies, Belonging to Her Majesty (1839), Landseer undertook major portrait commissions, including the great unfinished picture of Queen Victoria , the conversation piece Windsor Castle in Modern Times (1841-1845), and the Portrait of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (1842-1846).
Landseer was the most famous English artist of his generation, and he was mourned throughout the nation. He was accorded the honor of public funeral, and he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral alongside Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769~1830), and J.M.W. Turner.
Lady Louisa Russell, Marchioness (and later Duchess) of Abercorn Holding her Daughter, Lady Harriet Hamilton (Later Countess of Lichfield) (1834)
The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner (1837)
Dignity and Impudence (1839)
Windsor Castle in Modern Times (Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and Princess Victoria) (1843)
Scene in Braemar- Highland Deer (1857)
— 27 prints at FAMSF
Born on 01 October 1620: Nicolaes
(or Claes) Pieterzoon Berchem (or
Berghem) van Haarlem, Dutch painter who died on 18 February 1683.
Dutch painter of pastoral landscapes in the Italianate manner, principally active in Haarlem. He was the son of the still-life painter Pieter Claeszoon Berchem van Haarlem [called Pieter Claesz. in references, as if Claesz was his last name and not, especially with the period after the z which some references maintain, the standard abbreviation for Claeszoon, or son of Claes, which must be short for Nicolaes. Thus this Nicolaes Pieterz. Berchem must be the son of Pieter Claeszoon Berchem, himself the son of grandpa Claes or Nicolaes Berchem]. Pieter's father was his first teacher, but although Nicolaes Pieterzoon Berchem tried his hand at most subjects, no still-lifes by him are known. He visited Italy in the 1640s and perhaps again in the 1650s and became, with Jan Both, the most highly regarded exponent of the Italianate landscape. Successful and well rewarded in his lifetime, he had numerous students and his influence on 18th century English and French landscape painters was very considerable, Gainsborough and Watteau being among the artists who particularly admired his work.
During the course of his long and extremely prolific career Berchem, the son of Pieter Claeszoon, the outstanding still-life painter, painted biblical, allegorical, and mythological themes, views of harbours, winter scenes, nocturnals, battles, and some genre scenes, as well as the Italianate landscapes for which he is so justly famous, but he apparently never tried his hand at still-life painting.
Berchem's pictures have a more pronounced pastoral character than Jan Both's or Asselyn's. Shepherds and buxom shepherdesses tending their flocks and herdsmen guarding their cattle receive prominent places in his works. His lively figures are seen in sparkling Italian light among ancient ruins, fording rivers, or set against magnificent panoramic views of vast Italian valleys and mountain ranges. The large scale of his figures often suggests his paintings could be classified as pastoral genre scenes as well as landscapes the same is true of many of Jan Baptist Weenix's (1621~1663) Italianate paintings. Wisps of white cloud float in Berchem's dazzling blue skies, and bits of vividly colored clothing worn by herders, milkmaids, and travellers brighten the cool greens of his landscapes. His peasants enjoy a life of innocence and happiness among their animals. It is an idyllic dream world which appealed to a public that found Arcadia a refuge from worldly cares and responsibility. The mood of his pictures justifies the claim that Berchem, who died in I683, the year Watteau was born, is one of the precursors of the Rococo. Berchem's success stimulated a number of close followers. Karel Dujardin [1622~1678] was his student. The genre painters Pieter de Hooch (1629~1684) and Jacob Ochtervelt, artists who soon went their own way, also studied under him.
Nicolaes Berchem, the son of a distinguished still-life painter, Pieter Claeszoon, was born in Haarlem. The town was a leading centre of landscape painting in the early seventeenth century and among Berchem's teachers was the landscapist Jan van Goyen. Like many Dutch artists, Berchem travelled to Italy immediately after completing his apprenticeship. He was in Rome late in 1642 and remained there for three years. While in Italy, Berchem made many drawings of the landscape of the Roman Campagna, its cattle and peasants. On his return to Haarlem, Berchem quarried this rich material throughout a long and extremely productive career, painting (and etching) hundreds of Italianate pastoral scenes. As is evident from this painting, he interpreted the Italian landscape and the life of its peasants in an idyllic manner, emphasizing its timeless continuity by the inclusion of antique monuments. These buildings cannot be identified, as they are only loosely modelled on actual ruins. Berchem uses a bright, highly-colored palette and applies the paint in short, stabbing brush strokes. In seventeenth-century Holland there was a constant demand for exotic landscapes of this type and Berchem was a highly successful artist. He moved to Amsterdam, which had a larger art market than Haarlem, in about 1677. His work was widely imitated and copied during his lifetime and his paintings enthusiastically sought after in France in the eighteenth century and in England in the nineteenth.
LINKS — LINX
–- Landscape with Muleteer and Herdsman (1655, 46x57cm; half-size) _ you may want to increase the brightness of your screen, as most of the picture is in the deep shadows of a wooded area.
Shepherd at the Well and the Spinning Girl (1652 etching, 26x21cm) _ A shepherd boy is sitting at a well playing his flute. The girl standing beside him holds a spindle, for spinning. The shepherd's dog and some cattle are milling around. This scene is typical of the work of Nicolaes Berchem, who painted and etched hundreds of idyllic landscapes, most of which were inspired by his travels. He spent time in the German border country with Jacob van Ruisdael and possibly visited Italy. Berchem's Italianate landscapes were copied by many other artists. This work was no exception: the shepherd boy also graces an eighteenth-century writing desk, as a decorative wooden inlay.
— Three Resting Cows (1657 etching, 18x24cm) _ Three cows are resting with two shepherds in the shade of a tree. A sheep is depicted in the bottom righthand corner, while a goat appears behind the cows. As in many of these Italianate landscapes, the scene is lit by a low, evening sun. In the hazy distance looms the outline of the mountains. Perhaps this was a landscape Nicolaes Berchem had seen in Italy. Even so, the picture was not drawn directly from nature. He borrowed two of the cows from a print made by Paulus Potter in 1643. Potter, who specialized in depicting animals, placed his cows in a typically Dutch landscape, while Berchem preferred a more southerly countryside.
— View of the Colosseum in Rome (1683 drawing, 52x62cm) _ The Colosseum in Rome was a popular subject, as the two artists at work in this drawing of the ruins by Nicolaes Berchem demonstrate. Meanwhile, and as they sketch, two women are doing their washing in the foreground and an old shepherd tends his herd of goats. This is the foremost plan of the composition. The two other plans are occupied by the massive ruined arches in the middle distance and the sunlit stands in the background. Berchem signed his drawing 'NcBerchem' in an elegant hand. He began using this signature in 1679.
The Colosseum was built in the first century AD to present gladiatorial contests and animal fights to crowds of up to 50'000 spectators. After the fall of the Roman Empire the huge amphitheater was used as a fortress and for Christian pageants until in the late Middle Ages it began to be stripped for building materials. The overgrown ruins subsequently became a favorite subject for artists. Over the centuries, the Colosseum has often pictured in paintings, drawings, and photographs. Whether Nicolaes Berchem ever saw the Colosseum is uncertain. He may well have based this impressive drawing on one of the many prints and sketches of Rome's ruins available at the time.
Landscape with Herdsmen Gathering Sticks (1652)
A Moor Presenting a Parrot to a Lady (1665)
A Southern Harbor Scene (1658, 83x104cm)
Italian Landscape at Sunset (1671)
Italian Landscape with Bridge (1656, 44x61cm) _ This mature work of Berchem, influenced by Italian painting, was painted after his second journey to Italy.
Peasants with Cattle by a Ruined Aqueduct (1658, 47x39cm)
— Herders watching their cattle at the waterside (51x62cm)
— 73 prints at FAMSF
Died on 01 October 1704: Cornelis
Dusart, (or Dusaert, du Sart), Dutch painter, draftsman,
and printmaker, born on 24 April 1660.
— He was the son of the organist at Saint Bavo in Haarlem and one of the last students of Adriaen van Ostade [1610-1685], who befriended him and whose style he followed. On Van Ostade's death Dusart inherited his pictures and completed a number of them. Dusart became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke on 10 January 1679 and served as its dean in 1692. Dated pictures by Dusart have survived from almost every year between 1679 and 1702. Two of his earliest pictures of peasants relied heavily on compositions by van Ostade: Mother and Child (1679) and Woman Selling Milk (1679).
–- Village Scene (1680, 45x55cm; .ZOOM)
— Village Feast (1684)
Tavern Scene (68x57cm) _ This tavern scene was painted in the manner of Ostade, in a somewhat more exquisite way. Compared with the destitute-looking peasant interiors seen in earlier works, this tavern is bright and well-arranged. The peasants are seen eating, drinking and enjoying themselves and they are more carefully dressed than the figures in earlier peasant scenes. Even the gestures of these peasants have been made to look distinguished, but the result is to make them more ordinary and less interesting than the figures in van Ostade's paintings.
— Young Man with a Raised Glass (1685, 25x15cm) _ Following the steps of his teacher Adriaen van Ostade, Cornelis Dusart devoted himself to the drawing, painting and etching of genre tableaux, peasant gatherings and caricatural heads. His early works remain influenced by Van Ostade, but during the 1680s he developed his own very specific style. In these years he prepared very carefully worked figure studies, which represent the most original part of his extensive and many-side graphic oeuvre. These drawings, among them Young Man with Raísed Glass, are mostly executed in black chalk, at times on blue paper with just a little red chalk for the face and hands.
Dusart worked almost exclusively with male models, whom he had pose constantly in different positions and in varying clothing, concentrating on the facial expressions and psychological characterisation: here we have a jolly drinker, a pipe in his left hand and staring dreamily upward — as if in a slight stupor. The man is presented in full-length, with his face away from the light and only the right eye softly illuminated. Dusart masterfully suggests the subtle shifts from light to dark by means of white chalk highlights, for example on the right side of the face, or with stumped black chalk, as on the open jacket. This delicate technique he undoubtedly took from Cornelis Bega. The catalogue of Dusart's studio produced after his death shows that he had collected drawings by this master. The inventory also mentions "mannetjes na 't leven van Dusart, 251 stux" (little men drawn from life by Dusart, 251 items), possibly a reference to these male figures.
Although Dusart signed his finest examples and sold them as independent works of art, many that he kept for creating new works have been conserved in this way. For example the drawing discussed here served as an aide-mémoire in composing a mezzotint, a graphic print from a copper plate with varying transitions between light and dark. Dusart's knowledge of this technique, first applied around 1650, reveals once again his particular interest in light in all its gradations.
Pipe Smoker (1684)
–- Flutist (1680; 834x678pix, 510kb)
–- Le Violon Assis (etching 28x25cm; 931x821pix, 148kb) _ Rusticus ex animo, non pullus Hypocrita, gaudet.
–- The Village Surgeon (1895 etching 26x18cm; 1177x792pix, 198kb) _ HEESMEESTER / De duyvel, Meester Hans, is dat myn arm verbinden! / Riep Teuwes; oy die schreeu trok Griet een schere bek. / Je praat zo wat; zei Hans, ik moet het kwaad eerst rinden, / Zal ik 't geneezen: wel hoe baarje, ben je gek?.
Born on 01 October 1855: José
Benlliure y Gil, Spanish painter who died in 1937.
Nació en Cañamelar (Valencia), y murió en Madrid (según otros testimonios, en Valencia). Era hermano del pintor Juan Antonio Benlliure y del escultor Mariano Benlliure [1862-1947]. Desde los 10 años comenzó a pintar exvotos y pequeños cuadritos. Desde los 12 a los 14 años estuvo perfeccionándose bajo la dirección de don Francisco Domingo, pasando luego a Madrid, donde ya comenzó a darse a conocer vendiendo bien algunos lienzos.
En 1872 un cuadro suyo ganó un segundo premio, suma que le permitió su primer viaje al extranjero. Visitó las más importantes capitales Europeas y regresó a Madrid, y años más tarde en 1879 se estableció en Roma. Conoció a Martín Colnaghi, negociante inglés que le compró toda su producción de dos años, a cambio de 150'000 francos, sus cuadros comienzan a ser conocidos en Francia e Inglaterra, por ejemplo, Una fiesta de iglesia en un pueblo de Valencia y Un Sermón.
Influido por el célebre Morelli, Benlliure pinta La Visión del Coliseo, que es premiado en 1889. Otros lienzos importantes de Benlliure son: El Aquelarre, Que viene el Alma, El Gólgota, Un balcón en el Croso de Roma en las tardes de Carnaval, Ricos arazzi, Il getto dei fiori, La lección de Catecismo, Entre pedreros, La salida de vísperas de 1892, Lectura interesante, Colón en el momento de descubrir la tierra, El amigo más fiel, El descanso en la marcha, Aquelarre de brujas, Interior de una posada, San Vicente Ferrer, Unos acólitos en la sacristía, Viejo enseñando a nadar a su nieto, La acción de Bocairente, Orgía de un baile de máscaras, Escenas de gitanos, El espía, Distribución de premios en el Asilo del Marqués de Campo, El anciano legista, La napolitana y las rosas, y Audacias amorosas de un estudiante.
Influencé par le style de Fortuny il effectua deux voyages en Afrique du Nord en 1888 et 1897. Il peignit surtout des scènes de la vie quotidienne.
Fue discípulo de Francisco Domingo Marqués. Tras formarse en Madrid desde 1869, obtuvo una beca de la Diputación de Valencia y pudo entonces viajar al extranjero para contemplar obras de los grandes maestros europeos y desde 1879 hasta 1881 residió en Roma. Estando allí consiguió ser premiado en las exposiciones nacionales de Bellas Artes de 1876 por su cuadro El descenso de la marcha y de 1878 por Escena del Gólgota. Posteriormente conseguiría ser galardonado de nuevo en este certamen, ya en 1887, por su obra La visión del Colosseo. Trabajó sobre todo temática religiosa, realizando una importante serie sobre San Francisco de Asís compuesta por sesenta y seis cuadros. En 1897 viajó a Tánger y pintó escenas militares y, desde 1900, se centró en la temática costumbrista, muy del gusto de la época. En 1903 sucedió a su hermano Mariano Benlliure y Gil en la dirección de la Academia Española de Roma y, a su regreso a España, fue nombrado director del museo y presidente de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos, en Valencia. Actualmente su casa-estudio en Valencia es un museo monográfico sobre su trabajo.
— Monaguillos (108x105cm; 1051x1017pix, 398kb)
— Cardenal romano (79x66cm)
— El descanso en la marcha (1876, 118 x 168 cm; 926x1295pix, 377kb)
— Sacerdote revestido (85 x 63cm)
— El Tío Andreu de Rocafort (99 x 68cm)
— Oyendo misa, Rocafort (98 x 148cm)
— Retrato de María Benlliure Ortiz (1905, 94x66cm)
— Misa en la ermita (96 x 146 cm)
— El tío José de Villar del Arzobispo (1919, 79x66cm) Firmado: "En nombre propio, en el de mis hijas / y por la Santa memoria de mi esposa, / A la Juventud Artistica Valenciana, / como recuerdo agradecido de su iniciativa de erigir, el / monumento, hoy inaugurado, a nuestro querido Peppino / Jose Benlliure / Valencia Agosto".
— La Barca de Caronte (103 x 176 cm)
— El jardín del autor (49x42cm)
Día de Coro (55x75cm; 408x571pix)
— Personajes en una Calle de Pueblo (130x200cm; 321x500pix, 41kb) Vendido el Jueves 21 de Noviembre de 2002 en US$20'700.