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ART “4” “2”-DAY  30 November v.9.a0
^ Born on 30 November 1642: padre Andrea Pozzo (or Puteus), Italian Baroque era painter who died on 31 August 1709.
      — Andrea Pozzo was an extraordinarily versatile artist, an architect, decorator, painter, art theoretician, one of the most significant figures of Baroque Gesamtkunst. He entered the Jesuit order at an early age, and his artistic activity is also related to the order's enormous artistic enterprises. His masterpiece, the decoration of Rome's Jesuit churches Il Gesu and San Ignazio, determined for several generations the style of internal decoration of Late Baroque churches in almost all Europe. His fresco in San Ignazio, with its perspective, space~enlarging illusory architecture and with the apparition of the heavenly assembly whirling above, offered an example which was copied in several Italian, Austrian and German churches of the Jesuit order. Pozzo even published his artistic ideas in a noted theoretical work entitled Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693) illustrated with engravings.
      On the invitation of Emperor Leopold I, in 1704 be moved to Vienna, where he worked for the sovereign, the court, Prince Johann Adam von Liechtenstein, various religious orders and churches. Some of his tasks were of a decorative, occasional character (church and theatre scenery), and these were soon destroyed. His most significant surviving work in Vienna is the monumental ceiling fresco of Liechtenstein Palace, The Triumph of Hercules, which, according to the sources, was very admired by contemporaries. Some of his Viennese altarpieces have also survived. His compositions of altarpieces and illusory ceiling frescoes had many followers in Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, and even in Poland.

The Apotheose of S. Ignazio (1689 ceiling fresco; 1200x719pix) _ detail: The Continents 1 _ detail: The Continents 2 _ This spectacular composition is almost an inventory of Baroque architectural ceilings and their final triumph. According to Jesuit ideas, the space within a church was a single area in which the faithful congregated. In S. Ignazio space is stretched (Pozzo was clever at the illusion of "doubling" the perspective of the real architecture) before exploding into light and glory. Saints, angels, allegories, and floating clouds accentuate the virtuoso effect. The impression is one of exuberance and freedom. In reality, it was worked out using scientific criteria. Designed to be viewed from a point in the centre of the nave, which is marked by a white stone, Padre Pozzo's ceiling produces the illusion of a palace opening on the sky.
Saint Francis Xavier (1701, 235x137cm) _ After the liberation of Hungary from the Turkish occupation, the church of Our Lady in Buda Castle passed into the ownership of the Society of Jesus. Their annals referred as early as 1701 to a "new and elegant" altarpiece of St. Francis Xavier, while a minute record from 1710 also describes the subject of the picture and its great artistic value. In this latter notice it is also mentioned that the altarpiece was painted by the greatly loved member of the order, the highly gifted Andrea Pozzo. The note about this brilliant and versatile Baroque artist (he was a painter, drawer, aquarellist, architectural designer, as well as an art theoretician), written in the year following his death, should be taken as fully authentic. It is inspired by the pleasure the Jesuits of Buda felt with the possession of at least one work of art from his splendid oeuvre.
      The picture represents one of the most glorious successes of St. Francis Xavier as a Jesuit missionary in India: the very moment of his baptizing Queen Neachile of India, an eminent member of the royal family, giving her the name Isabella. Until then the Queen, a devout adherent of the ancient Indian religion, had been a most stubborn enemy of the Christian faith, so her conversion was regarded as a singular achievement of Christian missionary work in the Far East.
      In Pozzo's oeuvre there are also some other variations on the same theme. In the Buda altarpiece the main figures of the scene are brought into relief by a monumental shaping; the modelling of light and shadow lays emphasis on the moment of administering the sacrament. The balance of the composition is given by a kneeling boy who holds a baptismal bowl in his hands, a figure entirely absent in the other variations.
Ange gardien (1694, 173x122cm).
^ Born on 30 November 1736: Jean-Jacques de Boissieu, Lyon French printmaker, draftsman, and painter, who died on 01 March 1810.
— Apart from studying briefly at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon, he was self-taught. His first concentrated phase as a printmaker was 1758–1764, during which he published three suites of etchings. Boissieu spent 1765–1766 in Italy in the company of Louis-Alexandre, Duc de la Rochefoucauld [1743–1793], returning to Lyon via the Auvergne with a cache of his own landscape drawings. He remained in Lyon, where he published further prints at intervals, making occasional trips to Paris and Geneva. Boissieu’s prints earned him the reputation of being the last representative of the older etching tradition – he particularly admired Rembrandt van Rijn – at a time when engraving was being harnessed for commercial prints, and lithography was coming into use. For his landscape etchings Boissieu drew upon the scenery of the Roman Campagna, the watermills, windmills and rustic figures of the Dutch school (notably Salomon van Ruysdael) and the countryside around Lyon. He also engraved têtes d’expression and genre scenes. His work as a printmaker was intermittent, covering the periods 1758–1764, 1770–1782 and after 1789, although his skill was such that he was much sought after as a reproductive engraver; one example of his work is the Landscape with Huntsmen and Dogs by Jan Wijnants.
— Auguste Forbin was a student of de Boissieu.

–- Self-Portrait (1796 etching, 37x29cm; 1063x837pix, 87kb) Boissieu holds in his hands a landscape painting.
–- Self-Portrait (etching 29x23cm; 1010x797pix, 70kb) identical to the preceding, except that the painting he holds is a portrait of his wife.
–- Le Maitre d'École et ses Élèves (etching; 830x1219pix, 129kb _ .ZOOM to 1872x2672pix, 1150kb)
–- Ancienne porte de Vaize a Lyon (1803 etching 27x39cm; 809x1201pix, 121kb _ .ZOOM to 1728x2541pix, 1003kb) a group of men are playing bowling.
–- Entrée de Forêt (1772 etching 26x38cm; 789x1192pix, 166kb)
^ Died on 30 November (or 30 or 31 Jan?) 1765: George Lambert, English landscape and scenery painter born in 1710 (or 1700?).
— He was a student of Warner Hassels (fl 1680–1710), a portrait painter in Godfrey Kneller’s circle, but Lambert’s earliest dated painting, Classical Landscape with Two Figures (1723), already shows the influence of the landscape painter John Wootton. From 1726 Lambert worked in London as a scene painter at Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre; he followed the impresario John Rich to Covent Garden Theatre in 1732 and continued to work there until his death. In 1735 he was a founder-member of the prestigious Beef-Steak Club, an association of actors, men of letters and artists, among them William Hogarth and Rich. He was also involved in clubs and movements organized by artists to improve their professional standing and supported Hogarth’s efforts in 1735 to establish artists’ legal copyright over their engraved work. — Samuel Scott was an assistant and Jonathan Skelton a student of Lambert.

A Pastoral Landscape with Shepherds and their Flocks (1744, 135kb)
A View of Box Hill, Surrey (1733, 91x180cm) _ Lambert was the first British-born artist to specialize in landscape painting. Previously, this was dominated by Dutch and Flemish artists. Landscape painting developed in order to supply landowners with scenes of their houses, estates and sporting activities. But during the eighteenth century, poets and painters began to explore the appeal of the landscape in a more general way. Exceptionally for this date, this landscape does not feature a house. But the fact that this is a view from the perspective of the wealthy elite is emphasised by the presence of a group of such gentlemen in the foreground
Classical Landscape (1745, 104x117cm) _ George Lambert never visited Italy, although his paintings were inspired by the tradition of classical landscape painting. This is a purely imaginary scene, with a carefully balanced composition and figures in generalized dress appropriate to a pastoral scene. Idealised landscapes like this were often designed to be set into panelling, over doors or chimneypieces. They would have been regarded as part of the fixed decoration of the room.
Moorland Landscape with Rainstorm (1751, 30x42cm) _ Lambert was a friend of Hogarth and Samuel Scott, and a respected member of London's artistic community. He was the first native-born painter to devote himself entirely to landscape, both classical and topographical. This seems to be an exercise in pure landscape painting for its own sake, concentrating on the weather effects across a bleak Northern moorland. Although it attempts to capture the atmosphere of the open surroundings it is unlikely to have been painted on the spot. Lambert's method was to make pencil drawings of a location which he worked up in oils later on in his studio.
Ruins of Leybourne Castle, Kent (1737, 104x95cm; 400x372pix, 29kb)
^ Born on 30 November 1812: John Woodhouse Audubon, US painter, specialized in wildlife, who died on 21 February 1862.
— John Woodhouse Audubon in Henderson, Kentucky, the second son of the artist and naturalist John James Audubon [26 Apr 1785 – 27 Jan 1851], the famous painter of birds. At an early age J.W. showed artistic promise and was encouraged to join his father in his scientific interests. While his brother Victor Gifford Audubon [1809-1860] assisted with the business and record-keeping functions related to the various Audubon publications, John Woodhouse was an active traveler and collector of specimens, as well as a draftsman. In 1833 he accompanied his father on an expedition to Labrador. Later that same year John James was able to write, "John has drawn a few Birds, as good as any I ever made, and in a few months I hope to give this department of my duty up to him altogether."
      While the Audubon family was in London in 1834, both sons studied painting, John apparently making portraits and copies of works by Henry Raeburn [1756-1823] and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo [1617-1682]. By this time the senior Audubon's projects had become family enterprises. John Woodhouse traveled to Florida and Texas in 1837 on collecting missions. He would return to the Southwest nine years later to gather specimens of mammals as well as birds. During the years 1839-1843 John Woodhouse was chiefly responsible for the production of the second version of The Birds of America, overseeing the reduction of 500 plates to their smaller size and working with the lithographer. Within a few years he also painted, in oil, half of the subjects used as illustrations in The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-1848) and supervised the printing of all of the plates. In 1856 he published a second reduced-size edition of The Birds of America and in 1860 began to produce a second, folio size edition of it, this time by lithography rather than engraving. Because many of the subscribers to the latter were Southerners, the venture was ruined by the Civil War.
      Both John and Victor Audubon built homes on the land surrounding their parents' house in New York. John had nine children, two by his first wife, Maria Rebecca Bachman, daughter of the Rev. John Bachman (collaborator on The Quadrupeds), and seven by his second wife, Caroline Hall. He exhibited portraits as well as animal paintings in New York throughout the 1840s and 1850s,

John James Audubon the artist's father (112x91cm; 480x383pix, 22kb)
Hudson's Bay Lemming (Dec 1846, 36x56cm)
Townsend's Meadow Mouse, Meadow Vole and Swamp Rice Rat aka Rice Meadow House (56x72cm; 374x480pix, 21kb)
A Young Bull (1849, 35x50cm; 390x577pix, 71kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 84kb)
Long-Tailed Red Fox (1854, 56x69cm; 390x489pix, 68kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 89kb)
Black-Footed Ferret (1846, 55x68cm; 390x497pix, 73kb) _ detail 1 (390x520pix, 97kb) _ detail 2
^ Died on 30 November 1953: “Francis” François Marie Martínez Picabia, French Dadaist-Surrealist painter born on 22 January 1879.
— “Francis Picabia” was born François Marie Martinez Picabia, in Paris, of a Spanish father and a French mother. He was enrolled at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris from 1895 to 1897 and later studied with Fernand Cormon, Ferdinand Humbert, and Albert Charles Wallet. He began to paint in an Impressionist manner in the winter of 1902–03 and started to exhibit works in this style at the Salon d’Automne and the Salon des Indépendants of 1903. His first solo show was held at the Galerie Haussmann, Paris, in 1905. From 1908, elements of Fauvism and Neo-Impressionism as well as Cubism and other forms of abstraction appeared in his painting, and by 1912 he had evolved a personal amalgam of Cubism and Fauvism. Picabia worked in an abstract mode from this period until the early 1920s.
      Picabia became a friend of Guillaume Apollinaire and Marcel Duchamp and associated with the Puteaux group in 1911 and 1912. He participated in the 1913 Armory Show, visiting New York on this occasion and frequenting avant-garde circles. Alfred Stieglitz gave him a solo exhibition at his gallery “291” that same year. In 1915, which marked the beginning of Picabia’s machinist or mechanomorphic period, he and Duchamp, among others, instigated and participated in Dada manifestations in New York. Picabia lived in Barcelona in 1916 and 1917. In 1917, he published his first volume of poetry and the first issues of 391, his magazine modeled after Stieglitz’s periodical 291. For the next few years, Picabia remained involved with the Dadaists in Zurich and Paris, creating scandals at the Salon d’Automne, but finally denounced Dada in 1921 for no longer being “new.” The following year, he moved to Tremblay-sur-Mauldre outside Paris, and returned to figurative art. In 1924, he attacked André Breton and the Surrealists in 391.
      Picabia moved to Mougins in 1925. During the 1930s, he became a close friend of Gertrude Stein. By the end of World War II, Picabia returned to Paris. He resumed painting in an abstract style and writing poetry. In March 1949, a retrospective of his work was held at the Galerie René Drouin in Paris. Picabia died in Paris.
—       Picabia was born into a family of mixed parentage, French mother and Spanish father. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts décoratifs of Paris. Up to 1908 he painted landscapes in the manner of Corot and the Impressionists, especially Sisley (Landscape/Paysage, Riverbank / Rivière, Bank at Poissy / Bords de l'eau à Poissy.)
      Then, influenced by Matisse's Fauvism on one hand, and by Cubism of Braque and Picasso on the other, he tried to combine both movements and created bright-colored Cubists pictures unlike the somber monotone paintings of Cubism founders. (Young Girl/Jeune fille, Star Dancer on a Transatlantic Cruise / Danseuse étoile sur un transatlantique)
      In 1910 Pucabia met the Duchamps brothers, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon, and Guillaume Apollinaire. The friendship with Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), a pioneer in the use of ready-made art, and G. Apollinaire, an Avant-garde poet and critic, significantly influenced Picabia's following works. In 1913, Picabia went to the United States for the first time and showed his abstract paintings at the international exhibition "Armory Show." The pictures had success and brought him fame.
      During his second stay in NY in 1915, together with Marcel Duchamp and painters of US Avant-garde, they formed the NY society of Dadaists. The group published the periodical 291, to which Picabia contributed. On January 25th, 1917, Picabia published the first number of his periodical, which he called 391 to remind of the American group's 291. In 391 he published his first "Mechanical Drawings". Leaving away the geometrical abstractions, Picabia started a series of compositions, in which colored copies of technical drawings suddenly obtained shapes of human figures (Ici, C'est Ici Stieglitz. 1915; Young American Girl in a State of Nudity, 1915; Parade Amoureuse, 1917). These "mechanomorphs" full of humor, teasing Dadaist sarcasm, demonstrate the paradox of visual perception, which could find a mimesis image in an abstract technical drawing. In the same year he went to the USA once more and there published further numbers of his periodical, assisted by Marcel Duchamp. In Europe 391 was published until 1924.
      In 1918 Picabia moved to Switzerland, where he joined the Zurich group of Dadaists and published a book entitled Poèmes et dessins de la fille née sans mère.  He took active part in the activities of the group and went on with his "mechanomorphs" (L'enfant Carburateur, 1919). He contributed to "Dada" issues. In 1920 he published a periodical, Cannibale, and in 1921, together with Breton and others, he dissociated himself from "orthodox" Dadaists and switched his allegiance to Surrealism. In the beginning of the 1920s Picabia was interested in 'constructing' collages, for which he used all kind of materials (Feathers. 1921; Straw Hat. 1921, Woman with Matches. (1923-24)
      In 1927 Picabia's period of so-called 'transparencies' started. The artist was looking for alternative methods to depict three-dimensional space without traditional rules of perspective. He developed this approach in his works, in which flat images of different scales overlay and interlace to show an object from a variety of viewpoints. When an eye accommodates to intersections of different planes and foreshortening, an illusion of three-dimensional space really appears, as in Hera. (1929) and  Adam et Ève (1931).
      In 1934, the transparent images were forced out by heavy brutal shapes of pseudo classicism. Exaggerating the manner of the self-taught Primitivists and Kitch stylistic, Picabia parodied the "high" genres of allegory, portraiture and Mythological scenes (Spanish Revolution, 1936; Self-Portrait, (1940,  Nudes on a Sea Beach, 1941).
      During the World War II (1939-1945) Picabia lived in Switzerland and in the south of France. After the end of war he returned to Paris, where he came into contact with the Existensialists. In his late works abstractions alternate with the grotesque.
      Picabia also worked for the theatre, designed decorations for festivals and Gala-shows. He left literary works – poems and verses, art critics, articles on theory of art.
      Picabia's art is appreciated by those who like irony, play of words, combination of different styles and modes.

LINKS (The titles of many of his paintings have no recognizable relation to their content)
Self-Portrait (1940, 58x48cm)
Self-Portrait (1946, 21x16cm)
Self-Portrait (1923 drawing, 25x21cm)
Self-Portrait (1903 drawing, 25x20cm)
Portrait de Cézanne - Portrait de Rembrandt - Portrait de Renoir - Nature Morte (1920, momie d'un singe?)
I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (1913, an abstraction that doesn't resemble anything)
Ici C'est Ici Stieglitz (1915)
Amorous Parade (1917, une espèce d'alembic biscornu?)
La Fille Née Sans Mère (1917, portion d'une machine à vapeur?)
La ville de New York aperçue à travers le corps (1913, 55x75cm)
Lever de soleil (1924, 31x24cm)
Vierge à l'enfant (1935, 160x130cm)
Très rare tableau sur la terre (1915, 126x98cm including artist’s painted frame) _ In 1915 Picabia abandoned his exploration of abstract form and color to adopt a new machinist idiom that he used until about 1923. Unlike Robert Delaunay or Fernand Léger, who saw the machine as an emblem of a new age, he was attracted to machine shapes for their intrinsic visual and functional qualities. He often used mechanomorphic images humorously as substitutes for human beings; for example, in Ici C'est Ici Stieglitz (1915), the photographer Alfred Stieglitz is portrayed as a camera. In Very Rare Picture on the Earth a self-generating, almost symmetrical machine is presented frontally, clearly silhouetted against a flat, impassive background. Like Picabia’s own Amorous Parade (1917) or Marcel Duchamp’s The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1923), the present work might be read as the evocation of a sexual event in mechanical terms. This dispassionate view of sex is consonant with the antisentimental attitudes that were to characterize Dada. The work has also been interpreted as representing an alchemical processor, in part because of the coating of the two upper cylinders with gold and silver leaf respectively. Not only is Très rare tableau sur la terre one of Picabia’s earliest mechanomorphic works, but it has been identified as his first collage. Its mounted wooden forms and integral frame draw attention to the work as object – the picture is not really a picture, making it “very rare” indeed. Thus, an ironic note is added to the humorous pomposity of the inscription at upper left.
The Child Carburetor (1919, 126x101cm) _ Picabia abandoned his successful career as a painter of coloristic, amorphous abstraction to devote himself, for a time, to the international Dada [more] movement. A self-styled “congenial anarchist,” Picabia, along with his colleague Marcel Duchamp, brought Dada to the New York art world in 1915, the same year he began making his enigmatic machinist portraits, such as The Child Carburetor, which had an immediate and lasting effect on American art. The Child Carburetor is based on an engineer’s diagram of a “Racing Claudel” carburetor, but the descriptive labels that identify its various mechanical elements establish a correspondence between machines and human bodies; the composition suggests two sets of male and female genitals. Considered within the context created by Duchamp’s contemporaneous work The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1923), The Child Carburetor, with its “bride” that is a kind of “motor” operated by “love gasoline,” also becomes a love machine. Its forms and inscriptions abound in sexual analogies, but because the mechanical elements are nonoperative or “impotent,” the sexual act is not consummated. Whether the implication can be drawn that procreation is an incidental consequence of sexual pleasure, or simply that this “child” machine has not yet sufficiently matured to its full potential, remains unclear. Picabia stressed the psychological possibilities of machines as metaphors for human sexuality, but he refused to explicate them. Beneath the humor of his witty pictograms and comic references to copulating anthropomorphic machines lies the suggestion of a critique–always formulated in a punning fashion–directed against the infallibility of science and the certainty of technological progress. The Child Carburetor and Picabia’s other quirky, though beautifully painted, little machines (which he continued to make until 1922) are indeed fallible. If they are amusingly naive as science fictions or erotic machines, they are also entirely earnest in placing man at the center of Picabia’s universe, albeit a mechanical one.
–- Les Trois Grâces (1575x1118pix, 238kb) _ Not to be confused with
     _ Les Trois Grasses (50x70cm; 717x472pix, 42kb) by Pec [28 Oct 1930 – 30 Nov 2000]
–- S*>#Bal Nègre (1947, 153x110cm; 800xpix, 103kb) _ Every Saturday night from 22:00 to dawn on Sunday, in the company of Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Picabia frequented the Bal Nègre, famous for its Black dancers and music from Martinique. Following the end of World War II and a brief period of internment, Picabia had emerged as a heroic figure from the first years of Dadaism to a younger generation of artists that included Hans Hartung, Wols, Georges Mathieu, and Michel Tapié. During this period two of his earlier masterpieces, Udnie (1913) and Edtaosnil (1913), were very much on his mind as, after restoration the French museums acquired the former in 1949 and the latter was acquired by the Art Institute of Chicago. Paintings such as these, made just before the provocative gestures of the Dada period, were unquestionably forerunners of the abstract movement that dominated the French art scene in the 1940s. Bal Nègre is one of Picabia’s most striking works form the immediate post-war period, recalling in scale and theme his major canvases of the early teens but revamped with staccato rhythms and strident colors that admirably convey the frenetic atmosphere of the night club. Picabia and his closest friends gathered at that popular nightclub to enjoy the extraordinary Black dancers and Martinique music, to drink, talk and observe all of Paris in attendance. It was the memory of those evenings which he sought to re-create in the abstract forms, thrashing rhythms, bold colors and sensuous pigments of Bal Nègre.
–- S*>#Allegorical Scene (53x72cm; x800pix, 83kb) sketchy
–- Lu-Li (892x733pix, 56kb) an abstraction suggesting fish. _ The pseudonymous Marie Nada Piquenbiais has metamorphosed this dull picture into a series of colorful and finely detailed abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Ce que Lully a Lu au Lit (2007; 550x778pix, 169kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 322kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 606kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1340kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 2493kb) and
      _ Lump Limp (2007; 550x778pix, 169kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 322kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 606kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1340kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 2493kb).
–- S*>#Paysage (746x900pix, 88kb) divided into large areas of various colors; could represent almost anything.
–- S*>#Tabarin (900x1255pix, 215kb) a high-kicking night club dancer
–- S*>#Moret, Route des Prés (x800pix, 96kb)
–- S*>#Couple Amoureux (800xpix, 74kb)
–- S*>#Sierra Morena, Espagne (Aug 1909 colored pencil sketch; 676x900pix, 120kb)
–- S*>#Saint Tropez, Effet de Soleil (900x1119pix, 397kb) pointillist
–- S*>#Anthinea aka L'Atlantide (1938; 61x50cm; 900x721pix, 199kb)
–- S*>#Corrida (1242x900pix, 231kb) snowmen fill the stands.
–- S*>#Lunis (900x715pix, 170kb) 3 partly overlapping faces, 2 butterflies, etc.
–- S*>#Les Martigues (x800pix, 72kb)
— different /S#*>Les Martigues (x800pix, 87kb) brighter colors
–- S*>#Mère et Enfant (900x756pix, 152kb)
–- S*>#Paysage (606x900pix, 92kb)
–- S*>#L'Homme aux Yeux (900x636pix, 120kb)
–- S*>#Bord du Loing (x800pix, 153kb)
–- S*>#Effets de Soleil au Bord du Loing (900x1248pix, 330kb) a version of the preceding, sighted a few degrees to the right, with much more yellow and less blue and green, less precisely painted, without the shacks, but with a person in the boat.
–- S*>#Paysage d'Hiver (x799pix, 80kb) _ Not to be confused with any collection of Paysages Divers, such as the photos by Claudia, Paysages Divers d'Hiver:
     _ Givre (960x1280pix)
     _ 14 Mars 2006 (960x1280pix)
     _ 25 Janvier 2006 (960x1280pix)
     _ 20 Janvier 2006 (960x1280pix)
–- S*>#Péniches sur la Rivière (x799pix, 113kb) _ Not to be confused with Péni... , oh! never mind.
–- S*>#Paysanne au Châle Rouge (900x710pix, 130kb)
–- S*>#Les Feux de Bengale (714x900pix, kb) sketchy
70 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
^ Born on 30 November 1636: Adriaen van de Velde, Dutch painter, draftsman, and etcher, who was buried on 21 January 1672.
— He was the son of Willem van de Velde the Elder [1611-1693] and brother of Willem van de Velde the Younger [1633-1707], and was a prolific painter of sunny, atmospheric landscapes and beach scenes. His landscape etchings of rural scenes were particularly sensitive, but he also excelled in animal painting and often executed the animal figures in the paintings of other prominent contemporary artists.
— He was first taught in Amsterdam by his father; however, unlike his father and his brother, Willem van de Velde II, Adriaen did not incline towards marine painting, so he was sent to Haarlem to complete his training under the landscape painter Jan Wijnants. By 1657 Adriaen had settled in Amsterdam, where various documents regularly record his presence until his death. During a career of less than two decades, van de Velde produced an extensive and varied body of paintings, drawings and prints. Meadows and Italianate views with herdsmen and their cattle make up the bulk of his oeuvre, although – as far as is known – he never visited Italy. He also painted beaches, dunes, forests, winter scenes, portraits in landscape settings, at least one genre piece (Woman Drinking, 1662) and a few historical pictures. His earliest known works are six etchings of 1653, and dated paintings survive for every year from 1654 to 1671. Pastures with cattle and herders predominate in his work of 1653–1658. The paintings and prints of these years reveal no trace of Wijnants’s influence. Instead, the young van de Velde emulated the art of Paulus Potter and, to a lesser extent, that of Karel Dujardin.
— Dirck van den Bergen was a student of Adriaen van de Velde.

Portrait of a Couple with Two Children and a Nursemaid in a Landscape (1667)
The Hut (1671)
Amusement on the Ice (1669, 33x40cm; 830x1031pix) _ The varied oeuvre of Adriaen van de Velde includes winter scenes, portraits in landscape settings, and amongst his most original pictures are his rare beach scenes. He was frequently called upon to animate his contemporaries' pictures with his exquisite figures. His staffage appears in paintings by Jacob van Ruisdael, Hobbema, Allaert van Everdingen, Philips Koninck, van der Heyden and Wynants.
The Beach at Scheveningen (1658} — Amongst Adriaen's van der Velde most original pictures are his rare beach scenes, which capture the lucidity of the moist sea air and have a freshness and rarely matched plein-air effect. An outstanding example of the last named is The Beach at Scheveningen.
The Farm (1666) — Adriaen van de Velde, who was more versatile than Philips Wouwerman, also painted small landscapes in which animals and figures play an important role. Bode rightly wrote of the 'Sunday atmosphere' (Sonntagsstimmung) of his pictures of the Dutch countryside, and of the precious holiday peace that spreads over his meadows, seen in the bright sparkle of sunny days softened by the haze of the nearby sea. Adriaen was the younger brother of the well known marine painter Willem van de Velde the Younger; they probably were students of their father, the marine painter Willem van de Velde the Elder. Adriaen also is said to have studied with Wijnants at Haarlem, but the influence of Wouwerman and Potter is more evident in his early works. Houbraken reports that 'He zealously drew and painted cows, bulls, sheep and landscapes' and adds 'he daily carried his equipment out to the countryside - a practice he continued until the end of his life.' Although many of Adriaen's drawings survive, only a handful made on his excursions to the countryside have been identified; the finest, now at the Amsterdam Historical Museum, served as the basis for his magnificent Farm at Berlin. Adriaen also made numerous drawings of clothed and nude models in his studio; many have been identified as preparatory studies for figures in his landscapes and subject pictures.
^ Died on 30 November 1647: Giovanni Lanfranco (or Lanfranchi) di Stefano, Italian Baroque painter born on 26 January 1582.
— He was born near Parma, where he was a student of Agostino Carracci, and was also much influenced by the domes by Correggio. He was in Rome in 1612, and about 1616 decorated the ceiling of the Casino Borghese in a manner derived entirely from the Farnese Gallery. He developed Correggio's sotto in sù type of illusionism to an extravagant point, and painted several domes and apses in Roman and Neapolitan churches in this manner. To him Domenichino lost part of the commission for the decoration of San Andrea della Valle in Rome, a slight he resented so bitterly that - so the story goes - he weakened part of the scaffolding, hoping that Lanfranco would break his neck. Lanfranco completed the dome with an Assumption, Correggiesque in inspiration, between 1625 and 1627, and such was its success that he was then employed at Saint Peter's until 1631.
      From 1633-1634 to 1646 he was in Naples, and in 1641-1643 painted the dome of the San Gennaro chapel in the Cathedral, which by its more up-to-date illusionism and greater showiness appealed far more to local tastes than Domenichino's works there. His dome is based on Correggio's type of illusionism and replaces one actually begun by Domenichino. He died in Rome, where his last work was the apse of San Carlo ai Catinari.

Hagar in the Wilderness (138x159cm) _ Sarah, Abraham's childless wife, brought her Egyptian maid Hagar to him so that he would produce an heir with her. However, when she herself bore Isaac, she demanded of her husband: "Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac." (Genesis 21:10) Hagar and Ismael wandered in the wilderness, dying of thirst. Yet God heard the lamentations of the mother and sent her an angel who showed her the way to a spring and prophesied that her son would be the founder of a great nation.
      In the painting, Hagar, who has been crying, is just lifting her head to look up at the angel in astonishment; her child, half hidden behind her shoulder, is also looking up incredulously at the kindly angel who has taken Hagar by the arm and is showing her the way to the water. It is the handling of color, in particular, that highlights the unexpected aspect of the occurrence so clearly: against the gloomy brown of the wasteland, the sumptuous red and midnight-blue of Hagar's robes radiate like a lamentation of pathos. Her pale, exhausted face is turned towards the shining figure of the angel that seems to have brought light with it. Light bathes the figure, and radiates from the angel towards Hagar, rising in a pale cloud behind the angel and inflaming the orange of his hair and robe.
Miracle of the Bread and Fish (1623, 229x426cm; 522x996pix)

Died on a 30 November:

^ 2002 Jacques Peclers “PEC”, Belgian painter born on 28 October 1930. Jacques Peclers signait ses peintures, ses dessins, et ses caricatures PEC. Ses dernières toiles, il les signa J.Daumier-Pec; il pouvait, disait-il, user de ce nom déposé, hommage à l'immense caricaturiste que fut Honoré Daumier. Liégeois, Wallon jusqu'au bout des ongles, ancien élève de l'Académie Royale des Beaux Arts de Bruxelles, PEC a bourlingué toute sa vie, de Belgique en France, puis au Congo qui ne s'appelait pas encore Zaïre, lieutenant de parachutistes de réserve, puis au Soudan, en Egypte, en France encore, en Espagne où il faisait des spectacles hauts en couleurs : chant / musique / danse / mime, et à Paris enfin, trente années durant, peignant et dessinant Place du Tertre, chantant dans les cabarets. PEC a longtemps cherché le sens de sa peinture, travaillant avec un égal talent le pastel et l'huile, le portrait, le paysage, et les marines, et toujours les caricatures au fusain, à la plume ou à la mine de plomb. A la fin de sa vie, il mit enfin au point sa technique, les fonds sauvages, créant ainsi des tableaux fantastiques, où on retrouvait des influences de Dali, de Magritte, de Delvaux et de Leonor Fini, mais surtout une continuité dans les idées et les sentiments exprimés. PEC a été LE peintre de la féminité. Toutes ses toiles de la maturité mettent en scène des femmes, toutes sortes de femmes, dans toutes les situations possibles ou improbables, surréalistes le plus souvent. PEC a peint la femme telle qu'il l'aimait, insaisissable et fantasmatique, la femme qu'il n'était pas, celle qu'il imaginait au moment où il la peignait. PEC n'avait pas besoin de modèles : il avait LA femme dans ses pinceaux. Une vie de bamboche et de fête, de galères et de folies, une vie riche, pleine, folle et sans autre fil que l'envie de vivre au présent, cela use le corps plus que l'esprit, cela exacerbe les sens. A son 70ème anniversaire, PEC était hospitalisé à Paris, amaigri, diminué, épuisé. Il a voulu finir ses jours auprès de sa fille au Mexique, où il est mort. La postérité reconnaîtra-t-elle un jour le génie de celui qui a toujours refusé de se vendre aux marchands?
Les Trois Grasses (50x20cm; 717x472pix, 42kb) Not to be confused with
      _ /S#*>Les Trois Grâces (900x639pix, 177kb) by Picabia [22 Jan 1879 – 30 Nov 1953], not to mention the many works with that title by painters who did not die on a 30 November, one of which is Dubois-Drahonet [23 Dec 1790 – 30 Aug 1834] who painted a more traditional (except that his Graces are dressed)
      _ Les Trois Grâces (1815, round 96cm diameter; 2517x2565pix, 1074kb)
sans titre (100x81cm) _ A Black woman, wearing nothing but a large hat, carries a monkey on her left arm as she passes two mannikins. De nombreux repentirs ont transformé ce tableau en
Colonie : on one page “sans titre” again, plus two versions of Colonie, in which the two mannikins have been replaced by one elegant woman, and in the second of which she is served drinks by the Black woman (with a lighter skin color) now wearing a red dress.
Mexique (768x546pix, 51kb) _ detail (768x472pix, 63kb) _ Pec aimait le Mexique, où sa fille réside, avec son mari et ses enfants. Il y avait fait plusieurs voyages, il voulait y finir ses jours, et il y a été enterré, au cimetière de Jalapa (Etat de Mexico). Pec avait séjourné aussi en Egypte, à son retour de Congo en 1962, et on voit sur le tableau une pyramide égyptienne.
— Dedicated site: —(061125)

1980 Max Alpert (Maks Vladimirovich Al'pert), Russian artist born in Simferopol, Ukraine, on 18 March 1899..

1968 Ismaël Gonzalez de la Serna, Spanish artist born on a 06 June sometime from 1897 to 1900.

1883 Francesco Bergamini, Italian artist born on 10 December 1815.

1832 Jean-Jacques François Taurel, French artist born in 1757.

^ 1820 Adriaan de Lelie, Dutch painter born on 19 May 1755. He was largely self-taught, although initially he received some training from his fellow townsman Cornelis van Spaendonck, whom he followed to Antwerp in 1773. There he worked with the wallpaper painter Peeters and later with Andreas Bernardus de Quertenmont [1750–1835], painting historical scenes and portraits. In Düsseldorf, de Lelie copied the work of Rubens and van Dyck. In 1784 he moved to Amsterdam having been urged to do so by the scholar Petrus Camper, whom he had met in Düsseldorf in 1782. In Amsterdam he became a portrait painter of enlightened and progressive citizens, in contrast to his close rival Charles Howard Hodges, who found his clients mostly among the aristocracy. De Lelie produced a remarkable set of four group portraits depicting the meetings of the Felix Meritis Society, of which he was himself a member (1792–1809). In addition he portrayed numerous figures from contemporary Dutch cultural life. With such outstanding paintings as The Art Gallery of Jan Gildemeester and The Art Gallery of Josephus Brentano, de Lelie set the tone for the early 19th-century Dutch conversation piece. He also painted genre scenes, which were mostly based on Dutch 17th-century examples (e.g. Old Woman Making Pancakes). None of his documented allegorical works has yet been traced. Occasionally de Lelie worked in partnership with Egbert van Drielst who painted the scenery: for example General W. H. Daendels Taking Leave of Lt-Col. C. R. T. Krayenhoff (1795).

1799 Guillaume Voiriot, French artist born (main coverage) on 20 November 1713.

1732 François Octavien, French painter born in 1695. Possibly related to another (?) François Octavien [1682 – 04 Nov 1740].

1543 Francesco Granacci, Florentine painter born (full coverage) on 23 July 1477.

Born on a 30 November:

1904 Clifford E. Still, US painter who died (full coverage) on 23 June 1980. –(061125)

1874 Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, English painter who died (main coverage) on 24 January 1965. —(061126)

^ 1872 Isidre Nonell i Monturiol, Catalan painter who died on 21 (11?) (02?) February 1911. — He belonged to a humble family, whose members worked in industry in Barcelona. His father, also named Isidre, owned a little noodle factory. It was located attached to a shop in the "carrer Mes Baix de San Pere". Although his family were economically short, his mother always understood and supported the decision of his son of devoting his life to developing his artistic skill. On one occasion the painter´s father found numerous drawings in one of Isidro´s books, and thought it was necessary for his son to be sent to study drawing to a school rather than an institution for educating children. So, Isidre Nonell Monturiol, aged twelve, studied in different academies, where started his first studies of drawing and painting. We cannot state, however, that his artistic career was free from difficulties. Quite the reverse, Isidre Nonell, the son of a modest manufacturer, had to work together with his father in the making of noodles, wearing a long big shirt covered with flour. Isidre Nonell executed a painting, nowadays lost although it has been kept a photograph, where the artist reproduces a family scene with the figure of a kid, probably Nonell´s brother, wearing a shirt and a cap, reading a book. The scene takes place in a dirty courtyard with the washing hanging out, some potteries scattered on the ground and a few flower pots full of flowers. This photograph was entitled The Courtyard.
      His failure to understand particularly mathematics while studying at school caused the artist to enter the Fine Arts School of Barcelona, where met Joaquim Mir, Ricardo Canals and Javier Nogués. In the year 1893 he took part in a collective exhibition, and in 1896 he travelled together with Julio Vallmitjana and Canals to the spa of Caldas de Boi, in Lerida, where Isidre Nonell drew some sketches of the place. These sketches were used for a later execution by the artist of a series of paintings, very well received by the French public in the exhibition organised by him together with Canals in Paris, 1897. In 1898 he organised a second exhibition in Els Quatre Gats (Barcelona), with a series of drawings of soldiers, defeated and seriously wounded, coming back from the war of Cuba. In 1899 he returned to Paris, where remained for two years. He liked to deal with subjects on human beings, such as gypsies and deprived women, reproducing scenes showing their sad existence. In the Museum of Modern Art of Barcelona hangs an interesting painting dealing with this subject, Poor People Waiting for Supper (1895). In 1902 Isidre Nonell unsuccessfully exhibited his first paintings on the aforementioned gypsies. As a result of it he did not organize another private exhibition until 1910. Through the color applied to his compositions the artist attains to get inside the painful failed lives become deteriorated by time. These paintings were entitled La Trina, Graciela, Dolores, La Pilar, Consuelo; they all portraits exhibited in the Museum of Modern Art of Barcelona. Study of a Gypsy dates from 1906. In his first artistic stage he produced landscape paintings, the last years of his life devoting himself to depicting very interesting still lifes. Isidre Nonell Monturiol died from typhoid.
Pobres Esperando la Sopa (1899, 51x65cm; 607x800pix, 127kb)
Lola (1909, 59x72cm; 648x800, 117kb)
La Juana (1906, 61x50cm; 800x643pix, 111kb)
Abatimiento (1905, 81x100cm; 640x800pix, 114kb)
Lasitud (427x529pix, 177kb)
Gitana (415x283pix,- 57kb)
107 images at Ciudad de la Pintura

^ 1861 François Bernard Gailliard, Belgian painter who died in 1932. — Relative? of Jean-Jacques Gailliard [1890-1976]?
–- S*>#Paysage aux Coquelicots (580x900pix, 106kb)
–- S*>#Au Soleil (900x1237pix, 234kb)
–- View of Delphi (100x78cm; 737x961pix, 204kb) —(061128)

^ 1846 Jean André Rixens, French painter, specialized in Orientalism, who died on 21 December 1924. Son premier envoi au Salon date de 1868. Il fut l'élève de Gérôme et de Yvon. Il s'est surtout illustré dans le portrait, les scènes d'histoire, et de la vie quotidienne. — LINKS
–- .Mort de Cléopâtre. (1874, 200x290cm; 621x418pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 628x932pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM+ to 628x932pix, 93kb)
–- Déjeuner du Salon, au Café La Cascade (1889, 72x102cm; 705x1000pix, 79kb)
–- Jules Delsart (1886, 204x141cm; 589x408pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 883x606pix, 38kb) _ Shown here playing his cello, cellist Delsart [1844–1900] had been a student of Auguste Franchomme [10 Apr 1808 – 21 Jan 1884] at the Conservatoire and had succeeded him upon his death. Delsart’s interest in the viola da gamba and its music led him to found the Societé des Instruments Anciens, which performed all over Europe. In 1891 in London, Delsart, David Popper [18 Jun 1846–], and Edward Howell premiered Popper’s Requiem for three cellos and orchestra, written in memory of Popper’s friend and publisher Daniel Rahter.

^ 1836 Carl Herpfer, German genre and portrait painter who died on 18 June 1897. Little is known about his life. From 1854, he was enrolled as the student of Schraudolph, Foltz, Piloty, and Ramberg at the Munich Academy. He exhibited regularly at all the leading German exhibition venues including the Munich Glaspalast in 1869, the Lübeck Salon of 1878, the Berlin Grosse Kunstausstellung in 1894 and 1895, and in Dresden. specialized in genre scenes which evoked an earlier era. His gift in capturing the lavish fabrics and textures of historical dress is coupled with a sensitive awareness of Rococo and Biedermeier furniture. He deployed these carefully rendered visual effects to enliven appealing narratives set in an elegant golden age.
A Festive Gathering (98x136cm)
The Musician's Dilemma (116x92cm)
Die Hochzeitsgesellschaft (160x113cm; 576x409pix, 70kb)
–- S*>#The Violinist (800xpix, 66kb)
–- S*>#The Suitor Meets Her Family aka The Debutante (1890, 95x128cm; 568x799pix, 79kb) _ This painting's theme is that of a romantic match about to be made. An example of the artist's favorite subject matter and style, the work has both the element of drama and a surfeit of the sumptous, textured details at which Herpfer excelled. —(061128)

1825 William Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter who died (full coverage) on 19 August 1905.

^ 1813 Salomon Leonardus Verveer, The Hague Dutch painter who died on 05 January 1876. — Relative? of Maurits Verveer [1817-1903]? of Elchanon Verveer [1826-1900]? — He was a student of Bartholomeus Johannes van Hove and also studied at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. He visited Germany and France, producing several views of the French coast and a Townscape near Koblenz (1835). His earlier work, with its preference for reddish coloring, strikingly fantastic approach to architecture and pronounced contrasts between light and dark, is Romantic in tone, for example in An Imaginary View Based on the Kolksluis, Amsterdam (1839). Verveer is chiefly known for his townscapes, often set in Jewish districts (e.g. Jewish Town Scene, 1851). However he also painted riverscapes, such as River in Stormy Weather (1846). Some of his later works, such as On the Lookout (1871), have a rather lighter touch; the same progression is found in his charcoal sketches. But Impressionism, which appeared in the Netherlands in the third quarter of the century, left few traces on Verveer; his works from those years, such as Torenstraat in Scheveningen after the Rain (1872), continued to feature detailed coastal subjects.
–- S*>#Unloading the Catch, Dordrecht (671x961pix, 137kb) monochrome light brown
–- S*>#River Landscape at Dusk (439x600pix, 64kb)
–- S*>#Washer Women by a Town (626x961pix, 139kb) monochrome light brown
–- S*>#Town Scene with people near a water pump (40x52cm; 737x961pix, 204kb)
–- Op de Duinen te Scheveningen (1876, 77x112cm; 819x1200pix, 89kb)
–- Fishing Village in the Dunes (40x58cm; 804x1200pix, 94kb)
People in the Dunes Near Scheveningen (1866, 18x28cm)
Fisherfolk in the Dunes, Scheveningen (1873, 39x60cm; 397x640pix, 185kb) —(061129)

^ 1710 Jacob-Andries Beschey, Flemish artist who died on 28 February 1786. — Relative? of Balthazar Beschey [1708-1776]? of Karel Beschey?
–- The Baptism of Christ (24x32cm; 379x503pix, 42kb)
The Three Graces (16x21cm; 250x320pix, 30kb)

1633 Theodor van Aenvanck, Flemish artist who died in 1690.

1622 Thomas van Apshoven, Flemish artist who died in September 1664.

1622 Robert van den Hoecke, Flemish painter who died in 1668. — Half-brother and student of Jan van den Hoecke [bap. 04 Aug 1611 – 1651].

1599 Andrea Sacchi, Roman painter who died (main coverage) on 21 June 1661. —(080620)

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