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ART “4” “2”-DAY  25 November v.9.a0
^ Born on 25 November 1870: Maurice Denis, French Nabi religious painter and theoretician of modern art, who died on 13 November 1943.
— Denis was born in Granville and belonged to the Nabis (“prophets”), painters opposed to impressionism who were influenced by Odilon Redon and Paul Gauguin, and were interested in symbolism and the distortion of shapes and colors to produce a decorative surface rather than a naturalistic representation. Denis, influenced by Georges Seurat, also experimented with pointillism. In addition to religious murals, he designed tapestries and stained glass windows. Denis gave a new impetus to religious art in France, and in his critical essays he formulated many of the principles of cubism and fauvism. As the spokesman for symbolism and for the Nabis, Denis proposed his famous definition of painting: “Remember that a picture, before being a battle horse, a nude, an anecdote or whatnot, is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order”. He wrote Théories (1912) and Histoire de l'art religieux (1939).
— The students of Denis included Roger de la Fresnaye, Eugene Berman, and Tamara de Lempicka.

Orphée et Euridice (1910, 115x165cm; 873x1280pix, 729kb _ ZOOM to 1364x2000pix; 2095kb) _ In Greek mythology, Orpheus is portrayed as a poet and musician from Thrace whose lyre playing could charm all who heard his seductive music. In this representation, Eurydice, the wood nymph who became Orpheus's wife, kneels transfixed by his song. Like many Symbolist artists, Denis explored the power of music as a theme in his art, hoping to make the visual arts as lyrical and suggestive as sound itself.
–- Offering on Mount Calvary (1890; 1050x751pix, 120kb _ .ZOOM to 2099x1501pix; 792kb)
–- Christ Vert (1890; 799x546pix, 57kb _ .ZOOM to 2021x1434pix; 1056kb)
–- Hommage à Cézanne (1900; 815x1107pix, 112kb _ .ZOOM to 1629x2213pix; 984kb) — The painting within a painting at the center is Nature Morte avec Compotier (1880; 978x1193pix; 176kb) by Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906].
–- La Famille Mellerio (1897; 796x734pix, 80kb _ ZOOM to 2329x2146pix, 1098kb) _ André Mellerio was an influential art critic and writer, great proponent of color lithography, co-founder in 1897 of the magazine L'Estampe et l'Affiche, author of Le Mouvement idéaliste en peinture (1895), La lithographie originale en couleurs; couverture et estampes de Pierre Bonnard (1898), L'Oeuvre graphique complète d'Odilon Redon (1913).
–- Petit Air, Sonnet (1875, 38x28cm)
Wallpaper Design in two colors: green and rose (1893, 92x50cm) at least in this pitiful small image, the rose must be a dirty-yellow flower, and the green is more of a vomit-greenish-yellow. In disgust, the pseudonymous Dennis Mowcorn has produced not a mere design, but the actual
      _ The Wall Babbler Grinned and Arose: the Sign One Hundredfold in Many Brilliant Colors (2006; 3940x5580pix, 106kb)
Mother and Child (1895)
The Muses in the Sacred Wood (1893)
Mary Visits Elizabeth (1894)
Noli Me Tangere (1896)
Nazareth (1905)
^ Born on 25 November 1863: John Marshall Gamble, US painter who died in 1957. — {Were prospective buyers hesitant to take a Gamble? Did they think that, at least, a Gamble is better than a Lemmen?}
— John Gamble was California's premier painter of wildflowers. His interest in wildflowers was not in the flowers themselves but rather in the colorful patterns they made upon the gentle rolling hills. The color of the orange-yellow poppies was so bold that some critics affectionately referred to his paintings as "Gamble's Prairie Fires."
      Born in New Jersey, Gamble grew up in New Zealand and came to study art in San Francisco in 1883. In 1890, he embarked for Paris to study at the Academie Julian and the Academie Colarossi, and in 1893, came back to San Francisco to open his studio as a professional artist.
      He quickly developed a reputation as a painter of wildflowers by following a yearly routine of travelling up and down California to portray the springtime spectacle. The long list of flowers that appear in his paintings include the California poppy, blue and yellow lupines, sage, wild lilacs, wild buckwheat, desert verbena, blue and white everlasting and owl's clover.
      The San Francisco earthquake of 18 April 1906, nearly ruined Gamble. His studio and its entire contents were destroyed in the ensuing fire. Soon thereafter, Gamble left San Francisco to live in Los Angeles, at the urging of his close friend Elmer Wachtel. On his way to Los Angeles he passed through Santa Barbara and immediately fell in love with the small coastal community. He altered his plans and took up residence in Santa Barbara where he lived and painted for the rest of his life.

Poppies (484x744pix, 227kb)
Poppies and Lupines (Santa Barbara) (46x61cm; 389x640pix, 51kb)
Poppies and Lupine (30x40cm)
Thistle Sage, Cuyama Valley (1930, 51x76cm; 397x600pix, 193kb)
Bush Lupine Near Monterey (51x76cm; 400x607pix, 146kb)
Litton Springs (30x40cm)
Poppies and Lupine (30x40cm)
^ Died on 25 November 1957: Diego María Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez y Yace Acab Aron Losnom Bresilla Pellí Dosasik Epue Dendez Kansar, Mexican Social Realist muralist born on 08 December 1886 (and who had more than enough names without the last ten surnames which were never his, though some of them may, and do, one per person, legitimately belong to others known to Google, such as Mauricio Tote Yace [–26 Jul 2004], Michael Acab, Raymond Aron [14 Mar 1905 – 17 Oct 1983], Rachel Bresilla, Cesar Pelli [12 Oct 1926~], Carmella Dendez, and Amrut Kansar.). Rivera's third wife was the painter Frida Kahlo [06 July 1907– 13 Jul 1954].
— Diego Rivera produced murals on social themes. He was born in Guanajuato and educated in Mexico City. He studied painting in Europe between 1907 and 1921. Rivera returned to Mexico in 1921 and became prominent in the country's revival of mural painting. Believing art should serve working people and be readily available to them, he concentrated on creating large frescoes portraying the history and social problems of Mexico. He painted them on the walls of public buildings, including the National Palace in Mexico City (1929) and the Palace of Cortes in Cuernavaca (1930). Greatly influenced by indigenous Mexican art, Rivera's murals are simple and bold and, as social comment, have aroused much controversy among political and religious groups in both the United States and Mexico.
— Diego Rivera was one of the greatest artists in the XXth century. Born in Guanajuato Mexico, in 1892 he moved to Mexico City with his family. He studied in the San Carlos Academy and in the carving workshop of artist José Guadalupe Posada, whose influence was decisive. Later in Paris, he received the influence of post-modernism and cubism, the mediums in which he expressed himself with ease. Diego Rivera with the use of classicist, simplified and colorful painting recovered the pre-columbian past catching the most significant moments in mexican history: the earth, the farmer, the laborer, the custumes and popular characters. Diego Rivera 's legacy to modern mexican art was decisive in murals and canvas; he was a revolutionary painter looking to take art to the big public, to streets and buildings, managing a precise, direct, and realist style, full of social content.

Autorretrato dedicado a Irene Rich (1941, 120kb)
–- Self-portrait (574x423pix, 77kb)
–- Self-portrait (1930 lithograph, 40x28cm; 2/3 size, 234kb)
–- /F#*>Two Women and a Child (1926, 74x80cm; recommended 3/10 size_ .ZOOM to 3/5 size) _ Only one hand and the hair of the baby is seen, as it is held by a woman seen from the back. Both women are sitting on the ground.
ZapataAgrarian Leader Zapata (1932) _ The legend of the Mexican Revolution, Emiliano Zapata [1873-1919], was a theme of several representations by masterful Diego Rivera during his pictorial trajectory. The first time he painted Zapata, was on his cubist work Paisaje zapatista (1915), then he appears on the murals of the Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo (1926-1927); after that he is seen as the great revolutionary figure of Mexico on the murals he realized inside the Secretaría de Educación Pública in 1928. It can't be forgotten the way in which the celebrated phrase "Tierra y libertad" was painted by the "sapo-rana" artist, as he called himself, on the murals of Palacio Nacional (1929, 1930 and 1935).
     In this image [>], we see a Zapata painted in 1930-1931, who guides his agrarian revolutionaries; this panel is part of the removable mural that Rivera made for his individual exhibit in the Modern Art Museum of New York. Zapata appears with his white vestment in front of his revolutionaries; at his feet lies a fallen enemy, that no doubt is a property-owner. Emiliano Zapata with his left hand dominates a steed, that reminds us much to the horses of the Renaissance artist Paolo Uccello [1397 – 10 Dec 1475]. We just need to remember that Riviera on his trip to Italy from 1920 to 1921, produced several sketches about the horses that are part of Uccello's masterpiece The Battle of San Romano. By this work, Rivera also swears allegiance to the lands of South Mexico, that was the battlefield of the agrarian revolutionary, as he presents a splendid vegetation, a humid land and in the piece can be felt that freshness of the thickness when printing greenish tones of incomparable richness. Diego Rivera is one of the Mexican Art's pillars, without him, its history would have been different.

–- Zapata (1932 lithograph, 41x33cm; 3/5 size, 202kb) _ this is the black-and-white lithograph made after the painting shown above.
Sueño de una Tarde de Domingo en el Parque de la Alameda (1948; 478x1790pix, 116kb) _ detail in center (642x831pix, 159kb) _ detail on the right (519x460pix, 70kb)
Noche de los Ricos (1928; 1035x495pix, 140kb) _ the banner at the top read “todos los pesos duros”.
–- Open Air School (1932 lithograph; 786x1020pix, 245kb) _ The nine peasant students sitting on the ground around the teacher seem to range from about 8 to 90 years old. They are observed by a gun-toting guard mounted on a horse, while farm laborers with three teams of mules plough in the background.
–- Fruits of Labor (1932 lithograph; 1120x792pix, 271kb) _ A woman passes out an apple each to the six children surrounding her, while a man at her side hold a book open toward the viewer.
Vista de Toledo (1912; 133kb)
Paisaje zapatista- El guerrillero (1915; 98kb)
Maternidad- Angelina y el niño Diego (87kb)
La fiesta del maíz (1924; 116kb) from the cycle Political Vision of the Mexican People
Festival de las flores (1925; 103kb)
— El arsenal- Frida Kahlo repartiendo armas _ detail _ from the cycle Political Vision of the Mexican People (1928; 142kb)
Lupe Marín (1938; 106kb)
Modesta e Inesita (1939; 108kb)
Natasha Zakólkowa Gelman (1943; 119kb)
Desnudo con alcatraces (1944; 125kb)
Pre-Hispanic America (1950, 140kb) book cover for Canto General of Pablo Neruda
^ >Born on 25 November 1763: Jean-Germain Drouais, French Neoclassical painter who died on 13 February 1788.
— His father, François Hubert Drouais [14 Dec 1727 – 21 Oct 1775], and his grandfather, Hubert Drouais, were well-known portrait painters; and it was from his father that he received his first artistic instruction. In 1778 he enrolled at the Académie Royale, becoming a student of Nicolas-Guy Brenet. He also studied under Jean-Baptiste Oudry. About 1781 he entered the studio of Jacques-Louis David as one of his first students, of which he became the most promising Neo-classical history painter. The following year, though not officially entered for the competition, he painted that year’s Prix de Rome subject, The Return of the Prodigal Son, presumably as a trial for his own edification. The picture has a friezelike composition and reveals both the influence of Jean-François Peyron and David as well as debts to Poussin and Italian 17th-century sources.
      In 1783 Drouais reached the Prix de Rome final with The Resurrection of the Son of the Widow of Naïn but was eliminated from the competition in extraordinary circumstances: impatient to know his master’s opinion, Drouais cut a section off the canvas and smuggled it out of the competition rooms. David acknowledged it to be the best painting his favorite student had yet done, but by his hasty action Drouais had disqualified himself. However, the following year he won the prize, and great acclaim, with The Woman of Canaan at the Feet of Christ, an extremely accomplished piece influenced by Poussin’s work and David’s Belisarius.
     He accompanied David to Rome, where he worked even more assiduously than in Paris. He was most strongly influenced by the remains of ancient art and by the works of Raphael. Goethe, who was at Rome at the time it was finished, has recorded the deep impression made by his Marius at Minturno, which he characterizes as in some respects superior to the work of, David, his master. The last picture which he completed was his Philoctetus on the Island of Lemnos. He died on the 15th of July 1788.

Le Comte and Chevalier de Choiseul as Savoyards (1758)
Madame Drouais
Dying Gladiator (1752x2559pix, 940kb) in need of restauration: crackle lines over most of the picture.
Marius at Minturnae (1786) _ Marius, by the sheer force of his will, is turning back the Cimbrian soldier sent to kill him. In 87 BC, Gaius Marius [157 BC – 13 Jan 86 BC] a Roman general and politician who had been consul six times (and would be one more bloody time), had to flee Rome when his archrival Sulla conquered Rome with his army and massacred the supporters of Marius. Sulla’s men caught up with Marius near Minturnae in Latium. The ancients suggest that despite Sulla’s proclamation for Marius to die, Marius was still larger than life among the army and non-Roman citizens. The Gallic soldier who was supposed to behead Marius was unable to do so when faced by the old legend. The famous quote, “I cannot kill Gaius Marius” was supposed to have been the words of the soldier when he looked into Marius’ eyes, and the local residents refused to do him harm.
The Woman of Canaan at the Feet of Christ (1784, 114x146cm; 770x1022pix, 105kb) _ Drouais won the Prix de Rome in 1784 with this painting. It was the first time that a student of David had won this prize. At this time David had perhaps as many as forty students, and a great number of these had come to him from the studios of established masters.
Jesus Driving the Merchants out of the Temple. (38cmx46cm) _ This study, painted between 1784 and 1788, was formerly attributed to the 18th-century French School. Purchased by the city of Rennes from the Fischer-Kiener Gallery in 1986. The painting's sources are from:
   - The Gospel according to St. Matthew (Ch. 21):
And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, And said unto them, “It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.”
   - The Gospel according to St. Mark (Ch.11):
and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves; And would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through the temple. And he taught, saying unto them, “Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves.”
   - The Gospel according to St. Luke (Ch.19):
And he went into the temple and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought; Saying unto them, “It is written, My house is the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.”
   - The Gospel according to St. John (Ch.2):
And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting; And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; And said unto them that sold doves, “Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.”
The same scene, by other artists:
_ Christ Chasing the Moneylenders from the Temple by Castiglione
_ Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (1575) by El Greco
_ Christ Drives Money-Changers from the Temple (1626) by Rembrandt
_ Christ Driving Merchants from the Temple (1556) by Hernessen
_ Christ Driving the Merchants from the Temple (1650) by Jordaens
_ No. 27 Scenes from the Life of Christ: 11. Expulsion of the Money-changers from the Temple (1306) by Bondone
_ Christ driving the Traders from the Temple by Cavallino
_ Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple (1832) by Turner
_ Christ Expelling the Moneychangers from the Temple (engraving, 1547) by Bernardi
_ The Expulsion of the Moneychangers from the Temple (1675) by Giordano

Died on a 25 November:

^ >2004 Edward Paschke, Chicago painter born on 22 Jun 1939, to Waldrine and Edward Stanley Paschke. Ed Paschke grew up on Chicago's Northwest Side, where his father drove a bakery truck. He developed an early interest in animation and cartoons in elementary school and at Arlington Heights High School. In 1957, he enrolled at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he was influenced by many of the artists with works in the museum's galleries, particularly Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903], Picasso [25 Oct – 08 Apr 1973], and Seurat [02 Dec 1859 – 29 Mar 1891]. Although Paschke's interests leaned towards representational imagery, he learned to paint based on the principles of abstraction and expressionism. The School of the Art Institute awarded him his bachelor of fine arts degree in 1961, and his master of fine arts in 1970. Between graduate and undergraduate work, he traveled extensively and would work various jobs that later influenced his artistic style. In the 1960s, Paschke was among a group of Chicago artists who rebuffed painting abstract contemporary art of the day, painting instead busy, vibrant canvases incorporating images from popular culture and surrealism. Paschke and this group became widely acclaimed regionally and nationally as the "Imagists", a loose confederacy of Chicago artists that emerged in the late 1960s and was marked by its ties to surrealism and pop art, rather than to the predominant New York school of pure abstraction. It was '60s-era media philosopher Marshall McLuhan [21 Jul 1911 – 31 Dec 1980] who helped open the door to Paschke's thinking, and artist and master image manipulator Andy Warhol [06 August 1928 – 22 Feb 1987] who may have hinted at a style. But Paschke's vision was very much his own. His visual world was rooted in a variety of US subcultures (as captured in commercial art and magazines), and it also was powerfully influenced by the electronic media. More traditional influences ranged from Seurat, Picasso, Gauguin, Robert Rauschenberg [22 Oct 1925~] and Walt Disney [05 Dec 1901 – 15 Dec 1966] to such early and wildly differing Chicago Imagists as Leon Golub [23 Jan 1922 – 2004], Claes Oldenburg [28 Jan 1929~] and H.C. Westermann []. Time spent in both New York and Mexico early in his career, as well as in jobs as a psychiatric aide in a Chicago mental ward and, during a stint with the Army, rendering maps, charts and detailed weapons drawings, also fed his work. — LINKS
Indian (1186x1546pix, 234kb)
Joella (1973, 127x153cm; 700x584pix, 221kb)
Melody (2003; 1113x1262pix, 121kb)
Espiritule (1985; 597x508pix, 59kb)
Lemon Nitro (2002, 23x31cm; 480x638pix, 51kb)
Machino (1976, 244x188cm; 491x378pix, 145kb gif)
MSG (1996, 13x18cm; 427x600pix, 63kb) —(080621)

>1980 Konrad Ludwig Wachsmann, architect born in Germany on 16 May 1901, dies in Los Angeles. –(071123)

>1972 Hans Bernhard Scharoun, German architect born on 20 September 1893. –(071123)

^ 1967 Ossip Zadkine (or Osip Zadkin), Jewish Belorussian-born, English-raised French sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 14 July 1890. He spent his childhood in Smolensk in a circle of cultured and assimilated Jews. His father was a convert to the Orthodox Church, and his mother came from an immigrant family of Scottish shipwrights. While staying with his mother’s relatives in Sunderland, northern England, in 1905, he attended the local art school and taught himself to carve furniture ornaments. At the age of 16 he continued his artistic training in London, taking evening classes in life drawing and making his living as an ornamental woodcarver. During this time he became friendly with the painter David Bomberg. He continued his studies at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, and later, in 1908, at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, where he concentrated on techniques in wood. – Itzhak Olitski and Jules Olitski were assistants of Zadkine. – Zadkine's students included Emil Cimiotti, Marta Colvin, Noemí Gerstein, Wladyslaw Hasior, Gerdur Helgadóttir, Kenneth Kemble, Gabriel Kohn, Kenneth Noland, Betty Bierne Parsons, Alicia Penalba, Krishna Reddy, Yerasimos Sklavos, Richard Stankiewicz, George Sugarman, Shinkichi Tajiri.

>1924 Jules Worms, French painter born on 16 December 1832. — {The DIET OF WORMS was not his work, though he did live on a diet of Worms, but not on a diet of worms, like C.Manoharan}
–- L'Impératrice Eugénie aka La Femme Dans le Miroir (34x25cm; 873x662pix, 55kb)
–- Interlude Musical (840x1005pix, 92kb).
–- La Leçon de Musique (51x62cm; 898x1120pix, 89kb).
–- La Danse du Vito, à Grenade (58x81cm; 788x1120pix, 70kb).
–- Breaking the News (74x102cm; 789x1120pix, 70kb).
–- Leaving Home (74x102cm; 618x748pix, 88kb).
–- Instead of modifying a picture by Worms, the pseudonymous Junio Larvas y Orugas has been inspired by the artist's name to open a can of worms and to transform it into the magnificent abstractions
      _ V for Victory of the Siamese Twin Worms on a Diet (2007; 550x778pix, 205kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 390kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 751kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1739kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3990kb) and
      _ July Worms' Psychedelic Nightmare of Separation (2007; 550x778pix, 205kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 390kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 751kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1739kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3990kb).—(071124)

1914 Jan Stobbaerts, Belgian artist born on 18 March 1839. –(051124)

1913 Ignatius Taschner, German artist born on 09 April 1871. –(051124)

1906 Wilhelm Bernatzik, Austrian artist born on 18 May 1853. –(051124)

1891 William Notman, Canadian artist born on 08 March 1826. — {Notman he was, yet man he was.}. –(051124)

1875 Arthur Boyd Houghton, British artist born in India on 13 March 1836. –(051124)

1872 Ange-Louis Janet “Janet-Lange”, Parisian artist born on 26 November 1815. –(051124)

^ =1867 Carl Ferdinand Sohn, German painter born on 10 December 1805. — {He was the Sohn of his Mutter and his Vater}— He studied at the Akademie der Künste, Berlin, and the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, at both under Wilhelm von Schadow. He then went (1830–1831) to Italy where he adopted the works of the Venetians Titian, Veronese, and Palma Vecchio as his lasting models. These studies preceded his assumption, in 1832, of lifelong teaching duties at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. With Rinaldo and Armida (1828), a scene showing the lovers from the verse epic Gerusalemme liberata of Torquato Tasso [11 Mar 1544 – 25 Apr 1595], Sohn impressed his contemporaries in Düsseldorf by introducing the idealistic and literary style established by Schadow and his followers. The brilliantly coloristic and realistically rendered work reveals Sohn’s talent for depicting dynamic life-sized figures, animated sensuality, and cogent gestures. — The students of Sohn included Wilhelm Busch, John W. Ehninger, Ludwig Knaus, Louis Kolitz, Wilhelm Trautschold, Benjamin Vautier, Richard Caton Woodville. — Tasso in the Insane Asylum (1839; 604x496pix, 66kb) by Delacroix.

^ 1864 David Roberts, Scottish painter, specialized mostly in orientalism, born on 24 October 1796 at Stockbridge, Edinburgh. He was apprenticed by his father, a shoemaker, for seven years to a painter and house-decorator; and during this time he employed his evenings in the study of art. In 1820 he became acquainted with Clarkson Stanfield, then painting at the Pantheon, Edinburgh, at whose suggestion he sent three pictures in 1822 to the Exhibition of Works by Living Artists, held in Edinburgh. In the same year he removed to London, where he worked for the Coburg Theatre, and was afterwards employed, along with Stanfield, at Drury Lane. In 1824 he exhibited at the British Institution a view of Dryburgh Abbey, and sent two works to the first exhibition of the Society of British Artists, of which he was elected president in 1831. In the same autumn he visited Normandy, and the works which were the results of this excursion began to lay the foundation of the artists reputation, one of them, a view of Rouen Cathedral, being sold for eighty guineas. His scenes for an opera, The Seraglio, painted two years later, and the scenery for a pantomime dealing with the naval victory of Navarino, and two panoramas made jointly by him and Stanfield, were among his last work for the theaters. In 1829 he exhibited the Departure of the Israelites from Egypt, in which his style first becomes apparent; three years afterwards he traveled in Spain and Tangiers, returning in the end of 1833 with a supply of effective sketches, elaborated into attractive and popular paintings. His Interior of Seville Cathedral was exhibited in the British Institution in 1834, and sold for 300; and he made a fine series of Spanish illustrations for the Landscape Annual of 1836, while in 1837 a selection of his Picturesque Sketches in Spain was reproduced by lithography. In 1838 Roberts made a long tour in the East, and accumulated a vast collection of sketches of a class of scenery which had hitherto been hardly touched by British artists, and which appealed to the public with all the charm of novelty. The next ten years of his life were mainly spent in elaborating these materials. An extensive series of drawings was lithographed by Louis Haghe in Sketches in the Holy Land and Syria, 1842-1849. In 1851, and again in 1853, Roberts visited Italy, painting The Ducal Palace, Venice, bought by Lord Londesborough, the Interior of the Basilica of St Peters, Rome, Christmas Day, 1853, and Rome from the Convent of St Onofrio, presented to the Royal Scottish Academy. His last volume of illustrations, Italy, Classical, Historical and Picturesque, was published in 1859. He also painted, by command of Queen Victoria, a picture of the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1839 he was elected an associate and in 1841 a full member of the Royal Academy. The last years of his life were occupied with a series of views of London from the Thames. He had made six of these, and was at work upon a picture of St Pauls Cathedral, when, on 25 November 1864, he died suddenly of apoplexy. –- Portrait of Roberts (lithograph; 1/2 size, 56kb _ ZOOM to full size, 225kb) by Baugniet [27 Feb 1814 – 05 Jul 1886]. — LINKS
Departure of the Israelites from Egypt (1830, 119x212cm; 561x800pix, 63kb _ ZOOM to 1435x2048pix, 183kb)
Entrance of the Golden Temple at Baalbeck (1841, 75x62cm; 599x488pix, 44kb _ ZOOM to 1227x1000pix, 90kb)
The Temple of Dendera (1841, 119x212cm; 450x800pix, 60kb _ ZOOM to 1152x2048pix, 170kb)
Interior of the Cathedral of Saint Stephen in Vienna (600x756pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1765pix, 521kb)
–- The Simoun in the Desert (color plate in the book The Holy Land, 1856, 29x20cm; 603x880pix, 56kb)
–- S*>#A View of the Palace of the Caesars, Rome, from the River Tiber (1863, 62x108cm; 515x900pix, 80kb) _ The Ponte Rotto is visible on the left. Begun in 179 BC and completed in 142 BC this bridge was one of Rome's first bridges to be built in stone. By the end of the sixteenth century repeated flooding and the fast flow of the Tiber had rendered the bridge beyond repair, eventually leaving only three of the arches standing. Beyond the Ponte Rotto lies the Isola Tibertina. In the central background the rotunda Temple of Vesta is clearly visible and immediately to the right rises the square tower of the Church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin where the famous Bocca di Verita is situated. The present picture appears to be a pair with another view of the Tiber viewed from the other side of the Ponte Rotto. Both works are the same size and are dated 1863.
–- S*>#Greyfriars Churchyard (900x1128pix, 198kb)
–- S*>#Street in Abbeville, France (900x619pix, kb) with people
–- S*>#Church in Mainz, Germany (900x639pix, 82kb) with people near it
–- S*>#Saint-Paul's Cathedral, London (900x674pix, 93kb) unfinished
–- S*>#Ponte Nomentano, Rome (900x1278pix, 196kb) sketchy
–- S*>#Burgos Cathedral, Spain (900x627pix, 111kb)
–- S*>#Interior of the Church of San Lorenzo, Rome (19 Nov 1835; 900x1281pix, 259kb) sketchy
–- S*>#Santa Catalina, Seville (900x1274pix, 179kb) monochrome drawing
–- S*>#Priory of Pluscarden, Morayshire (900x1248pix, 153kb) a detail in a landscape
–- S*>#Alcalá de Guadaira, Spain (900x1292pix, 200kb)
–- S*>#The Tombs of the Califs, Cairo (900x1333pix, 137kb)
–- S*>#Tower of the Old Moorish Citadel, Gibraltar (900x622pix, 120kb) British soldiers are before it.
–- S*>#Bridge of Toledo (900x1295pix,254 kb)
–- S*>#Sabaste, Ancient Samaria (900x1319pix, 201kb)
–- S*>#An Italian Church (694x900pix, 96kb) with people in the foreground; a finished painting, for a change.
–- S*>#People Praying in a Church in Northern France (900x639pix, 99kb)
–- S*>#Gibraltar Seen From the Neutral Ground (619x900pix, 96kb) – (061117)

1860 Manuel Vilar, Catalan artist born on 15 November 1812, dies in Mexico City. –(051124)

1858 Johannes Reekers, Dutch artist born in 1790. — Relative? of Hendrik Reekers [1815-1854]?

1841 Francis Legatt Chantrey, English sculptor born on 07 April 1781. –(051124)

1819 Francesco Righetti, Roman artist born on 11 Jun 1749. —(051124)

1803 Joseph Wilton, London sculptor born on 16 July 1722. –(051124)

1792 Johann Adam Klein, German artist who died on 21 May 1875. –(051124)

1773 Pierre Antoine Quillard (or Quilliard), French painter, draftsman and engraver, active in Portugal, where he dies. He was born in 1701 (1704?). He received, reportedly from the age of 11, an annual pension from the Abbé de Fleury, tutor to Louis XV. He may already have started work by this time in the Paris studio of Watteau, copying his master’s drawings and perhaps also painting portions of his canvases. Given Watteau’s temperamental instability, it seems unlikely that he stayed there long. Quillard produced a fair number of fêtes galantes in the style of Watteau, ranging from the lyricism of such paintings as The Four Seasons to an unusual pre-Romantic style with surging figures and dramatically twisted trees, as in Dance among the Ruins. His later works suggest the influence of François Lemoyne and Nicolas Lancret.

1742 Domenico Parodi, Genoa Italian painter, sculptor, and architect, born in 1672, son of sculptor Filippo Parodi [1630 – 22 Jul 1702]. About 1678 he accompanied the family to Venice, where he studied under the portraitist Sebastiano Bombelli. He was in Padua about 1685 and later went to Rome to work under Maratti, possibly in 1690–1694 when Paolo Girolamo Piola was there. Parodi’s Jupiter Rescuing a Shipwreck (engraved by S. Durello before 1694), a complex composition that includes many figures in motion, demonstrates that in the 1690s he was Piola’s equal in combining the current highly ornamental figure-style (promoted by Piola’s workshop, the Casa Piola) with a classical manner inspired by Roman trends. This ability is apparent in his earliest dated works, two oval paintings depicting David Lamenting the Death of Uzza (1700) and Christ Driving the Money-changers from the Temple (1700). –(051124)

^ 1695 (burial) Henry Tilson, English painter born in 1659.
–- A Lady (75x63cm; 900x734pix, 86kb) half length, wearing a white dress with a blue cloak–(061122)

Born on a 25 November:

1932 Roland Goeschl, in Salzburg, Austria. –(051124)

1913 José Antonio Coderch i de Sentmenat, Barcelona Catalan artist who died on 05 November 1984. –(051124)

1910 Richard Robin Seifert, Swiss artist. –(051124)

1902 Morris Lapidus, Russian artist. –(051124)

^ 1881 August Willem van Voorden, Dutch artist who died in 1921.
–- S*>#Oude plantage oever te Rotterdam (31x58cm; 496x961pix, 125kb)
–- S*>#View of Rotterdam Harbor (54x75cm; 575x799pix, 63kb)
–- A Harbor Scene (31x40cm; 700x960pix, 154kb) —(061122)

1865 Georges Lemmen, Belgian painter who died (full coverage) on 15 July 1916. —(051122)

1850 Yelena Dmitriyevna Polenova, Russian artist who died on 19 November 1898.

1848 Joseph Lyman Silsbee, US artist who died on 31 Jan 1913. –(051124)

1793 Robert Havell Jr., US artist who died on 11 November 1878. –(051124)

>1782 (or 24 Nov) Alexandre Louise Marie Richard, French artist who died on 10 or 11 December 1859. — Relative? Fleury-François Richard [25 Feb 1777 – 14 Mar 1852]? of Théodore Richard [1782-1859], peintre paysagiste, élève d’Ingres père, d’Aubry, mais surtout de Bertin? Il a prolongé l’école Toulousaine, dans la lignée de Valenciennes. A mi-chemin entre le paysagisme néo-classique et le renouveau des années 1840, il fît une carrière internationnale. Impliqué dans la vie artistique de son époque, un temps directeur des Beaux-Arts, c’est lui qui découvre Brascassat, premier peintre animalier français.

^ 1770 Henry Sargent, Massachusetts painter who died on 21 February 1845. An early work was his small copy (1789) of Valentine Green’s mezzotint engraving after Brook Watson and the Shark (1778) of John Singleton Copley. Sargent went to London to study painting in 1793, carrying letters of introduction from John Trumbull to Copley and Benjamin West. Returning to Boston in 1797, he embarked instead on a military career. He then served in the Massachusetts legislature for two years before resuming his artistic career in 1804. His best-known works are a pair of large interior scenes, the Dinner Party (1821) and the Tea Party (1825.), which depict elegant Federal-period style and taste in the Beacon Hill district of Boston. The Dinner Party is said to represent the dining-room of Sargent’s own house during a gathering of his supper club. Framed by a brown arched doorway, 18 men sit at a table set with bowls of fruit, wine bottles and glasses. The controled light, the warm tonality of brown paintings in gold frames, the red curtains and brass ornaments all suggest the influence of the Dutch 17th-century genre paintings Sargent is known to have collected. The Tea Party is set in a candlelit drawing-room, where fashionably dressed men and women converse amid gilt Empire furniture. The deep illusionistic space and the measured formality of the composition exemplify the growing interest in French Neo-classicism in the US during the early 19th century.
Watson and the Shark (1797, 62x60cm; 638x800pix, 94kb _ ZOOM to 1276x1600pix, 427kb) practically identical copy of Brook Watson and the Shark (1778, 182x230cm) by John Singleton Copley
The Tea Party (1824, 163x133cm; 976x800pix, 123kb _ ZOOM to 1580x1296pix, 272kb _ ZOOM+ to 2370x1944pix, 234kb)
The Dinner Party (1821; 995x800pix, 117kb _ ZOOM to 1596x1283pix, 250kb _ ZOOM+ to 2370x1944pix, 224kb)
Boy on a Hobby Horse (1815, 165x128cm; 1025x800pix, 87kb _ ZOOM to 1619x1264pix, 173kb _ ZOOM+ to 2370x1944pix, 192kb)–(051124)

^ 1768 Charles Meynier, Parisian painter and collector who died on 06 September 1832. His father intended that he should become a tailor, but he showed an early love for drawing and was allowed to study under the engraver Pierre-Philippe Choffard. He was a proficient student but nevertheless wished to become a painter, so his elder brother Meynier St-Phal, an actor at the Comédie-Française in Paris, paid for him to train from 1785 with François-André Vincent, who then enjoyed a considerable reputation. In 1789 he won the Prix de Rome for Joseph Recognized by his Brothers (1789), jointly with Anne-Louis Girodet. The events of the French Revolution prevented him spending the usual five years in Rome, but his time there (till 1793) allowed him to make numerous studies of antique sculpture. He returned to Paris during the Reign of Terror and started to produce large Neo-classical works. In 1793 he entered a competition set by the Committee of Public Safety for the best work on a theme from the French Revolution. Taking the competition itself as his subject, he painted France Encouraging Science and the Arts, a classically inspired work in which the generalized features of the figures, with prominent noses and chins, are characteristic of his style. The painting won a prize, though not the first prize, which was won by François Gérard, and thereafter Meynier rapidly established a reputation. He made his début at the Salon in 1795. Under the First Empire he received several public commissions for works celebrating Napoleon’s victories. In 1806 he produced a series of drawings (Paris, Louvre) for bas-reliefs and sculptures to ornament the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Paris, the monumental entrance to the Tuileries that was built to celebrate Napoleon’s victories of 1805. The arch was designed by Pierre-François Léonard Fontaine and Charles Percier, and Meynier’s designs were sculpted by a team that included Pierre Cartellier, Clodion, Louis-Pierre Deseine, Jacques Philippe Le Sueur (1757–1830) and Claude Ramey. In 1808 he painted Marshal Ney and the Soldiers of the 76th Regiment Retrieving their Flags from the Arsenal of Inspruck [sic], one of 18 works commissioned in 1806 to illustrate Napoleon’s German campaign. Other similarly large-scale works were commissioned from such artists as Antoine-Jean Gros, François Gérard, and Girodet. The work, which depicts the retrieval in 1805 of three flags that had been lost in the campaign of 1800, was highly praised at the Salon of 1808. In 1807 he was one of 26 artists who entered the competition to paint a scene from the recently fought Battle of Eylau. His Napoleon on the Battlefield of Eylau (1807) won one of the two honorable mentions; the competition was won by Gros with Napoléon sur le champ de bataille d'Eylau, 9 Février 1807 (1808; 912x1400pix, 199kb). In the foreground of this bloody battle scene Meynier included numerous nude corpses, in rather slavish accordance with classical ideals (the corpses of Gros wore their uniforms).
Retour de Napoléon dans l'île de Lobau après la bataille d'Essling (1812; 1052x1400pix, 195kb) _ Après s’être avancée jusqu’aux portes de Vienne, la Grande Armée fut bloquée dans l’île Lobau, sur le Danube. Tentant de franchir le fleuve sur des ponts de bois, elle ne parvint pas à percer lors de la bataille d’Essling. Les blessés s’entassèrent dans l’île Lobau. Meynier n’ayant manifestement jamais vu de champ de bataille, ce tableau est prétexte à peindre de belles académies néoclassiques, et si Napoléon, suivi de Berthier, chef d’état-major de la Grande Armée, vient réconforter les blessés, par le serment il fait corps avec eux. Son attitude n’est cependant guère convaincante. La scène se déroule après Essling. On notera la grande science du dessin et de la lumière qui fait toute la qualité de Meynier, l’un des meilleurs peintres néoclassiques, élève de Vincent qui remporta le Prix de Rome en 1789 en même temps que Girodet. L’œuvre est bien supérieure à celles de Gautherot, Napoléon harangue le 2ème corps de la Grande-Armée sur le pont de Lech à Augsbourg 1808 (969x1400pix, 200kb), et Debret, Napoléon harangue les troupes bavaroises et wurtembourgeoises à Abensberg 1810 (1024x1400pix, 241kb), qui se situent avant d'autres batailles, ne serait-ce que par l’habileté de sa composition. Il semble toutefois que l’artiste ait été peu convaincu par son sujet, comme de nombreux peintres du temps, plus portés sur l’Antiquité.
     Baignés de culture classique, les hommes de la Révolution et de l’Empire réactivèrent nombre de notions antiques, comme la République, le Sénat, le Consulat, etc. Le serment par le bras tendu est également une gestuelle reprise du salut romain. Remise à la mode sous la Révolution, l’action devait prendre toute son importance avec l’empire napoléonien, assimilé dans les esprits à l’empire romain et à l’empire carolingien, son héritier.
Sous l’Empire cependant, il ne s’agissait plus de prêter serment à une idée, la Nation, la République, etc., mais bel et bien à un homme, voire à un chef de guerre, car ce n’est jamais le peuple qui s’exprime dans ces tableaux, mais toujours l’armée. Même s’il s’agit du peuple en armes, héritier de l’armée révolutionnaire de même que Napoléon représente la Nation dont il est le premier magistrat sacré, nous avons malgré tout affaire avant tout à des militaires prêtant serment à leur chef suprême. C’est ici que se révèle pleinement le véritable profil de Napoléon.

1768 Konrad Eberhard, German artist who died on 12 March 1859. –(051124)

1765 Charles-Pierre-Joseph Normand, French artist who died on 13 February 1840. –(051124)

1699 Pierre Subleyras, French painter who died (full coverage) on 28 May 1749. –(051124)

1658 Lorenzo Ottoni, Roman artist who died in 1736. –(051124)

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