search 8500 artists, their works, museums, movements, countries, time periods, media, specializations
<<< ART 23 Nov
ART 25 Nov >>>
ART “4” “2”-DAY 24 November v.9.a0
^ Born on 24 November 1864: Henri~Marie~Raymond de Toulouse~Lautrec~Monfa, French painter who died on 09 September 1901.
— He was an aristocrat, the son and heir of Comte Alphonse~Charles de Toulouse and last in line of a family that traced its ancestry back a thousand years. Henri's father was rich, handsome, and eccentric. His mother was overly devoted to her only living child. Henri was weak and often sick. By the time he was 10 he had begun to draw and paint.
      At 12 young Toulouse-Lautrec broke his left leg and at 14 his right leg. The bones failed to heal properly, and his legs stopped growing. He reached young adulthood with a body trunk of normal size but with abnormally short legs. He was only 1.5 meter tall.
      Deprived of the kind of life that a normal body would have permitted, Toulouse-Lautrec lived wholly for his art. He stayed in the Montmartre section of Paris, the center of the cabaret entertainment and bohemian life that he loved to paint. Circuses, dance halls and nightclubs, racetracks — all these spectacles were set down on canvas or made into lithographs. Toulouse~Lautrec was very much a part of all this activity. He would sit at a crowded nightclub table, laughing and drinking, and at the same time he would make swift sketches. The next morning in his studio he would expand the sketches into bright~colored paintings.
      In order to become a part of the Montmartre life — as well as to protect himself against the crowd's ridicule of his appearance — Toulouse~Lautrec began to drink heavily. In the 1890s the drinking started to affect his health. He was confined to a sanatorium and to his mother's care at home, but he could not stay away from alcohol. Toulouse~Lautrec died at the family château of Malromé. Since then his paintings and posters — particularly the 'Moulin Rouge' group — have been in great demand and bring high prices at auctions and art sales.

Self-Portrait Before a Mirror (1880; _ ZOOM to 856kb)
La Goulue (1891 lithograph poster; 939x576pix _ ZOOM to 993kb)
La Goulue Danse aka Les Almées (= danseuses égyptiennes, 1895)
La Goulue Arrive au Moulin Rouge aux bras de Deux Femmes (1892)
–- Confetti (1894 lithograph)
Chilperic (600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1200x1600pix)
La Modiste: Mademoiselle Margouin (1900; 600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1200x1600pix)
The Parlor at Rue des Moulins (600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1200x1600pix)
Tête-à-Tête Supper (600x800pix)
Divan Japonais (1893 lithograph; 600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1200x1600pix)
Jardin de Paris, Jane Avril (lithograph poster 130×95cm; 600x422pix _ ZOOM to 1420x1000pix, 109kb)
Adèle de Toulouse-Lautrec, mère de l'artiste (1890; _ ZOOM to 2444x2024pix, 503kb)
Alphonse de Toulouse-Lautrec in a four-in-hand (1881; _ ZOOM to 2426x3176pix, 781kb)
Au cirque Fernando, l'écuyère (1888; _ ZOOM to 2027x3200pix, 880kb)
Au Moulin de la Galette (1889; 600x670pix, 152kb _ ZOOM to 2270x2536pix, 831kb)
Madame Poupoule à sa toilette (1898; 600x463pix _ ZOOM to 3283x2536pix, 1049kb)
Justine Dieuhl dans le jardin du Père Forest (1890; 600x451pix, 74kb _ ZOOM to 2689x2024pix, 546kb)
Les deux amies (1895; 600x888pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2072pix)
Le côtier de la compagnie des omnibus (1888, 80x51cm; 600x458pix, 84kb _ ZOOM to 1308x1000pix, 168kb)
–- Seule (1896)
–- Le Baiser (1892)
–- A Montrouge aka Rosa la Rouge (1887)
Au Moulin-Rouge (1892; 600x443pix _ ZOOM to 2133x1576pix, 364kb)
Bal au Moulin-Rouge (1890; 600x780, 137kb _ ZOOM to 1950x2536pix, 565kb)
A la mie aka Les Dernières Miettes (1891; 600x800pix _ ZOOM to 1200x1600pix _ ZOOM+ to 680kb)
–- Yvette Guilbert (1895)
Souvenir d'Auteuil (1881; 1099x835pix, kb)
Vincent van Gogh (1887, 54x45cm; 600x498pix _ ZOOM to 3050x2536pix, 1348kb)
–- Les Vieilles Histoires frontispiece to a series of song sheets (1893 color lithograph, 36x54cm; 748x1193pix, 89kb) _ A mustachioed gentleman in a top hat leads a muzzled bear by a chain attached to a cruel ring in the bear's nose.
–- Au concert poster commisssioned by the Ault & Wiborg Co. “makers of fine printing and lithographic inks” (1896 color lithograph, 32x25cm; 1179x856pix, 169kb)
La Clownesse assise (Mlle. CHA-U-KA-O) (1896, 52x40cm; 1104x866pix, 223kb)
La Clownesse attachant son corset (1895)
La Clownesse (Mlle. CHA-U-KA-O) (1895; 600x473pix, 76kb _ ZOOM to 2566x2024pix, 502kb)
252 images at the Athenaeum62 images at Wikimedia (ZOOMable)
^ Died on 24 November 1693: Nicolaas Maes (or Maas), Dutch painter specialized in portraits, born in 1634.
—     Nicolaes Maes  was born in Dordrecht. He worked in Rembrandt’s Amsterdam workshop after he had had professional training with an unknown painter in Dordrecht. His earliest works are religious scenes with something of Rembrandt’s spiritual emotion. But this was not the type of painting most natural to Maes and his own temperament led him to look for his own way in painting.
    After a short stay in Delft, Maes returned to his native town in 1653. Based on the knowledge of Rembrandt’s and Delft’s schools, Maes started to specialize in depiction of interiors. Very soon he chose his subjects and found his own palette. Genre scenes: in the kitchen, the nursery, the backyard fascinated him. During his stay in Dordrecht (1654-1659) he painted his best genre pictures. A typical painting of the period is Naughty Little Drum-Player: in the mirror on the wall the artist himself is reflected. Some art historians consider that this painting is a group portrait of the artist’s family. The young mother then is Adriana Brouwers, widow of the priest Arnoldus de Gelder. Maes married her in 1654. The little drum-player, Ustus, son of Adriana and Arnoldus, nearly woke up his little sister Ioganna, daughter of the artist. After 1659, Maes worked on portraits more and more. In 1673, he moved to Amsterdam, where he died.
     Maes was a very prolific and successful painter, and he is a bright representative of Holland’s Baroque.
– In about 1648 Maes became a student of Rembrandt in Amsterdam, staying there until 1654 when he returned to his native town Dordrecht. In his early years he concentrated on genre pictures, rather sentimental in approach, but distinguished by deep glowing colors he had learnt from his master. Old women sleeping, praying, or reading the Bible were subjects he particularly favoured.
In the 1660s, however, Maes began to turn more to portraiture, and after a visit to Antwerp around the middle of the decade his style changed dramatically. He abandoned the reddish tone of his earlier manner for a wider, lighter and cooler range (greys and blacks in the shadows instead of brownish tones), and the fashionable portraits he now specialized in were closer to van Dyck than to Rembrandt. In 1673 he moved permanently to Amsterdam and had great success with this kind of picture.

Old Woman at Prayer (Prayer without End) (1656)
Simon van Alphen (1680)
Christ before Pilate (1650, 216x174cm; 851x665pix) _ The painting was attributed to Rembrandt until 1880. It is assumed that the boy at the left is the self-portrait of the young artist. The head of Pilate and that of the man with red beret are also portraits.
— Portrait of Four Children (1657, 150x112cm) _ The painting is from the first period of the artist. It is signed and dated lower left.
Christ Blessing the Children (1653, 206x154cm) _ Born in Dordrecht, Maes went to Amsterdam in about 1650 to study with Rembrandt. He was back in his native city by 1653 and stayed until 1673, when he returned to settle in Amsterdam. By 1654 he had abandoned Rembrandt's way of painting in favour of small domestic interiors depicting the life of women and children. They differ from similar subjects painted by de Hooch in their extensive use of glossy black and warm reds, and the strong contrasts between light and dark, but some share de Hooch's interest in views into another room or space - although we don't know of any direct connection between the two painters. From 1660 Maes confined himself to portraiture, in time adopting the elegant French style favoured in Holland in the latter part of the century.
      The attribution of this huge picture has been the subject of much debate, but it is now generally accepted as an early work by Maes painted either during his time in Rembrandt's studio or just after. One of his two surviving preparatory compositional sketches is loosely based on Rembrandt's famous Hundred Guilder Print. Both works illustrate a passage from the Gospel of Saint Matthew: 'Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them. But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven' (19:13-14).
      In Maes's picture dark browns and blacks are enlivened with touches of cream and red - most striking in the cheeks of the little girl on whom Jesus has 'put his hands' and who turns around shyly and uncomprehendingly, finger in mouth. Her school slate hangs at her side - for these are seventeenth-century Dutch mothers and children who crowd around Jesus, although he, like Saint Peter standing rebuked behind the tree and the man lifting up the child (a disciple removing an infant, or a father jumping the queue?), is wearing 'timeless' dress. The young man awkwardly squeezed in at the left is likely to be a self portrait, a reminder that this picture is dated to Maes's late 'teens. He has followed all the precepts for monumental narrative painting - the full-length figures on the scale of life, a significant and elevated biblical story, the poses and emotions of all the figures carefully delineated, the lights and darks disposed so as to highlight Jesus and the children - yet something genre-like and sentimental keeps breaking through. Whether because most patrons with space on their walls for a canvas of this size wanted something loftier than the homely figures depicted here, or whether Maes himself realised that 'history painting' was not what he wished to do, he was never again to attempt a picture on this ambitious scale.
Justus Criex (1666, 109x92cm) _ Maes executed this portrait during, or immediately after, his visit to Antwerp. In this period he already moved away from the style of Rembrandt and became influenced by Flemish painters, especially Jacob Jordaens whom he visited in Antwerp.
Eavesdropper with a Scolding Woman (1655, 46x72cm) _ Maes's fame rests primarily on his genre paintings of the intimate life of women and children made at Dordrecht during the 1650s. In this witty picture a maid quietly smiles at us as she points to the room upstairs, making us complicitous in overhearing a scolding mistress. Maes generated ambiguity by hiding the object of the woman's wrath with the illusionistic curtain. To the left, utensils have tumbled over, lying idle. By opening the curtain, the painter literally reveals a badly managed household: the maid spends more time listening than working, and the mistress does not create domestic harmony.
The Idle Servant (1655, 70x53cm) _ The range of Mae's domestic subjects is large. They show women praying, spinning, sewing, making lace, preparing food, or teaching children - all virtuous activities related to the centrality and sanctity of the home in Dutch society. A few of his pictures have veiled erotic allusions and there are some that call attention to vices. A good natured one in the latter category is The Idle Servant.
      The protagonist of the picture is a housewife appealing directly to us to witness the sloth of the sleeping servant who not only left her mess of pots and dishes unwashed but allows the cat to snatch a fowl. The painting's strong chiaroscuro relates it to Rembrandt but Maes's personal contribution is the emphasis he places upon creating the illusion of interior space in which the scene is set. Here the stress on the expanse of the floor is not fully successful - the pots and dishes are dangerously close to sliding off it.
      More importantly, he allows us to look from one room to another where conversing women introduce a minor sub-plot. The Dutch call this a kind of glimpse, a 'doorkijkje' (the diminutive of doorkijk = a look or glance). Maes did not invent the motif. It was used expertly as early as the fifteenth century by an artist unimaginatively called Hand G (variously identified as Jan van Eyck, his assistant, or his follower) on a manuscript page that shows St Elizabeth in her lying-in room after the birth of St John the Baptist. Later artists used the motif too, but Maes gave it new life when he painted a number of domestic scenes in settings similar or more elaborate than the one seen in The Idle Servant. All of them share a great sensitivity to the quality of light and atmospheric effects, and some anticipate the glorious interiors painted in Delft by Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch merely a few years later. — G?>The Lacemaker (1655) _ The range of Mae's domestic subjects is large. They show women praying, spinning, sewing, making lace, preparing food, or teaching children - all virtuous activities related to the centrality and sanctity of the home in Dutch society.
Old Woman Dozing (1656, 135x105cm) _ This domestic scene - a superb example of the Dutch genre tableau - also has, though less obviously for a modern viewer, a moralising purpose as an allegory of sloth or laziness. An old woman has fallen asleep while reading. In her heavily veined right hand, resting on an open book on her lap, she holds a pair of reading glasses. Here the artist not only depicts tellingly a universally recognisable scene of human behaviour. Using pictorial language which would have been immediately understood by a 17th century Calvinist, he expresses, via a number of objects in the room, a judgement - and a highly negative one at that - about this behaviour. This verdict contrasts sharply with the positive feelings of modern viewers, who are inclined to project their emotion or tenderness into the artist's intentions when looking at his model. In particularly older viewers, who will soon be called to give a reckoning of their deeds at the Last Judgement, are sharply reminded of the severe punishments that await them after their death if they forsake their daily duties. A key on the wall points revealingly to a page in an open Bible on the table, where the name of Amos, a prophet of doom, is clearly readable. An hourglass in which time is passing props up the heavy book. Neither age nor tiredness, following on a spiritual effort, can excuse the capitulation to a human weakness. The call to be constantly awake and vigilant is directed not only at the spiritual individual but also at citizens in their daily activities. On the corner of the red cloth-covered table, a lace cushion, with light falling onto it, draws our eye. This symbol of domestic industry has been pushed aside by the woman. This deeper meaning was repeated and supplemented in other paintings with similar motifs from the same period, Experts date this early work, in which Rembrandt's influence can be clearly felt, at around 1656.
Portrait of a Woman (1667, 90x72cm) _ Maes studied at Rembrandt from 1650 to 1654 and his early works show the influence of his master. After visiting Antwerp, where he saw the works of Rubens, Van Dych and Jordaens, his style changed and he became a popular portraitist.
A Woman Spinning (1655) _ The range of Mae's domestic subjects is large. They show women praying, spinning, sewing, making lace, preparing food, or teaching children - all virtuous activities related to the centrality and sanctity of the home in Dutch society.
Jacob Trip (1660, 88x68cm) _ Jacob Trip [1575-1661], of Dordrecht, made his vast fortune from mining, manufacturing iron, and from trading with armaments. The Trips married in 1603. They sat for their portraits when they were both in their eighties, not long before Jacob's death. They commissioned all famous portraitists of the period to paint their portraits. Maes was influenced by the style of Rembrandt when painting this portrait. The companion-piece is the portrait of the wife of Jacob Trip.
_ A portrait of Jacob Trip (1661, 130x97cm) was painted by Rembrandt (who also painted Jacob's daugter Maria Trip, 1639).
_ The posthumous Portrait of a Burgomaster, Jacobus Trip (1665, 123x100cm; 1947x1559pix, 2353kb) is by Helst [1613-1670].
Margaretha de Geer, Wife of Jacob Trip (1660, 88x68cm) _ This is the companion-piece of the portrait of Jacob Trip. There is also a Margaretha de Geer (1661, 130x97cm; 410x320pix, 17kb) and a Margaretha de Geer (1661, 75x64cm; 410x339pix, 27kb) by Rembrandt.

+ ZOOM IN +Died on a 24 November:

>2008 Frank Cieciorka [26 Apr 1939–] dies of emphysema. He was a US graphic artist, art director and watercolorist whose woodcut of a clenched-fist became popular with the New Left. In 1957 Cieciorka started studying fine arts at San José State College, in California. In 1959, he became an opponent of the US military intervention in Vietnam and he joined the Socialist Party. In the early 60s he became an activist of the San Jose Friends of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Just after his graduation in 1964, he volunteered to be an organizer of the Freedom Summer campaign to register Black voters in Mississippi and became a field secretary for the SNCC, working in its integration and voting-rights campaigns in Mississippi and Arkansas. He helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, unrelated to the official Democratic Party. This helped shape his political consciousness for the rest of his life. Cieciorka returned to San Francisco in June 1965. He opposed the US military intervention in the Dominican Republic. Also in 1965, he wrote and illustrated Negroes in American History: A Freedom Primer. The cover shows five hands reaching toward the sky, one of them a fist. He also created posters for labor movements, including the United Farm Workers. In San Francisco Cieciorka worked until 1969 as art director and production manager of The Movement newspaper for activist organizers. After that he worked with the publishing and propaganda collective Peoples' Press until 1972 when he moved to Humboldt County further north in California. There he built a house and studio and became a watercolor painter, especially of the area's landscapes. His wife Karen Horn is a watercolorist of flowers.
     Cieciorka had seen the clenched-fist salute when he participated in a Socialist rally in San Francisco. He made it into a cheap woodcut. The image became popular when placed on thousands of buttons given out at demonstrations. Many organizations used it to promote leftist social causes (see A history of the "clenched fist" image).
Barn, Sheep (76x152cm)
Pepperwoods, Snow 76x102cm)
Two Waves (36x71cm)
Linda, Rugs (51x71cm)
Pierre (33x51cm)
Rose, Jar, Shell (33x46cm)
Three Pears (15x30cm)
Stop the Draft Week poster (Oct 1967; 576x427pix, 247kb)
They try us - We try them poster (Jan 1968; 432x327pix, 155kb) —(081201)

1928 Gyula Tornai, Hungarian painter born (main coverage) on 12 April 1861. —(051123)

1915 Gabriel Cornelius von Max, Czech-German artist born on. (main coverage) on 23 August 1840. —(051123)

^ 1750 Frans Breydel, Flemish artist born on 08 September 1679. — Relative? of Karel Breydel “Le Chevalier” [1678-1733]? — Breydel arbeitete in Deutschland und England. Er war Hofmaler des Landgrafen von Hessen-Kassel. Seine Spezialität waren Maskenfeste in italienisierender Umgebung.
Winter landscape with a sleigh and ice skaters (21x29cm; 690x1000pix, 40kb)
River landscape in summer (21x29cm; 692x1000pix, 38kb) with a group of people in front of a farmstead.
The Dance of the Harlequins (37x46cm; 255x340pix, 51kb) _ In einer Loggia tanzt ein Harlekin begleitet von Kammermusikern vor den Damen und Herren einer höfischen Gesellschaft, die Kostüme des 17. Jahrhunderts tragen. Dabei wird Rotwein von einem exotischen Mohrendiener aus einer Chiantiflasche kunstvoll kredenzt. Breydel versteht es die Qualitäten der Seidenstoffe und ihr Schimmern darzustellen. — (051123)

^ 1682 Jean Michel Picart (or Picard), Flemish flower still life painter born in 1600. — Relative? of Bernard Picart [1673-1733]?
Nature morte du vase de fleurs sur un entablement (780x591pix, 69kb) —(051123)

Born on a 24 November:

^ 1898 Maccari Mino [–17 Jun 1989], Italian painter, etcher, designer, and writer. He was born in Siena. At the age of nineteen he fought in the First World War as an artillery officer. On his return to Siena in 1920, he graduated in law and started working at the legal practice of a lawyer named Dini, in the Colle Val d'Elsa region. It was during these years that he first tried his hand at painting and etching. Maccari's public debut was with the Labronico Group. In 1922 he took part in the march on Rome. In 1924 he was asked by Angiolo Bencini to take charge of printing Il Selvaggio, the periodical in which his first etchings were published. In 1926 he gave up his law career to take over as director, a position he held until 1942. In 1925, publication of Il Selvaggio moved to Florence, and its contributors included Ardengo Soffici, Ottone Rosai, and Achille Lega. In 1929, Il Selvaggio moved to Siena. In the early Thirties, he became editor-in-chief of La Stampa in Turin, working alongside the director, Malaparte. In 1932 Il Selvaggio moved to Rome. In 1938 Mino contributed to Longanesi's Omnibus. In 1948 he again exhibited at the Venice Biennial where he was awarded the international prize for etching (which he was to win again in 1950, 1952, 1960 and 1962). At the end of the Forties he started contributing to the liberal magazine Il Mondo, directed by Pannunzio, which he continued to do until 1963. In 1962 he was appointed president of the Accademia dei Lincei. He died in Rome. — LINKS —(070815)

>1886 Georges Vantongerloo [–05 Oct 1965], Belgian abstract painter and sculptor, architect, and writer on art; founding member of the De Stijl group and, later, of of Abstraction-Création. — LINKS
XVII composition dans le carré (1930; 1705x1443pix, 1664kb) not a square, but a rectangle, divided into unequal rectangles: 3 gray, 2 white, 1 green, 1 brown, 1 violet. —(091123)

^ 1875 Louis Mathieu Verdilhan, French painter who died on 15 November 1928. — {Peintre de tableaux verdoyants?}— Issu d'une famille pauvre, Verdilhan arriva à Marseille dès l'âge de deux ans. Il dû rapidement quitter l'école, et travailla chez différents artisans pour gagner sa vie. Sa carrière de peintre commença en 1902, avec une première exposition à la Galerie Braun, rue Saint Férréol, puis en 1905 avec une exposition au Palais des Arcitectes, sur l'Avenue du Prado. En 1906, il exposa au Salon des Artistes Indépendants et au Salon d'Automne à Paris. En 1925, il décora l'Opéra de Marseille. Il mourut dans le quartier de La Pomme, à Marseille. L'oeuvre de Verdilhan s'apparente au Fauvisme par sa palette de couleurs et la simplicité de son trait. Son thème de prédilection est le port de Marseille.
–- The Plaza (90x103cm; 716x817pix, 92kb _ .ZOOM to 1074x1225pix, 126kb)
Paysage aixois (326x500pix, 36kb)
–- Fairy and Griffon (1876; 758x510pix, 69kb _ .ZOOM to 1135x764pix, 173kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2270x1528pix, 481kb) this is NOT La fée aux griffons of Gustave Moreau [1826-1898] at his museum, nor Moreau's Femme au griffon, but they are somewhat similar.
–- Fête du 14 juillet à Marseille (127x260cm; 387x800pix, 49kb _ .ZOOM to 774x1600pix, 107kb) —(051123)

>1846 Ángel Lizcano y Monedero [–31 Jul 1929], Spanish painter. —(091123)

^ 1824 (14 Nov?) Anton Burger, German painter who died on 06 July 1905. — {He has nothing to do with Floor Burger, an inedible 1962 sailcloth and foam rubber creation by Oldenburg; which surely would have floored Anton Burger; Winifred Burger, a 1932 portrait by Coldstream; The Burghers of Calais, a monument sculpted by Rodin in 1895, nor Flemish Burghers, a painting by Meisssornier}— Anton Burger wurde am 14.11.1824 (?) als Sohn eines angesehenen Weißbindermeisters in der Alten Gasse in Frankfurt am Main geboren. Die Liebe zur verwinkelten Frankfurter Altstadt, dem Milieu seiner Kindheit, sollte ihn nie verlassen und er blieb immer ein 'Frankfurter Bub'. Seit 1842 studierte Burger am Städelschen Kunstinstitut unter Johann Jakob Jung, Heinrich Franz Rustige und seit 1844 unter dem aus der Düsseldorfer Malerschule hervorgegangenen Jakob Becker. Besonders der letztere erwies sich als einflußreicher, seinem Schüler aber auch den notwendigen Freiraum gebender Lehrer. Während der Studienzeit freundete sich Anton Burger mit dem 15 Jahre älteren J.F. Dielmann an, der am Städel ein Atelier unterhielt. Auf Vorschlag des Städel-Direktors Philipp Veit, von dem Burger auch eine sorgfältige Ausbildung als Zeichner erhielt, setzte er 1846-1848 seine Studien in München fort, u. a. bei Peter Hess. Im Münchner Kunstverein stellte er erstmals eigene Werke aus. Im Zuge der revolutionären Unruhen in Deutschland kehrte er im Jahr 1848 nach Frankfurt zurück.
In den folgenden Jahren führte Burger ein aktives und geselliges Leben in Frankfurter Künstlerkreisen. Durch Erteilung von Unterricht, Verkauf von Gemälden und Illustration von Reiseführern für den Frankfurter Verleger Carl Jügel bestritt er seinen Lebensunterhalt.
Im Jahr 1851 heiratete Burger seine Jugendfreundin Katharina Elise Heislitz. In der Folgezeit verbrachte das junge Ehepaar mehrere Sommeraufenthalte in Kronberg. 1853 unternahm Burger (mit Angilbert Goebel und Philipp Rumpf) eine Studienreise nach Paris, wo er mit Camille Corot und Gustave Courbet in Kontakt stand. 1856, erschüttert durch den Tod seiner ersten Frau, ging Burger für etwa ein Jahr nach Düsseldorf zu August Weber. Von dort aus unternahm er auch eine Reise nach Antwerpen und Amsterdam, wo ihn die Werke der alten niederländischen Meister tief beeindruckten. Viele der späteren in warmen Braun- und Goldtönen gehaltenen Genrebilder Burgers stehen unter dem Einfluß der niederländischen Maler des 17. Jahrhunderts Adriaen und Isaak van Ostade und Adriaen Brouwer.
     Bald nach seiner Rückkehr nach Frankfurt entschloß sich Burger 1858 zur Übersiedlung nach Kronberg, ohne jedoch die engen Verbindungen nach Frankfurt zu lösen, etwa als Mitglied der 1857 gegründeten "Frankfurter Künstlergesellschaft". Ebenso wie der schon vorher nach Kronberg gezogene Freund J.F. Dielmann logierte Burger zunächst im Dachgeschoß des Gasthauses "Zum Adler", das sich mit seinem jovialen Wirt Renker zum Zentrum des Künstlerkreises entwickelte. In den kommenden Jahren entfaltete Burger eine rege künstlerische Tätigkeit und schuf eine Fülle von Werken auf zahlreichen Gebieten der Malkunst. Neben Dielmann war Burger auch mit Philipp Rumpf, Johann Jacob Maurer und Angilbert Goebel eng befreundet. Die Aktivität dieser und einer ganzen Reihe weiterer Künstler führte zum Entstehen der Kronberger Malerkolonie, die etwa ein halbes Jahrhundert lang in Blüte stand. Anton Burger war mit seiner ansteckenden Lebensfreude und Aktivität deren unbestrittener Mittelpunkt. Mit der Zeit erwarb er sich ein solches Ansehen, daß er mehr bewundernd als spöttisch der "König von Kronberg" genannt wurde. Burger war ein kleinwüchsiger Mann von außergewöhnlicher Körperkraft, gesellig, trinkfest, humorvoll, teils auch zu groben Späßen aufgelegt, aber stets großzügig gegenüber weniger vom Glück begünstigten Kollegen.
      Drei Jahre nach dem Tod seiner ersten Frau heiratete Burger 1859 die Kronberger Arzttochter Anna Johanna Auguste Küster, die 1876 nur vierundvierzigjährig verstarb. Die dritte und letzte Ehe schloß er 1882 mit seiner ehemaligen Malschülerin Pauline Fresenius. Burger war in seiner Heimat fest verwurzelt. Daran konnten auch Reisen nach Paris (1867), wobei ihn der dort ansässige Adolf Schreyer zum Übersiedeln bewegen wollte, und nach Oberitalien und Rom (1872 und 1874) nichts ändern. Ab 1877 unterhielt Burger ein florierendes eigenes Schüleratelier in seinem neuerrichteten großen Haus in Kronberg (Frankfurter Straße 21). Unter Burgers Malschülern haben sich besonders Nelson Kinsley, Fritz Wucherer, Ferdinand Balzer und Philipp Franck hervorgetan. Gerne umgab er sich, entgegen den Vorurteilen seiner Zeit, auch mit weiblichen Schülerinnen, teils dilettierenden "höheren Töchtern" des Frankfurter Bürgertums, teils aber auch begabten Künstlerinnen wie Mathilde Knoop, Bertha Bagge und Minna Roberth.
      An der Staffelei Burgers Werke erfreuten sich bei seinen Zeitgenossen großer Bewunderung und Beliebtheit. Die Bilder aus seiner umfangreichen Produktion fanden gewöhnlich sofort Abnehmer, die meisten gingen wegen ihres Lokalkolorits in private Haushalte aus der Kronberger Umgebung und in Frankfurt. Beim Frankfurter Großbürgertum gehörte es zum guten Ton einen "Burger" zu besitzen. Mit manchen der Honoratioren pflegte Burger auch persönlichen Umgang, etwa mit dem Brauereibesitzer Conrad Binding und dem Unternehmer Johann Georg Mouson. Nur ein relativ kleiner Teil seiner Werke verließ die Frankfurter Region, dennoch erntete Burger auch international Anerkennung und fand auch in Paris, London und Wien Käufer. Zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag (1894) wurde Burger zum königlich preußischen Professor ernannt, und zum Ehrenmitglied der Bayrischen Akademie. In München wurde auf Anregung Lenbachs eine große Burger-Ausstellung veranstaltet. Auch seine Wahl-Heimatstadt Kronberg ehrte ihn durch Verleihung der Ehrenbürgerwürde. Am 6. Juli 1905 starb Anton Burger und wurde unter großer Anteilnahme aus Kronberg und Frankfurt auf dem Kronberger Friedhof beigesetzt. Am Kronberger Schiller-Weiher wurde ihm 1908 ein von dem Münchner Bildhauer Karl Ludwig Sand gestaltetes Denkmal gesetzt.
      Gemälde von Norbert Schrödl Anton Burger war der wohl fruchtbarste und vielseitigste der Kronberger Maler. Er schuf Landschaften, Portraits, Genreszenen, Veduten, Interieurs, Karikaturen, Radierungen und Gelegenheitsarbeiten aller Art. Im Gegensatz zum in seiner Studienzeit noch vorherrschenden akademischen Stil interessierten ihn nur an der Wirklichkeit entlehnte und mit seinem Lebensumfeld verbundene Themen. Als Motive bevorzugte Burger "malerische" Orte und Szenen, originelle Ecken und Winkel mit Personenstaffagen, wobei er sowohl die Städtchen im Taunus wie die alten Viertel seiner Vaterstadt Frankfurt darstellte. Er malte aber auch zahlreiche Genrebilder mit Szenen aus dem Alltag von Bauern, Handwerkern und Kindern. Ein weiterer Teil von Burgers Werk sind lebhaft gestaltete Landschaftsbilder. Hier wurde er entscheidend durch die zeitgenössische französische Malerei, insbesondere durch die Schule von Barbizon beeinflußt, die er durch seine Parisreisen und auch durch Vermittlung seines Malerfreunds Peter Burnitz kennengelernt hatte. Schließlich bildeten auch Szenen der von Burger heiß geliebten Jagd Vorlagen für seine Bilder. — Photo of Burger interrupted in his work at the easel Photo of Burger holding a cigar
Selbstbildnis (33x28cm; 768x533pix, 70kb)
Norbert Schrödl (700x562pix, 50kb)
— (Dispute over a chicken?) (37x60cm oblong; 360x600pix, 31kb)
Kranke Ziege + detail (425x344pix 15kb + 198x168pix, 5kb)
Anton Burger mit Treiberjungen und Hunden auf der Stierstädter Heide (417x815pix, 64kb)
Auf der Jagd (1878; 601x800pix, 90kb)
Aufbruch zur Jagd im Winter (1898; 591x700pix, 93kb)
Vortaunuslandschaft mit Jäger (1898; 495x800pix, 66kb)
Der tote Rehbock (1879; 700x537pix, 121kb) almost monochrome
Rückkehr von der Jagd (652x800pix, 120kb)
Landschaft mit Jäger (1885; 526x800pix, 92kb)
Der Müllermain (Frankfurt) im Eis (480x640pix, 64kb) —(051123)

1824 Charles Michel Marie Verlat, Belgian artist who died (main coverage) on 23 October 1890. —(051123)

1792 Johann Adam Klein, German painter and printmaker who died (main coverage) on 21 May 1875. —(051123)

^ 1689 Gaspare Diziani, Venetian Baroque painter and draftsman who died on 17 August 1767. His earliest training was in his native Belluno by Antonio Lazzarini [1672–1732], the last exponent in the Veneto of Baroque tenebrism. Having moved to Venice, he joined the workshop of Gregorio Lazzarini and later that of Sebastiano Ricci, who was in Venice until 1715 and exerted the strongest influence on his development; presumably Diziani was familiar with Ricci’s many paintings in Belluno before becoming his student. Between 1710 and 1720 he painted a group of eight pictures that included the Mary Magdalene for San Stefano, Belluno, and The Entry into Jerusalem for San Teodoro, Venice. His speed of production and technical assurance are demonstrated especially in his preparatory oil sketches, with color applied in rapid and spirited penlike strokes. He was also working as a scenery painter in many Venetian theatres, an employment that led to commissions first in Munich (1717) and later in Dresden, where he was highly acclaimed. Diziani was invited to Rome by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni either in 1726 or before 1717, to paint a magnificent decoration for the church of San Lorenzo in Damaso. The decoration is now known only through an engraving by Claude Vasconi. — Pietro Edwards was a student of Diziani. — LINKS
Christ Before Pilate (600x379pix, 109kb)

1683 Carel van Faleus, Flemish painter who died (main coverage) on 27 May 1733.

1592 (infant baptism) Pieter (or Peeter) Snayers, Flemish painter who died in 1667. The son of a city messenger for Antwerp, he was an apprentice of Sebastiaen Vrancx, although he is not listed as such in the records of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. He became a master of the Guild in 1612–1613. The paintings of his early Antwerp period adopt the style and subject-matter of his master: scenes of skirmishes and robberies on country roads, represented as lively and colourful events. Snayers married a niece of the painter Cornelis Schut on 25 September 1618 and continued to live in Antwerp until the second half of the 1620s. Until 1625–1626 he regularly paid his dues to the Guild. Shortly afterwards he moved to Brussels. On 16 June 1628 he obtained citizenship of Brussels and became a master in the local guild of painters. Although he was never appointed officially as court painter to the Archdukes Albert and Isabella, he worked for the Infanta on several occasions, painting scenes in which she herself participated, such as Isabella’s Visit to the Siege of Breda. These commissions may explain his move to Brussels.— LINKS
Spanish Attack on a Flemish Village (580x808pix _ ZOOM to 1353x1885pix)
Riders by a Stream (570x836pix _ ZOOM to 1330x1950pix)
The battle of Kircholm 1605 (1630; 529x800pix, 113kb _ ZOOM to 810x1224pix, 128kb) _ The Polish general Jan Karol Chodkiewicz [1560 – 24 Sep 1621] destroyed a Swedish Army four times larger than his own, commanded by king Charles IX [04 Oct 1550 – 30 Oct 1611], at Kirchholm (now Salaspils in Latvia) on the Dvina River on 27 September 1605.
Forest Path With Travelers (600x928pix)
–- Landscape with a Cavalry Engagement at the Edge of a Wood (80x108cm; 669x900pix, 56kb)
–- S*>#A Cavalry Engagement (1618, 76x110cm; 618x900pix, 119kb)
Pilgrimage of the Infanta Isabela to Laeken in (1632 or 1623) (510x700pix, 153kb)
–- S*>#Landscape With Cavalry and Horse-Drawn Wagons, a Dog in the Foreground (466x600pix, 82kb)
–- The Siege of Bergen op Zoom (67x110cm; 350x581pix, 42kb) _ In July 1622 Ambrogio Spinola [1569 – 25 Sep 1630] and Spanish troops numbering 20'000 men lay siege to Bergen op Zoom {no zoom for the image though: the Zoom of Bergen is a small river}. The city, with only 8000 inhabitants, resisted one of the strongest assaults of the eighty-year-war, and was relieved on 02 October 1622 when the arrival of Prince Maurits [13 Nov 1567 – 23 Apr 1625] forced Spinola to give up the siege. _ If you want to zoom Zoom, see the image of
      _ The Marketplace in Bergen op Zoom (1597; 516x640pix, 74kb _ ZOOM to 968x1200pix, 235kb) by Abel Grimmer [1570-1618], with the Zoom River in the background. —(061123)

1472 Pietro (or Piero) di Torrigiani (or Torrisano), Florentine sculptor and painter who died in July or August 1528. He became the first exponent of the Italian Renaissance idiom in England. Torrigiani was a student, along with Michelangelo [06 Marc 1475 – 18 Feb 1564], of Bertoldo di Giovanni at the Academy of Lorenzo de' Medici. He left Florence and worked in Rome, Bologna, Siena, and Antwerp before making his reputation in England. His best-known works, the tombs in Westminster Abbey for King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (1512–1518), are full-length reclining figures cast in gilt bronze. In 1521 Torrigiani went to Sevilla, where his style changed, as observed in Virgin and Child (1521), which shows High Renaissance characteristics, and Saint Jerome (1525), a Mannerist-influenced work. Suggestions of Torrigiani's influence appear in the work of the Spanish painters Diego Velázquez [06 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660], Francisco de Zurbarán [bap. 07 Nov 1598 – 27 Aug 1664], and sculptor Juan de Martínez Montañés [16 Mar 1568 – 18 Jun 1649]. He died in the Spanish inquisitor's prison. —(051123)

click click
<<< ART 23 Nov
ART 25 Nov >>>
updated Tuesday 24-Nov-2009 5:33 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.b0 Monday 01-Dec-2008 23:51 UT
v.7.70 Thursday 16-Aug-2007 3:24 UT
v.6.a0 Friday 24-Nov-2006 15:18 UT
v.5.a0 Thursday 24-Nov-2005 6:41 UT
Thursday 25-Nov-2004 19:38 UT

safe site site safe for children safe site