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ART “4” “2”-DAY 20 November v.7.a1
^ Baptized as an infant on 20 November 1625: Paulus Pieterszoon Potter, Dutch painter and etcher, specialized in animals, who was buried on 17 January 1654. — {ancestor of Harry?}
— He was the son, and became the assistant of Pieter Simonszoon Potter [1599-1653], of Enkhuizen, who produced paintings in all the main genres. Paulus overshadowed his father, with whose works his have often been confused. Pieter signed his paintings P. Potter, whereas Paulus typically signed Paulus Potter. Paulus was one of the foremost 17th-century artists to depict animals. His detailed images of cattle, horses and other farm animals in landscape settings are presented in highly accomplished paintings, drawings and etchings and offer a striking, artfully naturalistic vision of the Dutch rural scene. His works were particularly popular with French and British collectors in the late 18th century and the 19th.
      Paulus Potter was related through his mother, Aechtie Pouwels [–1636], to the wealthy and powerful von Egmont and Semeyns families, who held important offices in Enkhuizen and at the court in The Hague. He worked in his father's studio in Amsterdam during the 1630s and, like him, painted history subjects that show the strong influence of Claes Moeyaert, by whom Paulus may also have been taught. Jacob Willemszoon de Wet I was also his teacher. In the painting Abraham Returning from Canaan (1642) Potter adapted the landscape setting from an etching by Moses van Uyttenbroeck and the figures from works by Moeyaert from over ten years earlier. Significantly, however, he redistributed the numerous animals and figures that Moeyaert had aligned evenly across the frontal plane; Potter placed them to one side, permitting a view into the deep distance where other animals can be seen. Potter followed his father more than Moeyaert in searching for ways to integrate his figures with the landscape, suggesting space by carefully positioning the forms of the figures.
— Potter is known chiefly for his paintings of animals. Animals appear prominently in all of Potter's works, sometimes singly but usually in small groups silhouetted against the sky, or in greater numbers with peasant figures and rustic buildings in an extensive landscape. Potter is one of the minor Dutch masters.
      Potter entered the Guild of Saint Luke at Delft in 1646. In 1649 he moved to The Hague, where in the following year he married Adriana, daughter of the architect Claes van Balkeneynde. In 1652 Potter settled in Amsterdam. He probably received his early training from his father, the painter Pieter Potter [1597-1652], but his style shows little dependence upon that of earlier masters. In so short a career there was little development in style between the earlier and the later works, but 1647 seems to mark a peak in his achievement, for many of the finest paintings bear this date.
      Among works that depart from his normal scale or style, the huge Young Bull (1647), which is life-size, is his most celebrated, though not necessarily his finest work, while Orpheus Charming the Beasts (1650) is an excursion into a poetic world. Potter's etchings of animals show all the skill and sympathy of his paintings.
— Karel Du Jardin was a student of Potter.

Orpheus Charming the Beasts (1650, 67x89cm; 1161x1600pix, 303kb) _ A young man is playing a lyre in a hilly landscape. His music is so sweet that wild animals have gathered round to listen: some walking, some crawling, some digging - like the mole, bottom right. Here Potter has depicted a scene from one of Ovid's tales in his Metamorphoses. The musician is Orpheus, who had the gift of enchanting wild animals with his music. The story gave Potter the opportunity to depict a wide variety of tame and untamed creatures. He painted about thirty species on this canvas, not counting the insects and birds.
     Paulus Potter was an animal painter: a specialist in the depiction of animals. He was able to portray cows, horses, pigs and other varieties of livestock with a masterly touch. The bull Potter painted on a canvas now in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, is world famous. Here, in 'Orpheus Charming the Animals', the animals of the Dutch countryside are shown side-by-side with native wild and exotic animals. He even included a white unicorn, a mythical creature resembling a horse with an elongated horn on its forehead. The creature cannot be tamed, except by a virgin. As a sign of submission, the unicorn places its horned head in the virgin's lap. The unicorn is a symbol of chastity.
     Potter studied the exotic creatures kept in one of the exclusive menageries of the Prince of Orange. There were several in and around The Hague, for example in the gardens of Honselaarsdijk palace. Potter would certainly have been able to see lions and camels there.
Two Horses in a Meadow near a Gate (1649, 24x30cm) _ Paulus Potter was the first artist in Holland to feature cattle in his paintings outside the context of a biblical, mythological, or anecdotal story. In this painting, horses are the main subject. The animals are painted with remarkable realism, revealing the artist's skill in rendering skin and hair, and his eye for the various poses. The horses appear to be standing at a raised part of the meadow, where the mane and tail of the darker of the two has caught the wind. The mouth is slightly open and the nostrils dilated. The white steed also conveys a feeling of power. An essential element in this composition is the gate. It leads from the high foreground to the lower ground further distant, simultaneously providing a conspicuous space for Potter's signature.
     Paulus Potter's style of painting resembled that of the Italianate artists who had gone to Italy to study the art of Ancient Rome, the Renaissance and of contemporaries. Back in the Netherlands they continued to paint Italian landscapes, sometimes including typically Dutch elements. They infused their landscapes with a characteristic 'golden' light often imitated by artists like Potter, who had never set foot in Italy. Potter's choice of subject was not at all Italian, however: he painted Dutch cattle in a realistic, far from idyllic manner.
     Potter gave the Dutch landscape in which he set the horses a golden, Mediterranean glow. The precise opposite of Philips Wouwerman [1619 – 23 May 1668] who bathed his Italian landscapes in a cool Dutch light and who, a few year earlier had painted The Gray (1646, 44x38cm) which features a typical Dutch sky with gathering rain clouds. Wouwerman had never been to Italy either.
     By placing his animals on a raised part of the meadow, Potter created more space. Stretching out to the right is a panorama of fields with grazing cattle and in the distance, a town. From the skyline, this is clearly Delft, with the sturdy Old Church tower and the New Church tower further to the left. It was in this town that Potter had registered as a master painter in 1646. Whether he ever lived in Delft is not known.
     Paulus Potter produced a Two Horses in a Meadow (1652 etching, 16x24cm; 1066x1600pix, 397kb), three years after painting the original work. The print is one in a series of five etchings featuring horses at different ages and in matching seasons: from young foals in early spring to lame old horses in the winter. This etching is the second in the series. These horses a young and restless. Although the etching appears to be a mirror-image of the painting, Potter made a few changes. He replaced the fields with boats sailing in a water landscape, while adjusting the pose of the dark horse: the hind leg is slightly drawn up. The view of the town on the horizon also differs from that in the painting.
Four Cows in a Meadow (1651, 25x30cm; 1275x1600pix, 292kb) _ The bulk of Potter's work is devoted to horses and to scenes of cows, goats, sheep, and pigs, which show an extraordinary sensitivity to the various ways in which farmyard animals behave at different times of the day as well as to the different quality of light in the morning or at dusk in landscapes that almost invariably make country life appear idyllic. Notable too are are his portraits of dogs. He hardly ever depicted people, concentrating instead on cows, horses, goats and sheep in typical Dutch landscapes. Potter had a fine sense of light and atmosphere. The cows depicted here stand out sharply against the stormy sky. Their heavy bodies cast dark shadows. It is as though the animals are bracing themselves to endure the threatening storm. These wiry animals are even more striking from the low viewpoint chosen by Potter for this painting. Potter did not live long, dying at the age of 29, but his paintings had a great influence on landscape art until well into the nineteenth century.
Diederik Tulp (1653) _ Potter worked for the court in The Hague, in nearby Delft, and in 1652 he settled in Amsterdam. Nicolaes Tulp persuaded him to move to the metropolis where the famous doctor became his mentor. Once again Tulp showed he had an eye for young talent. Two decades earlier he had asked the twenty-six-year-old Rembrandt to paint The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) which established Rembrandt's reputation in the city. In 1653 Potter painted a life-size equestrian portrait which has been traditionally identified as his likeness of Tulp's son Dirck (Diederik); however, the tradition may very well be apocryphal. The portrait proves that Potter was no exception to the rule that seventeenth-century Dutch painters never match the life-size equestrian portraits of royalty and their ministers by Velázquez, Rubens, or Van Dyck
Landscape with Shepherdess and Shepherd Playing Flute (1644, 67x114cm) _ The painting reflects the influence of Elsheimer, or the Dutch followers of Elsheimer.
The Farm (1649, 81x116cm) _ Potter's career was short. He died a few months after his twenty-eighth birthday. His early works show the influence of his father, the painter Pieter Symonsz Potter (c. 1595/1601-1652) and Moeyaert who painted cattle in his biblical and mythological pictures. He is documented as a student of Jacob de Wet, a Rembrandt follower, and probably also knew the innovative prints done in the thirties by Moeyaert, Gerrit Bleker (active 1625-1656), and Pieter van Laer, which prominently feature cattle, horses, and other livestock; he himself made etchings of animals. Potter tried his hand at a few subject paintings, but the bulk of his work is devoted to horses and to scenes of cows, goats, sheep, and pigs, which show an extraordinary sensitivity to the various ways in which farmyard animals behave at different times of the day as well as to the different quality of light in the morning or at dusk in landscapes that almost invariably make country life appear idyllic.
Young Bull (1647, 236x339cm; 770x1114pix, 156kb) _ In the work of Paulus Potter views of nature and animals are seen for their own sake, and not as a backdrop for human action. Potter can paint equally well the bright sunlight and the cool air, but his real fame lies with his penetrating portraits of animals. His best-known work is the life-size Young Bull, an unusual heroization of a single animal, a counterpart to the monumental trend of Ruisdael and Cuyp. Although at first blush it appears to be a portrait of a prize young bull Potter most probably composed his famous beast from studies of more than one animal since its dewlap, horns, and teeth belong to bulls of different ages. The ancient Greek painter Zeuxis used a similar method; when he painted his portrait of Helen in the city of Croton he chose five beautiful virgins, in order to copy the finest features of each, for in one woman he felt he could not find perfect beauty. During the nineteenth century the Young Bull by the 22-year-old Potter ranked close in fame to the Night Watch of Rembrandt. Later generations have been less captivated by Potter's fidelity to nature when he worked life-size. Although the shapes of the farmer, the tree, and the bull against the light sky are impressive and the textures of the animals have been convincingly represented by the use of an original impasto which approaches relief, the entire foreground of this huge canvas seems airless. Atmosphere enters the picture only in the lovely distant view on the right, where a sunny light plays upon the cattle in the meadows and on the woods, making this passage one of his loveliest landscapes. Potter is more consistent on a small scale, and his cabinet pieces show him at his best.
Herders met hun vee (1651, 81x98cm; 600x724pix) _ Onder een oude boom geeft een vrouw haar kind de borst, achter haar een herder met een doedelzak. Bij de boom zit een hond. Voor hun en links op de helling van een heuvel grazen en rusten koeien, schapen, geiten, een ezel en een paard.
Koeien in de weide bij een boerderij (1653, 58x66cm; 600x709pix) _ Koeien in de weide bij een boerderij. Voor een boerderij gelegen nabij een water liggen en staan enkele koeien. Bij het huis loopt een jager met een hond, rechts melkt een vrouw een koe. Links ligt een schaap bij een schutting.

–- The piping Shepherd (etching 18x27cm; 805x1211pix, 161kb)
^ Died on 20 November 1678: Karel Dujardin (or Du Jardin, Du Gardijn), Dutch Romanist Baroque painter, etcher, and draftsman, born in 1622. Another source dates his birth, in Amsterdam, as 27 Sep 1626, and his death, in Venice, as before 09 Oct 1678.
— His father was the painter Guilliam Dujardin. According to that other source, his father was Chaarles de Jardin (Gardyn; 1599–<1650], a fat-renderer, and his mother was Catalyn Borchout [1588–<1650]; and they had at least one other child, Herbert, who must have died by 1651 and about whom nothing is known.
— Dujardin is best known for his spirited representations of Italian peasants and shepherds with their animals. Dujardin studied under Nicolaes Berchem, Jan Both, and Pieter van Laer. After a trip to Italy, Dujardin worked in Amsterdam and The Hague from 1652 until 1674; after that he returned to Rome, where he stayed until shortly before his death. He also painted religious, mythological, and allegorical subjects; genre scenes; and a number of excellent likenesses, notably a large group portrait. When and where he acquired his nickname 'Bokkebaart' (Goat's Beard or Goatee) is unknown. Certain is our knowledge that he was more than able to make ends meet. In Amsterdam he lived in a house on the fashionable Herengracht, and in an inventory made of his chattels and movables indicates that in his maturity he enjoyed considerable wealth.
— Dujardin's students included Johannes Lingelbach and Willem Schellinks.

Zelfportret (1662, 28x22cm; 600x448pix) _ Ten halven lijve, de linkerhand op de borst, met grote witte pofmouwen.
Saint Paul Healing the Cripple at Lystra (1663, 179x139cm; 1600x1241pix, 214kb) _ The apostles are the twelve followers of Christ sent by him to spread the Gospel. The twelve apostles are Saints Peter, Andrew, James the Greater, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the Less, Simon the Zealot, and Thaddaeus; and (not a saint!) Judas Iscariot (after the latter's betrayal, he was replaced by Saint Matthias). Saint Paul joined the original twelve after Jesus' death. The apostles are also known as the disciples (followers). This term is generally reserved for their acts during Jesus' lifetime, they are referred to as apostles in the period after his death. Paul is the central figure in this composition, rising above the crowd of sick and kneeling people. The scene is an episode described in the Bible. The word 'bible' comes from the Greek word 'biblos', which means book. In fact the Bible is not one, but a collection of many books. It divides into two parts, the Old and the New Testament, both comprising various groups of writings - the books of the Bible. The Old Testament contains the laws and history of the Jewish people from the Creation to pre-Roman times. The New Testament deals with Jesus Christ, the central figure of Christianity. The accent is on his ministry, the Crucifixion and his Resurrection from death. Here too are the stories of Christ's first followers, the apostles. Christian teaching is founded on the Bible, in which Saint Paul preached at Lystra, in today's Southern Turkey. Among those listening was a lame man of whom Paul saw 'that he had faith to be healed, and he said with a loud voice, Stand up on thy feet. And he leaped and walked'. After this miraculous cure Paul and his companion Barnabas were hailed as pagan gods. They were adulated by the people. In their attempts to persuade the crowd not to make sacrifices to them the two apostles tore their garments. This incident was often depicted in seventeenth-century art, but Karel Dujardin chose a more original moment.
     At Lystra there was a crippled man, lame from birth, who had never walked. He listened to Paul speaking, who looked intently at him, saw that he had the faith to be healed, and called out in a loud voice, "Stand up straight on your feet." He jumped up and began to walk about. When the crowds saw what Paul had done, they cried out in Lycaonian, "The gods have come down to us in human form." They called Barnabas "Zeus" and Paul "Hermes," because he was the chief speaker. And the priest of Zeus, whose temple was at the entrance to the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, for he together with the people intended to offer sacrifice. The apostles Barnabas and Paul tore their garments when they heard this and rushed out into the crowd, shouting, "Men, why are you doing this? We are of the same nature as you, human beings. We proclaim to you good news that you should turn from these idols to the living God, 'who made heaven and earth and sea and all that is in them.' In past generations he allowed all Gentiles to go their own ways; yet, in bestowing his goodness, he did not leave himself without witness, for he gave you rains from heaven and fruitful seasons, and filled you with nourishment and gladness for your hearts." Even with these words, they scarcely restrained the crowds from offering sacrifice to them. However, some Jews from Antioch and Iconium arrived and won over the crowds. They stoned Paul and dragged him out of the city, supposing that he was dead. But when the disciples gathered around him, he got up and entered the city. On the following day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. (Acts 14:8-20)
     The Apostle Paul is depicted from a low vantage point, lending him a majestic stature against the cloudy sky. His pose is elegant, the weight of the body resting on the left leg while the arms are held in a broad gesture. Saint Paul, dressed in a brown garment covered with a bright red cloak, is looking at the lame man next to him. The powerful red is counterbalanced by the bright blue of the women on the left. Another noticeable aspect is the woman kneeling on the right in the foreground, with her pure white headscarf. She is clutching at the saint's hem in the hope this will give her some of his divine power.
      The needy gathered behind Saint Paul are not looking at him, but at the place where Barnabas, Paul's companion, once stood. Originally, Dujardin had portrayed Barnabas behind Paul. Later, however, he painted over the figure, although the reason is now obscure. The outline of Barnabas's head can still be vaguely discerned.
     About 1650 a number of new developments changed the nature of history painting. This affected the use of colour, the depiction of light and the style of painting. It became unfashionable to paint in the rough manner and with the powerful contrasts between dark and light of Rembrandt and his school. Instead, cool, bright colors and a flowing style of painting came into vogue. Artists turned back to the classical principles of clarity and harmony, taking the art of the ancient world and the Renaissance as their model. The extreme realism of the early seventeenth century made way for idealized depictions of biblical and historical events.
The Annunciation (1660, 34x44cm; full size, 1490kb)
Young Shepherd (1662) _ In many ways Karel Dujardin is the most Dutch of the Italianate painters. His bucolic landscapes are done on a small scale, and have an intimacy lacking in pictures made by Italianates who used a larger format and more ambitious motifs. Dujardin was apprenticed to Berchem and probably travelled to Italy in the late 1640s or early 1650s, but like so many other Dutch Italianate artists of his generation this early trip south cannot be substantiated. In 1652 he was in Amsterdam and during the next few years his art took an unexpected turn. Instead of settling down in Holland to paint views of the Campagna and the vita popolare of Rome, as most Italianate Dutch painters did after their documented or putative trips to Italy, he made pictures of the Dutch countryside which are closely related to Paulus Potter's carefully executed small paintings of cattle in sunny meadows and woods. During this phase it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the hand of Potter from Dujardin's.
      By the end of the 1650s he began once again to paint bambocciate and modest Italian pastoral scenes. His Young Shepherd, datable to the early 1660s, shows him at his best. The theme is simple. A young boy lies on his back playing with his dog. The sheep, the old grazing horse, and the basket and keg appear to lie about in a haphazard fashion. In a black and white reproduction, only the mountains tell us that this is not a Dutch scene, but when the original or even a good color reproduction is viewed, warm Italian air and the strong shimmering light of the south permeate it.
Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness (1662) _ Dujardin was a Dutch Italianate painter. Additionally, he painted handsome portraits of famous citizens in the style of Bartholomeus van der Helst, and he also painted elegant, highly finished religious and allegorical paintings, like the picture shown here. Hagar, the Egyptian hand maiden of Sarah was the mother of Ishmael, Abraham's first son. When Isaac, Sarah's son, was born Ishmel mocked his younger brother so that Sarah asked Abraham to banish him, together with his mother. Abraham provided them with bread and a botle of water and sent them of into the desert of Beersheba. When the water was spent Hagar put Ismael under a bush to die and then sat some way off, weeping. But an angel appearred, by tradition the archangel Michael, and disclosed a well of water near by, so they were both saved. Two scenes, the banishment, and the appearence of the angel are common in 17th century Italian and Dutch painting.
Landscape in the Roman Campagna (1675, 85x107cm) _ In 1675 Dujardin is securely documented in Rome. His Landscape in the Roman Campagna indicates that during this last phase he found inspiration from the classicizing landscapes painted in Rome by Poussin's follower Gaspar Dughet.
Italiaans landschap met geitenmelkster (1659, 37x50cm, 588x800pix, 174kb) _ Naast haar draagt een boer een teil gevuld met melk. Rechts een slapende hond, daarachter een paard.
Italian Landscape with Herdsman and a Piebald Horse (1675, 32x27cm)
Shepherd Boy (31x38cm; 600x716pix, 86kb _ ZOOM to 1052x1256pix, 134kb)
The Sick Goat (84x73cm; 600x494pix, 63kb _ ZOOM to 2458x2024pix, 442kb)
Rest outside an Italian Inn (80x88cm; 600x653pix, 75kb _ ZOOM to 1446x1576pix, 274kb)
Tale of the Soldier (1655, 98kb)
Woman Milking a Red Cow (1655, 90kb)
A Party of Charlatans in an Italian Landscape (1657, 603x700pix, 102kb)
The Flood (1660, 106kb)
A Smith Shoeing an Ox (1660, (38x43cm)
Landschap met een muilezeldrijver die met zijn vrouw en vee een plas doorwaadt (1655, 51x47cm; 600x542pix)
Landschap met twee ezels, geitjes en varkens (1655, 35x46cm; 600x788pix, 240kb) _ Beesten op het erf van een Italiaanse boerderij: een geit met drie bokjes, twee ezels en drie varkens. Bij het hek voor de boerderij scheidt een boer het kaf van het koren.
Joan Reynst in 1672 (1675, 131x106cm; 600x478pix) _ Portret van Joan Reynst [1636-1695], heer van Drakenstein en de Vuursche, Kapitein der burgerij te Amsterdam. Zoon van de verzamelaar Gerard Reynst en reisgenoot van Dujardin in Italië in 1674. Kniestuk, de rechterhand in de zij, staande tussen twee windhonden.
^ Born on 20 November 1580: Guy François “Le Grand François”, Le Puy French Baroque painter who died on 05 October 1650.
— He was known to be in Rome as early as 1608 and to be back in his native Puy-de-Dôme by 1613. He seems to have spent the rest of his long career in and around Le Puy, with an undocumented visit to Toulouse at an indeterminate date, probably in the 1620s. Most of the artist's pictures remain in the obscurity of the parish churches for which they were painted, and it is clear that he had ceased to experiment by about 1630. One of his most important pictures is the large altarpiece The Holy Family with St Bruno and St Elisabeth of 1626, which shows the artist's careful assimilation of the style of the Roman painter Carlo Saraceni. There is now a dispute as to whether some pictures are by Saraceni or Guy François, notably the Holy Family in the Wadsworth Athenaeum Hartford, which seems characteristic of both artists. Unlike Tournier, François never showed any passion in his art; his pictures always retained a Saracenesque smoothness and elegance.
— He is documented (under the Italian form of his name) in Rome in 1608, both in the archives of the Accademia di San Luca and in parish records. He presumably returned to France before 1613, for at that date he made a painting for the church of Saint Pierre, Montpezat, Tarn-et-Garonne. From 1614 to 1616 worked on paintings for St-Pierre-de-Monastier in Le Puy. His earliest surviving painting is The Virgin and Child with Two Saints (1615). There are two signed and dated paintings of 1619: The Virgin of the Rosary and a Crucifixion with Two Marys and Saint John; there is also L'Incrédulité de Saint Thomas. By 1620 François had established a busy workshop with many apprentices. At some point between 1623 and 1626 he was in Toulouse; he is recorded again in Le Puy in 1627-1628, 1636, and 1638. In 1630 he was in Riom and in 1633-1634 in Montpellier. Many signed and dated paintings by François survive from the years 1619-1646, all of them large altarpieces. Apparently official painter to the Jesuits in Le Puy, he also worked regularly for other religious orders in the region. His style is similar to that of Caravaggio, tempered with the influence of Guido Reni and Carlo Saraceni, whose studios he must have frequented in Rome: the influence of Saraceni is particularly evident in the gentle lighting of his paintings, as well as in the female facial types and the focus on anecdotal detail. Nicolson reattributed Saraceni's famous Saint Cecilia to François; and Rosenberg similarly gave a Holy Family in Saint Joseph's Workshop, previously attributed to Saraceni, to François. François was one of a number of French painters who established a form of Caravaggism in the provinces.

Holy Family with Saint Bruno and Saint Elisabeth (210x153cm; 900x710pix, 102kb). _ Saint Bruno was canonized in 1623, and so appeared frequently at that time in paintings from throughout southern Europe. Le Puy is the capital of the Haute Loire, part of a large upland area, the Massif central, in the southern central region of France. The large number of Romanesque churches in and around the town bear testimony to the fact that it flourished in the Middle Ages. It was never an area noted for painting activity, and the return of Guy François from Rome to his native region was therefore to be of great significance in local terms, much more so than similar events in other centers where there was more than one painter active. Guy François was to work in isolation for more than thirty years, gradually diluting his art as memories of what he had learned in Rome faded. The pictures that he painted in France nearly all remain in and around Le Puy. It is only in recent years that the Italian period of Guy François has been reconstructed and his Italian pictures disentangled from the work of Carlo Saraceni. Saraceni, a difficult artist to define, was essentially eclectic, with an unusual skill in brushwork almost akin to that of a northerner. He assimilated many influences, ranging from Caravaggio to the German Erlsheimer.
     The picture by François that most shows the influence of Saraceni is this one. Like much of François's work, it was intended as a large altarpiece. His altarpieces that survived in the Le Puy area, in the churches for which they were painted, are often surrounded by a provincial version of a sculptured and stuccoed framework in the Italian Baroque style. Although commonplace in Italy, such pictures in situ are rare in France; most seventeenth century altarpieces by the major painters are now in museums. The Holy Family altarpiece has the simplified forms sometimes found in works by Saraceni and also the strong lighting suitable for a prominent position in a church, where the picture would normally be seen from a distance. The strength of some of Guy François' compositions has led some authorities to suggest that he was influenced by Nicolas Tournier, but the most likely explanations for their superficial similarity are that both artists brought back from Italy similar Caravaggesque influences, and that both of them were forced to rely on what they had experienced and learned without renewed contact with their sources. Both painter had a predilection for monumental scale, although François never achieved Tournier's dramatic intensity. Instead he provided, in an area isolated from all artistic contact, a whole group of soundly painted and striking altarpieces.
Sainte Marie-Madeleine pénitente (1630, 105x83cm; 645x518pix, 58kb).
La Vierge, l'Enfant Jésus et Saint Jean (86x62cm , 545x380pix, 21kb)

Died on a 20 November:

^ 1910 (18 Nov?) Benedikt Julius (or Benes) Knüpfer, Bohemian painter, active in Italy, born on 21 March 1848 (12 Apr 1844?). He studied at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts (1868-1870) and in Munich (1870-1877), then began his career as an artist by producing history paintings (e.g. Götz von Berlichingen before the Council at Heilbronn, 1877). In 1879 he went to Rome where he settled permanently apart from a few visits elsewhere, mainly to Bohemia. His greatest success was achieved in the 1880s and 1890s as an official painter of the sea and mythological beings (e.g. Duel of the Tritons, 1890). The effect he aimed to achieve was a contrast between imaginary mythologies and the plein-air depiction of natural movement and light. Some of his paintings demonstrate a development from salon painting to fin-de-siècle art, including an element of eroticism, as in Octopus with Nymph (1895). Although his work was well regarded in Bohemia in the 1890s, he was never made a professor at the Prague Academy. He was a member of the Vienna Secession but belonged to the conservative wing, and his work remained limited by the incompatibility of the world of mythology and contemporary life.
An Evening Reverie (51x101cm)
The Artist's Model (53x43cm)
The Embrace (164x150cm; 1000x903pix, 950kb)
Morská idyla (1904, 81x161cm; 293x600pix, 24kb) —(051119)

^ 1857 Sebastian Wegmayr, Austrian artist born on 07 February 1776.
Still Life with Flowers (38x28cm; 600x448pix, 41kb) —(051119)

Born on a 20 November:

^ 1786 John Bradley, US portrait painter. He may have been the John Bradley of unlisted profession who arrived in New York from Ireland in August 1826, aboard the ship Carolina Ann. Bradley was active in New York, Staten Island, and New Jersey from 1832 to 1847. It is likely that Bradley was a self-trained artist, though his early work suggests the traditions of British portraiture. Bradley's naïve style is flat and distinguished by clearly defined forms, deep colors, and strong tonal contrasts. He shows his figures in poses typical of their rank or profession; often they are formally placed within a defined space. The faces are individualized, and clothing and other objects are richly detailed. Bradley's compositions reveal a fondness for decorative detail, and he often portrayed his sitters with defining attributes; for example he would depict a child with a cherished toy or a surveyor holding his measuring instruments. All the known paintings by Bradley date between 1832 and 1847. — LINKS
The Cellist (1832, 45x41cm; 657x600pix, 70kb) _ This is Bradley's earliest and best known painting; it is signed twice “I. Bradley Deli 1832” and “I. J. H. Bradley 1832”. Like other known early paintings by this artist, this one is small in scale and depicts a full-length figure. Nothing is known about the sitter, but he seems to be a man of means as well as a musician, as suggested by the elegant setting with a stylish pianoforte. The cello and bow are defining attributes. The two objects on the Sheraton-style bench (a pink cloth kerchief and a pitch pipe or resin applicator for use on the strings of a bow) also suggest that he is a practicing musician. The sheet music (a hymn published in London about 1820) is legible enough to be identified and played, showing the artist's careful attention to detail. Bradley rendered the man’s striking features (piercing blue eyes, wavy hair, and lean face) with faithfulness and verve. Painted with crisp lines and carefully noted details, the figure seems alive as he gazes directly at us. The figure's awkward proportions are typical of self taught painters such as we assume Bradley to be. An impossibly long right arm rests on a relatively short leg; the tiny feet, clad in black slippers, seem intended to convey the musician's refinement, as does his slender form. Bradley's unusual technique of highlighting the contours of forms to give them greater volume can be seen in the area of the sitter's right knee and arm. Typical of Bradley's portraits, and of portraiture by self-taught artists, are the limited tones (brown, white, and black) enlivened by such broad accents as the rich red curtain and green-figured carpet.
–- Little Girl in Lavender (1840, 85x69cm; 1064x815pix, 63kb_ .ZOOM to 1862x1426pix, 151kb) _ A young girl, a cat, and a potted rose plant. The color of the dress is pink rather than lavender, but you can correct that by clicking on the image.
–- Emma Homan (1844, 86x69cm; 999x818pix, 47kb) _ A young girl, a cat, and a potted rose plant.
–- Mr. Fowler (1836, 86x71cm; 637x525pix, 22kb) —(071115)

^ >1782 Georgius Jacobus Johannes van Os, Dutch artist who died on 24 July 1861.— He studied under his grandfather, painter and poet Jan van Os [bapt. 23 Feb 1744 – 07 Feb 1808], and under his father Pieter Gerardus van Os [08 Oct 1776 – 28 Mar 1839] and, like him, preferred to paint flower and fruit pieces, although he never neglected the landscape genre. His first important works were the detailed drawings of flowers and plants that were used to illustrate Jan Kops’s Flora Batava (1800–1822). In 1809 he won the first prize of the Felix Meritis Society in Amsterdam with a watercolor still-life, after which he devoted himself to the painting of still-lifes. His regular contributions, from 1810 onwards, of flower, fruit and hunting pieces to the Dutch exhibitions were invariably well received; in 1812 he was also awarded a gold medal at the Salon in Paris, where he was employed at the Sèvres porcelain factory. Except for a stay in The Hague in 1813, van Os remained in France until 1816, after which he moved between Amsterdam and The Hague until settling definitively in Paris in 1822. He continued to work for the Sèvres factory, although he also regularly spent considerable periods of time in Haarlem. — He was the brother of Pieter Gerardus van Os and the nephew of fruit and flower painter Margaretha van Os [01 Nov 1780 – 17 Nov 1862]. — LINKS
–- Still Life With Flowers and Fruit (727x1081pix, 98kb _ .ZOOM to 1200x1890pix, 205kb)
–- Flowers on a Ledge (711x1081pix, 104kb _ .ZOOM to 1200x1825pix, 226kb) _ The pseudonymous Gojon Selbone has slightly modified these first two pictures and combined with a part of the third one, resulting in
      _ Chatting Neighbors (2007; 550x778pix, 90kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb) and
      _ Guarding the Bird in the Window (2007; 550x778pix, 90kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb). _ Then Selbone has demonstrated how beautiful representational pictures can be has disfigured into a splendid colorful quasi-abstractions, absurdly titled, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Flow Worse on a Sledge (2007; 550x778pix, 131kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb) and
      _ Flo Was on Edge (2007; 550x778pix, 131kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb).
–- Still Life of Fruit and Flowers with Birds (1843, 82x63cm; 900x688pix, 92kb _ .ZOOM to 1575x1204pix, 202kb) On a ledge there are melons, grapes, a pomegranate, plums, peaches, nuts, red peppers, flowers, a snipe, a partridge. _ {Still life in them? No, just them in a still life, dead as a doormat}
–- Flowers in an Earthenware Vase (1255x961pix, 130kb _ .ZOOM to 2092x1600pix, 234kb) there are an imperial crown and an opium poppy on top. _ {No war on drugs at that time?} —(071121)

^ 1713 Guillaume Voiriot, French painter who died on 30 November 1799. A highly successful portraitist, Voiriot is less mannered than Nattier, whose portrait along with that of Pierre he painted when he was received as an Academician in 1759. Trained at the Academy of Saint Luke, he earned his admission to the Royal Academy by virtue of his talent, without having gone to the Academy schools nor having studied in Rome. He was appointed a councilor of the Academy on September 3rd, 1782. He exhibited at the Salon from 1759 until 1791, at the Academy of Saint Luke in 1752 and 1753 and the Salon de la Correspondance in 1782.
Gilbert DesVoisins, Councillor of State in Ordinary (1761, 101x80cm; 821x650pix, 45kb) _ The setting of this portrait of M. DesVoisins de Lavernière, with the splendid lacquered bureau plat, the chinoiserie ink wells in ormolu mounts, the pile of papers and elegant costume all suggest a man of wealth and intellect. This illustrates very well the superb craftsmanship and a direct involvelement with the subject that is characteristic of the best of French eighteenth century portraiture. Mathon wrote of Voiriot in his review of the 1763 Salon that he customarily included items relevant to the life of the sitter; so it is hardly surprising that he should have portrayed M. DesVoisins, his most prominent and consistent patron in the 1760's, working at his papers. A review of the 1761 Salon describes this portrait as being a "faithful and exact image" and we may imagine from the sitter's open and relaxed pose that M. DesVoisins was an engaging and intelligent friend to the artist. —(051119)

^ 1708 (baptism) Balthazar Beschey, Antwerp Flemish painter and art dealer who died on 15 (17?) April 1776. — Relative? of Jacob Andries Beschey? of Karel Beschey [1706-1770]? — Beschey was taught by Peter Strick; he joined the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp in 1753 and was elected its dean for the financial year 1755–1756. In 1754 he was made director of the Antwerp academy, which then had no fewer than five of the Beschey family among its members. Using his influential position at the academy, Beschey sought to revive traditional practices through the study of Rubens. Among his students were Pierre Joseph Verhagen, Guillaume-Jacques Herreyns, and Andries Cornelis Lens.
–- S*>#The Abduction of Europa (38x44cm; 690x799pix, 94kb)
–- Christ and the Centurion (45x70cm; 579x900pix, 111kb _ .ZOOM to 868x1350pix, 134kb) in a wooded landscape, a town in the background. The young man before Christ would appear to be armed and is therefore likely to be identified as a soldier, albeit unusually dressed. The episode here represented is probably that of Christ and the Centurion as related by both Matthew and Luke, the centurion apparently came before Christ to ask him to cure his servant-boy. His faith in Christ's healing powers were rewarded, and here Christ is shown blessing the centurion, with attendants and some of His disciples nearby. —(061117)

^ 1647 Jan van Huchtenburg, Dutch painter, specialized in cavalry battles, who died in 1733.
–- The Alexander Battle (83x113cm; 760x1040pix, 72kb _ .ZOOM to 1140x1560pix, 186kb)
–- Cavalry Engagement (76x101cm; 652x900pix, 51kb)
–- Cavalry Battle at a Bridge (97x127cm; 798x1057pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1597x2113pix, 287kb, and admire the crackling all over the age-darkened, discolored paint) badly in need of restauration.
Jan van Huchtenburg. Hendrik Casimir II [1657-1696], vorst van Nassau-Dietz. Als aanvoerder bij een veldslag (581x800pix, 174kb)
De slag aan de Boyne (Ierland) tussen Jacobus II en Willem III, 12 juli 1690 (538x800pix, 181kb)
Het dobbelspel om het leven (68x76cm; 600x680pix, 195kb) _ Het dobbelspel om het leven. Twee gevangenen dobbelen op een trommel buiten een vesting. Een groep officieren en soldaten heeft zich om de spelers verzameld. Links kijken soldaten vanaf een een vestingmuur toe. Rechts een galg.
De slag bij Ramillies tussen de Fransen en de Geallieerden, 23 mei 1706 (1710, 116x153cm) _ Veldslag bij Ramillies op 23 mei 1706, tussen de geallieerde troepen onder commado van Marlborough en Nassau-Ouwerkerk tegen de verenigde Franse, Spaanse en Beierse troepen onder commando van Maarschalk de Villeroy. Links enige hoge bomen, rechts op het derde plan de heuvelrug, waarop Folx-les-Caves en Jandreouille liggen en in het verschiet in de midden het plateau van Mont St. André. Op de voorgrond een ruitergevecht, dat op de linkerflank van het geallieerde leger plaats vond tegen de rechterflank van Villeroy. Rechts in de hoek een staf met vermoedelijk portret van Marlborough op een zwart paard. De ruiter op de rug gezien is misschien generaal-majoor Murray. Hij die er meer als een burger uitziet, zou misschien kunnen zijn Sicco Goslinga, de aan het geallieerde leger toegevoegde gedeputeerde van de Staten-Generaal. Links van het midden, vlak achter het grote ruitergevecht, voert geallieerde cavalerie en charge uit tegen de infanteristen van de beide kronen, die hen met gevelde pieken opwachten. Meer naar achteren valt de hoofdmacht van de Geallieerden, onder commando van Lord Orteney, het centrum van de Frans-Spaans-Beierse linies, onder Villeroy en keurvorst Maximiliaan Emanuel van Beiren, aan, die te Ramillies en verder naar het noorden, bij Offus en Autreglise (Anderkerk) opgesteld stonden.
–- Cavalry Skirmish Near Woods (49x63cm; 685x900pix, 48kb)
–- Cavalry Battle Before a Walled Town (50x67cm; 664x900pix, 54kb)
–- S*>#William III of Orange Leading a Cavalry Charge (500x622pix, 57kb)—(061117)

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updated Wednesday 21-Nov-2007 18:51 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.00 Monday 15-Jan-2007 18:58< UT
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