ART 4 2-DAY 19 November v.8.a1
Born on 19 November 1607: Erasmus Quellin
II (or Quellinus, Quellyn, Quellien II), Antwerp Flemish
painter and philosopher who died on 07 November 1678.
Erasmus Quellin II was a member of a family of artists (mainly sculptors). His father was Erasmus Quellinus I [1584 – 22 Jan 1640], a sculptor, his brothers Artus (Arnoldus) I [bap. 30 Aug 1609 – 23 Aug 1668], the most distinguished sculptor member of the family, and Hubert [1619-1687], an engraver. Their mother was born Betje van Uden, the sister of the painter, draftsman, and engraver Lucas van Uden. Their sister Cornelia married Peeter Verbrugghen I.
Erasmus Quellin II is perhaps best known for his work as a student and assistant of Rubens during the 1930s. He also painted numerous altarpieces depicting Counter-Reformation themes for churches and monasteries throughout the Southern Netherlands, as well as secular paintings that depict scenes from ancient history and mythology, and allegorical compositions. His humanistic and literary education is evident from the wide range of subjects in those monumental compositions, as well as from the fact that he had an extensive library. In fact it seems, from the marginal notes made by Erasmus Quellinus II's son, Jan-Erasmus Quellinus [01 Dec 1634 – 11 Mar 1715], in the copy of Cornelis de Bie's Gulden cabinet (1661), that Erasmus II had earned a degree in philosophy, an assumption supported by the mention of a tract, Philosophia, said to have been written by him, in the 1679 inventory of his estate. It is probable that his father taught him to draw, as Erasmus the younger’s draftsmanship has the same incisive quality; more importantly, his compositions are based on a sound grasp of the technique. He became a master in the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp in 1633–1634, and in 1634 married Catharina van Hemelaar [–1662], niece of the humanist and canon Johannes Hemelarius.
— Wallerant Vaillant [30 May 1623 – 02 Sep 1677] was an apprentice of Quellin.
— The Meeting of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (151x237cm; 793x1250pix, 173kb _ ZOOM to 1586x2500pix, 723kb or 1463kb) _ The Book of Kings relates how the Queen of Sheba traveled to the court of King Solomon to test his legendary wisdom. Quellinus clothes the protagonists in contemporary dress, rendering the biblical account in a wealth of colourful detail. Although there is no evidence that the artist ever visited Italy, the architecture in the background attests to a close familiarity with the buildings of Rome.
Saul and David (detail) (1635, 58x80cm) _ In this painting by the Antwerp student of Rubens, the scene from the Old Testament is depicted in a large Baroque palace. On an ornamental throne, emphasized by columns, stairs and velvet drapery, is King Saul in the traditional pose of meditation, immersion in thought and spiritual tension, with his elbow on his crossed legs and his hand propping up his head. In his right hand he holds a spear which, under the spell of an evil spirit, he will hurl at David momentarily. The youth playing his harp before the throne pays less attention to his instrument than to the explosive anger of the king, so that he can dodge the weapon. The excited group of courtiers in the background also serve to heighten the drama of the episode. Their tempestuous feelings are expressed by distorted features: knotted brows, wrinkled foreheads and lips trembling with emotion. Even David's relief-bringing instrument, the arched harp, is decorated with a screaming monster-head. Such a dramatized presentation of biblical text is characteristic of Flemish Baroque painting, as well as of the spirit of Rubens' workshop, where this painting was created.
Still Life in an Architectural Setting (1647) _ Quellin painted this still-life in collaboration with Jan Fyt [1611-1661], a student of Frans Snyders.
Portrait of a Young Boy (136x103cm) _ The dogs and the falcon was painted by the animal painter Jan Fyt.
Died on 19 November 1663: Jan-Baptist
Weenix (or Weeninx), Dutch Baroque
painter, draftsman, and etcher, specialized in painting Dutch Italianate
landscapes and harbor views, born in 1621.
— Jan-Baptist Weenix was the son of architect Johannes Weenix who had also three daughters, the youngest of whom, Lijsbeth, married the painter Barent Micker [1615–1687], whose brother Jan Christiaenszoon Micker [1598–1664] was probably Jan Baptist’s first teacher in Amsterdam.
After possibly being trained by Micker, Weenix is said to have studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and then under Claes Corneliszoon Moeyaert for about two years in Amsterdam. He also studied Studied under Cornelis van Poelenburgh.
Weenix’s earliest known work is a signed and dated drawing of an Italianate landscape with goats and sheep, a shepherd resting near a Classical pillar and a large group of trees (1644). His early painting Sleeping Tobias (1642) is related thematically to works by Moeyaert and Rembrandt. Weenix’s supple contours, liquid brushwork and rich color, however, already reveal the qualities that were prized by later artists and collectors.
In 1639 Jan Baptist married Justina d’Hondecoeter, daughter of the landscape painter Gillis d’Hondecoeter, sister of Gysbert d’Hondecoeter [1604–1653] and Niclaes d’Hondecoeter [1607–1642], both also landscape painters, and aunt of Melchior d'Hondecoeter, who became Jan-Baptist's student. They had two children: Jan Weenix II [Jun 1642 – 19 Sep 1719 bur.], who became a still-life, landscape, and portrait painter, and Gillis Weenix, about whom little is known.
Weenix was in Italy 1642-1646 and returned, calling himself "Giovanni Battista", to Holland to paint Italianate landscapes with ruins of ancient buildings and figures in modern dress, very reminiscent of the work of Berchem, who is said to have been his cousin. Later in life he changed his style entirely and painted still-life and some portraits, his very detailed style being continued by his son Jan.
— Weenix's students included Nicolaes Berchem.
A Dog and a Cat near a Partially Disemboweled Deer (1660, 180x162cm) _ A deer is hung by one leg. The belly has been slit open and the entrails lie on the stone worktop. From the trickle of blood on the table the carcass appears to have been left to mortify. At either side a cat and a dog hiss and bark, hoping for a titbit. Weenix painted this large still life, signed below left, with self-assurance. He started by defining the forms with a drawing, after which he added dead color. This is visible in the architecture, right. Then he began painting, sometimes using thick impasto paint. He finished the velvet curtain with a layer of green glaze. While painting he moved this curtain to the right to disguise an inconvenient join in the canvas.
Mother & Child
The Vegetable Merchant
Ancient Ruins (80x68cm; 783x663pix) _ detail _ The huge ruin in the foreground is the Tempio di Vespasiano from the Forum in Rome. Other elements of the composition are real but from other parts of Italy, the obelisk is imaginary.
Dead Partridge (51x44cm) _ In his Dead Partridge Jan Baptist Weenix had been inspired by an old tradition which can be traced back as far as Jacopo de' Barbari and Lucas Cranach the Elder. Such dead animals can also be found in the paintings of Willem van Aelst. [Dead animals are much easier than live ones to get to stay still while you paint them. But such a painting should not be called a Still Life, but an Already Death]
The Ford (1647, 100x132cm) _ Jan Baptist Weenix was a versatile Italianate painter. He is best known for his views of the Campagna with emphasis on a mother and child seen against massive classical ruins, and fanciful Mediterranean seaports , but he also painted histories, portraits, and indoor genre scenes as well as some remarkable still lifes with dead game. His son and student Jan Weenix [1642-1719] made a speciality of pictures of hunting trophies. Jan Baptist Weenix arrived in Rome in 1642-1643 where he enjoyed the patronage of 'Kardinaal Pamfilio', who has been variously identified as Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphili, who became Pope Innocent X in 1644, and as the Pope's nephew Cardinal Camillo Pamphili. After he returned to Holland in 1646-1647 he invariably signed himself Gio[vanni] Batt[ist]a Weenix. His adoption of the Italian translation of his Christian name and patronymic may have been in honor of Innocent X who gave him at least one commission. The artist executed this painting after his Italian journey.
–- Le Chevrier (monochrome lithograph 22x28cm; 826x1065pix, 90kb)
Born on 19 November 1696: Louis Tocqué
(or Toucquet), French portrait painter and engraver who died on 10 February
He was the student and son-in-law of Jean-Marc Nattier [17 Mar 1685 – 07 Nov 1766] (who was good at painting pretty women, while Tocqué was happier with plain ones). He admired Rigaud and Largillièrre and adapted their styles, and Nattier's, to the requirements of his own time. He worked in Paris except for a stay in Saint-Petersburg and Copenhagen (1756-1759) and a second trip to Copenhagen in 1769.
— He studied briefly under the history painter Nicolas Bertin but was more influenced by the portrait painter Jean-Marc Nattier, whose studio he entered about 1718, and whose daughter he married in 1747. In Nattier's studio he made copies of portraits by van Dyck, Nicolas de Largillièrre, and Hyacinthe Rigaud [1659-1743] (e.g. a copy of Rigaud's portrait of Cardinal de Fleury). He may have participated in Pierre Crozat's project, begun in 1721, to publish engravings of pictures in the collection of the Regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, making drawings alongside Nattier and Watteau, and he may also have made engravings after the paintings by Charles Le Brun in the Grande Galerie at Versailles under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Massé (about 1724).
— Jean Valade was a student of Tocqué.
Marie Leczinska, Queen of France (1740, 277x191cm; 1070x782pix, 133kb)
— A Man
— Ekaterina Golovkina
— Empress Elizabeth Petrovna
— Louis, Grand Dauphin of France
— Mademoiselle de Coislin
Died on 19 November (October?) 1678: Samuel
van Hoogstraten, Dordrecht Dutch Baroque
painter, draftsman, engraver, and writer on art, born on 02 August 1627.
He studied under Jerome Wierix [1553 – 01
Nov 1619] and Rembrandt
Van Hoogstraten painted genre scenes in the style of de Hooch and Metsu, and portraits. but he is best known as a specialist in perspective effects. One of his "perspective boxes" shows a painted toy world through a peep-hole. He studied under Jerome Wierix. Only in his early works can it be detected that he was also a student of Rembrandt. Hoogstraten visited London, Vienna, and Rome, worked in Amsterdam and The Hague as well as his native Dordrecht, and was a man of many parts. He was an etcher, poet, director of the mint at Dordrecht, and art theorist. His Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst (Introduction to the Art of Painting, 1678) contains one of the rare contemporary appraisals of Rembrandt's work.
— Van Hoogstraten was born in Dordrecht. In 1642 he became a student of Rembrandt. His biblical scenes are particularly reminiscent of his master's style. Other paintings by Van Hoogstraten are closer to the work of Pieter de Hooch. Van Hoogstraten painted all kinds of subjects. Particular favorites are his trompe l'oeils. He visited Germany and Italy in 1651. In Rome he joined the Bent, an artists' club, where he was known as 'Batavier'. He also stayed at the court in Vienna for a while. In 1655 Van Hoogstraten was back in Dordrecht. Between 1661 and 1666 he lived in London, from where he moved to The Hague and later Dordrecht again. He died there, in his native city. Apart from painting, Van Hoogstraten was also a theorist. His introduction to painting (Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst, 1678) described the rules of history painting in his day and became a standard work for artists.
— His multi-faceted art and career testify amply to the unflagging ambition attributed to him as early as 1718 by his student and first biographer, Arnold Houbraken. During van Hoogstraten's lifetime he was recognized as a painter, poet, man of letters, sometime courtier, and prominent citizen of his native city of Dordrecht, where he served for several years as an official of the Mint of Holland. Today he is remembered not only as a student and early critic of Rembrandt, but also as a versatile artist in his own right. His diverse oeuvre consists of paintings, drawings, and prints whose subjects range from conventional portraits, histories and genre pictures to illusionistic experiments with trompe-l’oeil still-lifes, architectural perspectives and perspective boxes. He also wrote the major Dutch painting treatise of the late 17th century, Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst, anders de zichtbaere werelt (1678).
— Van Hoogstraten taught several students, including Godfried Schalcken, Arent de Gelder, and the painter and artists' biographer Arnold Houbraken.
Self-Portrait (680x526pix, 97kb)
Letter Board (1675, 63x79cm) _ This is a masterful example of trompe l'oeil. It is done so cleverly that the viewer is not sure where the painting ends and the frame begins. A board covered with cloth is arranged on a wooden plank. Attached to this, behind two red ribbons, is a variety of objects. The curling ribbon and light shadows give the painting just enough depth to make it seem real. The objects depicted all played a role in Van Hoogstraten's life. He had, for instance, himself written the book with the red cover entitled 'Dorothee/Treurspel' in 1666. Thanks to the book this is the earliest at which the painting can be dated.
In this work Van Hoogstraten commemorates his successes as a painter. He depicts, for instance, the gold chain and medal he had received from the German Emperor Ferdinand III in Vienna some fifteen years earlier. Apart from texts by Van Hoogstraten himself there is also a poem comparing him with the Greek painter Zeuxis. The envelope's wax seal bears Van Hoogstraten's initials. Besides these explicit references to the painter's mastery several other, everyday objects are attached to the letter board. These include a goose quill with a penknife, a pince-nez, a rolled-up notebook with a marble cover, a pair of scissors, a shaving-brush, a medallion and two combs.
The Anaemic Lady (1670, 70x65cm) _ A pale woman is hanging passively and lethargically in her chair, with her hands together, indicating that she is not prepared for any action. However, it is unlikely that she is ill. A doctor dressed in a strange, old-fashioned costume, is examining her urine to see whether she is pregnant. The man behind her looks with concern at the bottle. The situation is further clarified by the naked figures in the tablecloth and the painting above the door bearing an image of Venus, the goddess of love. A special role is played by the cat, often a symbol of sensuality. Like the mouse between its legs, this couple has been caught 'in the grip of lust'.
For a long time this painting looked quite different. The woman's lover was invisible. He was probably overpainted in the nineteenth century, because it was not considered polite to refer so obviously to an unwanted pregnancy. The mouse too, between the cat's paws, was also hidden away so that the message was less clear. Without the man and mouse, the woman might be suffering from another illness. A fake doctor would have suggested something along the lines of a heartache to the viewer. The overpainting was discovered in 1988-1989 during restoration.
Fake doctors and apparently sick women are often featured in seventeenth-century painting. A painter who used this subject frequently was Jan Steen [1626 – 03 Feb 1679], for example in his Sick Woman (1665, 76x64cm), suffering from heartache. There too we can see a doctor in old-fashioned clothes, a firepan with coals, and a bed in the background.
View of a Corridor (1662, 260x140cm; 1344x650pix, 175kb) _ Hoogstraten had a keen interest in problems of perspective and illusionism. He made peep-boxes and large trompe l'oeil decorations for homes. Carel Fabritius, as well as other artists of his generation, shared these interests. In this picture, imaginary lines drawn along the pavement tiles receding to the background seem to meet on the inside of the fireplace, at top right. This one-point perspective construction creates a convincing sequence of rooms.
Still-life (1668, 63x79cm; 763x980pix, 133kb) _ In Dutch painting there is a tendency towards imitation and the dissolution of the boundary between real space and pictorial space. Even Rembrandt painted "window pictures" in which the person portrayed is standing in a door or window whose frame is identical with the frame of the painting. The generation of artists who followed him took a particularly keen interest in trompe-l'oeil techniques. Hoogstraten was a specialist in this field and the work shown here is typical of the genre. Because such trompe-l'oeil effects do not work well in depth, but are most effective on the surface, the artist chose to portray flat objects that could be placed on the picture plane to which relatively flat items could be added. Here, for example, we see a variety of everyday objects held by two leather straps over a wooden frame. That old chestnut about the spectator who is actually fooled by such painted objects is quite easy to imagine in this case, but we should not forget that such trompe-l'oeil paintings were actually intended as a joke and that they were meant to produce a sense of surprise on discovering that the objects were painted rather than real. Even so, this approach towards reproducing reality in painting does tell us something about Dutch painting in general: it is highly "figurative" in the sense that its content is conveyed entirely through the portrayal of objects.
The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception
Tobias' Farewell to His Parents
Born on 19 November 1617: Eustache
Le Sueur (or Lesyeur), French painter who died on 30 April
Le Sueur (also spelled Lesueur ), French painter known for his religious pictures in the style of the French classical Baroque. Le Sueur was one of the founders and first professors of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture.
Le Sueur studied under the painter Simon Vouet and was admitted at an early age into the guild of master painters. Some paintings reproduced in tapestry brought him notice, and his reputation was further enhanced by a series of decorations for the Hôtel Lambert that he left uncompleted. He painted many pictures for churches and convents, among the most important being St. Paul Preaching at Ephesus, and his famous series of 22 paintings of the Life of St. Bruno, executed in the cloister of the Chartreux. Stylistically dominated by the art of Nicolas Poussin, Raphael, and Vouet, Le Sueur had a graceful facility in drawing and was always restrained in composition by a fastidious taste.
Caligula Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors (167x143cm) _ The artist was a student of Simon Vouet, but unlike his teacher he never left Paris. Le Sueur's style was based on Raphael and more immediately on Poussin. His best-known work is perhaps the series of paintings of the Life of Saint Bruno, dating from 1645-9 (Paris, Louvre). Although his style became increasingly classical, he retained a certain elegance in his draftsmanship and use of color.
There has been some confusion over the exact title of this imposing painting: Nero depositing the Ashes of Germanicus and the Funeral of Poppaea have both been suggested in inscriptions or commentaries to various engravings after the picture. The earliest source, however, Florent Le Comte's Cabinet des singularitez d'architecture, peinture, sculpture et gravure (1700), refers to the picture as Caligula depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors. There is good reason to believe that this is the correct title since Le Comte claimed to be basing his statement on information recorded in a studio book kept by the artist and retained by the Le Sueur family. The painting, together with another entitled Lucius Albinus and the Vestal Virgins, was commissioned for Claude de Guénégaud's residence in Paris in the rue Saint-Louis-au-Marais. Both are listed under the year 1647. The second painting is now lost, but it is recorded in a drawing. The classical source for the present painting is Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars:
"Gaius [Caligula] strengthened his popularity by every possible means. He delivered a funeral speech in honor of Tiberius to a vast crowd, weeping profusely all the while; and gave him a magnificent burial. But as soon as this was over he sailed for Pandataria and the Pontian Islands to fetch back the remains of his mother and his brother Nero; and during rough weather, too, in proof of devotion. He approached the ashes with the utmost reverence and transferred them to the urns with his own hands. Equally dramatic was his gesture of raising a standard on the stern of the bireme which brought the urns to Ostia, and thence up the Tiber to Rome. He had arranged that the most distinguished knights available should carry them to the Mausoleum in two biers, at about noon, when the streets were at their busiest . . . "
Gaius Caesar, known as Caligula, the son of Germanicus and Agrippina, succeeded Tiberius as emperor in AD 37. Germanicus was the adopted son of Tiberius, who most probably had him poisoned owing to his growing popularity. The subject of Agrippina's return to Brundisium with the ashes of Germanicus was a popular theme with artists during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Tiberius eliminated several members of Germanicus' family, but promoted Gaius of whom he said, 'I am nursing a viper for the Roman people and a Phaeton for the whole world.' The present subject is one that is rarely treated, whereas that of the companion painting, recounted by Livy and others, can be found in fifteenth-century Florentine art and also in the work of Le Sueur's contemporaries, Jacques Stella and Sebastien Bourdon. The theme that unites these two paintings might be said to be piety, both private in the actions of Caligula and public in the altruism of Lucius Albinus. Such demonstrations of moral virtue were often chosen as subjects for French paintings during the middle decades of the seventeenth century, in conjunction with the philosophical creed of Stoicism that Nicolas Poussin, amongst others, professed. The intellectual and physical severity of this creed is reflected in the style of the painting with its stilted composition, visual clarity, carefully demarcated spatial intervals and purity of color, quite apart from the archaeological exactitude sought for the setting. It has been pointed out that the painting was executed during the period when Poussin's second set of the Seven Sacraments, painted for Fréart de Chantelou, could be seen in Paris. The artist made a drawing of the high priest holding the urn.
The Muses: Clio, Euterpe and Thalia _ Le Sueur was the student of Vouet. This painting and its companion piece depicting Melpomene, Erato and Polymnia were used to decorate the Cabinet of the Muses of the Hotel Lambert in Paris. These charming, delicately painted pictures foreshadow the coming of Poussin. The muses are the goddesses of creative inspiration in poetry, song and other arts, they are the companions of Apollo. They were the daughters of Jupiter and the Titaness Mnemosyne (memory) who had lain together for nine consecutive nights. The muses were originally nymphs who presided over springs that had the power to give inspiration, especially Aganippe and Hippocrene on Mount Helicon and the Castilian spring on Mount Parnassus.
The usual attributions of these Muses (and two others not shown here) are the following:
Clio, the muse of history (book, scroll or tablet and stylus).
Euterpe, the muse of music, lyric poetry (flute, trumpet or other instrument).
Thalia, the muse of comedy, pastoral poetry (scroll, small viol, masks).
Urania, the muse of astronomy (globe and compasses, crowned with a circle of stars).
Calliope, the muse of epic poetry (trumpet, tablet and stylus, books, holds laurel crown).
The Muses: Melpomene, Erato and Polymnia _ Le Sueur was the student of Vouet. This painting and its companion piece depicting Clio, Euterpe and Thalia were used to decorate the Cabinet of the Muses of the Hotel Lambert in Paris. These charming, delicately painted pictures foreshadow the coming of Poussin.
The usual attributions of these Muses are the following:
Melpomene, the muse of tragedy (horn, tragic masks, sword or dagger, crown held in hand, scepters lying at feet).
Erato, the muse of lyric and love poetry (tambourine, lyre, swan, a putto at her feet).
Polyhymnia (or Polymnia), the muse of heroic hymns (portable organ, lute or other instrument)
The Muse Terpsichore _ The Muse Terpsichore is obviously part of an extensive decoration (this panel is part of the decoration of the Cabinet of the Muses of the Hotel Lambert in Paris), but the artist made no concessions to decorative charm, and the figure conforms closely to the ideals of classical antiquity. The usual attributions of this Muse are the following:
Terpsichore, the muse of dancing and song (viol, lyre, or other stringed instrument, harp, crowned with flowers).
— /S#*>La Mise au Tombeau (510x600pix, 54kb)
Murdered on 19 November 1942: Bruno
Schultz, Polish Jewish writer, literary critic, and graphic
artist born on 12 July 1892 [self~portrait >].
Bruno was the youngest child of assimilated Galician Jews Jakub Schulz (owner of a textile shop by the town’s market-place) and Henrietta, née Kuhmrker, the daughter of a wealthy wood merchant. From 1902 to 1910 went to school in Drohobycz (now Drohobych, Ukraine). A good student, he passed his matriculation exams with distinction.
In 1910 Bruno Schultz started studying architecture at the Technical University in Lwów. That same year his father’s illness forced the sale of the shop, and the whole family moved to the home of Bruno’s married sister - Hania Hoffman. After a year Bruno Schulz gave up studying because of a heart and lung illness and came back to Drohobycz.
In 1917 Bruno Schulz left for Vienna with part of his family. There he resumed his architectural studies. After three months all the Schulzes came back to Drohobycz. In the following years until 1933 Schulz struggled with numerous problems, external as well as psychological and spiritual nature.
In September 1924 Schulz started to teach drawing and practical skills at secondary schools in Drohobycz. His lack of a university degree, poor health, and the great number of teaching hours, often left him unable to write.
In 1927 Wladyslaw Riff, who was Schultz’s friend and literary confidant, died of tuberculosis (the over-zealous staff of the disinfecting service burnt all his papers). In 1931 Bruno Schulz’s mother died.
In 1933 Schultz made his debut as a writer in Wiadomosci Literackie with the short story Ptaki. In 1934 the publishing house "Rój" published his book Sklepy cynamonowe (Cinnamon Shops known in the US as Streets of Crocodiles).
The Second World War started with the invasion of Poland by Hitler's troops and, soon after, by Stalin's. on 24 September 1939, the Germans handed over Drohobycz to the Soviets. On 01 July 1941, after Hitler turned against his fellow mass-murderer, the German army marched into Drohobycz again. A Gestapo officer, Feliks Landau, then enslaved Schulz and forced him to produce numerous paintings for him.
In 1942 Bruno Schulz tried to save his manuscripts and drawings by dividing them into several packages, and entrusting them to people from outside the ghetto (most of those works ended up lost or destroyed). At that time Schulz planned to escape from Drohobycz with false documents and money provided by his Warsaw friends.
On 19 November 1942 Schultz set off to the Judenrat for some bread and died in the street, shot by Gestapo officer Karl GŁnther, in revenge for Schultz's owner having shot Günther's own Jewish slave, a dentist called LŲwe, during the same Nazi murderous rampage which killed 263 other Jews in that street.
When Bruno Schulz's stories were re-issued in Poland in 1957, translated into French and German, and acclaimed everywhere by a new generation of readers to whom he was unknown, attempts were made to place his oeuvre in the mainstream of Polish literature, to find affinities, derivations, to explain him in terms of one literary theory or another. The task is nearly impossible. He was a solitary man, living part, filled with his dreams, with memories of his childhood, with an intense, formidable inner life, a painter's imagination, a sensuality and responsiveness to physical stimuli which most probably could find satisfaction only in artistic creation - a volcano, smoldering silently in the isolation of a sleepy provincial town.
Schulz's writing belongs to the Expressionist tradition, which sought to encapsulate fundamental issues and existential questions by means of myth and symbol, and in terms of psychological insight. For Schulz, myth is concentrated in memories from childhood, the 'age of genius', in which the original meaning of words is sought out. Metaphors explain the world as the narrator feels it to be, while the mechanisms of language allow him to transform the past at will. Thus the grotesque is made familiar and friendly, and the banal is changed into something dark and threatening. Underlying all the highly lyrical descriptions is a sense of profound unease, related to sexual suppression, a highly developed sense of guilt, and the narrator's inability to distinguish dream, fiction or reality.
Schulz was the youngest member of Poland's great triumvirate of the interwar avant-garde, along with the painter, dramatist, novelist, and aesthetician Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz (1885-1939) and prosaist-dramatist Witold Gombrowicz (1904-1969). They brought about the rebirth of the artistic language in Polish literature. Schulz's writings include Sanatorium pod klepsydra ["The Sanatorium under the Hourglass"] (Stories illustrated by himself, 1937), and, published posthumously: Proza (1964) Druga jesien, do druku podal i poslowiem (1973) Ksiega listów (1975) - Listy, fragmenty. Wspomnienia o pisarzu (1984) Opowiadania (1989) Xiega balwochwalcza (1988) Ilustracje do wlasnych utworów (1992). short passage: The Mythologization of Reality. When Schultz died, he was working on a novel, The Messiah, but nothing remains of it.
Artwork online: a different Self-Portrait Spotkanie Smierzch [Worship of the Legs?] (una delle illustrazioni, realizzate negli anni '20, per Il Libro idolatrico, che registra fantasie di dominazione femminile, ove le gambe e i piedi assumono il ruolo di strumenti di raffinate torture inflitte ad uomini-aborto, nani resi umili dalla sofferenza erotica, avviliti e colmati, nella loro umiliazione, di un piacere supremo e doloroso.) Dzielo
Essay by David A. Goldfarb: A Living Schulz: "Noc wielkiego sezonu" ("Night of Great Season")
Bruno Schultz (türkçe)
Timeline and photo gallery (po-polsku)
Born on 19 November 1772: Vicente López
PortaŮa, pintor espaŮol. Murió en 1850.
— In addition to painting portraits of nearly every notable person in Spain during the first half of the 1800s, Vicente López y Portaña also painted religious, allegorical, and mythological scenes. Many historians consider him one of the two most important Spanish painters of his time, second only to Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes. López began formally studying in Valencia at the age of thirteen; after winning numerous prizes, he received a scholarship to study in Madrid. He returned to Valencia in 1790 and subsequently became vice-director of painting at the academy where he had studied as a boy. In 1814 López was called to the court of Ferdinand VII, the Spanish king, and received a royal appointment. Shortly thereafter he was jointly appointed first court painter along with Goya. He spent the remainder of his life in Madrid painting portraits of statesmen, academics, and other important figures, as well as dramatic and emotional religious subjects.
— López Portaña nació en Valencia y murió en Madrid. Llevó a cabo una obra amplia que fue mejorando con el transcurso de los años hasta el de su propia muerte en una carrera constantemente ascendente. Manejó con soltura todas las técnicas del momento, tanto el óleo y el pastel como el fresco, en el que destacan sus trabajos en algunas de las bóvedas del Palacio Real de Madrid, en especial la del Salón de Carlos III, otrora dormitorio de dicho rey y salón oficial desde Fernando VII, para la que López pintó la Institución de la Orden de Carlos III. No han llegado a nuestros días los frescos con los que decoró el Casino de la Reina o el Palacio de Vista Alegre.
Durante su juventud, antes de su venida a Madrid, recibió numerosos encargos de pintura religiosa, así el Nacimiento de San Vicente Ferrer para la catedral de su ciudad natal, un San Agustín y un San Rufo para la de Tortosa. Posteriormente, siguió cultivando dicha temática en obras encargadas por templos de Madrid (Virgen de los Desamparados) o el de Santo Tomé de Toledo (La duda de Santo Tomás). En estos cuadros, así como en los de tema cortesano, la técnica de López es tan perfecta que resulta anticuada para su época y, pasando por encima de Goya, enlaza diractamente con la pintura del alemán Antón Rafael Mengs, que había sido pìntor de cámara de Carlos III antes que el de Fuendotodos. Excelente ejemplo de esta mirada atrás, tan acorde, por otro lado con el reinado de Fernando VII, es su Familia de Carlos IV, encargada por la Universidad de Valenciay posterior a la de Goya aunque mucho menos novedosa que ésta. No olvidemos que López pintaba todavía en Valencia y que, además, el cuadro de Goya no fue del agrado de los reyes por su excesivo realismo en la pintura de tan poco agraciada familia como era en aquel momento la española.
Con todo, es en este tipo de pintura donde más claro se muestra el aspecto que más se ha criticado a López: un excesivo apego a la técnica a costa de la espontaneidad de pincelada y tema que hacen que algunos de sus bocetos resulten más interesantes que los cuadros acabados. Trató también López los temas históricos y mitológicos, bien que, tal y como acabamos de ver con la pintura cortesana, al modo de del XVIII. De esta faceta destacaremos cuadros como Los Reyes Católicos recibiendo la embajada del rey de Fez.
Con todo, lo mejor y los más abundante de la obra de Vicente López son los retratos, en los que detaca por la búsqueda de calidades visuales y tactiles hasta el extremo de que, a veces, los detalles hacen perder importancia al rostro del retratado. Es el caso de retratos tan suntuosos como el de la reina María Cristina de Borbón. Por esta causa, se han alabado sobre todo aquellos retratos en los que la vestidura del retratado es sobria (así el del Marqués de la Remisa) o en el que el formato de medio cuerpo permiten dar mayor expresión al rostro (así el llamado Médico de Fernando VII). Con todo, los años irán compatibilizando el gusto de pintor por los detalles con el retrato en sí, lo que se muestra de forma especialmente brillante en el gran Retrato del General Narváez, firmado sólo unos días antes de su muerte. Es digno de destacarse también el Retrato de Goya, probablemente la imagen más conocida del pintor de Fuende, todos junto con el Autorretrato, del que resulta complementario por lo acabado del cuadro y por la certeza con la que está captado el fuerte carácter de Goya. A partir de copias, tenemos noticia de varios retratos como el del Duque de Bailén o el de Pedro González Vallejo.
Francisco de Goya (93x75 cm) _ Vicente López succeeded Goya as Royal Court Painter during the reign of Ferdinand VII and did this portrait of the old master on the occasion of a visit in 1826, to the court from Bordeaux, where the Aragonese painter was then living. Goya was then 80 and would die two years later. It was said that Goya got bored posing for his collegue who was very meticulous and a stickler for detail, and that for this reason the portrait is inferior to others by López. However, for this precise reason, and because of the strong personality of the model this is one of López's most lively works. Vicente López was a Neo-classicist but he retained certain traces of the Rococco style. In this impressive depiction of Goya's face, one can see the Neo-classical emphasis on masterly drawing, though in this case it is done with less rigidity, resulting in the remarkable rendering of the severe features of the elderly Goya. The warmer tones of the palete and the back of the chair contrast with the cold tones of Goya's suit. It would be difficult to better reflect the personality of the great Spanish painter Goya.
–- Saint Sebastian Tended by Saint Irene (1800, 78x64cm; 960x774pix, 69kb) _ This painting illustrates the Roman widow Irene nursing Saint Sebastian back to health after he was discovered to be a Christian and shot with arrows by Roman archers. Writhing in pain, Saint Sebastian looks heavenward as Saint Irene pulls arrows from his pierced body. Vicente López y Portaña dynamically composed the figure of Sebastian, with one arm tied above his head and his other arm held by an attendant, in order to more clearly display the wounds on his upper body and to allude to the martyrdom of Christ. Sebastian's bent leg reveals the bleeding gash from which Irene has already removed one arrow. As she leans toward Sebastian's knee, she carefully pulls the saint's flesh in order to extract a second arrow. In the foreground, the depiction of the armor and weapons Sebastian wore as a military captain signals that this event occurred in ancient Rome. López y Portaña's luscious palette and creamy application of paint contrast with the drama and emotion of this religious story. Like Andrea Lilio's Figures Tending to the Wounded Saint Sebastian, this painting differs from representations that show the Saint bound to a tree or pillar, moments after the shooting.