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ART “4” “2”-DAY  14 November v.9.a0
^ Died on 14 November 1625: Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Italian painter and sculptor born in 1574.
— The most distinguished member of a family of artists, he was born in Bologna and worked mainly in Milan, where the family settled when he was a child, and also in Modena and Genoa. Initially he worked mainly as a sculptor, but after about 1600 he concentrated on painting and became one of the leading painters in Milan. His style was eclectic but often very powerful, combining something of the emotional tension of Mannerism with the dynamism and sense of physical presence of the Baroque. His colors tend to be acidic, his handling of light and shade dramatic. Many of his paintings are still in Milan, but two large scenes from Christ's Passion (perhaps part of a series) are in Edinburgh and Sheffield. His father Ercole Procaccini I [bap. 23 Feb 1520 – 13 Jan 1595], and his brothers, Camillo [1554 – 21 Aug 1629] and Carlo Antonio [13 Jan 1571 – 1630] were also painters, as was Carlo Antonio's son, Ercole Procaccini II [bap. 06 Aug 1605 – 02 Mar 1680].
— Having moved to Milan with the rest of the family in the mid-1580s, Giulio Cesare Procaccini was trained as a sculptor, perhaps in the workshop of Francesco Brambilla II, and then worked (1591–1599) for the workshop of Milan Cathedral. The results of this work are difficult to identify, and the most secure attribution is the left term on the altar of St Joseph. There followed a period (1597–1602) of intense sculptural activity for the church of Santa Maria presso San Celso, for the façade of which he executed two high reliefs in marble, the Visitation and Birth of the Virgin. In 1597 he may have accompanied his brother Camillo to Reggio Emilia, where Camillo added to his earlier fresco decorations for San Prospero. Between 1597 and 1600 Giulio Cesare is documented as working as a sculptor for Cremona Cathedral, to which two sculptures, Saint Matthew and Saint John, were delivered, after many delays, in 1625. He also produced the gilded wood Guardian Angel (1597) for Santa Monica, Cremona. From Cremona he went to Parma, where he studied the works of Correggio, Parmigianino, and Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli, which had a significant impact on the style of his early paintings.

Madonna and Child with Saints and Angels
The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
Saint Sebastian Tended by Angels (1612, 285x139cm)
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine (145x145cm)
The Annunciation (1620, 237x164cm; 700x513 framed, 61kb) _ Probablement peint pour l'autel d'une église. Procaccini a traité à plusieurs reprises ce sujet, que ce soit pour d'autres tableaux d'autel, des oeuvres de dévotion ou l'ornement d'un devant d'autel.
–- The Assumption of the Virgin (1273x900pix, 134kb)
— /S#*>Study of 3 Heads of Children (1625, 26x35cm; 181kb) _ The liveliness and life-like quality of these three heads indicate that they were almost certainly painted directly from life. The figures are shown in profile, frontal and three-quarter views and, given the generic similarity of their features, it is not impossible that all three were painted from a single model. It is tempting to assume that the child (or children) are to be identified as Giulio Cesare’s own but there is not enough biographical information to confirm such a theory: all we know is that at the time of his death Giulio Cesare had three adult daughters - Cecilia, Prassede and Virginia - from his wife Isabella Visconti, whom he had married in May 1600. The child at the left holds up a medal, whilst the child in the center wears a coral necklace (as the Christ Child is often seen wearing) and the rightmost child has been transformed into a figure of the Child Saint John the Baptist through the addition of an animal-hide and reed cross. Though these figure studies were produced as life-like portraits, Procaccini probably intended such pictures to remain in his studio so that he could re-use the heads for putti or other secondary figures in his larger compositions.
Virgin and Child With Angels, in a garland (800x582pix, 124kb) the garland of flowers is the main subject.
^ >Born on 14 November 1885: (Sarah Sophie Stern Terk) Sonia Delaunay, Russian French painter, designer, and printmaker, born in the Ukraine, active in France, where in 1910 she married Robert Delaunay [12 Apr 1885 – 25 Oct 1941]. She died on 05 December 1979. (She was born on the 45th birthday of Monet, and died on the 53rd anniversary of his death)
— She was the youngest of three children and in 1890 was adopted by her maternal uncle, Henri Terk, a lawyer in Saint Petersburg, where she spent her youth. She had early contacts with Germany, visiting the artist Max Liebermann in Berlin (1899) and studying drawing under Ludwig Schmidt-Reutter [1863–1909] in Karlsruhe from 1903 to 1905. In 1905 she moved to Paris to study at the Académie de la Palette. There she met Amédée Ozenfant, André Dunoyer de Segonzac, and Jean-Louis Boussingault. She learnt printmaking from Rudolf Grossmann [1882–1941]. Her early painting was figurative, with frequent references to van Gogh, Gauguin and the Fauves. The links with Germany continued after her move to France: she exhibited at the Erster Deutscher Herbstsalon at the Galerie Der Sturm, Berlin, in 1913 and again at the Galerie Der Sturm in 1920 and 1921.
— Sonia Delaunay was a true Renaissance woman of many talents and aspirations. Although she found incredible successes in her life as a wife, mother, socialite, businesswoman and artist, she often lived in the shadow of her husband, Robert Delaunay. It was only decades after her husband’s death that Sonia Delaunay acquired the attention and appreciation that she fully deserved. As a vanguard of the modern female artist movement, Sonia exerted an influence upon the world of art and culture that remains unforgettable and momentous.
      Sonia Delaunay was born Sarah Stern in the small Ukrainian town Gradizhsk. As a young child, Sonia loved her father immensely and hated her mother just as strongly. She was impressed by the fortitude, honesty and calmness of her father, who worked as a hard laborer in a nail factory. On the other hand, her mother, an incessant complainer, irked the future artist. The general likes and dislikes Sonia found in her parents would greatly influence her own personality development later on in life, even though she was separated from both her father and her mother at the age of five when she was adopted by her uncle Henri Terk. Henri was an auspicious lawyer in St. Petersburg and was married to a relatively powerful wife named Anna. The affluent Jewish couple adopted the child in 1890 and renamed her Sonia Terk. In Saint-Petersburg, Sonia lived in the Terks’ beautiful home, furnished with her uncle’s formal studies and reproductions of famous paintings; she also received the best education money could buy. Every summer, the Terks traveled around Europe, staying at their Finnish country home and visiting the most prominent art galleries and museums on the continent. Thus, Sonia developed a taste for the arts at quite an early age.
      Sonia did not receive formal artistic training until she was 16, when she was enrolled in one of St. Petersburg’s most respected secondary schools. There, her art teacher urged the Terks to send the precocious Sonia to Germany so that she could study art more seriously. Sonia finished her secondary school studies at the age of 18 and immediately entered the Karlsruhe Academy of Fine Arts. The Terks, aware that Sonia would be alone and independent for the most part, preferred to school her in Karlsruhe rather than in Munich so that Sonia could be close to extended family members. From 1903 to 1905, Sonia studied under a strict professor who helped her develop a strong stylistic foundation. In 1905, Sonia left for Paris, the center for arts and entertainment, and would rarely return to Russia thereafter.
      Sonia loved life in Paris -- the excitement, the experimentation, the creativity. At first, she roomed with four other Russian girls in a pension on rue Campagne Premier. Every night, the girls entertained large parties of friends. In addition to having an active social life, Sonia had a serious academic career at the Académie de la Palette in Montparnasse. However, she grew to dislike the harsh, critical teaching style used by her professors and decided to paint on her own for the most part. Her paintings at this time, such as Finnish Landscape (1906) and Three Nudes (1908), were heavily influenced by Van Gogh, Gauguin and Matisse, and it is obvious in these paintings that Sonia was struggling to find her own style.
      Sonia soon came into contact with Wilhem Uhde, an influential art dealer and collector. He was an outgoing and charismatic man of bourgeois upbringing, and was thus able to penetrate Parisian art circles quite effortlessly. When Sonia met Uhde, he had already established an impressive art collection of Fauvist works. Sonia was immediately drawn to Uhde, particularly to his knowledge of modern art. On 05 December 1908, the two were married unexpectedly in a civil ceremony in London and had a brief honeymoon at the Bucklers Hotel. Ultimately, however, their marriage appears to have been loveless and based only upon intellectual similarities and social usefulness. Their marriage of convenience allowed Sonia to remain in Paris in spite of pressure from her family to return to Russia, while it allowed Uhde to hide his homosexuality. Sonia further benefited from the marriage through Uhde’s power in the art world. He housed solo shows of her early Parisian artwork and introduced her to the artistic elite. Nonetheless, Sonia still had not defined her personal style and continued to mimic the styles of the masters.
     In 1909, Sonia met Robert Delaunay and they mated shortly thereafter. The two had numerous similarities, such as having been brought up by rich extended relatives. Most of all, though, they shared a comparable love for art. Uhde and Sonia divorced in 1910, and Sonia immediately married Robert. The Delaunays’ son Charles was born just two months after their wedding. The family ate, drank and breathed art, exchanging ideas, working next to one another, and constructively criticizing each other’s work. The Delaunays lived well beyond their means and entertained large groups of friends, spending money they never had. Every Sunday, their home became an open house to young avant-garde artists.
      Sonia Delaunay never separated the decorative arts from the fine arts, and she gave as much attention to the design of furniture around the home as she did to large canvasses. Her talent was completely instinctive, as Sonia -- for her own amusement -- created numerous everyday trinkets of contrasting and complementary colors for their home. Sonia also became interested in dressmaking. She used random scraps of material in adventurous combinations for her family’s clothing, although she was not initially interested in the fashion world. Around this time, Sonia became obsessed with color. Her paintings explored the power, versatility and vibrancy of colors. Furthermore, she encouraged Robert to paint with color, as many of his paintings had become more and more monochromatic.
      Throughout their marriage and even after Robert’s death, Sonia put herself and her needs in the background, emphasizing those of her husband. Robert became so obsessed with painting that he neglected to take care of himself and his son. In addition, his temper was also hard to control. Nonetheless, Sonia loved Robert unconditionally, and she kept quiet about these dissatisfactions. Sadly, the family was temporarily separated soon after Charles’ birth when their son became ill. Sonia moved with Charles to Nice to stay with relatives, and then moved to Normandy. Alone, Robert and Sonia were able to study one another’s work. By the time the two were reunited, their artwork had become extremely abstract.
^     In 1912, the Delaunays’ close friend Guillame Apollinaire came to live in their studio. Apollinaire had undergone trial for the disappearance of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre and sought refuge in the Delaunays’ home. Sonia and Robert defended their friend earnestly throughout the whole process. Apollinaire was one of the most devoted fans of the Delaunays’ artwork and had termed their interpretation of Cubist style “Orphism.”
      In 1914, Sonia was persuaded by a friend to move the family to Madrid. There, their son Charles caught typhoid fever. Robert had little talent as a father, so Sonia was left to care for Charles herself. To reconnect, the couple took a seaside vacation together when Charles was better. Afterwards, Sonia returned to Paris to prepare their apartment. However, when she went back to Madrid for her family, she found Robert again totally immersed in his work and captivated by the Iberian landscape. Nonetheless, the Spanish heat was too intense, and the Delaunays decided to move instead to coastal Portugal so that Robert could continue his art in cooler surroundings. Sonia immediately fell in love with all of Portugal and began painting day into night. As seen in paintings such as Disk (1916), the vibrant colors and light of the Iberian Peninsula had captivated her as well, and she was the happiest she had ever been.
     In 1921, the Delaunays returned to Paris. Soon after their return, Sonia began working with Dada propagandist Tristan Tzara on fashion pieces and fabric designs. Together, the two created the famous “poem-dresses” and the costumes for Tzara’s play Coeur à Gaz. Sonia was gaining worldwide attention with her fabrics of geometric designs. Even Hollywood actresses were buying her designs, thus funding the Delaunay lifestyle. Delaunay’s artistry had turned into a business enterprise, and her apartment became a boutique, fashion studio and fabric house. In 1925, Sonia featured her fashion designs in the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs. Sonia also gave an impressive lecture at the Sorbonne on the influence of painting on clothing designs. In this lecture, Sonia also introduced the novel idea of prêt-à-porter clothing and other newfound freedoms in women’s fashion.
      In the 1930s, the Great Depression put Sonia’s life on hold. The demand for fine art was dwindling, and the Delaunay family could not depend on painting for income. Sonia saw this as an incredible opportunity to withdraw from her artistic career and encouraged Robert to do the same. The two wasted away their days enjoying one another’s company and living a carefree lifestyle. By the end of the 1930s, they faced financial failure and once again had to promote their artwork to support their lifestyle. Both Sonia and Robert’s artwork was featured in a myriad of exhibitions towards the end of this decade.
      The 1937 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans La Vie Moderne showcased some of Sonia’s best work. For two years, Sonia worked on the decoration of two exhibition buildings, though she threatened to withdraw her name from the Exposition contract after several disputes with Félix Aublet, the decorator in charge. Nevertheless, the Exposition works were eventually displayed and garnered much money for the Delaunays. A few months after the Exposition, Sonia suffered a severe asthma attack and was informed that she had emphysema. The news had no effect on her life, however, and she continued to work just as hard as ever, becoming even more dedicated to abstract art.
      In 1941, Robert died. Immediately after his death, Sonia organized retrospectives of his work as a tribute to his life. To some, it seemed as though she kept herself alive by keeping Robert’s memory alive. To finance this expedition, she sold most of her major possessions and rented out her apartment in Mougins. Sonia lived instead in random hotels and in friends’ homes, selling Robert’s paintings now and then if she could. When Sonia returned to Paris in January of 1945, she was about 60 years old and depressed. Her apartment in Paris was a mess, her health was in shambles, and her financial situation was tenuous. Charles, who had experienced much success with the Parisian radio scene, constantly criticized his mother for her reckless spending habits. Furthermore, she was a bit disillusioned by the young Parisian artists who in her opinion lacked a necessary spirituality. Although she enjoyed their company, she had little faith in their artwork, which was quite academic and theoretical rather than instinctual. In 1946, Sonia wanted only to be alone for a bit in the town of Gambais. She would not produce any artwork again until 1950, when she collaborated with Hans Arp and Alberto Magnelli on a lithograph project. During the 1950s, Sonia began to feel a bit overlooked, for her artwork had received little to no attention. Having come to the conclusion that Robert’s work had gained enough notice, she decided to concentrate on her own artwork. She painted prolifically during this period, pumping out and exhibiting numerous gouache paintings. In the 1960s, she again went through bouts of depression, as many of her friends had been dying. She was faced with bleak loneliness and trusted nobody.
      In 1964, Sonia, almost 80 years old, met the writer/poet/art-enthusiast/editor Jacques Damase at the Opéra in Paris. She felt a strangely comfortable attraction to Damase and confided in him her deepest thoughts. She went to London to see him in 1965, and the two soon began to see each other regularly. Following her maternal instincts, she wished to cure his drinking and emotional problems. Similarly, Damase looked after Sonia, providing her with a selfless and supportive friendship. Damase helped coordinate Sonia’s most important retrospective, a full-scale tribute to her works at the Musée National d’Art Moderne. Sonia had finally gained the respect she was in search of and truly enjoyed the fame. For the rest of her life, Sonia lived in the lap of luxury, wearing the finest clothing and traveling to the most cultured places. Sonia died peacefully in her studio.
      Sonia Delaunay never stood on the shoulders of her husband or friends. By making a well-respected name for herself and by herself, Sonia also made a name for women artists in general. Despite being faced with endless adversity, Sonia never once deserted her position in life as mother, wife or artist. Her fortitude, combined with her incredible skill, allowed her to become one of the most esteemed artists in modern history.

Couverture (1911) This quilt was made for the Delaunays’ son Charles before his birth. The blanket is composed of various patches of fur and fabric, much like the fabric worn by Russian peasants at the time. The fabric pieces show geometric design patterns, and their arrangement is clearly Cubist. The blanket served as a model for many of Sonia’s later works and is one of Sonia’s early experiments with abstract art. The patterns and materials are completely random. The piece’s harmony also indicates that Sonia paid extreme attention to color composition.
endpapers and binding for Blaise Cendrars' Pâques à New York (1912) _ Soon after designing the Couverture, Delaunay made a series of appliqué collage bookbindings, most notably for Cendrars' Pâques à New York. Similar in this respect to the quilt, the bookbindings play with the effects of juxtaposed surfaces. Appearing frequently are the Russian folk art motifs, the rainbow and the arc, as well as the triangles and trapezoids of patchwork construction that Delaunay was using in her paintings during the same period (Le Bal Bullier is one example). These motifs serve as building blocks that can be detached and reassembled in each subsequent design. Delaunay's procedure accentuates the autonomy of the unit or building block; each shape remains distinct even while participating in a larger composition. The detachable quality of the building blocks reminds the viewer of the initial gesture of the simultaneous craft, that of assembling rather than inventing, selecting rather than originating.
Le Bal Bullier (1912-1913) _ One series of Sonia’s early large-scale works that explored simultaneous color contrast. The Bal Bullier was a famous dancehall where the Delaunays and their friends often met. It was extremely popular among students and shop girls, but many poets and artists frequented the haunt to take up the stylish new dances, such as the fox trot and tango. These new dance forms inspired Sonia to create this painting, as she was fascinated with the way colors swirled in the figures of the dancers. Sonia used mattress ticking in all four versions of the Bal Bullier paintings because she could not afford real canvasses. Sonia loved painting colors in motion, and in these paintings, she adopts the point of view of the dancer in that everything shown is in constant motion. The lines are swirling and chaotic, and the technique is obviously abstract. Thus, the painting can be read from any direction. The colors of this painting are relatively muted. Greens and dark blues shadow the bright reds and oranges. The Bal Bullier experiences would also be the basis for many of the dresses Sonia designed later on in her career.
Automne (tapestry, 227x167cm; 799x575pix, 63kb)
Rayures (1925; 600x833pix, 138kb) _ a design for a mattress-cover?
Electric Prisms (1914; 400x400pix 71kb) _ These works were originally exhibited in the Salon des Indépendants. Sonia used a myriad of materials in this study series, including crayons, watercolor, cut papers and oil paints. She was obsessed with the nature of light, especially the way in which light from electric street lamps was distorted into halos as it fell onto the Parisian streets. These street lamps were a relatively novel invention at the time and replaced the old Parisian gaslights. In these paintings, Sonia showcased circles of light distorted by a prism. The paintings evoke feelings of movement, depth and rhythm quite effectively through Sonia’s masterful manipulation of color combinations.
Marché au Minho (1916, 197x216cm) _ One of the paintings Sonia created during her joyful stay in Vila de Conde in northern Portugal. There, the light was kind to her art. Sonia wrote, “The light of Portugal was not violent, but exalted every color.” Sonia was inspired by the many intense colors found in the peasants’ houses, clothing, food and ceramics. She also liked the straight, planar lines used in the Portuguese architecture. In this painting, Sonia freed herself from formal arrangement. The placement of colors and shapes is quite haphazard.
–- Éclipse (1975, 129x177cm; 668x900pix, 37kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 891x1200pix, 77kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1169x1575pix, 97kb) _ The waste of bandwidth by this image devoid of details has prompted the pseudonymous Trevor Duvinmeur to make his own improved and highly efficient edition:
      _ Egg Lips (2005; 480x600pix, 10kb _ ZOOM to 800x1000pix, 19kb) and the creatively modified
      _ Egg Laps (2005; 480x600pix, 12kb _ ZOOM to 800x1000pix, 25kb)
–- Untitled (600x1094pix, 53kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 900x1640pix, 138kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1575x2870pix, 332kb) _ somewhat similar to Éclipse.
–- Untitled (Composition) (714x570pix, 66kb _ .ZOOM to 1190x950pix, 142kb)
–- Untitled (799x613pix, 25kb _ .ZOOM to 1199x920pix, 46kb)
–- Untitled (903x775pix, 48kb)
–- Rythme Coloré (895x600pix, 38kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1342x900pix, 76kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 2348x1575pix, 183kb)
–- different Rythme Coloré (700x516pix, 33kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1050x775pix, 74kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1575x1162pix, 111kb)
–- Untitled (1966; 609x485pix, 21kb)
–- Untitled (1966; 732x527pix, 37kb)
–- Untitled (1966; 282x252pix, 6kb)
— article: High Decoration: Sonia Delaunay, Blaise Cendrars, and the Poem as Fashion Design
^ Died on 14 November 1676: Jacques Courtois “le Bourguignon”, French painter specialized in cavalry battles, born on 12 February 1621. — {puisqu'il était Courtois, je serai courtois avec lui en ne faisant aucune plaisanterie sur son nom}.
— Jacques Courtois and his brother Guillaume [1628-1679] were active in Italy and often known by the Italian forms of the names, Giacomo and Guglielmo Cortese. They came from Burgundy and both had the nickname Il Borgognone or Le Bourguignon. Jacques was a prolific painter of battle scenes, fairly close in style to those of Salvator Rosa, but more colorful.
      Courtois is an example of a painter who has escaped notice in terms of art history, because of both his isolation from his native Franche Comté (incorporated into France by Louis XIV) and his lack of association with Italian art, even though he spent his whole career in Rome. Courtois evolved the archetypal small battle piece, depicting plenty of violence and the smoke of combat, a format that was to remain standard right up to the end of the eighteenth century, though few of its exponents were French. Authentic works by Courtois frequently appear on the art market, but much of his oeuvre has till to be identified.

Bataille de Mongiovino (138x276cm) _ The painting is one of a series of battle pieces representing the victories of the patron, in this instance against the troops of Pope Urban VIII in 1643. The painting is signed in the center by the Italian name of the artist: Iacomo Cortesi.
Bataille d'Arbelles, 331 av. J.C. (188x328cm; 402x726pix, 78kb poor definition)
Rencontre de Cavaliers (74x96cm; 474x600pix, 85kb poor definition)

Died on a 14 November:

1992 Gregorio Prieto MuŮoz [02 May 1897–], Spanish painter.
— (collapsed Greek column) (1850x2500pix, 2395kb)
— (Greek temple)
— (Greek ruins)
— different (Greek ruins)
Luna de miel en Taormina (1936; 908x879pix, 113kb). Two life-sized articulated wooden puppets, next to part of a ruined statue. —(091114)

1908= Lorenzo Delleani, Italian painter born on 17 January 1840. He attended the Accademia Albertina in Turin, and he first exhibited work at the Società Promotrice delle Belle Arti in Turin at the age of 15. Having already made his name as a history painter, from 1860 he painted from nature, dedicating himself primarily to landscapes with figures, for example the famous Processions, a genre in which he is today considered as one of the most important artists of his time. Delleani worked on such paintings, all of the same format, daily and dated each precisely. His earliest landscapes were small-scale views of Venice and its lagoon, dating from 1873. In 1878 he completed some smaller works on panel, such as The Orchard, The Seine at Paris, and The Market Place at Berne.

1884 Frederick William Hulme, British painter born (full coverage) on 22 October 1816. —(081114)

1884 Abraham Hulk I, Dutch British artist born on 01 May 1813. – {Known as “the incredible Hulk”?}
Unloading the Barges -- Kruseman ^
1857 Cornelis Kruseman
, Dutch artist born on 25 September 1797. At the age of 14 he attended a drawing academy in Amsterdam, where he was taught by Charles Hodges and J. A. Daiwaille [1786–1850] among others. He painted portraits (e.g. Mrs Brak-Haskenhoff, 1818), biblical subjects and Italian peasant scenes, which are reminiscent of the works of his French contemporary Léopold Robert. He worked in a classicizing style, which favored pure line and ideal beauty. He went to Italy in 1821, spending two years in Rome, where he was particularly inspired by the picturesque details of Italian daily life and studied the Italian Old Masters. Typical of his work from this period is Piety, which combines, with careful lighting and modeling, a religious scene, a history piece and an imaginative treatment of local peasant life. After his return from Italy in 1825 Kruseman settled in The Hague, where he lived until 1854. He was in Italy again between 1841 and 1848, where he produced such paintings as The Captured Butterfly. — The students of Cornelis Kruseman included his nephew Jan Adam Kruseman [12 Feb 1804 – 17 Mar 1862], Alexander Hugo Bakker Korff, David Joseph Bles, Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate [16 Feb 1822 – 26 Mar 1891], Johan Philip Koelman, Raden Saleh. — Unloading the Barges (26x37cm) >>>

^ 1813 Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Hoüel, French painter and engraver born on 28 June 1735. He was born into a family of prosperous artisans and at the age of 15 was sent to the drawing academy in Rouen run by Jean-Baptiste Descamps [1715–1791]. Presumably Descamps introduced him to the art of 17th-century Dutch and Flemish artists. Descamps also recommended his promising pupil to the Paris engraver Jacques-Philippe Le Bas, whose studio HoŁel entered in 1755. While in Paris HoŁel taught engraving to the celebrated amateur Blondel d’Azincourt (who had inherited a superb collection from his father Blondel de Gagny). This was HoŁel’s entry into cultivated high society, including the circle of the enlightened patron and hostess Mme. Geoffrin. — LINKS
–- S*>#Sicilian Woman and Girl (1779, 24x18cm; 800xpix, 59kb)
Rocks by the Shore in the Bay of La Trizza (1779, 28x42cm; 575x849pix, 208kb)

^ 1797 Januarius Johann Rasso Zick, German painter and architect born on 06 February 1730. He was first trained with by his father Johann Zick [10 Jan 1702 – 04 March 1762] and was then apprenticed (1745–1748) to the master mason Jacob Emele [1707–1780] in Schussenried – hence his later description of himself as pictor et architectus. Januarius’s first dated painting is from 1750: Saint Benedict Awakens a Monk from Death. He went on working under his father, with interruptions, until 1759, on commissions that included frescoes and panels at WŁrzburg and Bruchsal. His panel paintings include David Playing the Harp Before Saul (1753) and closely imitate the ‘Rembrandt’ style of his father. In 1757, during a visit to Paris, he studied with the copper-engraver Jean-Georges Wille and met his French contemporaries. He then went via Basle to Rome, where he completed his studies with Anton Raphael Mengs. In 1758 Zick became a member of the Augsburg academy and won a prize for Mercury in the Sculptor’s Workshop. In the same year he painted 34 panels for the ‘Watteau-Kabinett’ in Schloss Bruchsal (destroyed in 1945), using his Paris experience.
— The painters of the Zick family worked for over five generations in the 18th and 19th centuries in Upper Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia, and the Rhineland. Johann Zick and his son Januarius Zick were primarily fresco painters, though the latter also did many panel paintings. They included the direct descendants descendant of Januarius Zick, Konrad Zick [1773-1836], Gustav Zick [1809-1886], and Alexander Zick [1845-1907], who, while relatively minor figures, all shared a gift for portrait painting.
— Gerhard von KŁgelgen was a student of Januarius Zick.
–- Morning at the Farm (56x41cm; 687x489pix, 44kb _ .ZOOM to 1371x976pix, 128kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2748x1956pix, 803kb) {very early morning, just before sunrise, so dark that you can't see much}.
–- Midday Meal at the Farm (1773, 55x39cm; 676x478pix, 27kb _ .ZOOM to 1357x957pix, 119kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2715x1916pix, 662kb) {now they're indoors, no outside window, so it's still rather dark}. Grandma is trying to restrain Mom who is interrupting her nursing of the baby to beat up her boy who is pulling the hair of one sister while the other sister howls. Dad is standing, pointing at the commotion with his hand holding a knife, while Grandpa just glares disgustedly.
–- S*>#Noli Me Tangere — Hagar and Ismael Being Sent Away (2 pictures in one image, each 43x30cm; 1329x896pix and 1329x901pix, together 455kb)
–- S*>#An Amorous Couple – A Sleeping Boy Caught by a Girl (2 pictures in one image, each 34x25cm; each 831x596pix, together 269kb) the first painting bears the signature F. Boucher [29 Sep 1703 – 30 May 1770].
Coriolan und die rŲmischen Frauen (1791,57x72cm; 520x671pix, 33kb)
Two Putti (23x21cm; 599x531pix, 118kb) _ detail 1 (531x791pix, 201kb) _ detail 2 (571x531pix, 143kb)
–- S*>#The Poultry Seller (53x79cm; 350x544pix, 63kb) — (060625)

^ 1673 Mario Nuzzi (de Fiori, della Penna), Italian flower painter born in 1603. Mario Nuzzi was admitted to the Virtuosi at the Pantheon in 1646 and in 1657 he became a member of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. He specialised in painting flower still lifes and enjoyed the patronage of some of the most important families in Rome: the Chigi (1658-1659), Barberini (1661), and Colonna (painted mirrors with figures by Carlo Maratta), for example. Nuzzi's reputation as a painter of still lifes grew in both patrons' and artists' circles: Abraham Brueghel famously admired him in a letter of 1671. Nuzzi built a family house on a street in Rome that still bears his name (Via de' Fiori), and he was reputedly shut away there by his family a year before he died, due to his apparent madness.
Ritratto di Mario Nuzzi che dipinge un vaso di fiori (195x265cm; 344x510pix, 41kb) painted in collaboration with Giovanni Maria Morandi, who presumably did the portrait while Mario Nuzzi did his usual flowers... twice.
–- S*>#Still Life with Roses, Carnations, Poppy Anemones, Cornflowers, Irises, Lilies and Other Flowers in a Blue Sculpted Stone Vase (74x61; _ /S#*>ZOOM to 1677x1320pix, 311kb)
–- S*>#Still Life of Carnations, Lilies, Peonies, Irises, and Other Flowers in a Stone Urn on a Pedestal (66x51cm; 1172x900pix, 213kb)
Bouquet de fleurs dans un vase oil on canvas 51,5 x 33 cm; 667x400pix, 52kb)
–- S*>#Still Life of Various Flowers in an Ormulu Vase with Puttil (98x75cm; 510x385pix, 68kb) 98.2 by 74.8 cm.; 38ĺ by 29Ĺ in.
Vaso di Fiori Olio su tavola, cm 70 x 53 ; 600x450 x 600 pixels - 76kb)
— (2 still lifes of flowers in one image) (each 73x59cm; each 433x350pix, together 92kb) — (051113)

1540 Giovanni Battista di Jacopo Rosso Fiorentino, Italian painter born (full coverage) on 08 March 1495. — (060307)

1505 date sometimes given for the death of Alvise Luigi Vivarini, instead of the preferred date 06 September 1503.

Born on a 14 November:

1883 (10 Nov 1878?) Louis Casimir Ladislas “Marcoussis” (originally Markus), Polish French painter who died (main coverage) on 22 October 1941. —(071109)

^ 1856 Georges-Daniel de Monfreid, French painter who died on 26 November 1929.
Nature Morte aux Oranges (1903) — (060621)

1852 Antonio Mancini, Italian painter who died on 28 December 1930. He entered the Istituto di Belle Arti, Naples, at the age of 12; while still an adolescent he produced accomplished works such as Head of a Young Girl (1867). On his graduation in 1873, Mancini, together with Francesco Paolo Michetti and Vincenzo Gemito, was at the forefront of Verismo in Neapolitan art. Sharing a studio with Gemito, he painted the street boys, musicians, and dancers of Naples, creating an anti-academic, popular art. His patron, Albert, Count Cahen of Antwerp [1846–1903], encouraged him to visit Paris in 1875, where he met Manet and Degas. After a second visit in 1877, he lightened his previously somber palette and his style moved away from sensual modeling to become more decorative.

1840 Claude Monet, French painter who died (full coverage) on 05 December 1926.

1833 William Trost Richards, US painter who died (full coverage) on 08 November 1905.

1829 Hendrik Dirk Kruseman van Elten, Dutch artist who died on 12 July 1904.

^ 1800 Robert Léopold Leprince, French painter who died on 06 February 1847. — Relative? of Jean-Baptiste LePrince [1734-1781]? — This largely forgotten painter was born into a family of artists that included his father, the painter and lithographer Anne-Pierre Leprince, his better-known, though shorter-lived, brother Auguste-Xavier Leprince [28 Aug 1799 – 24 Dec 1826], and his brother Gustave Leprince [1810-1837]. Like Xavier, Leopold was principally a painter of landscape and genre. In 1822 he exhibited at the Paris Salon a “Troubadour” picture depicting the obscure subject of Charlemagne, led astray while hunting, discovers the waters of Aix-a-Chapelle. Shortly afterward, he is said to have painted the jockeys and the grass-covered ground in a horse-racing scene by his friend Théodore Géricault [26 Sep 1791 – 26 Jan 1824], probably Le derby de 1821 à Epsom (1821, 92x123cm; 562x800pix, 42kb _ ZOOM to 1124x1600pix, 161kb _ ZOOM+ to 2248x3200pix, 705kb). Beginning in 1825, Leprince exhibited a series of Swiss landscapes and paintings of Savoyards.
— La famille Leprince (ou Le Prince), engendra trois peintres de talent, dont la renommée a été éclipsée par des carrières trop courtes ou quelque peu marginales. La carrière d'Anne-Pierre Leprince, le fondateur de cette dynastie, nous est peu connue. Nous savons avec certitude qu'il fut lui-même peintre et qu'il enseigna ses connaissances de la technique picturale à ses enfants. Quel que soit son talent, il sut déployer suffisamment de séduction et de conviction pour transmettre sa passion pour la peinture à ses trois fils, Auguste-Xavier, Robert-Léopold, et Gustave. Auguste-Xavier nous a laissé un amusant lavis, sans doute exécuté vers 1820, dans lequel nous découvrons les divers membres de cette famille.
Des trois frères, l'aîné, Auguste-Xavier, fut le plus prometteur et, malgré sa mort précoce, à l'âge de 27 ans, il a laissé une production abondante. Reçu pour la première fois au Salon en 1819, il fut un élève brillant de l'Ecole Royale des Beaux-Arts, lauréat du concours d'esquisses en 1826. Grand admirateur de la peinture flamande et hollandaise, dont la facture soignée l'a beaucoup inspiré, il fut surtout paysagiste et peintre de genre, ayant une prédilection évidente pour les vues urbaines, animées de personnages. Un tableau très représentatif de sa manière délicate et de son sens raffiné de la lumière est L'Embarquement des bestiaux sur le Passager à Honfleur (1824). Ses scènes de villages (Marché aux chevaux dans un bourg normand) ou ses scènes de genre (L'ordination, 1827) connurent un certain succès. Il peignit également quelques portraits (Pierre Leprince et Gustave Leprince). Un de ses chefs-d'oeuvre est sûrement l'étonnant Paysage de Susten en Suisse (1824), qui constitue un témoignage original et pittoresque de la première manifestation des sports d'hiver et, surtout, de l'attirance pour le "sublime" des paysages alpestres. Nous avons peu de renseignements sur le cadet des Leprince, Gustave, lui aussi paysagiste, ayant appris le métier auprès de son père d'abord, puis avec son frère Robert-Léopold.
     Né à Paris, Robert-Léopold Leprince fut également l'élève de son père, puis de son frère aîné, qui lui enseignèrent une technique solide et l'encouragèrent à peindre dans le genre du paysage. L'homme semble secret, se retirant très tôt à Chartres, où il demeura durant toute sa vie, loin des obligations professionnelles de son métier. Il a exposé régulièrement au Salon entre 1822 et 1844, obtenant même une médaille de première classe en 1824, mais interrompant ses envois réguliers trois années avant sa mort. Il a également exposé régulièrement, entre 1825 et 1845, à Douai, Valenciennes et Lille. Un intéressant portrait à la plume, peut-être fait par son frère aîné, nous le montre de profil, la mine sévère et l'air ombrageux. Léopold Leprince connut cependant un certain succès auprès des amateurs, à partir de 1825, avec ses tableaux à sujets savoyards, souvenirs de voyages dans les Alpes (Vue des Alpes, 1843), et avec de petits paysages champêtres, dans lesquels il révélait une réelle virtuosité technique et un sens évident du pittoresque.
     Léopold Leprince aborda le genre du paysage historique (Scène mythologique) comme le paysage "champêtre" (Fête de village, Bagnères-de-Bigorre) et, bien sûr, les paysages purs, dans lesquels il excellait, peignant avec émotion sa région d'adoption, la Sarthe, dont il appréciait le calme et la variété de motifs (Paysage de la Sarthe, 1825; et Pré à Thorigni (Sarthe)), mais aussi d'autres régions françaises, comme le prouve la jolie Vue de Royat.
Interior of a Wood at Pierrefitte (282x425pix, 65kb)
Peasant Woman and Boy (46x38cm; 500x600pix, 57kb) _ On the side of a road a boy is sitting on a stone wall and is listening to a woman standing in front of him, and between them, her basket, shovel and brush. In the background, to their right, some small buildings on the edge of a wood, and to their left, a large river, and in the distance some boats on it.
Le Bas-Bréau à Chailly (1825, 40x34cm; 400x326pix, 129kb) Un paysage peint d'après nature dans la forêt de Fontainebleau. C'est à Chailly-en-Bière, village situé à la lisière de la forêt de Fontainebleau, à deux kilomètres et demi au nord de Barbizon, que Léopold Leprince devait séjourner durant ses voyages d'études dans cette région. Peut-être était-il installé à l'Auberge du Cheval Blanc, qui attirait alors les peintres avant qu'ils ne découvrent l'Auberge Ganne à Barbizon ? En sortant de Chailly, on pouvait pénétrer dans la forêt par un joli sentier forestier, auquel on donna le nom du lieu-dit de Bas-Bréau, et on allait ainsi au coeur des bois, jusqu'à l'actuel carrefour de Bas-Bréau. Tous les paysagistes travaillèrent dans ce lieu, les motifs de rochers et de sous-bois y étant innombrables et variés. Camille Corot y peignit de nombreuses études d'après nature, avant d'utiliser en 1835 les arbres de Bas-Bréau dans sa grande toile Agar dans le désert. Narcisse Diaz de la Peña y travaillait chaque été, tandis que Théodore Rousseau choisissait une vue de Bas-Bréau pour le représenter à son dernier Salon en 1867. Claude Monet y peignit un de ses premiers chefs-d'oeuvre. Le sens de la lumière, la virtuosité d'exécution des feuillages et la simplicité parfaite de cette étude de Robert-Léopold Leprince nous fait parfaitement comprendre comment cet artiste, à la formation et aux références classiques, se situe, au même titre que Corot, Edouard Bertin, et Caruelle d'Aligny, dans le courant novateur du paysage des années 1830, qui privilégiait, un demi-siècle avant l'impressionnisme, le réalisme et la quête du "sentiment de la nature" à toute forme d'intellectualisme.

updated Saturday 14-Nov-2009 21:24 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.a0 Friday 14-Nov-2008 17:22 UT
v.7.a0 Sunday 11-Nov-2007 3:17 UT
v.6.a0 Tuesday 14-Nov-2006 4:55 UT
Monday 14-Nov-2005 17:57 UT
Thursday 25-Aug-2005 20:43 UT
Thursday 04-Dec-2003 3:26 UT

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