search 8500 artists, their works, museums, movements, countries, time periods, media, specializations
<<< ART 06 Nov
ART 08 Nov >>>
ART “4” “2”-DAY  07 November v.8.a0
^ Died on 07 November 1708: Ludolf Backhuysen (or Bakhuizen, Bakhuisen, Bakhuyzen, Backhuyzen), Dutch Baroque marine painter, draftsman, calligrapher and printmaker, of German origin, active mainly in Amsterdam, born on 18 December 1631 (28 Dec 1630?). He may have died on 06 November 1708; his date of burial is 12 November 1708. Another source gives his date of death as 17 November 1708.
— After the van de Veldes moved to England in 1672, Backhuysen became the most popular marine painter in Holland. He captures the drama and movement of ships, but seldom achieves the poetic effects of either van de Velde the Younger [1633–1707] or Jan van de Capelle.
— He was born in Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], son of Gerhard Backhuszoon (Backhusen). Ludolf was trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practiced calligraphy throughout his life. He studied under Hendrik Dubbels and Allart van Everdingen. During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel, or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde
the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbor, others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway.

Ships in Distress in a Heavy Storm (1690)
Fishing Vessels Offshore in a Heavy Sea (1684, 65x98cm; 1325x2000pix; 1828kb)
Ships Running Aground in a Storm (1695, 173x341cm) _ While Dutch primacy in merchant shipping offered high rewards, its risks were equally significant. On their long journeys to the Mediterranean, the New World, Africa, and the East, merchant vessels were perennially endangered by warfare, piracy, treacherous shores, and storms. Several painters, most dramatically Ludolf Backhuysen, specialized in ships adrift in tempests. Backhuysen executed this painting (his largest surviving one) as if he were observing the disaster in the midst of the roiling seas, thus engaging beholders in the unfolding tragedy, encouraging them to empathize with the ships and their crews and to contemplate the powers of God, beyond full comprehension. But even as such paintings acknowledge the fragility of Dutch seaborne success, their distant shafts of sunlight usually hold out hope for reversals of misfortune. A brighter future may still save Backhuysen's ship at left, its Dutch flag unfurled against lightening skies. Collectors occasionally hung a tempest painting opposite a sunny shipping scene, implying that the power of God and nature, whether terrifying or benevolent, is always magnificent.
Ships in Distress off a Rocky Coast (1667) _ Backhuysen is the last representative of the great tradition of Dutch marine painting; eighteenth-century Dutch artists did much less of consequence in this category than in the others they practised. Backhuysen was born in Emden, Germany, and came to Amsterdam around the middle of the century where he remained for the rest of his life. His high-placed patrons include the burgomasters of Amsterdam, the Archduke of Tuscany, Czar Peter the Great, and various German princes. He is best known for his stormy scenes. When a storm threatened he sometime went by boat 'to the mouth of the Sea, in order to observe the crash of the Seawater under these conditions'. His Ships in Distress off a Rocky Coast shows the chilling drama he can bring to the theme. The large cargo ship in the centre is managing to make way along the perilous coast, while on the right, two vessels are in even greater danger. Later his storms become melodramatic, his chiaroscuro effects exaggerated, and his gigantic waves rather schematic and glass-like.
The Y at Amsterdam viewed from Mussel Pier (1673) [it is NOT the YMCA, but the River Y. Why? For one, the YMCA was founded in 1844, in London, by George Williams. Why Y for the name of the river? Is the Y Y-shaped?]
Ships on the Zuiderzee before Fort Naarden (1670; 600x791pix, 164kb _ ZOOM to poor quality 1400x1846pix, 370kb)
Slightly Rough Sea with Ships (1670; 600x1029pix, 218kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2402pix, 502kb)
^ Died on 07 November 1766: Jean-Marc Nattier, Parisian painter specialized in portraits, born on 17 March 1685, who, like his brother Jean-Baptiste Nattier [27 Sep 1678 – 23 May 1726], worked as a history painter, as had been the intention of their father, the portrait painter Marc Nattier [1642 – 24 Oct 1705], but Jean-Marc is best known for his fashionable portraits. His mother was the miniature painter Marie Nattier (née Courtois) [1655 – 13 Oct 1703].
— As well as being taught by his father, Jean-Marc Nattier was trained by his godfather, Jean Jouvenet, and attended the drawing classes of the Académie Royale, where in 1700 he won the Premier Prix de Dessin. From around 1703 he worked on La Galerie du Palais du Luxembourg. The experience of copying the work of Rubens does not, however, seem to have had a warming effect on his draftsmanship, which was described by the 18th-century collector Pierre-Jean Mariette as ‘cold’. Nattier was commissioned to make further drawings for engravers in the early part of his career, including those after Hyacinthe Rigaud’s famous state portrait of Louis XIV (1701) in 1710, which indicates that he had established a reputation while he was still quite young. Although he was offered a place at the Académie de France in Rome on the recommendation of Jouvenet, Nattier preferred to remain in Paris and further his career. In 1717 he nevertheless made a trip to Holland, where he painted portraits of Peter the Great and The Empress Catherine. The Tsar offered Nattier work at the Russian court, but the artist declined the offer. He remained in Paris for the rest of his life.
— Nattier succeeded Hyacinthe Rigaud as the leading court portraitist of France. The son and brother of artists, he began his studies under the sponsorship of his godfather, Jean-Baptiste Jouvenet. He received early professional encouragement from Louis XIV when, in 1701, Nattier presented his drawing for the engraving after Rigaud's full-length portrait of the king. He was also influenced by Le Brun and Rubens, whose paintings he copied in Paris. In 1717 he went to Holland to work for Peter the Great and the next year was elected to membership in the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. Thereafler he specialized in oil and pastel portraits, depicting the sitters as mythological figures. While reminiscent of a genre popular in the sixteenth century, these are completely different in spirit. Nattier portrayed many of the leading members of the court of Louis XV, but his reputation is firmly based on his portraits of the king, Queen Marie Lesczinska, and their daughters. He excelled as a painter of women, flattering his sitters by endowing them with the attributes of goddessesof Olympus and posing them against a backdrop of classical columns, sumptuous draperies, and decorative elements.
— Giuseppe Baldrighi and Louis Tocqué [19 Nov 1696 – 10 Feb 1772] {qui, n'étant pas toqué, a épousé la fille de Nattier} were students of Nattier.


–- Madame Boudrey as a Muse (1752, 130x97cm; recommended 1176x984pix, 67kb _ .ZOOM to 2352x1968pix, 474kb, which makes the dense network of aging paint cracks very noticeable, especially against the skin tones _ .ZOOM+ to 4704x3936pix, 877kb, you get rewarded for your patience during the long dowload, by seeing the paint cracks in their full glory.)
–- Terpsichore, Muse of Music and Dance (1739, 136x125cm; 1012x920pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to recommended 2024x1840pix, 499kb _ .ZOOM+ to 4048x3680pix, 2198kb, where you can barely see the very fine paint cracks, but quite plainly a lot of white specks on the harp and elsewhere at the lower right.)
–- Thalia, Muse of Comedy (1739, 136x125cm; recommended 978x888pix, 60kb _ .ZOOM to 1956x1776pix, 516kb _ .ZOOM+ to 3912x3552pix, 2181kb)
Queen Maria Leczinska (1748, 135x98cm; 599x436pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 2781x2024pix, 620kb)
Madame Henriette de France (1754; 599x446pix, 55kb _ ZOOM to 2328x1734pix, 551kb) with a big viola da gamba.
A Lady (1750; 599x436pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 2558x2024pix, 378kb)
Marie Adélaïde of France as Flora (1742, 94x128cm) _ In 1742 the Queen of France, Maria Leczinska, wife of Louis XV, impressed by Nattier's remarkable talent for portraits, requested that he paint her first daughter Henrietta [1727-1752]. A replica was made in 1745, probably for the Spanish Infanta Luisa Elisabetta, Henrietta's twin sister.
      The portrait shows Nattier's ability to construct an image that is something between 'naif' and 'flatterie'. The transposition into the mythological figure, the perfect turning of the body and the regularity of the brushstrokes do not suppress the characterization and recognizability of the face; the whole is rendered with a polished, silken pictorial style drawn from studies on Lebrun and Rubens.
Marie Adélaïde of France as Diana (1745, 95x128cm) _ This painting represents Marie-Adélaïde (1732-1800), the third daughter of Louis XV. It is signed and dated lower left: Nattier pinxit 1745. The pendant of the painting (Marie Adelaide of France as Flora) is also in the Uffizi. Nattier specialized in portraying his sitters in mythological or allegorical fancy dress, and achieved great success with these portraits.
Mademoiselle de Clermont "en Sultane" (1733, 109x105cm) _ The picture is a vivid example of French "turquerie" fashion; an elegant lady of the court, still wearing her ermine cloak, is painted as a sultana at the bath, surrounded by her slaves.
Comtesse de Tillières (1750, 80x63cm) _ The silk pelisse of the the Comtesse is trimmed with squirrel fur.

== Marc Nattier had a royal licence to reproduce the famous cycle of paintings The History of Marie de’ Medici by Rubens. Before he died, Marc made the licence over to his sons who produced a series of drawings after it for some of the foremost engravers of the day, including Gérard Edelinck, Bernard Picart and Gaspard Duchange. The drawings appeared in book form in 1710 under this cover:
du Palais

Dessinée par les S. Nattier , et gravée
Par les plus Illustres Graveurs du Temps.

A Paris Chez Le Sr. Duchange Graveur du Roy en son Academie
Royale de Peinture et Sculpture rue St. Jacques au dessus de la rue des Mathurins.
Avec Privilege de sa Majesté.
They include the following (all 50x35cm) [in small print, below the left corner of each is written something such as Rubens pinxit I.M. Nattier delineavit, or just Rubens pinxit; and at the lower right corner Carol! Simonneau major scul:1709 or I.M. Nattier delin. Cornellis Vermeunlen sculp. or I.M. Nattier delin. B. Picard sculpsit or A. Loir Sculp. ; at the lower right corner of each sheet potential purchasers are notified by a notice such as Se Vend à Paris chez le Sr.Duchange Graveur ordinaire du Roy rüe St.Jacques au dessus de la rue des Mathurins devant un Tapissier. Avec Privilege du Roy. or A Paris chez le Sr. Nattier peintre de l'Academie Royale rue Frementeau. Avec Privilege du Roy.]:
–- La Destinée de la Reine (1710; 1089x535pix, 97kb) _ The Rubens original (1625)
        Les Parques filent la vie de la Reine sous l'heureuse constellation de
Jupiter . Ce Dieu  est  caressé par Junon,qui est la Déesse des accou-
chemens,et qui veut assister à la naissance de la Princesse pour la rendre
digne de tous les honneurs ou peut atteindre une mortelle .

–- La Naissance de la Reine (1100x830pix, 156kb) _ .ZOOM (1350kb) _ The Rubens original (1625)
        Junon Lucine Deesse des accouchemens met la jeune Princesse entre les mains de la ville de Florence, qui la
reçoit tendrement entre ses bras, et dont elle admire les grandes destinées : ce qui est exprimé par un Génie qui tient
une corne d'abondance, d'ou sortent len marques de la Royauté. sur le devant du Tableau , est le fleuve d'Arno accom-
pagné des simboles qui le font connoître ; et le Sagittaire qui est en haut denote le tems de la naissance de la Reine.

–- Le débarquement de la Reine au port de Marseille (1710; 1102x836pix, 159kb) _ .ZOOM (1349kb) _ The Rubens original (1626, 394x293cm)
        L'Evêque de la ville de Marseille et la France, recoivent la Reine avec le dais sur un pont de barques,pendant que d'un
côté la Renommée dans l'air,annonce au peuple la venue de leur Reine, et que d'un autre côté, Neptune après avoir rendu
les flots favorables affermit la galère d'ou cette Princesse descent . Ce Dieu est accompagné de Sirennes et d'un Triton,qui de
concert avec la Renommée,entonne avec sa conque des sons d'allégresses .

L'Accouchement de la Reine (800xpix)
        La Reine qui vient de mettre au monde Loüis XIII . le regarde d'un amour maternel qui change en joye toutes
les douleurs de l'enfantement. D'un côté la Justice dovve ce nouveau Prince en garde au Genie de la Santé ; et de l'autre
est la fecondité qui dans sa corne d'abondance fait voir les cinq autres enfans qui doivent naître de la Reine . Le Soleil
dans son char prend sa course en haut et donne a connoître par là que l'accouchement arriva le matin ; et la constellation
de Castor qui est en haut marque qu'il fut heureux .

Le Roy part pour la guerre d'Allemagne (800xpix)
        Le Roy Henri IV . avant d'aller en Allemagne pour secourir les Marquis de Brandebourg et de Neubourg,
et les mettre en possession de Cleves et de Juliers, donne à la Reine le gouvernement de son Royaume . Entre eux
deux est le Dauphin, qui depuis fut Louis XIII.Du côté du Roy sont les officiers de son  armée sous  les  armes qui
attendent sa Majesté pour la suivre : et du côté de la Reine sont la Prudence et la Generosité .

Le Voyage de la Reine au Pont de Cé (800xpix)
        La Reine à cheval le casque en tête comme une autre Bellone,va prevenir une guerre civile qui se preparoit par les tumultes du
Pont de Cé. Cette Princesse est accompagnée de la Victoire,et de la Renommée qui sont en l'air, et de la Force qui la suit à pied avec son
Lion. Le fond du Tableau est la ville du Pont de Cé,et au dessus de la ville,on voit un aigle qui poursuit des oiseaux de rapine; Allegorie
qui signifie l'attention qu'avoit la Reine à dissiper les ennemis de l'Etat .

La Majorite du Roy Louis XIII (800xpix)
        La Reine donne au Roy Louis XIII. le gouvernement du Royaume, marqué par une barque a laquelle la Force,
la Religion, la Justice, et la Bonne foy donnent le mouvement. D'autres Vertus ont le soin des voiles , et mettent toutes
ensemble la France en sureté. On voit d'un côté les étoiles Castor et Pollux presages des voyages heureux : et de l'autre
sont deux Renommées qui publient la bonne conduite de la Reine au maniement des affaires.

La Reine s'enfuit de la ville de Blois (800xpix)
        Parmi tous ces Tableaux la Reine voulut qu'il y en  ut quelqu'un qui donnât des marques a la Posterité de sa mauvaise
fortune.C'est pour cela qu'elle fit peindre dans celui-cy sa fuite de Blois lors qu'elle fut contrainte de se sauver par la fenetre
de Château.Sa Majesté est accompagnée de Minerve,et escortée du Duc d'Epernon qui l'attendoit avec quelques gens armez:
Et pour ne laisser aucun doute  de  cette  action, le Peintre fait voir  une femme de chambre qui suit  la  Reine  et  descend
actuellement .

La Reine prend le parti de la paix (800xpix)
        La Reine tient Conseil à Angers avec les Cardinaux de la Valette & de la Rochefoucaut. Le dernier fait signe à cette
Princesse de prendre le rameau d'olive que lui resente Mercure,& la porte à faire la paix avec le Roy qui avoit envoyé des
Deputez pour travailler à un accomodement. Le Cardinal de la Valette au contraire lui retient le bras & donne a connoître
par là, qu'il est d'avis  que  la  Reine  soutienne  ses  interests  par  les  armes.  Auprès de la Reine est la Prudence qui lui
suggere de se tenir sur ses gardes .

La Conclusion de la Paix (800x564pix, 70kb)
        La Reine ayant accepté  le parti de s'accomoder  avec le Roy  est  conduite  par Mercure  au temple de la
Paix : l'Innocence l'y pousse , & la Paix sur le devant du tableau brûle les intrumens de la guerre pendant que la
Fraude, la Fureur & d'autres semblables vices veulent s'opposer aux bons desseins de la Reine & font un dernier effor
dans le transport de leur desespoir .

Marie de Medicis sous la forme de Minerve Déeße des Arts – DEDIÉ AU ROY (1708) (800xpix)
–- Le Tems decouvre la Verité (1710; 1138x564pix, 84kb) _ .ZOOM (2277x1128pix, 388kb)
        Le Peintre voulant faire voir que la mesintelligence qui avoit êté entre Louis
XIII. & Marie de Medicis sa mere ne venoit que des faux avis, a representé dans
ce tableau le Tems qui decouvre la Verité,pendant que le Roy & la Reine qui
avoient êté surpris par la malice des hommes se reconcilient a la face du  Ciel .

40 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
^ Baptized as an infant on 07 November 1598: Francisco Zurbarán, Spanish Baroque painter, specializes in Religious Subjects and in Still Life, who died on 27 August 1664.
— He was a painter of saints and churchmen. His use of sharply defined, often brilliant, colors, minute detail in simple compositions, strongly three-dimensional modeling of figures, and the shadowed light that brightly illuminates his subjects all give his paintings a solidity and dignity evocative of the solitude and solemnity of monastic life. His work at its best fuses two dominant tendencies in Spanish art, realism and mysticism.
— He was one of the greatest masters of the school of Seville and is renowned for his powerful and realistic interpretation of monastic life in 17th-century Spain. Zurbarán was the son of a trader and at 15 left his native village, south of the Estremadura mountains, for Seville. There he was apprenticed in the studio of Pedro Díaz de Villanueva, by whom no signed work is known, and became familiar with polychrome sculpture, which affected his style as a painter, in particular in his rendering of drapery. During the years in Seville he must also have been in contact with other gifted painters such as Juan de Roelas, Francisco de Herrera the elder, and above all Diego Velázquez and Alonso Cano, who were then young apprentices in the studio of Francisco Pacheco. In 1617 Zurbarán left Seville without obtaining the examination of incorporation that would have given him the right to practise his art, an omission for which he was subsequently severely reproached. He moved to Estremadura and for ten years was established in Llerena, where he also married, probably in 1617. None of his paintings of this period, for the churches of Fuente de Cantos, Llerena, or Montemolin, has survived.
—      Zurbarán was born of Basque ancestry in Fuente de Cantos, Badajoz Province. He was apprenticed to a minor Spanish painter in Seville but appears to have been influenced early in his career by Michelangelo. In 1617 he went to work in Llerena, and in 1629, at the invitation of the town council, he settled in Seville. Zurbarán spent the next 30 years there, with the exception of two years (1634-1635) that he spent in Madrid working for the royal court. Zurbarán left Seville in 1658, after his reputation declined there; he died in Madrid.
      Zurbarán was only slightly influenced by Diego Rodriguez Velázquez and Jusepe de Ribera. Late in his career, however, he changed his style, according to some critics, for the worse, after being influenced by Bartolomé Estéban Murillo.
      Zurbarán's earliest known work, painted when he was 18 years old, is an Immaculate Conception. Other notable early works include Crucifixion (1629); several large scenes of the life of Saint Peter Nolasco (died 1256), the founder of the Mercedarians, originally done for a convent in Seville (1628-29); The Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1631) and Still Life with Oranges (1633)
— Zurbarán was born in Fuente de Cantos (Estremadura) into the family of a petty merchant. His professional training he received in Seville in 1616-1617 in the workshop of Pedro Diaz da Villanueva. Then he settled near his birthplace to paint a large number of religious pictures for the monasteries and churches.
   In Seville, where he settled in 1629, he became the leading artist. There he produced many altarpieces and decorated a number of monasteries with extensive fresco style cycles. From 1630 to 1645, Zurbarán made many paintings of saints; they are evidence of his talent as a portraitist. They are usually individual full-length figures, with a dark or neutral background. These paintings and were hung on both sides of a central painting or altar in churches. Zurbarán also painted some for the Hospital de la Sangre in Seville.
    His style, with massively simple figures and objects, clear, sober colors and deep solemnity of feeling expressed in thickly applied paint, made him the ideal painter of the austere religion of Spain.
    Zurbarán's fortunes fell with Murillo’s rise. In 1658 he moved to Madrid, where he entered the Santiago Order. In order to support himself he had to become an art dealer, though he was not successful in business either. He died in Madrid in poverty.
— The students of Francisco Zurbarán included his son, Juan de Zurbarán [23 Jun 1620 – 08 Jun 1649], and Sebastian López de Arteaga.

Saint Apolonia (113x66cm) _ The painting was probably part of an altarpiece of Saint Joseph for a church in Seville. Saint Apolonia was the patron saint of dentists, this explains the attribute in her hand.
Apostle Saint Andrew (1631, 147x61cm) _ Zurbarán's picture of Saint Andrew is in marked contrast to Ribera's dramatic representation of the crucifixion of the saint. There is the same close observation of detail, but Zurbarán's picture has the calm majesty seen in the work of El Greco. These various qualities Zurbarán blends into a unity with an individual touch of his own. Just as the figure in El Greco's picture is suffused with blue-green shades, so here the figure of the wise old man is suffused with warm greenish browns. Saint Andrew is seen leaning against two beams or branches which serve, in a quite uncontrived way, to identify the saint, being in the form of the cross of Saint Andrew, his attribute. It is obvious at a glance that this picture dates from Zurbarán's finest period: the lined face of the saint, the peasant hands roughened by hard work and the austere folds of the robes, together create an impression of the serenity and permanence so characteristic of Zurbarán's still-lifes as well as his large compositions. In all probability the painting once adorned an altar in the Carmelite church of Saint Adalbert of Seville, together with its companion piece, the painting of the Archangel Gabriel, which is now in the Montpellier Museum.
The Lying-in-State of Saint Bonaventura (1629, 250x225cm) _ The painting belonged to a series of pictures now dispersed, painted for a convent in Seville and having for subject the life of the saint. Dressed in the brilliant white robes of a bishop, grasping the cross in his folded hands, the body of the saint lies in state on a bier draped in sumptuous brocade, with the red biretta of the cardinal at his feet. Pope Gregory X, who had appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano in 1273 stands, a white bearded man, beside the king, to whom he appears to be explaining the merits of the dead man. Most of the mourners, however, are simple Franciscan monks in their greyish brown habits, pensively praying or meditatively contemplating the dead man. He is indeed one of them, and the wan complexion of his tranquil face appears to mirror the dull hue of the habits. The great scholar and administrator of his order is here placed between the representatives of ecclesiastical and worldly power and the world of simple Franciscan brotherhood. He was accorded the title of "doctor seraphicus", meaning the "brilliant teacher full of love". This is what Zurbarán paints: the teacher bound to practical life, his face filled with mystical desire even in death.
Saint Margaret (1631, 194x112cm; 843x549pix, 71kb) _ The painting is probably a portrait of a lady dressed as shepherdess. The serpent is the attribute of the saint. The apocryphal legend of the life and death of Margaret of Antioch was known in the western world as early as the 7th century. Cast out by her heathen father, she was martyred in the Diocletian persecution of Christians and decapitated. In the course of the centuries, more and more legends grew up around this popular martyr. Zurbarán has portrayed her with straw hat and staff, in the costume of a Spanish shepherdess. Behind her we see the dragon which she is said to have overcome with the sign of the cross. Completely inactive, with the Bible in her left hand and a woven shepherd's bag over her arm, she gazes at the spectator with a sweetly childish face. This painting does not tell the turbulent episodes of her life, but shows a saintly woman revered in the home country of the painter.
The Vision of Saint Peter of Nolasco (1629, 179x223cm) _ The painting and its companion-piece was commissioned by the Mercedarian Monastery in Seville shortly after the canonization of Pedro Nolasco who four centuries before established a lay Order for freeing the Christians from Moorish captivity. In his vision Peter of Nolasco, in the white robe of his Order, sees the New Jerusalem showing by an angel. The heavenly city with its tower resembles to contemporary Avila.
The Apparition of Apostle Saint Peter to Saint Peter of Nolasco (1629, 179x223cm) _ The painting and its companion-piece was commissioned by the Mercedarian Monastery in Seville shortly after the canonization of Pedro Nolasco who four centuries before established a lay Order for freeing the Christians from Moorish captivity.
Adoration of the ShepherdsThe Adoration of the Shepherds (1638) _ Zurbarán attains religious feeling by realistic simplicity, an extreme density, the boldness of his colors and the calculated awkwardness of his composition.
Saint Hugo of Grenoble in the Carthusian Refectory (1633, 102x168cm) _ Zurbarán's painting of a Carthusian refectory intensely reflects the ideal of this order of hermit monks: simplicity, sobriety and quiet contemplation. The room is unadorned, but for a painting showing the Virgin and Child with John the Baptist in the wilderness - an inspiration to the monks. An arched doorway opens out towards a typically simple Carthusian church. The monks, dressed in white cassocks, are seated at the table on which there are only plates of bread. With the exception of one monk whose hands are folded in prayer, they are all completely immersed in introspective contemplation with their eyes cast down, apparently paying no attention to the guest to whom the elderly abbot, Saint Hugo, appears to be explaining the life of the monastery. This painting exudes an atmosphere of tranquillity unaffected by the event portrayed.
Still-life (46x84cm) _ The bleak, austere piety of Zurbarán's early pictures of saints, painted for more severe religious orders, made him the ideal painter of simple doctrinal altarpieces expressed in clear, sober color, with figures of massive solidity and solemnity, and with a Tenebrism owing little to Caravaggio or Ribera, but developed straight out of southern Spanish traditions of unidealized representations. For the same reason, he was one of the finest still-life painters.
Still-life with Lemons, Oranges and Rose (1633, 60x107cm) _ In the oeuvre of Zurbarán, religious themes predominate, with particular emphasis on asceticism. He also painted many still-lifes, which, however, reflect the same qualities of asceticism, quiet contemplation and introversion for his choice of objects indicates the transience of human life.
      Zurbarán does not do so by presenting a clock, a skull or an hourglass. Instead, on a brilliantly polished table, he shows us a pewter plate with lemons, a basket of oranges complete with leaves and blossoms, and a fine china cup on a silver saucer on which lies a rose in full bloom. Though lemons signify wealth in a Netherlandish still life, they have a very different meaning here, in the country where they actually grow. Even so, they are not represented as the fruits of daily life, but presented with all the solemn celebration of an offering on an altar.
      As in the paintings of his contemporary Sánchez Cotán, Zurbarán isolates the individual objects from one another - even the composition appears to be a conscious though not excessively artificial arrangement. Against the dark background, the objects are completely static, and appear to be torn out of the context of everyday life. The human beings to whom they apparently belong have no place here.
Saint Casilda of Burgos (1642, 184x90cm) _ Zurbarán at his best may be said to have given new life to certain qualities found in the Mozarabic miniatures and Romanesque panel paintings - majesty, serenity and brilliance of color. He had already made his name, and was a court painter - though he had not yet come under the not altogether felicitous influence of Murillo - when he painted this Andalusian girl with her attractively irregular features, elegantly dressed in heavy, shimmering silks, wearing pearls and a coronet and holding roses in her hand, the only indication of her identity. For Saint Casilda is associated with the miraculous transformation of bread into roses as was Saint Elizabeth of Hungary and Thuringia. Casilda was the daughter of the Emir of Toledo and was secretly converted to Christianity. She gave bread to her father's prisoners. When the bread was miraculously turned into flowers she was saved from exposure like the charitable Elizabeth who gave food to the poor. The left side of the painting was cut.
Rest on the Flight to Egypt (1659, 121x97cm) _ The painting shows the influence of Murillo and the Sevillan school.
La Purisíma (1661, 136x102cm) _ The Immaculate Conception (in Spanish: Purisima) was a favourite subject in seventeenth-century Spanish painting. In these pictures Mary is usually represented as a child or as a young girl, her eyes turned heavenwards, personifying innocence and childlike devotion and rising amidst clouds and cherubs to heaven. Murillo painted innumerable versions of this theme [*see below], which also engaged the attention of Zurbarán: The Immaculate Conception (1661) Web Gallery of Art – The Immaculate Conception (1665) Olga's Gallery – Immaculate Conception Web Gallery of Art – The Immaculate Conception The Artchive – The Immaculate Conception (1634) Web Gallery of Art – Our Lady of Immaculate Conception (1630) Olga's Gallery.
      This painting is a late work of Zurbarán. The Virgin is a slender, delicate young girl with an exquisite oval face and golden hair falling to her shoulders, a vision in white and ultramarine seen against a golden sky peopled with cherubs. Though lacking in vigour, this late work has all the painterly qualities and expressive beauty of the great monumental paintings of Zurbarán's early period. There is a similar Immaculate Conception in the church of Langon near Bordeaux.
The House of Nazareth (1645) _ Zurbarán painted an important series of paintings for the Jeronymites of the monastery of Guadalupe. Here the mood varies from a vein of realism to visions of miracles and scenes of contemplation in which the mysticism of the great Estremaduran artist has mingled with his colors. Perhaps the finest of these scenes is the mystical House of Nazareth, in the Cleveland Museum.
Saint Francis (1660, 65x53cm) _ Born in 1181 or 1182 in Assisi as the son of a wealthy draper, Saint Francis died in poverty in the same town on 03 October 1226. Francis' life of poverty, humility, selflessness and serene neighbourly love made the order of Friars Minor which he founded one of the most widespread religious orders in the entire western world. Following the council of Trent in the mid 16th century, Saint Francis was invariably portrayed as an ascetic, penitent and ecstatic monk, frequently dressed in the habit of the Capuchin monks and with a skull as attribute.
      Zurbarán's saint bears the entire complexity of this figure. This is Francis the ascetic, dressed in a brown habit, without signs of office or adornment. This is the humble Francis dressed in the colors of the earth. This is Francis the ecstatic monk, who has received the stigmata of the five wounds. His young face is raised heavenwards in contemplation, one hand placed upon his heart, the other on the skull, the sign of meditation. He is shown as a holy man of spiritual profundity and scholarly intellect, as reflected in his facial traits. Yet he is not a monk who is alienated from daily life and caught up entirely in his mystical passion, but a man close to life, as Zurbarán shows. His "portrait" is an allegory of faith and simplicity.
Saint Luke as a Painter before Christ on the CrossSaint Luke as a Painter before Christ on the Cross
(1660) _ It is assumed by some scholars that Saint Luke is a self-portrait of Zurbarán.
Defence of Cadiz against the English (1634, 302x323cm) _ This painting is from the Hall of the Realms in the Buen Retiro Palace and it belongs to the same series as Velázquez's Surrender of Breda.
^ Died on 07 November 1809: Paul Sandby, English painter born in January 1731. English topographical watercolorist and graphic artist. He and his brother Thomas (1721-1798) trained at the Military Drawing Office of the Tower of London and were engaged as draughtsmen on the survey of the Highlands of Scotland after the rebellion of 1745. Paul went to live with his brother at Windsor Park, where Thomas held the position of Deputy Ranger (they did many views of Windsor and its environment, and the Royal Library at Windsor Castle has an outstanding Standby collection). Their work is similar in many respects, but Paul was more versatile as well as a better artist, his work including lively figure subjects as well as an extensive range of landscape subjects. In his later work he often used body-color (he also sometimes painted in oils) and he was the first professional artist in England to publish aquatints (1775). He was singled out by Gainsborough as the only contemporary English landscape artist who painted 'real views from nature' instead of artificial Picturesque compositions. Sandby has rather unjustifiably been called the 'father of watercolor art', but certainly his distinction won prestige for the medium. He was a founder member of the Royal Academy and his brother was its first Professor of Architecture.
Portrait of Sandby (1789, 76x63cm; 600x498pix, 49kb) by William Beechey [12 Dec 1753 — 28 Jan 1839].

Windsor Castle, View of the Northeast Terrace (1760, 46x61cm; 600x788pix, 80kb _ ZOOM to 1541x2024pix, 204kb)
La Linterna Magica (1760, 37x54cm; 750x1094pix, 132kb) _ British painters took an ironic and self-critical attitude to modern technology as Paul Sandby did in Linterna Magica. The contemporary passion for optical instruments, of which Britain was a leading producer, is referred to here, but the painter is also poking fun at the scientific achievements of the Enlightenment. So the pile of books before the canvas includes the name of Newton, which is frequently seen in paintings of the period. It is no coincidence that the painter shows the projection on the screen in a drawing-room with paintings hanging on the walls; this is, so to speak, an anticipation of the fact that photography would ultimately come to compete with painting.
Cow-Girl in the Windsor Great Park (1770, 30x24cm; 1000x794pix 192kb)
Rochester, Kent (1795, 24x38cm) _ The ability to draw detailed representations of specific places was an important skill in the military, used in the surveying of terrain and fortifications. Sandby was trained as a military draftsman, but became a key figure in raising the artistic status of watercolor. This is one of several views of Rochester made when Sandby was living in Kent and working as Chief Drawing Master at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. Its relatively free handling and richly evocative color is typical of the watercolors he created towards the end of his career.
Carmarthen Castle (29x48cm)
Edinburgh Castle (37x53cm)
The Boot and the Blockhead (12x8cm)
–- The seven churches in the County of Wicklow, Ireland (1780 etching, hand colored 16x21cm; xpix, 59kb) For there to be 7 churches, you would have to count as churches: a roofless house, a cross among low bushes, a factory chimney without a visible factory, and a tunnel entrance (to the underground factory?).
Died on a 07 November:

1924 Hans Thoma, German painter born (full coverage) on 02 October 1839. —(051001)

^ 1904 Edwin Hayes, Irish painter born on 07 June 1819.
Sunset at Sea: From Harlyn Bay, Cornwall (1894, 101x127cm)

^ 1673 Jacob Simonszoon van der Does I “Tambour”, Dutch artist born on 04 March 1623. — {What Does does, Does does well. But I was not able to find out whether Does does does.}{Tambour??? Drum?}— Relative? of Simon van der Does [1653-1718+]? of Willem van der Does?
–- Landscape with a Shepherd and his Flock (1657, 51x63cm; 480x600pix, 42kb)
–- Southern Landscape (39x53cm; 447x600pix, 30kb) there is a drover and animals resting near classical ruins. Badly in need of restauration. —(061106)

1678 Erasmus Quellin II, Flemish painter born (full coverage) on 19 November 1607. —(051118)

^ 1671 Jan de Bisschop (Johannes Episcopius), Dutch draftsman and etcher born in 1628. — Relative? of Cornelis Bisschop [1634-1674]? — He was a lawyer by profession and a skilled amateur draughtsman. At the Amsterdam Latin school his teacher was the humanist Hadrianus Junius [1611–1675], under whose supervision he wrote a poem about the Atheneum Illustre and Collegium Auriacum in Breda, published by Johannes Blaeu in 1647. From 1648 to 1652 he read law at Leiden University. In 1653 he married Anna van Baerle, daughter of the famous professor and theologian Caspar van Baerle [1584–1648], and throughout his life he moved in prominent intellectual circles. One of his closest friends was Constantijn Huygens the younger, who was also an amateur draftsman, with a very similar drawing style (especially in landscapes), and who was probably, with Jacob van der Does [1623–1673] and Willem Doudijns [1630–1697], a member of the small drawing academy that de Bisschop founded in The Hague. Although de Bisschop lived for a while in a house adjoining Claes Moeyaert’s in Amsterdam, it was probably Bartholomeus Breenbergh, also living in Amsterdam at the time, rather than Moeyaert who most influenced his style of drawing. De Bisschop made two large etchings after paintings by Breenbergh: Joseph Selling Corn to the People (1644) and The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (1647)
–- Kermesse (drawing, 39x52cm; 827x1135pix, 127kb) After a large painting, formerly attributed to Theodor van Thulden. —(061106)

^ 1667 (19 Nov?) Nicolas Régnier (or Reniert), dies in Venice {“Der Tod in Venedig”}, Flemish painter born in Maubeuge on 06 December 1591. Sometimes called ‘Mabuseus’, after his birthplace, he was closely associated with the French painters, most of them strongly influenced by Caravaggio, who were working in Rome in the first quarter of the 17th century. They included Valentin de Boulogne, Nicolas Tournier, Claude Vignon, Charles Mellin, Claude Mellan, and Simon Vouet. Régnier received his early training in Antwerp, from Abraham Janssen, one of the first artists to introduce the Caravaggesque style into Flanders. Régnier’s fellow students included Theodoor Rombouts, Matthias Stomer [1600 – >1650] and possibly Gerard Seghers; he probably acquired from Janssen his taste for formidable size and statuesque contours that, together with a rich and fluent technique, was characteristic of Flemish painting. — Régnier studied in the Antwerp studio of Abraham Janssens, one of the few northern painters to have been in Rome during Caravaggio's lifetime. Although Régnier's life has not been the subject of exhaustive investigation, it is clear that he was in Rome between June 1621 and 1625, and may well have arrived there as early as 1615. There is compelling evidence in his Roman work of formal contact with Bartolomeo Manfredi; their styles can be so close that some works have been misattributed. Joachim von Sandrart's statement in his Teutsche Academie of 1675-1679 that in Italy Régnier followed the method of Manfredi supports an association. Sandrart, who met Régnier, also reported that he became a member of Vincenzo Giustiniani's household. Régnier served as Giustiniani's official painter, and as many as nine of his works are recorded in the Giustiniani collection. In Rome Régnier was also in close contact with other French Caravaggisti, particularly Simon Vouet. By June 1626 he had moved to Venice, where he soon moved away from Caravaggism, developing instead an increasingly decorative style. Between 1625 and 1630 Régnier's art was affected by the work of the German painter Johan Lys, who was then in Venice for the second time; his influence is particularly evident in Régnier's newly painterly depiction of flesh. Régnier, or 'Renieri', as he chose to be known in Italy, remained in Venice for the rest of his life. In addition to painting, he began dealing in antiquities and established a collection of paintings which was well regarded. — LINKS
Saint John the Baptist (1616, 180x142cm, 1059x830pix, 87kb) _ The composition is based on Caravaggio's St John
The Fortune Teller (1625, 127x150cm, 840x1030pix, 109kb)

^ 1528 Andrea Previtali “Cordeliaghi”, Bergamo Italian painter born in 1470. He is first recorded in 1502, when he signed and dated a Virgin and Child with Donor, stating in the inscription that he was a ‘disciple’ of Giovanni Bellini. The painting confirms this description but is exceptionally forward-looking for its date, foreshadowing Palma Vecchio and Titian in the amplitude of the forms, and perhaps reflecting Giorgione’s influence in the free and painterly rendering of the landscape. In other approximately contemporary signed paintings of the Virgin and Child, figures deriving in pose and type from Bellini are similarly set against landscapes whose darker and more sylvan character recalls Giorgione. — Palma Vecchio was a student of Previtali. — LINKS
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine (1505; 186kb)
The Virgin and Child with a Donor (1510; 214kb)
Salvator Mundi (1512; 196kb)
Nativity (1520; 119kb)
Drowning of Pharaoh's Army in the Red Sea (1520; 116kb)
A Bearded Man (600x464pix) — (051106)

Born on a 07 November:

1861 Lesser-Ury, German painter who died (main coverage) on 18 October 1931. — (051106)

^ 1859 Henri Marius Camille Bouvet, French painter who died in 1945. — {le héro de Bouvet et Pécuchard de Gustert Flaubave?}— Il étudia aux Beaux-Arts de Lyon auprès de Jean-Baptiste Poncet et de Michel Dumas dès 1878 puis à Paris en 1891 à Paris avec Alfred Roll et Eugène Carrière. Il s'orienta vers la peinture décorative. Surtout connu pour ses scènes intimes ou de la vie parisienne. Quelques scènes orientalistes.
Au Bois aka Au Pré Catalan (206x290cm) — (051106)

^ 1849 Jozef Marian Chelmonski,Polish painter and illustrator who died on 10 April 1914. He received drawing lessons from his father and then (1867-1871) attended the Warsaw Drawing Class and the private studio of Wojciech Gerson. In 1871 Chelmonski went to Munich to join the substantial community of Polish artists and studied at the Munich Akademie under Alexander Strähuber [1814-1882] and Hermann Anschütz [1802-1880]. Chelmonski visited museums and galleries there but was also influenced by the lyrical realist style of other Polish artists in Munich, such as Maksymilian Gierymski. In Munich, Chelmonski produced his first successful mature works, such as Before the Rain (1873), remarkable for its strong sense of atmosphere. On returning to Warsaw in 1875 Chelmonski found no recognition there. The idealized picture of peasant life in Indian Summer (1875), shown at the Warsaw Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, was violently attacked by the critics for being too realistic. Other paintings sent for exhibition were likewise severely criticized.
— Studiowal w Warszawie u Wojciecha Gersona i w Klasie Rysunkowej. W 1871-1875 przebywal w Monachium, gdzie zwiazal sie z polska kolonia artystyczna, skupiona wokól Józefa Brandta i Maksymiliana Gierymskiego. W 1875-1887 w Paryzu. Powrócil do Polski i w 1889 r. osiadl we wsi Kuklówka. Realizm i wrazliwosc na piekno rodzimego pejzazu znalazly odbicie w krajobrazach (Zurawie 1870), a zywiolowy temperament i wirtuozeria formy przejawily sie w przedstawieniach pedzacych zaprzegów konnych (Czwórka 1881) i w scenach rodzajowych o tematyce wiejskiej (Sprawa u wójta 1873, Przed deszczem 1873). Oryginalnosc i egzotyka obrazów Chelmonskiego zapewnily mu popularnosc oraz liczne zamówienia, które obnizyly poziom artystyczny wykonywanych plócien. Po powrocie do kraju ponowne zetkniecie Chelmonskiego z przyroda (liczne podróze po Ukrainie i Podolu) wplynelo na odrodzenie jego malarstwa. Do tego okresu naleza nastrojowe, liryczne pejzaze ozywione niekiedy motywem dzikiego ptactwa (Kuropatwy na sniegu 1891) i sceny podkreslajace zwiazek czlowieka z natura (Bociany 1900, Przed burza 1896).
Autoportret (1902, 51x40cm; 800x611pix, 73kb)
Kazimierz Pulaski pod Czestochowa (1875, 87x144cm; 486x800pix, 92kb)
Wyplata robocizny (aka Sobota na folwarku) (1869, 53x67cm; 635x800pix, 113kb)
Owczarek (1897, 96x125cm; 601x800pix, 86kb)
Dworek w Kuklówce (1889; 495x800pix, 80kb)
Bociany (1900, 151x198cm; 592x800pix, 105kb)
Pejzaz stepowy z kurhanem (1900; 512x800pix, 88kb)
Zachod slonca zima (1901, 47x71cm; 531x800pix, 66kb)
Wiosna - Potok (1902, 30x39cm; 557x800pix, 96kb)
Zurawie, pejzaz z laka (1905, 30x40cm; 624x800pix, 110kb)
Kaczence (1908, 79x149cm; 403x800pix, 66kb)
Noc ksiezycowa (1906, 102x75cm; 800x588pix, 67kb)
Dniestr w nocy (1906, 85x127cm; 545x800pix, 47kb)
Krzyz w zadymce (1907, 137x106cm; 800x612pix800, 68kb)
Wieczór na Polesiu (1909, 128x105cm; 800x653pix, 67kb)
Kurhan (1912, 111x189cm; 447x800pix, 60kb)
57 images at Pinakoteka Zascianek — the same 57 images at Webshots22 images at Wikimedia –(051106)

1828 Paul~Jacques~Aimé Baudry, French painter who died (full coverage) on 17 January 1886. —(051001)

^ 1820 Frans Lebret (or Lebrett), Dutch painter who died on 25 July 1909.
–- A Tavern Interior (36x45cm; 613x780pix, 59kb)
–- Little Boy with a Horse (24x28cm; 609x720pix, 70kb) —(061106)

>1811 Jan Jacob Spohler, Dutch painter who died on 15 June 1866. He was born in Nederhorst-a-la-Montagne. He studied under J. W. Pieneman at the Amsterdam Academy and devoted his life to the portrayal of the Dutch landscape near rivers or waterways. Spohler was painting during the height of the Dutch Romantic movement in Holland and he followed in the footsteps of Andreas Schelfhout. Like Schelfhout, Spohler was comfortable painting winter (mostly) or summer (rarely) landscapes, capturing the atmosphere of both with equal skill, and not varying much from a standard formula. He often included small groups of people in his work, giving us an insight into the life of the times (especially on ice). Spohler traveled extensively throughout Holland during his working life, living in Amsterdam, Harlem, Brussels, the Hague, Leiden and Rotterdam at one time or another. He finally returned to Amsterdam again in 1861 and he died there five years later. Spohler's work sold well during his lifetime and he often competed for commissions with contemporaries such as F. M. Kruseman [1816-1882] and Charles Leickert [1816-1907]. Spohler had two sons who were both artists, Jan Jacob Coenraad Spohler [1837-1923], who was very much influenced by his father in his style and subject matter and Johannes Franciscus Spohler [1853-1894], who chose the Dutch townscape as his genre.
–- S*>#Winter Landscape With People on the Ice (727x1081pix, 125kb)
–- S*>#Horse and Sledge on a Frozen Waterway (33x50cm; 666x961pix, 105kb) The landscape includes a “koek en zopie” (tent or windbreak with a stand selling food and drink) on the far side of the waterway, and further a mansion, a windmill, and, on the horizon, a town.
–- Skaters on a Frozen Waterway near a koek en zopie (48x64cm; 1184x1602pix, 147kb) Similar to the preceding. The horse and sledge here face front instead of rear, the mansion and (on the left instead of the right) now two windmills are closer, and the town is still on the horizon.
–- S*>#Skaters on a Frozen River (1859, 36x52cm; 589x900pix, 73kb)
–- S*>#A Frozen Winter Landscape by a Windmill (78x103cm; 1471x1917pix, 244kb) there is a second windmill further back. There are two sledges in the middle, one is pushed by two persons, to the other two horses are hitched. A large inactivated ship is parked on the left. On the right foreground there is a strangely small woman on an even more miniature houseboat. Very few, indistinct skaters in the distance.
–- S*>#People on a Frozen Waterway (14x24cm; 702x1201pix, 112kb) in the right foreground a man, accompanied by a woman an a girl, is behind a small sledge. There are skaters. A windmill is on the left, a town on the horizon.
–- People on a Frozen Waterway near a koek en zopie (52x70cm; 736x1000pix, 65kb _ .ZOOM to 1104x1500pix, 129kb)
–- Travelers on a Path, Haarlem in the Distance (28x36cm; 710x934pix, 57kb _ .ZOOM to 1004x1321pix, 108kb)
–- Skaters by a Windmill (16x22cm; 754x1019pix, 72kb _ .ZOOM to 1066x1441pix, 145kb) _ There is another windmill in the distance; closer by there is a koek en zopie. In the right foreground, a man behind a small sledge is talking with a woman accompanied by a girl.
–- Winter Landscape with People on a Frozen River (38x55cm; 718x1056pix, 83kb _ .ZOOM to 1446x2112pix, 303kb) as usual, there is a koek en zopie and, in the right foreground, a man behind a small sledge is talking with a woman accompanied by a girl. _ The pseudonymous Kornondecob Spoiler, who is incapable of painting an original representational picture, has disfigured this into a splendid series of colorful quasi-abstractions, absurdly titled, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Windier Landscape With Pimples on a Frozen Rider (2007; 550x778pix, 161kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb) and
      _ Winner With Pimples Riding in a Thawed Landscape (2007; 550x778pix, 161kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 342kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 703kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1665kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3430kb).
–- Winter Landscape with Skaters near a koek en zopie (60x80cm; 960x1347pix, 130kb)
–- Skaters on a Frozen River (63x85cm; 765x1055pix, 68kb)
–- People with a Horse-Drawn Sledge on a Frozen River (1865, 61x83cm; 769x1080pix, 89kb)
–- Summer Landscape with Boats on a River (41x56cm; 852x1200pix, 167kb)
–- Skaters on a Frozen River near Overschie (62x83cm; 788x1074pix, 52kb)
–- River Landscape in Summer (32x44cm; 588x824pix, 39kb)
A Dutch River Landscape (22x41cm; 401x550pix, 28kb) in summer —(071106)

^ 1808 Hermann Kauffmann I, German painter who died on 24 May 1889. — Relative? of Angelika Kauffmann [1741-1807]? of Hugo Wilhelm Kauffmann [1844-1915]? He was trained in 1824 in the studio of the history and portrait painter Gerdt Hardorff the elder [1769–1864] in Hamburg and also made his own studies after nature. He first exhibited his work in 1826. The following year he moved to Münich and joined a circle of landscape painters working en plein air with Christian Morgenstern. The paintings Upper Bavarian Landscape and Mountain Valley in Upper Bavaria (both 1829) are typical of Kauffmann’s early style: they are pure landscapes with lively colors, directly descriptive and infused with a poetic mood. In the 1830s and 1840s, under the influence of popular Münich genre painters such as Heinrich Bürkel [1802–1869], Kauffmann’s pictures became anecdotal, sometimes even dramatically so, but not sentimental. Most contain large groups of figures, for example Bear Dance in the Village (1836). Kauffmann was also a gifted portrait painter.
–- The Snow Storm (56x80cm; 900x1329pix, 118kb)
Die Hammer Kirche (55x79cm) —(061106)

^ 1793 Antoine Chazal, French painter who died on 12 August 1854.
Les Deux Amis (1833, 100x81cm) a dog and a young child.
–- A Study of Primulas, Camellias, and Prunus (24x32cm; 800x586pix, 78kb)
–- A Study of Camellias (24x32cm; 800x542pix, 59kb)
–- A Study of Anemones, Veronicas, and Other Flowers (24x32cm; 800x546pix, 65kb)
Etablissement des Missionaires Anglais à Kidikidi (1825, 24x33cm; 224x350pix, 15kb) _ Jules Lejeune accompanied Duperrey on the voyage of La Coquille, which visited New Zealand in 1824. His rough sketches were worked up by Chazal as watercolors (this is one of them) from which the illustrations were engraved for the published account of the voyage — {Qui dit Kidikidi? C'est Chazal qui dit Kidikidi. – C'est Chazalkidikidikidi qui dit Kidikidi? Non, ce n'est pas Chazalkidikidikidikidikidikidi qui dit Kidikidi; mais... – Pardon, mais je n'ai pas demandé si c'est Chazalkidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidi qui dit Kidikidi! J'ai simplement demandé si c'est Chazalkidikidikidi qui dit Kidikidi. – J'ai très bien compris: vous m'avez demandé si c'est Chazalkidikidikidikidikidikidi. Je n'ai pas parlé d'aucun Chazalkidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidi. C'est vous qui le premier avez mentionné ce nom. – Moi! Alors ça c'est trop fort! C'est moi qui dit Chazalkidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidi? – Kidichazalkidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidikidi? Bien sûr que ce n'est pas vous. Ce n'est pas moi non plus. Ce nom n'existe pas, même en Nouvelle-Zélande. Revenons donc à nos moutons. – Neaumouttont? C'est qui Neaumouttont?} —(061106)

* PURÍSIMAS by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo    [^back to Zurbarán^]
The Immaculate Conception (1648)
Immaculate Conception
The Immaculate Conception (1680)
Immaculate Conception (1678)
Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception (1670)
The Immaculate Conception, detail of angels (1665)
The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin
Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception (1678)

click click
updated Wednesday 05-Nov-2008 21:24 UT
Principal updates:
v.7a0 Wednesday 07-Nov-2007 5:34 UT
v.6.a0 Tuesday 07-Nov-2006 4:44 UT
v.5.a0 Saturday 19-Nov-2005 5:09 UT
Thursday 27-Jan-2005 21:52 UT
Wednesday 17-Mar-2004 14:55 UT

safe site site safe for children safe site