ART 4 2-DAY 06 November v.9.a0
BIRTH: 1876 SHINN
Died in 1510 on or before 06 November:
Giorgio Zorzo da Castelfranco “Giorgione”, Italian painter born in 1477 or 1478.
— He is generally and justifiably regarded as the founder of Venetian painting of the 16th century. Within a brief career of no more than 15 years he created a radically innovative style based on a novel pictorial technique, which provided the starting-point for the art of Titian, the dominant personality of the 16th century in Venice. Although he apparently enjoyed a certain fame as a painter of external frescoes, Giorgione specialized above all in relatively small-scale pictures, painted for private use in the home. A high proportion of his subjects were drawn from, or inspired by, mythology and secular literature. Landscape played an important role in many of his compositions, and particular attention was often paid to the representation of storms, sunsets and other such natural phenomena. Giorgione was evidently also prized as a painter of portraits, many of them ‘fancy’ portraits, or views in close-up of the kind of poetic or mythological figure also seen in his narratives. His exploitation of a taste for such works within a circle of aesthetically sophisticated Venetian patricians in turn provided the context for the creation of an entirely novel range of pictorial images. — Francesco Torbido, and Giovanni Udine were students of Giogione.
— Giorgione invigorated the Venetian school of painting. His art was unrivaled in the portrayal of mood. Details of Giorgione's life and career are sparse and unreliable, but it appears that he was born in Castelfranco and that he studied under the Venetian painter Giovanni Bellini. His original name was probably Giorgio Barbarelli. No signed and dated works of his remain; most scholars accept a small core of works as his, including the Castelfranco Altarpiece (1504), Three Philosophers, and Tempest. Other works are attributed to him on the basis of indirect evidence, although many of these attributions are still debated.
Most of Giorgione's paintings consist of a figure or group of figures integrated in a broad surrounding landscape. Unlike earlier pictures in this mode, these works exhibit a new and highly lyrical use of light: The lighting is soft and hazy and is used to create mood rather than to define sharply the objects in the scene. He deliberately refused to make preparatory drawings, preferring instead to compose directly on the canvas; he felt that this led to a more atmospheric rendering and to more striking color effects.
Giorgione's innovations in subject matter were especially important in two areas: the landscape and the female nude. Prior to Giorgione, landscape scenes were taken from biblical, classical, or allegorical stories, but The Tempest appears to have no such source and stands on its own as a purely imaginative work. It gave birth to a revolution against the storytelling element in landscape painting and paved the way for later masters such as Claude Lorrain and Rembrandt. The Sleeping Venus (1510), attributed to Giorgione, pictures a reclining nude and is one of the first modern works of art in which the female figure is the principal and only subject of the picture. It inaugurated the nude in a landscape setting as one of the great themes of European art and led directly to the work of artists such as Titian and Rubens.
— Giorgione or Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco was born in 1477 or 1478 in Castelfranco. He probably studied art under Giovanni Bellini. Although only some 20 paintings are generally associated with him, of which only about six are attributed to him without doubt, his originality was so powerful that these few works have come to represent not only the first stage in the Venice High Renaissance, but a new trend in Italian art as well. Surviving documentation of his life and work is sparse. He was associated with the humanist circle of the poet Bembo, and with a sophisticated group of private patrons, for whom he painted generally small-scale pictures. Giorgione's only public commission in Venice were paintings, now lost, in the Doge's palace, and frescoes, which are now almost completely destroyed by nature, on the exterior of the Fondaco sei Tedeschi, an important trading center, in Venice. The frescoes were painted with the assistance of Titian, who was working in Giorgione's workshop at the time. Among his best surviving works are Judith (1504), Castelfranco Madonna (1506), The Three Philosophers (1508), Sleeping Venus (1508) which were the inspiration for many more female nudes, particularly by Titian, and The Tempest (1510), the most famous of his works. The authorship of some of his works was disputed for years. The Concert Champêtre (1511) is still considered by some to be painted by Giorgione and not by Titian. Girgione died untimely in his early thirties of plague during the outbreak of this lethal disease in Venice in 1510.
— Self-Portrait (32x22cm; 970x868pix, 151kb)
— Tempest (1505, 82x73cm; 900x798pix, 187kb)
_ detail 1 (22x18cm; 800x646pix, 119kb) trees and partly hidden building at upper right
_ detail 2 (22x18cm; 820x665pix, 130kb) the storm, upper center
_ detail 3 (22x18cm; 860x709pix, 172kb) the soldier
_ detail 4 (22x18cm; 820x682pix, 163kb) buildings center right, and lightning
_ detail 5 (22x18cm; 860x715pix, 177kb) the gypsy and baby
_ detail 6 (22x18cm; 800x652pix, 105kb) center: well, stream, bridge.
_ It was already in 1530 described simply as "the little landscape on canvas with a tempest, a gypsy woman and a soldier..." This painting, the meaning of which has been greatly debated, marks a moment of capital importance in the renovation of the Venetian style painting, and perhaps is the most representative of the very few genuine surviving works of Giorgione. The vigor of cultural life at the beginning of the sixteenth century provided exactly the right fertile ground for the personality of Giorgione. With Giovanni Bellini and Vittore Carpaccio as examples in his early training and with his attentive interest in Northern European painting of Belgium he soon decided to attempt a naturalistic language. Color attains to new all-important powers of expression of the poetic equivalence of man and nature in a single, fearful apprehension o,f the cosmos. The finest of all expressions of this new vision of the world is the Tempest, commissioned from the artist by Gabriele Vendramin, one of the leading lights in intellectual circles in the Venice of the day.
Though many interpretations of the subject of this small painting have been suggested, none of them is totally convincing. Thus the mystery remains of what exactly the significance is of the fascinating landscape caught at this particular atmospheric moment, the breaking of a storm. Anxious waiting seems to characterize the mood of both the human figures, absorbed in private reveries, and every other detail, from the little town half-hidden behind the luxuriant vegetation and the lazy, tortuous course of the stream to the ancient ruins, the houses, the towers and the buildings in the distance which pale against the blue of the sky. The fascination of the painting arises from the pictorial realization of the illustrative elements. In the vibrant brightness which immediately precedes the breaking of the storm the chromatic values follow one another in fluid gradations achieved by the modulation of the tones in the fused dialectic of light and shadow in an airy perspective of atmospheric value within a definite space. Completely liberated from any subjection to drawing or perspective, color is the dominant value in a new spacial-atmospheric synthesis which is fundamental to the art of painting in its modern sense.
— Adoration by the Shepherds (1510, 578x800pix, 162kb)
_ detail 1 (390x520pix, 71kb) Mary and Joseph
_ detail 2 (390x520pix, 79kb) the baby Jesus
_ detail 3 (390x520pix, 85kb) shepherds
_ The Adoration by the Shepherds or the Allendale Nativity, as it is commonly known after one of the previous owners, is now generally accepted as by Giorgione. Bellini and the young Titian were considered as possible authors. This important work had an immediate impact on Venetian painting. The composition is divided into two parts, the dark cave on the right and a luminous Venetian landscape on the left. The shimmering draperies of Joseph and Mary are set off by the darkness behind them, and are also contrasted with the tattered dress of the shepherds. The scene is one of intense meditation; the rustic shepherds are the first to recognize Christ's divinity and they kneel accordingly. Mary and Joseph also participate in the adoration, creating an atmosphere of intimacy.
— Judith (1504, 144x66cm, 1100x500pix, 87kb) _ detail (900x668pix, 131kb) leg _ In the 17-18th century it was attributed to Raphael, later to Moretto da Brescia. Originally it was probably a panel of an altarpiece.
— Il Tramonto (1510, 73x91cm, 778x981pix, 133kb) _ Very little is known about Giorgione: only a handful of contemporary documents refer to him, and only some six or seven surviving paintings are now considered 'almost certainly' by him. Yet he is universally accepted as one of the most influential of Western artists. Probably trained by Giovanni Bellini, he originated a poetic painting of mood, based on color, light and a new vision of landscape, which we still call 'Giorgionesque'. Although we attribute to him an altarpiece in his native town of Castelfranco, a ruined nude figure in fresco detached from a building in Venice which he and Titian decorated, and two portraits inscribed with his name in the sixteenth century, he seems to have specialized in small, enigmatic 'subject' pictures like this one for private collectors. Whether or not the picture, which was rediscovered, badly damaged, in 1933 in a sixteenth-century villa in Poste Casale, south of Venice, is by Giorgione himself is not very important to us as viewers; it is certainly 'Giorgionesque'.
The title, Il Tramonto, captures the painting's special temper for the sun sets literally 'beyond the mountain'. Within a deep landscape meeting the horizon in a startling band of blue, two travelers halt besides a pool, from whose murky waters a little beaked monster emerges. A hermit inhabits the dark cave on the far side. The mounted Saint George in the middle distance is a restorer's reconstruction, added in 1934 to cover an area of flaking paint, and to account for what appears, in a photograph of the period, to be the vestigial tail of a dragon. Other reconstructed areas include the larger monster in the water. The modern additions make unsafe any reading of the picture's intended meaning. If Saint George was originally present, the hermit may be Anthony Abbot a saint distressed with sores, protector against epidemics — of whom it was told that demons in the shape of monsters came at nightfall to 'tear his body with teeth, with horns, and with claws'. The two men in the foreground may be Saint Roch, a medieval French pilgrim who caught the plague while nursing the sick, and his companion Gothardus tending the ulcer on the saint's leg. The body of Saint Roch, one of the main protectors against pestilence, is one of Venice's great relics.
If we compare II Tramonto with, for example, Patenier's landscape painted a few years later , it is possible to understand the great impact of Giorgione's work. For all its artificiality, this landscape invites us to enter it in imagination; the construction, in wedge-shaped planes alternately light and dark, stresses continuity from foreground through well-defined intervening space to the blue horizon. The wispy tree in the center, like the cliff and foliage on either side, pushes back the far from the near. Soft gradations from shadow into light, contours and reflections blurred as if by haze, the isolated and mysterious figures, the barely visible, perhaps imaginary monsters, the alpine town in the distance, combine to create a sense of profound yet indefinable emotion, as 'Brightness falls from the air...' Thomas Nashe's haunting line may be more than visually apt: it comes from a poem entitled In Time of Pestilence.
— La Vecchia (1508, 68x59cm, 850x744pix, 99kb) _ The presentation of reality by means of a luminous medium which decants the subtlest gradations of color with extraordinary fidelity and assembles them with immediacy into images of lyrical purity is a feature also of the extremely rare portraits by Giorgione. As with other pictures attributed with certainty to Giorgione hidden meanings have been searched for in this painting, though the words “col tiempo” on the scroll held by the woman would seem to suggest that its subject is the fading of beauty over the years. Despite the damage suffered by the painting, it is still possible to admire the freedom of touch, the mellow transparency of the medium with which the half figure of the woman is realized and the extraordinary realism with which her lost beauty is explored. The description of the shrivelled flesh, the aged eyelids, the toothless mouth, retains nothing at all of the Nordic prototypes and uses color alone to create an objectively naturalistic image with consummate skill.
— Portrait of a Youth (Antonio Broccardo?) (1510, 72x54cm, 1026x742pix, 97kb) _ This beautiful painting is one of the most problematical pictures in the history of art and a constant subject of debate. The identity of the painter is still in question and, while the majority of experts ascribe it to Giorgione, there are some who believe it was painted by Giovanni Cariani (an artist much influenced by Giorgione) or by some other Venetian painter active about 1510. The painting is in a very bad condition: the window-opening on the left and the landscape in the background, for example, are so faded that they are scarcely visible to the naked eye. X-ray photographs reveal alterations to both the eyes and the hands, made while the picture was being painted, similar to modifications in other paintings by Giorgione. Certainly there are several features — the extraordinarily fine painterly approach, the intimacy of the expression, the inclusion of the parapet and the window-opening — which support the belief that Portrait of a Man was painted by Giorgione himself, possibly not long before his death in 1510. The emblems on the parapet — the small hat with a V on it, the female triple head, the tiny tablet and the inscription — have been variously interpreted. One explanation, the most frequent and perhaps the most acceptable, is that this picture is a portrait of the poet Antonio Broccardo.
— The Impassioned Singer (1510, 102x78cm, 873x643pix, 75kb) _ The Impassioned Singer and its companion-piece, The Singer with Flute, were attributed to Giorgione. This attribution is strongly debated. Some think that it is of Domenico Capriolo [1494-1528], others assume that it was painted after the death of Giorgione. The singers sing with an air of Baroque pathos surrounded by strong chiaroscuro effects, which have induced many experts today to date them to the beginning of the 17th century.
— Sleeping Venus (1510, 108x175cm) _ main detail (732x1028pix, 148kb)
–- A Venitian Gentleman (1582x1344pix; 107kb), with long black hair and a slight moustache, on a staircase (?), with right fist clenched on (a money bag?) over a closed book, with a bit of landscape seen through part of a window at his right.
— Portrait of Warrior with his Equerry (1509, 90x73cm, 810x656pix, 100kb) _ A sense of calm and expressiveness as well as light effects are outstanding in this canvas, with the beautiful helmet and pieces of armor on foreground. Thought to be the portrait of Gattamelata, a famous Italian captain [1370-1443], the picture has been ascribed to the last activity of Giorgione, dead in 1510, although some critics attributed it to other artists such as Paolo Morando “il Cavazzola”.
— A Young Man (69x53cm, 956x702pix, 88kb) _ The attribution to Giorgione is debated, some experts think it is the work of Palma Vecchio. The identity of the sitter is also doubtful, he was a Fugger, or perhaps Buffalmaco the painter.
— Concert Champêtre (1511; 1236x1608pix, 590kb) _ It was formerly attributed to Giorgione, but is more probably by Titian.
Born on 06 November 1876: Everett Shinn,
School painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director,
who died on 01 May 1953.
Born in New Jersey, Everett Shinn moved to New York in 1897 and became an illustrator for Harper's Weekly. He went to Paris in 1890 with fellow Ash Can Artist George Luks. Shinn was a lover of theater and in 1907 was commissioned to paint eighteen decorative panels for the NY Stuyvasant Theater. By 1908 Shinn's paintings were almost exclusively of theater subjects. He was influenced by the theater paintings of Degas. By the 1913 Landmark Armory Show he'd lost interest in exhibiting with The Eight. From 1917-1923 he worked as a set designer. He eventually moved back to NY where he continued to paint and illustrate scenes of the theater until his death in 1953.
— He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.
–- Outdoor Stage, France aka Open Air Theater (1905, 63x55cm; 1072x917pix, 82kb _ .ZOOM to 2139x1834pix, 313kb)
— The Docks, New York City (1901, 39x56cm)
— Window Shopping (1903, 36x46cm)
Washington Square (1910; 111kb)
The Masked Dancer
Died on 07 November 1793: Dominic Serres,
French English painter born in 1722 (1719?).
— He was born into a prosperous and socially distinguished Gascon family who directed him towards a career in the Church. He seems to have arrived in England during the 1750s as a prisoner of war: having run away to sea and served on a Spanish ship, he was reportedly captured and sent to Northamptonshire, where, after his release, he married and began work as a country house painter. However, it is only after his arrival in London (after 1758) and his switch to marine painting, initially under the tutorship of Charles Brooking, that his life and work can be documented with any certainty. He had at least five children: three daughters, all of whom were amateur painters (mostly in watercolors), and two sons, also painters: Dominic M. Serres [1761–>1804] and John Thomas Serres [Dec 1759 – 28 Dec 1825].
— Serres was a well-born Frenchman from Gascony who ran away to sea in merchant service rather than follow family wish that he enter the Church. He probably arrived in England as a naval prisoner of war, took up painting and settled there. His early paintings show the influence of Brooking and Monamy's interpretations of Dutch art but he rapidly achieved recognition for his more documentary visual accounts of sea actions of the Seven Years War, 1756-63, becoming established as England's leading marine painter. His work was even more in demand in the 1770s and 1780s, recording the naval history of the War of American Independence. In 1768 Serres was a founder member of the Royal Academy and at the end of his life its librarian. A well respected and sociable man, he was appointed Marine Painter to George III in 1780.
— Although of well-born French origins, Serres has to be regarded as a painter of the English school. His early life is obscure but he was probably born in 1719 rather than 1722 (the date usually given). His Gascon parents expected him to enter the church but he instead went to Spain and then to sea, eventually becoming a ship’s master and spending some time in Havana, Cuba. He was taken prisoner by the British, probably at the end of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) and appears to have developed his artistic talents in London from this time, possibly training under Charles Brooking, marrying and becoming a pillar of the émigré community. In 1768 he became a founding member of the Royal Academy and later its Librarian. His style was influenced by Brooking and Dutch 17th-century marine masters, some of whom he copied (1770; Dutch Squadron in a Gale, after Willem van de Velde the Younger). He put his brush to recording the naval events of the Seven Years War (1756–1763) — most notably the capture of Havana in 1762, in a series of 10 paintings — and of the American War of Independence (1776–1783), working for a predominantly naval clientele. He also painted many other marine subjects and some landscapes, was an avid collector of paintings and drawings, a friend of the Sandby family and a well-known and sociable ‘character’. In 1780 he was appointed Marine Painter to George III. In 1805, his eldest son and successor to the royal appointment, John Thomas, posthumously published his Liber Nauticus: and Instructor in the Art of Marine Drawing, a rich source of information on shipping. All of his five children were artists
— Battle of Negapatam, 6 July 1782 (1786, 112x183cm; 437x700pix, 41kb) _ A depiction of the third of the five fleet actions fought off Ceylon and the east coast of India, at the end of the War of American Independence, between the French and English East Indies squadrons of Pierre-André de Suffren, and Sir Edward Hughes. The others were on 17 February 1782 off Sadras, on 12 April off Providien, on 30 September off Trincomalee and on 30 June 1783 off Porto Novo - or Cuddalore. All were furiously contested, both admirals being tenacious fighters, and at Negapatam the French Brilliant, lost 47 killed and 136 wounded. The captain of the Sévère, ordered his colors struck but his first lieutenant, refusing to accept this, forcibly shut him up in his cabin and rehoisted them. At the end the British had lost 77 killed and 233 wounded, while the French lost 178 killed and 600 wounded. The picture shows an early stage in the action when the squadrons are still in line. The British line is on the left, in port-bow view, led by Commodore King in the Hero, with Hughes in the Superb, lying fifth. In the extreme left background can be seen one of the accompanying frigates. The French line is on the right, in starboard-quarter view, with Suffren in the Héros, also lying fifth. Serres produced a set of seven large paintings for Hughes, including this one, of his actions with Suffren off the coast of India in 1782-1783.
— General View of the Environs of Naples (1787, 20x38cm)_ Serres spent the whole of his working life as an artist in England, practicing almost exclusively as a marine painter. In 1768 he was one of the thirty-six founder members of the Royal Academy.In 1791 he became Marine Painter to the King. The evidence for a visit by Serres to southern Italy is purely circumstantial. This watercolor shows the view looking from the east towards Naples across the Bay of Pozzuoli; the drifting smoke of Mount Vesuvius can be seen on the horizon. It is a modest gently colored drawing which reveals a regard for subtle atmospheric effects. Serres has noted with numbers the significant landmarks in the view, and these are described in a key on the reverse.
|||| ABCD ||| ADCB ||| ACDB ||| BADC ||| ABDC ||| BACD ||||
|||| BDAC ||| CBAD ||| CDAB ||| DCBA ||| DCAB ||| CDBA ||||
|||| ADBC ||| DACB ||| ACBD ||| CABD ||| DABC ||| CADB ||||
|||| BCAD ||| CBDA ||| DBAC ||| BDCA ||| BCDA ||| DBCA ||||