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DEATHS: 1954 MATISSE — 1619 L. CARRACCI
BAPTISM: 1560 A. CARRACCI

^ Died on 03 November 1954: Henri Matisse, French painter born on 31 December 1869.
—  Matisse was born at Le Cateau-Cambrésis in the North of France. His parents, Emile Matisse and Héloise Gérars, had a general store selling household goods and seed. Henri planned on a legal career, and in 1887/88 studied law in Paris, in 1889 he was employed as a clerk in a solicitor’s office. It was in 1890 that he was first attracted to painting. Confined to his bed for nearly a year (1890) after an intestinal operation, he chose drawing as a pastime. Then the hobby took best of him and he decided for the painting career.
     The long years of learning followed: in 1891 Matisse studied under Bouguereau at the Académie Julian, and in 1892 transferred unofficially to Gustave Moreau’s studio at the École Beaux-Arts, where he met Marquet, at the same time attending the École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs. In 1894 his daughter Marguerite was born, though Matisse did not marry the mother, Amélie Paraere, till 1898.
      In 1896 he made a successful début at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and a year later displayed there his large canvas La Desserte, which showed the influence of the Impressionists. After Moreau’s death in 1898, he studied briefly with Cormon, then left the École des Beaux-Arts and entered the Académie Carrière where he met Derain and Puy and attended evening classes in sculpture. In 1899 his son Jean, and then, in 1900, his son Pierre were born. Financial difficulties made him to stay for some time with his parents.
      During the period of 1899-1904 Matisse participated in a group exhibition at Berthe Weil’s Gallery (1902), painted townscapes with Marquet in Paris, spent the summer of 1904 working with Signac and Cross at Saint-Tropez, and in 1905-1906 painted views of Collioure.
      In 1905 and 1906 Matisse, his talent now fully developed, exhibited at the Salon d’Automne and the Salon des Indépendants together with Derain, Marquet, Vlaminck, Rouault and others and sparked off controversy. The group was ironically nicknamed “Les Fauves”. At that time Matisse displayed a tendency towards monumental, decorative compositions. If in 1900 it was only to earn some money that he took on the task of painting a frieze for the World Fair at the Grand Palais in Paris, in 1907 he worked with enthusiasm on a ceramic triptych, Nymph and Satyr, for Osthaus’s mansion in Hagen, Westphalia. In 1908 Matisse painted the monumental canvas The Red Room (Harmony in Red); and in 1909-1910 painted two large decorative panels, The Dance and The Music on commissions from the Moscow businessman S. Shchukin.
      Sculpture, too, began to occupy a significant place in Matisse’s artistic endeavor and was exhibited for the first time in 1912, in New York. At this time, Matisse set forth the theoretical basis for his art in his Notes d’un peintre (1908) and expounded his views on painting in the art school (l'Atelier Matisse), which he had organized. But soon teaching began to weigh heavily on the artist, and he withdrew more and more frequently to Issy-les-Moulineaux.
      In 1910 Matisse visited Munich to see an exhibition of Islamic art, in 1911 Seville, then Moscow on the invitation of S. Shchukin, and at the end of that year, Tangier, Morocco. From 1914 to 1918 he divided his time between Collioure, Paris and Nice. In 1918 a Matisse-and-Picasso exhibition opened at the Guillaume Gallery: it was to a certain extent indicative of the role of these two painters in contemporary art.
      In 1920 Matisse designed the stage sets and costumes for S. Diaghilev’s ballet The Nightingale (to Stravinsky’s music) and in 1939 for Léonide Massine’s ballet Rouge et Noir (to the music of Shostakovich’s first Symphony). In 1931-1933 he painted a large decorative composition, The Dance;  the same years he fulfilled etching illustrations for Mallarmé’s Poésies. In 1934-35 Matisse produced cartoons for carpets, based on James Joyce’s Ulysses.
      During the Second World War Matisse lived in the south of France – Bordeaux, Ciboure, Nice. In 1941 he underwent a serious operation. Confined to bed for most of the ensuing period, he turned his attention to book design and illustrations. He designed and illustrated Henri de Montherlant’s Pasiiphaë in 1944, Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du Mal, Mariana Alcoforado’s (*) Lettres Portugaises (70 lithographs) and Reverdy’s Visages (14 lithographs) in 1946, André Rouveyre's Repli (12 lithographs) in 1947, and Ronsard’s Amours in 1948. His unique book Jazz, published in 1947, contained a facsimile reproduction of the text written in the artist’s own hand and illustrations executed in gouache after Matisse’s cut-outs.
      It was only after the end of the war that Matisse turned anew to monumental compositions. He executed sketches for the stained-glass panel representing St. Dominique in the church at Assy (1948), the interior decoration for the Dominican chapel of Notre-Dame du Rosaire at Vence (1948-1951), and sketches for the stained-glass panel Rose for the Uniate Church in New York (1954). In his last years he devoted a great deal of his time to cut-outs and brush drawings.
— Regarded by some as the most important French painter of the 20th century. Leader of the Fauvist movement (about 1900). Pursued the expressiveness of color throughout his career. Subjects were largely domestic or figurative, and a distinct Mediterranean verve presides in the treatment.
— Henri Matisse was the most important French painter of the 20th century, rivaling Picasso in his influence. His background was diverse. He studied under Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau and experimented with Pointillism, which he found rigidly confining. Later, building on the work of Cézanne and Gauguin, he and André Derain developed Fauvism, a much freer and more expressive style of painting which was in fact the forerunner of Expressionism.
New York Times obituary.
^
LINKS

Self-Portrait (1918)
Self-Portrait in a Striped T-Shirt (1906)
–- Autoportrait (1944 lithograph, 38x25cm; 705x434pix, 22kb) very sketchy
–- La Jeune Fille en Rose (1923, 56x39cm; 792x528pix, 50kb _ .ZOOM to 2375x1582pix, 428kb)
–- Fleurs (1950; 48x37cm; 603x455pix, 32kb) _ This simple abstraction in flat white, red, and moon green, which might be an octopus or the goddess Shiva, or anything else besides flowers, has been enriched by the pseudonymous Hugh Hue with a great variety of backgrounds, accessible by a click of the mouse. But Hue has done much more: he has also transformed this picture into the very complex and highly detailed abstraction
      _ Rolf and Rulf From the Ex-Planet Pluto aka Rulf and Rolf From the Former Planet Pluto (2006; screen filling, 751kb) _ As if this were not enough, Hue went on to enlarge details of Rylf and Rilf From the Ex-Planet Pluto and transform them into two related series (you can click from any of the pictures to any other of the same series, and instantly from one series to the other at the same level), each consisting of 10 brilliant symmetrical abstractions with a screen filling background to look at while downloading (the picture on any level does not enlarge the previous one, but adds to its edges and center) (for levels 8 and 9, whose size is required to appreciate the fine details but exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to 1120x1584pix):
      _ Ser Rolf, level 0 (2006; 1120x1584pix, 474kb _ level 1, 1120x1584pix, 550kb _ level 2, 1120x1584pix, 1330kb _ level 3, 1120x1584pix, 424kb _ level 4, 1120x1584pix, 474kb _ level 5, 1120x1584pix, 532kb _ level 6 to 1120x1584pix, 620kb _ level 7, 1120x1584pix, 606kb _ level 8, 1584x2240pix, 1212kb _ level 9, 2240x3168pix, 2848kb ||| _ level 8, 1120x1584pix, 750kb _ level 9, 1120x1584pix, 846kb) and
      _ Flor Res, level 0 (2006; 1120x1584pix, 474kb _ level 1, 1120x1584pix, 550kb _ level 2, 1120x1584pix, 1330kb _ level 3, 1120x1584pix, 424kb _ level 4, 1120x1584pix, 474kb _ level 5, 1120x1584pix, 532kb _ level 6 to 1120x1584pix, 620kb _ level 7, 1120x1584pix, 606kb _ level 8, 1584x2240pix, 1212kb _ level 9, 2240x3168pix, 2848kb ||| _ level 8, 1120x1584pix, 750kb _ level 9, 1120x1584pix, 846kb)
Dinner Table (1897) _ detail (the servant)
Le bonheur de vivre (1906)
Sea at Collioure (1906)
The Bank (1907)
La Conversation (1909)
Odalisque, Half-Length (The Tatoo) (1923)
Odalisque (1923)
Odalisque, Harmony in Red (1926)
Odalisque in a Gauze Skirt (1929)
Odalisque on a Turkish Sofa (1928)
Odalisque with Green Scarf (1926)
Decorative Figure on an Ornamental Background (1926) _ Hugh Hue's hues adorn the spectacular series of abstractions into which he has transformed Matisse's picture; they can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Figure on Decorating an Ornamental Background (2007; 550x778pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 321kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 648kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1520kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3046kb) and
      _ Declarative Figure of Speech on an Oriental Back (2007; 550x778pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 321kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 648kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1520kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 3046kb).
Notre-Dame, une fin d'après-midi (1902, 72x5cm)
Polynesia, The Sea (1946)
The Dance 1 _ The Dance 2 _ The Dance 3 (1933)

Icarus (1947, 42x26cm) _ This bold and playful image is one of twenty plates Matisse created to illustrate his groundbreaking book Jazz. The illustrations derive from maquettes of cut and pasted colored papers, which were then printed using a stencil technique known as "pochoir." Here, the mythological figure Icarus is presented in a simplified form floating against a royal blue nighttime sky. Matisse's flat, abstracted forms and large areas of pure color marked an important change in the direction of his later work and ultimately influenced "hard-edge" artists of the 1960s like Ellsworth Kelly and Al Held.
      This work, one of Matisse’s well-known cutouts, accompanied the text of "The Airplane" in his book Jazz. Depicting a man with a red circle pasted on for his heart falling through the night sky, the subject matter of this cutout was typical of other scenes in this book. The pure colors speak of the past but more specifically of the sickness Matisse had suffered during World War II. The cutouts of 1943 are the first art pieces that Matisse worked on at night, in lamplight rather than sunlight. His night, in these scenes, speaks of insomnia and emptiness, abstractions that can be filled only by painting and memory. By foregoing the literal in his art at this point, Matisse is said to have been surrendering the body, which was aged, in favor of the mind. The childish act of cutting and then combining pure colors symbolized for Matisse a return to the past, to the "human element" of art.
La Danse (1910) [different the 3-panel Dance of 1933) _ This painting features five naked women dancing on a green and blue background, a color combination symbolic of the earth. The two women whose faces are turned away from the viewer cannot reach their hands together. Each figure is involved in her own world, connected to but distant from the others. In this crude, simple depiction of humans and nature, Matisse succeeded in revealing his vision of the universal. The individual, though for the most part unaware of his deep link with the rest of the world, cannot separate himself from others. Nature is the modest background that in fact subtly dominates life. This painting is only one of many for which Matisse used his extensive studies of nude women.
_ Matisse dedicated his career to developing a decorative, expressive form of abstraction. Among his best known works is the mural-sized canvas Dance (II), commissioned in 1909 by Sergei Shchukin, a Russian merchant who had previously purchased several of Matisse’s paintings. Intended for a grand, three-story staircase in Shchukin’s home, Matisse conceived of Dance (II) as part of a suite of three paintings: Dance (II), Music, and a scene of repose. Because of the scandal Dance (II) and Music caused at the Salon d’Automne of 1910 – Matisse’s use of intense, vibrant colors in the former was even more shocking than the male nudes that populate Music – Shchukin briefly hesitated before accepting the two canvases. For unknown reasons, he refused the third canvas, which Matisse reworked several times between 1909 and 1916, when he titled it Bathers by a River. The idea of dance clearly occupied Matisse’s imagination for several years. A ring of dancers appears in the distant background of Matisse’s Le bonheur de vivre (1906), a painting that celebrates life’s hedonistic pleasures. Dance (II) literally and figuratively expands this theme: five nude women hold hands as they cavort atop a grassy knoll, entirely filling the canvas. The stylized lines of the dancers’ bodies radiate energy and grace. The group’s circular motion directs attention to the center of the canvas, indicating unity and balance. Matisse rendered the scene in vivid shades of red, blue, and green that emphasize the intense joy of the dance. Vibrant, lyrical, exultant – this ring of dancers eternally symbolizes life’s ecstasy.
Luxe, Calme, et Volupté (1904) This painting marks a transition from the Impressionist style of Matisse’s early days to his later obsession with "making colors sing, without paying any heed to rules and regulations." The pastel colors — often depicting the two legs of a woman in different colors — conjure the mystical feeling of Baudelaire’s poem, from which this title is taken. In itself, the Pointillist style was not successful for Matisse; he found it too logical and did not sincerely feel a part of the work. What he played with in the paint and began to understand, however, was the purity of color. The joy portrayed in this painting through the clean, fresh light helped Matisse discover his artistic strength. In addition, this painting marks the first time Matisse depicted nudes in the sensual and carefree way that characterized many later works of his career. In a sense, this painting represents Matisse’s rite of passage into himself. He moved to Nice soon after completing this work, and he continued to progress in the reflections on color for which he is known.
The Red Studio (1911) "A painter exists only in terms of his pictures," Matisse once said. The studio, in that case, is the sacred home that the artist devotes his life to maintaining and enriching. This painting, one of many that depicted an artist’s studio, is famous for the warm, deep red that dominates it. On a simple level, this work itemizes the objects and other paintings from Matisse’s studio at Issy-les-Moulineaux. The picture is both spatial and flat, since the perspective lines and outlines of three-dimensional objects are drawn only in light yellow lines, while flat objects such as pictures are filled in with color. In addition, the theme of "art in art" (paintings inside a painting), culminated in this piece, followed Matisse throughout his life. According to Matisse, the artist was confined to his studio; though his imagination and observations could venture outside of the studio, the essence of his life never would.
Interior of the Chapel of the Rosary, Vence _ Matisse began working on this four-year project in the late 1940s. In 1941, he had undergone an operation, and he wanted to thank the nuns who took care of him during his convalescence. The chapel is small and modest, embracing light as its main and purest feature. All the art forms in the building -- drawing, sculpture and architecture -- were subordinated to a spiritual opening through stained glass to the light outside. His chief aim "was to balance a surface of light and color against a solid wall with black drawing on a white background." He used paper cutout maquettes for the windows and vestments according to the notion that this material was "form filtered to its essentials." The simplicity characteristic of this chapel, mixed with the profound emotion with which Matisse viewed its creation, made the building his masterpiece. Both in philosophy and craftsmanship, Matisse saw the chapel as his "revelation."
150 images at Ciudad de la Pintura


(*) Soror Mariana Alcoforado (1640-1723) nasceu e faleceu em Beja. Era uma religiosa que professou no Convento da Conceição em Beja, tendo sido escrivã e vigária do mesmo convento. Foi-lhe atribuída a autoria das Lettres Portugaises, publicadas em Paris em 1669 por Claude Barbin. No mesmo ano são publicadas em Colónia com o título Lettres d'amour d'une religieuse portugaise. Nesta última edição, uma nota informa que as cartas foram dirigidas ao cavaleiro de Chamilly e tinham sido traduzidas para francês por Guilleragues. Boissonade faz saber em 1810 que encontrou um manuscrito das cartas que indica que a autora das mesmas se chamava «Mariana Alcaforada, religiosa em Beja». Os investigadores actuais duvidam, no entanto, da atribuição desta autoria. As cartas tiveram várias traduções para português
— Les Lettres portugaises traduites en français ont paru, sans nom d'auteur, le 04 janvier 1669, chez le libraire Claude Barbin, "au Palais, sur le second perron de la Sainte-Chapelle". L'auteur en serait un certain chevalier de Guilleragues, dont on ne connaît que ce seul texte.
–(071101)
^ Died on 03 November 1619: Lodovico Carracci, Bolognese painter and printmaker baptized as an infant on 21 April 1555. — Cousin of the brothers Agostino Carracci [16 Aug 1557 bapt. – 23 Feb 1602] and Annibale Carracci [03 Nov 1560 – 15 Jul 1609], with whom he effected an artistic reform that overthrew Mannerist aesthetics and initiated the Baroque. Brother of Paolo Carracci [1568-1625].
— His father, Vincenzo Carracci, was a butcher, whose profession may be alluded to in Ludovico’s nickname ‘il Bue’, though this might also be a reference to the artist’s own slowness. Ludovico’s style was less classical than that of his younger cousins Agostino and Annibale, perhaps because of a mystical turn of mind that gave his figures a sense of other-worldliness. Like his cousins, he espoused the direct study of nature, especially through figure drawing, and was inspired by the paintings of Correggio and the Venetians.
      However, there survives in his work, more than in that of his cousins, a residue of the Mannerist style that had dominated Bolognese painting for most of the mid-16th century. Ludovico maintained a balance between this Mannerist matrix, his innate religious piety and the naturalism of the work of his cousins. With the exception of some travels during his training and a brief visit to Rome in 1602, Ludovico’s career was spent almost entirely in Bologna.
      In the first two decades of the 17th century he lost touch with the activities of his more up-to-date Bolognese compatriots – contemporaries and students alike – who were then active in Rome, including his cousin Annibale. Ludovico’s later work became overblown and eccentric. This curious ‘gigantism’ was first evidenced in paintings of the late 1590s, but the tendency seems to have been reinforced by the monumental classicism of Annibale’s ceiling of the Galleria Farnese in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, which Ludovico saw on his visit in 1602. In spite of his isolation in Bologna, Ludovico strongly influenced the subsequent development of painting in his native city and elsewhere, especially through his students, who, besides his cousin Annibale, included Giacomo Cavedone [1577-1660] who also became Lodovico's assistant, Domenichino [1581-1641], Alessandro Algardi [1598-1654], Guido Reni [1575-1642], Gianfrancesco Grimaldi [1606-1680], Francesco Albani [1578-1660], Remigio Cantagallina [1582-1656], Pietro Faccini [1575-1602], and Alessandro Tiarini [1577-1668]. Francesco Brizio was another assistant of Lodovico Carracci.

— The brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci and their cousin Lodovico Carracci worked together early in their careers, and it is not easy to distinguish their shares in, for example, the cycle of frescos in the Palazzo Fava in Bologna (1584).
      Lodovico was by temperament a fairly shy person who never found real success, unlike his cousin Annibale. Apart from traveling when young in the course of his studies and a brief and rather unpleasant stay in Rome, he spent all his life in the cosy atmosphere of Bologna, where most of his work still remains. He nevertheless has to be recognized as the first painter systematically to abandon the late Mannerist style in favor of a new kind of moral and devotional style of painting. By interpreting the suggestions made by Cardinal Paleotti, who had a special interest in the reform of religious art, Lodovico Carracci took an early lead in its renewal. This was arrived at by reassessing nature exactly as it is, even when it appears plain or uninteresting, but without ever resorting to the cerebral ploys used by the last of the Mannerists. To achieve his aim, as well as painting, Lodovico placed great emphasis on teaching. In the 1580s, he and his two cousins Annibale and Agostino opened their "Accademia dei Desiderosi" (The Academy of those who wish to make Progress). This was later renamed "Academia degli Incamminati" (The Academy of those who are making Progress) but later still was known simply as the Carracci Academy. This was responsible for shaping a whole generation of Emilian painters.
      Proof of how united the group was came when the three Carracci cousins together painted the frescos in Palazzo Fava. The simplicity of their compositions recalls the style of Federico Barocci [1526-1612] style while the sweetness of their expression is reminiscent of Correggio [1490 – 05 Mar 1534].
      Lodovico left Bologna only for brief periods and directed the Carracci academy by himself after his cousins had gone to Rome. His work is uneven and highly personal. Painterly and expressive considerations always outweigh those of stability and calm Classicism in his work, and at its best there is a passionate and poetic quality indicative of his preference for Tintoretto [1518 – 31 May 1594] and Jacopo Bassano [1515 – 13 Feb 1592]. His most fruitful period was 1585-1595, but near the end of his career he still produced remarkable paintings of an almost Expressionist force, such as the Christ Crucified above Figures in Limbo (1614). Lodovico's own sensitivity derived from his deep knowledge of Venetian painting. His style was composed of delicate gestures, bashful looks, and a good deal of narrative drama. Especially in his medium to small pictures this readily became lyrical poetry. Among his most important works we should mention his youthful Annunciation and his noble Madonna dei Bargellini. Later on he painted the frescos in the cloisters of S. Michele in Bosco, near Bologna (1604). After his cousins' deaths he produced some large and rather sad compositions, such as The Funeral of the Madonna and the fresco of the Annunciation, finished the year he died.
^
LINKS

Christ's Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane (600x681pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1590pix _ ZOOM+ to 2221x2522pix; 902kb)
Bargellini Madonna (1588, 282x188cm) _ Lodovico Carracci derived his Baroque type of composition from certain pictures by Titian, adding to these a celestial plane, by which the upper part of the picture is filled with great beauty. The Renaissance 'Sacra conversazione', in which all the people were motionless, has become a living conversation, in which men and saints are admitted in familiar terms into the presence of the sacred figures.
The Dream of Saint Catherine of Alexandria (1593) _ We recognize this sleeping figure as Saint Catherine by the fragment of spiked wheel in the lower left corner, which was the instrument of an attempted martyrdom. Here Lodovico Carracci represented her legendary dream in which Mary and the infant Christ, accompanied by angels, appeared to her. Plighting his troth, Christ placed a ring on Catherine's finger, and through this mystic marriage she became his bride. To cast the event as a dream, rather than having Saint Catherine receive the ring while awake, is Lodovico's innovation. Two angels at the left look on with protective tenderness, while others barely emerge amid the vaporous bronze radiance at the right -- spirit becoming matter. The figures, solid and robust, bask in an indeterminate setting. A languorous warmth pervades the scene and slows the composition. At the same time, the quirky folds and pleats cascading down Catherine's garments impart a vertiginous sensation -- the dizziness of sleep. Lodovico was the eldest of the three Carracci, the family of Bolognese artists who inaugurated the age of the baroque. His depictions of saints in states of visionary ecstasy were highly prized in an age when the purpose of religious art was to arouse intensely pious emotions in the spectator. _ detail
The Martyrdom of Saint Margaret (1616) _ The perfect way in which all the formal components of this altarpiece are balanced shows how deeply Lodovico Carracci reformed religious painting. He used both intelligence and sensitivity in the way he implemented the Counter-Reformation dictates laid down by the Council of Trent. Lodovico tried to stick to simplicity and persuasion.The saint baring her neck for the executioner is a model of Christian virtues. These are exalted through her luminous beauty which contrasts with the brutality of the soldier to the left and the executioner himself (two figures which contain references to Titian, something so often found in Lodovico's work). The faithful looking at this picture are able to identify with the spectators below· the scaffold and thus feel they are present at the scene rather than outsiders to it.
The Stories of Jason (detail) (1584) _ The three Carracci cousins were always proud of the fact that the fascinating frieze that surrounds this room in Palazzo Fava was a team effort. They refused to identify which part each one had painted. Recent critical attempts have tried to distinguish Lodovico's contributions from those of his younger cousins Agostino and Annibale. At the same time these studies have emphasized the value of the way the three artists collaborated on this work. The Carracci cousins' idea of an Academy should not be seen as a reactionary move or merely the wish to perpetuate rigid classical models. It should rather be viewed as a cultured and dynamic relationship with tradition. With this in mind, it is much easier to appreciate the variety of quotations and the richness of motifs found in Palazzo Fava. Above all, however, we perceive a sense of hidden, wintry melancholy, a feeling almost of crepuscular poetry that can most probably be attributed to Lodovico's own sensibility.
The Virgin Appearing to Saint Hyacinth (1594, 375x223cm) _ The painting is from the church of San Domenico, Bologna.
Saint Sebastian Thrown into the Cloaca Maxima (1612, 167x231cm) _ Although Saint Sebastian is usually depicted bound to a tree or pillar and pierced by arrows, that attempt by the Romans to take his life was unsuccessful. Ludovico Carracci chose to represent the moment after the subsequent deadly beating, when Roman soldiers dumped Sebastian’s limp and lifeless body into a sewer.
      Against the dark of night, brutish soldiers lift and tug the dead saint’s body. Ludovico contrasted the tensile strength of their straining bodies with the slackness of the saint’s limbs, head, and facial muscles as he falls into the sewer’s depths. The night atmosphere is dark and thick: figures seem to emerge from the blackness. Light glints dully off helmets and armor, but the soldiers’ faces are unreadable. A bright light suffuses the body of Saint Sebastian, making him the focal point of the composition.
      In 1612 Cardinal Maffeo Barberini commissioned this painting from Ludovico for his family’s chapel in the Church of San Andrea della Valle in Rome. The chapel commemorated the site where Saint Sebastian’s body was recovered from the sewer, called the Cloaca Maxima. Barberini decided to keep the painting in his private collection, believing that an image of the recovery of Sebastian’s body by Christians was more appropriate for the church.
 

Died on a 03 November:

^ >1835 Giacomo Guardi, Italian painter of cityscapes (mostly Venice), born on 13 April 1764. — Son of Francesco Guardi [05 Oct 1712 – 01 Jan 1793], nephew of Gianantonio Guardi [1699 – 22 Jan 1760] and of Nicolò Guardi [1715-1786], grandson of Domenico Guardi [1678-1716]
–- Piazza San Marco (10x16cm; 1505x2420pix, 314kb)
–- a slightly different /S#*>Piazza San Marco (14x25cm; 900x1656pix, 234kb) image tinged in blue (even the buildings!). Painting crowded with people, singly or in groups of 2 or 3, carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other. inscribed on the reverse: “Veduta della Piazza di S. Marco / all’ Ospedaletto in SS.Giov e Paolo N.5245 dimandar”
–- a 3rd, slightly different /S#*>Piazza San Marco (15x25cm; 489x800pix, 104kb) image tinged in blue (even the buildings!). Painting crowded with people, singly or in groups of 2 or 3, carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other. inscribed on the reverse: “Veduta della Piazza di S. Marco/ Areccapito all`Ospedaletto in Calle del Peruchier/ No. 5245 dimandar/ Giacomo del Guardi”
— (a columnade) (1600x1310pix, 603kb)
–- S*>#Riva di Schiavoni (14x25cm; 900x1757pix, 178kb) inscribed on the reverse: “Veduta della Riva di..Schiavoni cominciando dal porta del Palazzo / Ducale, ponte della pogia Prigioni, La Chiesa della Pietà, il Sepolcro , la Cà di Dio , S. Biagio, Le Veneta Morina, S. Francesco di Paola, li Giardini Pubblici a Castello / all’ Ospedaletto in SS.Giov e Paolo N.5245 dimandar”. The water is crowded with a couple of boats and many gondolas carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other.
–- S*>#San Giorgio Maggiore — Rialto (two pictures in one image; each 15x24cm; 804x1209pix and 779x1216pix, together 354kb) in each painting the water is crowded with gondolas carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other.
— a different /S#*>San Giorgio Maggiore ( 487x800pix, 82kb) boats and gondolas are carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other.
— a 3rd, different /S#*>San Giorgio Maggiore ( 493x860pix, 111kb) fewer boats and gondolas, but still carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other.
–- S*>#Venetian Lagoon I and II (two pictures in one image; 16x24cm and 15x23cm; 783x1208pix and 805x1241pix, together 255kb) in each painting the water is crowded with many boats and gondolas carefully spaced so as not to obscure each other {hey! Guardi repeated himself, so why shouldn't I?}. The boat in the left foreground in both paintings is almost exactly the same, but reversed. — (091102)


Born on a 03 November:


^ 1855 Enrico Reycend, Turin Italian artist who died in 1928.
–- S*>#Paesaggio (43x47cm; 812x900pix, 126kb)

^ >1846 Elizabeth Southerden Thompson, known as Lady Butler after her 11 June 1877 marriage to the Irish-born British Lt.Gen. Sir William Butler [31 Oct 1838 – 07 Jun 1910]. She was a British military painter who died on 02 October 1933. She was the elder daughter of Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson, members of London’s literary and artistic circles and close friends of Charles Dickens. Both she and her sister (the poet and essayist Alice Meynell) were educated by their father. She spent much of her childhood in Italy, but the family returned to England in 1860 so that she could have professional tuition. She became a student in the elementary class at the Female School of Art, South Kensington, London, and, after a further interval of travel and residence on the Continent, obtained a place in the antique and life classes at the school in 1866. Her main rival for academic honors there was Kate Greenaway. In 1869 the family lived in Florence, where she studied drawing at the Accademia di Belle Arti under Giuseppe Bellucci [1827–1882]. Her first recorded painting was a religious work, The Magnificat (1871), done after her conversion to Roman Catholicism. The work was refused by the hanging committee of the Royal Academy, London, in 1871, and this may have deterred her from attempting any other religious painting. Upon going to Paris in 1870 she was exposed to battle scenes from Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier and Édouard Detaille, and switched her focus to war paintings. With the painting Missing (1873) a Franco-Prussian War battle scene, depicting the common solders' suffering and heroism, she earned her first submission to the Royal Academy. After The Roll Call was shown in 1874 at the Academy, she became a nineteenth century celebrity, due to the paintings' immense popularity. As the paintings toured Europe, along with photographs of Elizabeth, she gained even more notice because people found out that she was both young and pretty, something normally not associated with painters of battle scenes. It also helped that during this time there was an incredible amount of Victorian pride and romanticism for the growing British Empire. After her marriage she traveled to the far reaches of the British Empire with her husband while raising their five children. She came under the influence of her husband's Irish-inclined beliefs that the colonial imperialism of countries like Great Britain may not be in the best interest of the native people in far-off lands. She continued to paint and hold true to the valor of the ordinary British soldier, despite the policy of Parliament and Crown. On her husband's retirement from the army, she moved with him to Ireland, where they lived at Bansha Castle, County Tipperary. She was widowed in 1910, but continued to live at Bansha until 1922, when she took up residence with her daughter, Eileen, Viscountess Gormanston, at Gormanston Castle, County Meath, where she died. — LINKS
Quatre Bras, 1815 (1815, 33x73cm; 442x1000pix, 165kb) _ detail (675x450pix, 29kb) _ On 16 June 1815, eve of the Battle of Waterloo, the left wing of Napoleon's troop under the incompetent Marshall Michel Ney [10 Jan 1769 – 07 Dec 1815] fail to take the crossroads at Quatre Bras in Belgium, defended by the Allies.The painting shows the British 28th Regiment, formed in a square, attacked by French Lancers.
Scotland For Ever! (38x74cm)
The Return From Inkerman (46x99cm)
The Remnants of an Army (1879, 132x234cm; 291x512pix, 20kb) _ In the afternoon of 13 January 1842, the lone survivor of the 06 Jan 1842 - 13 Jan 1842 massacre of the British retreating from Kabul, Dr. William Brydon [10 Oct 1811 – 20 Mar 1873], wounded and exhausted, arriving near Jalalabad, on his nearly moribund horse. —(070113)

1560 (infant baptism) Annibale Carracci, Italian painter who died (full coverage) on 15 July 1609. —(061101)

1500 Benvenuto Cellini, Italian Mannerist sculptor and goldsmith who died on 13 February 1571. — MORE ON CELLINI AT HISTORY “4” NOVEMBER with links to images and to autobiography.


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