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ART “4” “2”-DAY  02 November v.9.a0
DEATHS: 1661 SEGHERS — 1909 FRITH — 1936 VIANI
^ Died on 02 November 1661: Daniel Seghers (or Zeghers), le Jésuite d'Anvers, Antwerp Flemish painter born on 05 (03?) December 1590.
— Flemish painter, student of Jan Brueghel the Elder in Antwerp. He became free master of the Antwerp Guild of Painters in 1614, while at the same time joining the Jesuit Order as a lay brother. He made numerous trips abroad, including Rome. He painted for Prince Frederick Hendrick of Nassau and the Elector of Brandenburg.
— The son of the silk merchant Pierre Seghers [–1601], he was brought up in the northern Netherlands where his widowed mother had emigrated following her conversion to Calvinism after her husband’s death. Daniel apparently began to study painting c. 1605. He was enrolled as a master in Antwerp in 1611, with Jan Breughel the elder named as his teacher. Seghers converted back to Catholicism and entered the Jesuit Order as a lay brother in Mechelen in 1614. He is recorded as a painter at the Collège de Bruxelles in 1621, when he produced two large Garlands of Flowers for the cathedral of St Michel in Brussels. In 1625 he took his final vows as a Jesuit priest, and from then onwards he signed his pictures as Daniel Seghers Societatis Jesu. After his ordination, he went to Rome, where he spent two years. In 1627 he returned to Antwerp and remained there until his death, working as a flower painter at his monastery.
— Seghers entered the order of the Jesuits in 1614, learned the style of floral painting directly from Jan Bruegel dei Velluti, assistant and friend of Rubens. He was in Rome for a short stay, returning then to his fatherland, where he continued his prolific production until his death. The artist specialized in a particularly special and acclaimed type of painting that made him famous throughout Europe. His compositions repeat the same scheme without great variations: rich garlands of flowers painted with meticulous attention to naturalistic phenomena according to the Flemish tradition of which Bruegel had been the leader, and false frames in stone that surround sacred scenes or figures of saints placed in the center, painted by other artists of Bruegel's circle.
— Daniel Seghers was born in Antwerp in 1590. He was a student of Jan Brueghel the Elder and joined the Saint Luke Guild of Antwerp in 1611. On 10 December 1614 he became a lay brother of the Jesuit order and made his vows in Brussels in 1625. After Seghers joined a monastery, he worked for high-ranking rulers, whom he was allowed to receive there. He got commissions from numerous European princes, such as Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and Nassau, who repeatedly sent him gifts. He was visited in his studio by potentates such as Charles I and Charles II of England, and the Archdukes Ferdinand and Leopold Wilhelm. Seghers specialized in painting garlands of flowers to frame religious scenes. This style can be traced back to the
      _ Madonna in a Floral Wreath, by Rubens and Jan Brueghel the Elder. But unlike the mentioned painting, Seghers paid more attention to a flower motif, trying to recover their spiritual symbolism, and religious scenes served to him as a background. Seghers was famous far beyond the borders of his country. He received a large number of commissions, was also renowned as a landscape artist and exerted a lasting influence on a large number of students.
— Jan Philips van Thielen, and Elligen were students of Seghers.

Floral Wreath with Madonna and Child (108x80cm; 1100x800pix, 163kb) _ Religious flower still-lifes are a special category, first developed by Seghers. While Dutch paintings of flowers, particularly tulips, clearly showed a tendency towards secularization (with noticeable emphasis on the economic and aesthetic value of flowers rather than their religious significance), Seghers tried to recover their spiritual symbolism, in accordance with the counter-reformational aims of the Jesuit order. They are set against dark backgrounds of cartouches or niches in shades of brown, with floral wreaths in glowing colors climbing up like garlands. Instead of being illuminated from outside, the wreaths seem to have a luminosity of their own.
      Seghers generally had the Madonna painted in relief by some artist colleague (in this case by Cornelis Schut and J. van Thielen) before surrounding it with flowers and/or fruit. Thus his pictorial concept served to emphasize its character as a religious object, without any real presence of Mary or Jesus. They were devotional pictures, intended to confirm the practice of church worship, communicated through the illusionist reproduction of the religious object itself. It was not the artist's intention to produce a true-to-life fictitious reality that would enable the believer or viewer to bypass the Church and to enter into devout communication.
Garland of Flowers (130x98cm, 1236x901pix, 173kb) _ Garlands of flowers became a specialty within the overall genre of Flemish floral painting. The theme was developed by Jan Brueghel and perfected by his best-known student, Daniel Seghers. The garland customarily surrounds a medallion or cartouche containing a religious image that was usually added by another specialist artist.
Saint Gosswin Surrounded by Flowers (95x68cm).
Floral Wreath with the Virgin and Child (86x62).
^ >Born on 02 November 1699: Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French Rococo painter specialized in still life, who died on 06 December 1779.
— — Taught by Pierre-Jacques Cazès [1676 – 25 Jun 1754], Chardin rose from a relatively humble background to become one of the most admired painters of mid-18th-century France and to hold the influential position of Treasurer of the Académie Royale. His austere still-lifes and bourgeois domestic genre scenes were highly praised by Diderot [05 Oct 1713 – 31 Jul 1784] in his Salon reviews, and, though his reputation went into decline after his death, Chardin was by the middle of the 19th century once again among the most highly esteemed of French painters. His works and technique continued to find particular favor with artists and connoisseurs. Although he is often referred to as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, there is no documentary evidence to confirm this additional name.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard [04 Apr 1732 – 22 Aug 1806] and Pehr Hilleström [18 Nov 1732 – 13 Aug 1816] were students of Chardin.

–- Self-Portrait with glasses (1771; 640x514pix, 31kb _ .ZOOM to 1280x1028pix, 124kb _ ZOOM+ to 2559x2055pix, 610kb), and, in the same head-and-shoulders pose but with right hand showing holding a pastel,
      _ Self-Portrait at the Easel (1770, 41x33cm; 742x580pix, 38kb) in which Chardin depicts himself tracing and coloring his portrait on blue paper over canvas. He is holding the pastel used to render the skin tone of his face and hand. Pastel is a form of colored crayon made up of powdered pigments and diluted mediums. Its tactile qualities were appreciated by 18th century portrait painters like La Tour and Perronneau. Chardin, who is known for his still-lifes and genre scenes, used it for the portraits he made, toward the end of his life, of his wife and particularly of himself; this is probably the last of his self-portraits.
Self-Portrait with an eyeshade (1775, 46x38cm; 1000x792pix, 156kb _ ZOOM to 2537x2024pix, 480kb)
–- La Bulle de Savon (1739, 61x63cm; main detail 1000x780pix, 94kb — .ZOOM to full picture 1170x1312pix, 110kb)
–- The Buffet (1728, 194x129cm) — The Ray (1728, 114x146cm) _ These two painting are the artist's diploma pieces, on the occasion of his reception into the Académie royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1728. Artists who were not members of the Académie, and who therefore could not exhibit their work in the Salon, took part once a year in what was known as the 'Salon de Jeunesse', held on the feast of Corpus Christi in the open air, in the Place Dauphine, and lasting two hours. On 03 June 1728 Chardin exhibited several pictures there, including The Ray and The Buffet. Some academicians who saw the work persuaded Chardin to present himself for membership of the Académie royale; on 25 September of the same year, contrary to the usual practice, Chardin was accepted and admitted on one and the same day. The Académie did not insist on a picture specially painted for the occasion, as was usually the case, but retained The Ray and The Buffet as his diploma pieces. It is related that the artist had deceived several academicians, among them Largillière and Cazès, by showing them some of his still-life paintings which they took for Flemish works. Certainly, the source of inspiration is obvious in The Ray, which surpasses the best work of Jan Fyt.
      The rich quality of the paint surface, which is in perfect condition, has been revealed by the recent cleaning of the varnish. The picture is exceptionally well preserved for a work by Chardin; his paintings often suffered from too heavy a use of oil with his pigment. Perhaps this one owes its good condition to the fact that it dates from his early days, when he was applying himself to improving his technique by creating a chef-d'oeuvre carefully executed according to the best principles of true craftsmanship. Later, he trusted too much to his inspiration, and yielded to his passion for worked-up impasto.
The Attributes of the Arts (1766, 113x145cm, 1/3 size, 1555x2000pix, 2281kb) _ This picture may appear to reproduce the casual clutter of an 18th-century tabletop. Not so. Chardin carefully selected objects to convey specific meanings. A palette with brushes, placed atop a paint box, symbolizes the art of painting. Building plans, spread beneath drafting and surveying tools, represent architecture. An ornate bronze pitcher alludes to goldsmithing, and the red portfolio symbolizes drawing. The plaster model of J. B. Pigalle's Mercury, an actual work by a friend of Chardin's, stands for sculpture. The cross on a ribbon is the Order of Saint Michael, the highest honor an artist could then receive. Pigalle was the first sculptor to win it. So this painting sends multiple messages: it presents emblems of the arts and of artists' glory and honors a specific artist, Pigalle. A still life (or painting of things inanimate or already dead), which is composed from scratch by its creator, can be used to convey complex meanings.
The Silver Tureen (1728, 76x108cm) _ Chardin was a contemporary of Boucher, but no two artists could have been more different. Chardin invariably imbued his deceptively simple compositions with a disregard for mere prettiness. In this still-life Chardin has given ordinary objects of everyday life an aura of dignity and value. The cat creates a sense of conflict between the living and dead animals, underscoring a theme common in Chardin's genre scenes: the evanescence of life.
A "Lean Diet" with Cooking Utensils (1731, 33x41cm) _ Chardin's carefully constructed still lifes do not bulge with appetizing foods but are concerned with the objects themselves and with the treatment of light. An anecdote illustrating Chardin's genius and his unique position in 18th-century painting is told by one of his greatest friends, the engraver Charles-Nicolas Cochin, who wrote a letter shortly after Chardin's death to Haillet de Couronne, the man who was to deliver Chardin's eulogy to the Academy of Rouen, of which Chardin had been a member. One day, an artist was making a big show of the method he used to purify and perfect his colors. Monsieur Chardin, impatient with so much idle chatter, said to the artist, But who told you that one paints with colors.? With what then? the astonished artist asked. One uses colors., replied Chardin, but one paints with feeling.
The House of Cards (1737, 60x72cm) _ At a time when large-scale heroic narrative painting was thought to be the most meritorious, Chardin, thwarted by his lack of academic training in drawing, became one of the greatest practitioners of the 'lowly' art of still life. Born in Paris, where he spent most of his life, he first trained at the guild school of Saint-Luc, before gaining admittance to the French Royal Academy in the category of a still-life and animal painter. By the end of his life his works were to be found in most of the great private collections of the time. Although totally dependent on observation and on working closely from nature, Chardin evolved methods of painting at a distance from the model, so that he was able to reconcile particular detail with a more generalized effect. While some critics deplored his inability to paint more 'elevated' subjects others, like the influential philosopher Diderot, praised the 'magic' of his brush: 'This magic defies is a vapour that has been breathed onto the canvas...Approach the painting, and everything comes together in a jumble, flattens out, and vanishes; move away, and everything creates itself and reappears.'
      In the early 1730s, perhaps in response to the amicable taunt of Joseph Aved, a portrait-painter friend, Chardin also turned to small-scale figure painting, influenced by the Dutch and Flemish seventeenth-century masters of everyday scenes. Encouraged by the success of these homespun compositions of kitchen maids and serving men at work, he moved from the sculleries of the bourgeoisie to their living quarters. By narrowing the focus to the half-length figure, he was also able to enlarge it in scale, as he does here. In this wonderfully intimate and contemplative picture, he portrays the son of his friend Monsieur Lenoir, a furniture-dealer and cabinetmaker.
      The House of Cards owes its subject to the moralizing vanitas paintings of the seventeenth century. The verses under the engraving of the picture, published in 1743, stress the insubstantiality of human endeavors, as frail as a house of cards. But the painting tends to undermine the moral. Its rigorously geometric and stable composition gives an air of permanence which contradicts the fugitive nature of the boy's pastime, and of childhood itself. Chardin's 'magic accord' of tones envelops the scene securely in its warm and subtle light, at once direct and diffused. His technique remained secret, although it was suspected that he used his thumb as much as his brush. We can well believe, however, his response to the inquiry of a mediocre painter, 'We use colors., but we paint with feeling.'
— another The House of Cards (1737, 82x66cm) _ This is the last of the four versions of the subject by Chardin. A commentator claimed: “The simple and at the same time elegant composition, the physical and psychological characterization of the boy recalls the famous painting Les Joueurs de Cartes by Paul Cézanne. ” Well, Cézanne painted not one but no less than five Les Joueurs de Cartes (including
      _ Les Joueurs de Cartes and another
      _ Les Joueurs de Cartes) and I don't see resemblance in any of them. Judge for yourself.
Still-Life with Pipe and Jug (1737, 32x40cm)
The Attentive Nurse (1738)
–- Le Canari (1751, 50x43cm; 1000x846pix, 64kb)
–- Le Benedicite (1744, 50x38cm; 998x768pix, 43kb)
–- Girl with Racket and Shuttlecock (1740, 82x66cm; 640x514pix, 31kb _ .ZOOM to 1280x1028pix, 124kb, if you must _ .ZOOM+ to 2559x2055pix, 610kb, and see the dense network of cracks)
–- Au Retour du Marché (1739; 985x790pix, 58kb)
–- Le Dessinateur I (1737, 80x65cm; 1050x828pix, 124kb) and the almost identical
      _ Le Dessinateur II (1737, 81x64cm; 1033x827pix, 73kb)
–- La Jeune Institutrice (1736, 62x67cm; 900x964pix, 150kb)
–- L'Éplucheuse de Légumes (46x37cm; 1050x828pix, 81kb)
30 images at Wikimedia
^ Died on 02 November 1909: William Powell Frith, English genre painter born on 19 (09?) January 1819.
— Frith was born in Yorkshire, where his father a self-made man had become a prosperous innkeeper in Harrogate. He had two brothers and a sister. It would seem that Frith senior was ambitious for his talented son, not surprisingly, given his own early life in domestic service. Contrary to comment made elsewhere, Frith's father was an affectionate parent, who had a good relationship with his son. In March 1835 Young Frith, accompanied by his father, and carrying a large portfolio of his drawings boarded the stagecoach to London. It is fascinating to record that the scheduled time for this journey was twenty four hours, just before the dawn of the railway age. Once established in London the young painter attended Sass's Academy, where he was rigorously trained in the basic techniques of panting. He later attended the Royal Academy Schools.
      Frith's early paintings were mainly historical genre. He became part of a group of slightly younger artists who called themselves 'The Clique.' Fellow members of this group were Augustus Egg [1816-1863], H. N. O'Neil, John Phillip [1817-1867], and Richard Dadd [1817-1886], the painter who became insane, killed his own father, and continued to paint in the asylum.
      Frith worked diligently, and success came early. He became ARA in 1845, and a full Academician in 1852. In 1851 the painter visited Ramsgate, the result of this being the first of his famous large scale crowd scenes Ramsgate Sands, which after over three years work was exhibited at the RA in 1854, and bought by Queen Victoria. Frith was a successful artist overnight. He received a large sum for the painting, but failed to keep all the rights to income from it, such as the sale of engravings. This was an error that the commercially astute painter did not repeat. Frith continued in this vein with Derby Day, 1858, The Railway Station, 1862, and Private View at the RA, of 1883. These pictures form a valuable record of life in Victorian England, and must have been the result of a stupendous amount of work. Frith seems to have been drawn towards crowds in his private as well as his artistic life. He lived in Bayswater, with his wife Isabelle, with whom he had twelve children. Not content with this, the fruitful Frith established another family only a mile away with Mary Alford, with whom he ultimately had seven more children. For a considerable time Isabelle Frith was in blissful ignorance of her husband's extramural activities. Her suspicions became aroused, however, when she saw her husband posting a letter near their home, when he was supposed to be on holiday in Brighton. Following the death of Isabelle in 1880, Frith married his mistress. Frith was a popular, genial figure, with a reputation for helping younger artists.
      In 1863, Frith was informed by Sir Charles Eastlake, President of the Royal Academy, that the Queen wished him to paint a picture of the forthcoming wedding ceremony of her son the Prince of Wales and Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Frith duly painted the picture for a fee of three thousand pounds, and it involved more than a year's concentrated work. He had felt compelled to undertake this commission and actually charged the Queen less than he would have charged another patron. Logistically the execution of the picture was a nightmare, as members of the Royal Family had problems attending their sittings due to their heavy commitments. Many of the other aristocratic sitters had the same problems in attending, caused in large part by their arrogance and stupidity. Frith was quite capable of repaying their arrogance with like behavior, by the simple expedient of telling them that he would have to inform the Queen of their failure to attend. This he did in a very straightforward manner! The date of the Royal Wedding was 10 March 1863, the occasion being marked with much enthusiasm and popular rejoicing. Frith, not surprisingly, used photographs as an aid in painting these large canvases.
      Following the Private View at the Royal Academy, in 1883 the artist's output, and, the quality of his work started to decline. Frith then started to concentrate on writing his reminiscences at considerable length-and very good they are too. He also wrote the biography of John Leech (1817-1864 humorous artistic contributor to Punch.)
— William Powell Frith was the son of domestic servants. He was born in Alfield, a village near Ripon, in 1819. The family moved to Harrowgate when he was 7 years old.
     His father encouraged William's artistic talents, he began his art training at Saint Margaret's School, Dover. Frith began attending Henry Sass Academy in London during 1835. A contemporary student there was Edward Lear. Frith then won a place at the Royal Academy Schools in 1837.
     While a student Frith earned money by painting portraits. In 1845 he was appointed an associate of the Royal Academy and was made a full member in 1853. Frith exhibited the first of this three great modern-life subjects, Life at the Seaside: Ramsgate Sands in 1854. This was followed by Derby Day (1858) and The Railway Station (1862). These paintings proved very popular and Frith sold a large number of engravings of these works. Soon after the Railway Station he received a commission to paint the group scene of the Prince of Wales wedding. In 1875 Frith's painting Before Dinner in Boswell's Lodgings (1868) was sold for £4567. At the time, it was the highest salesroom price paid for the work of a living artist. He was critical of trends in modern art. He decried the Pre-Raphaelites and other schools inspired by the Impressionists. He authored articles against them in the Magazine of Art.
     Frith was a noted genre painter, important in that he produced pictures that encapsulated contemporary Victorian life. His early work was mainly scenes from the classics, from more modern literature and history paintings. He never stopped painting these scenes. He found his niche, however, with Ramsgate Sands (Life at the Seaside) (1851), the first of many panoramas of Victorian life. The two most famous were Derby Day (1858) and The Railway Station (1862), the latter showing a scene in Paddington Station. He painted these on large canvases with crowds of people and paid close attention details. While many painters had attempted the classics, his contemporary scenes were innovative and attracted considerable attention. They are today wonderful historical documents.
      Frith's fame led to a commission from the royal family to paint a group portrait of the Prince of Wales' 1863 wedding to Danish Princess Alexandra. While prestigious, the commission proved to be among the most difficult for the acclaimed artist--thanks largely to the youngest member of the wedding party--the Prince if Wales' German nephew Wilhelm. (Wilhelm wa of course the future Kaiser Wilhelm II.) His mother Victoria had returned to Windsor 8 months after the wedding so she and Wilhelm could sit for the portrait. Wilhelm had acquired himself with some familial notoriety by flinging his 5-year old Aunt Beatrice's muff out a carriage window and then during the ceremony tossing the dirk in the kneesocks of his highlands kilt costume across the floor of St. Georges chapel during the ceremony. Willy as he was called within the family apparently was little changed upon his return. Willy was fascinated to watch the painting take shape, but was also struck by the artist's whiskers. "Mr. Fiff, you are a nice man, but your whiskers ..." His Aunt Helena immediately put her hand over his mouth. Willy struggled free and repeated himself even more loudly. She stopped him again, but could not keep from giggling herself. She led him away and gave him a lecture on courtesy.
      Frith could hardly order the "royal imp out" he came upon the idea of allowing Willy to paint his own daubs on a small part of the vast canvas. This work for a while until his nurse came in and found his face streaked with paint. He had been wiping the brushes on his face. The nurse cried out in horror. Frith assured her that he could clean Willy up with a little turpentine. Unfortunately Willy had a scratch on his face and he started screaming. He struck the artist as hard as he could with his little fist. He then sought refuge under a table and howled until exhausted. Afterwards he proved a very uncooperative sitter and Frith failed to achieve more than a vague likeness.
      Frith's work was severely criticized by the art establishment and considered "vulgar". The artist was accused of being more interested in subject than in painting, "devoted to telling stories on canvas ....eminent among men who paint for those who like pictures without liking art"'. Of course it was just this approach that made him popular with the contemporary public and the reason his work attracts so much attention today. His works do indeed tell stories. In the Railroad Station next to a mother with two small children, the boy in the velvet suit, a man is being arrested by plain clothes detectives. Frith continued to paint crowd scenes but in his later years his work was considered old-fashioned.
— Frith's parents were in domestic employment before taking a hotel in Harrogate in 1826. They encouraged him to become an artist, despite his own desire to be an auctioneer. While at school in Dover, Frith sketched caricatures and copies of Dutch genre scenes that betray his disposition to narratives. His taste did not accord with the academic training he received at Henry Sass's Academy in London (1835-1837) and at the Royal Academy Schools (1837). Frith began his career as a portrait painter, using members of his family as models. He first exhibited at the British Institution in 1838, and during the 1840s he established himself with his entertaining historical and literary subjects in the popular tradition of C. R. Leslie, William Mulready and Sir David Wilkie. He was a member of the Clique, which included Richard Dadd, Augustus Egg, Henry O'Neil and John Phillip. His friendship with Charles Dickens began with commissions for paintings of Dolly Varden and Kate Nickleby in 1842.
     Frith's first exhibit at the Royal Academy of 1840, Malvolio before the Countess Olivia (untraced), was followed by other subjects from Scott, Sterne, Goldsmith, Shakespeare, Dickens and Molière. A scene from Goldsmith, the Village Pastor, clinched Frith's election as ARA in 1845. Some of his more ambitious works in this group, such as English Merrymaking a Hundred Years Ago (1847) and Coming of Age in the Olden Time (1849), show his detailed study of historic costume, furniture and architecture. In 1852 he was elected RA. His mediocre diploma picture, a self-portrait in his studio, known as the Sleeping Model (1853), underlines the variable quality that characterizes his output.
     The few pictures that made Frith's reputation are of contemporary subjects. These started, tentatively, with a picture of a servant girl (1853), which was engraved with the saleable title of Sherry Sir? Encouraged by his friend John Leech and perhaps stimulated by the example of his Punch illustrations, as well as by a visit to Ramsgate in 1851, Frith produced his first ambitious modern-life subject: Life at the Seaside (aka Ramsgate Sands, 1854). Despite Frith's doubts about attempting a subject never depicted before, it was a great success. Its purchase by Queen Victoria encouraged Frith to produce the equally popular Derby Day (1858) and the Railway Station (1862.). Both paintings proved to be successful speculative ventures: Frith received £1500 for Derby Day from Jacob Bell and £5250 for the Railway Station (including copyright and exhibiting rights) from louis victor Flatlow, and the sale of engravings from each was to provide far greater sums for the subsequent owners of the copyright, the dealer Ernest Gambart and the printseller Henry Graves. In Derby Day Frith painted a representative section of the huge crowd which gathered annually on Epsom Downs, introducing every familiar human type and social class associated with the races; he employed robert Howlett to provide photographs on which he based his group studies. He chose Paddington as the setting for his Railway Station crowd, incorporating nearly 100 figures. Frith's self-confessed interest in the city crowd, its physiognomy and expression inspired both subjects. His aptitude for the dramatic grouping of large numbers of people into coherent units, his eye for the anecdotal and his unabashed inclination to appeal to sentiment are all fully exploited and enhanced by his precise technique.
     Frith's agreement to paint the Marriage of the Prince of Wales (1865.) led to the abandonment, at the sketch stage, of a commission from Gambart to paint the Times of Day, a set of three contemporary London scenes including Morning: Covent Garden, Noon: Regent St and Night: The Haymarket. These sketches and the painting of Charles II's Last Sunday (1867) are among the last of Frith's compositions to display the fluent composition and inventiveness of character and incident associated with his best works.
     Although Frith's Salon d'Or, Homburg, a sensation-seeking view of the notorious gambling hall at Homburg, proved a success at the Royal Academy of 1871, the composition is comparatively stiff, and his touch and characterization less precise. These faults are increasingly evident in later works, notably in the Private View of the Royal Academy, 1881 (1883), where the only interest derives from the inclusion of contemporary characters such as Oscar Wilde and Anthony Trollope.

     Frith painted two series of five paintings, the Road to Ruin (1878) and the Race for Wealth (1880), which depict the contemporary vices of gambling and dishonest speculation, respectively. The format enabled Frith to circumvent the difficulties intrinsic to large-scale composition, but despite their popularity these scenes inevitably lack the dramatic interest that Frith had previously focused into a single powerful image. Frith's homespun and transparently opportunist moralizing was out of date and lacked the satirical sting that Hogarth had injected into his works on similar themes.
     Frith retired as an RA in 1890 but continued to exhibit until 1902. His greatest success in later life came from his books, Autobiography and Reminiscences (1887) and Further Reminiscences (1888), in which he showed himself as much a literary as an artistic raconteur, and in which he assessed his career with winning modesty and irony. Other writings include John Leech: His Life and Work (1891) and articles in which he invariably voiced his protests against all modern developments in art.

A scene from Molière's L'Avare (1876, 89x140cm)
An Incident In the Life Of Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1872 115x145cm)
At my Window, Boulogne (1872, 91x71cm)
The Family Lawyer (1857, 65x66cm)
When we devote our youth to God, 'tis pleasing in His eyes - a flower, when offered in the bud, is no vain sacrifice (1852, 93x73cm)
The Flower Seller (1871, 77x64cm)
Juliet: “O That I Were a Glove Upon That Hand” (1862, 76x64cm)
The Crossing Sweeper (1858, 24x19cm)
The Signal (1853, 43x36cm)
The Witch's Trial (1848, 48x76cm)
A May Day Celebration (102x142cm)
Claude Duval (78x109cm)
— Life At The Seaside, Ramsgate Sands (40x80cm)
The Ardour (61x51cm)
The Lovers (23x21cm)
The Railway Station (1862, 38x80cm) _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ The railroad became the key to 19th century industrial development and before the invention of the automobile, the principal mode of trnasportation. Frith's Railroad Station provides a wonderful insight in transportation in the 1860s and how people dressed. It pictured London's Paddington Station.
Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Deer Shooting in Windsor Forest (123x101cm)
11 illustrations for the play The Relapse
Duel Scene from Shakespeare's Twelfth Night (1843 engraving, 15x20cm)
^ Died on 02 November 1936: Lorenzo Viani, Italian painter, printmaker, and writer, born on 01 November 1882. — Relative? of sculptor Alberto Viani [1906-1989]?
— He was born and grew up in Viareggio surrounded by poverty and misery and as a young man he became a member of the local anarchist group. After a brief attendance at the Scuole d’Arte in Lucca and Florence he began to paint systematically under the guidance of Plinio Nomellini; during that time he got to know the work of the sculptor Constantin Meunier, of the painter Eugène Laermans and of other artists involved in exposing social problems. At the Venice Biennale of 1907 he exhibited some drawings that combined elements from the analytical work of Giovanni Fattori and the distortions of satire and caricature. Viani strengthened his relationship with international anarcho-socialism, immersed himself in populist literature and studied revolutionary political essays. At the beginning of 1908 Viani went to Paris, where he met other political and humanitarian activists. In the run-down studio complex La Ruche, to which he returned in the winter of 1908–1909 and again towards the end of 1911, he experienced extreme poverty and degradation {even though he was busy as a bee?}. In the art galleries in Paris, however, he discovered the formal freedom of works by the Fauvists and the Expressionists, which he then assimilated into a personal style that found expression in Lady with Chrysanthemum (1911) and in the series of drawings To the Glory of War!
— Lorenzo Viani spent his childhood at the Royal Villa in Viareggio, where his father was employed by Don Carlos of Bourbon. The Viani’s economic situation was comfortable as long as the father continued to work for Don Carlos. Lorenzo attended only the first three grades of elementary school. The boy was not easily biddable and yet introspective. He preferred spending his time walking on the beach or in the woods. When his father lost his job, the family fell upon hard times. Young Lorenzo was familiar with poverty since his peregrinations through the most destitute neighborhoods of Viareggio had left a deep impression upon his spirit. In 1893 he was put to work as a helper in Fortunato Primo Puccini’s barbershop , where he remained for several years. Working for Puccini’s shop brought Lorenzo into daily contact with people from all walks of life and these encounters were a sort of “education in human anatomy”. He wrote: “Before drawing these unkempt faces, I had to handle them with my hands”. As a result, Lorenzo’s training was totally personal and independent from any traditional schooling.
      After he met Plinio Nomellini in Puccini’s barbershop, the painter encouraged him to enroll at the Institute of Fine Arts in Lucca. Viani attended classes there for about three years, from 1900 to 1903; at the Institute he met Moses Levy. During his years in Lucca, Lorenzo became involved in politics, and together with other anarchists he was arrested and imprisoned. In 1904 he was accepted at the Free School for Drawing Nudes at the Academy of Fine Arts; he also started to go to Giovanni Fattori’s studio, having met him in 1901, thanks to Nomellini’s introduction. His months spent in Florence were very stimulating for Viani, especially because of the many acquaintances he made. After returning to Viareggio, he took up residence in Torre del Lago and became a member of the “Bohème Club.” In 1907 he spent a few months in Genoa and exhibited a handful of drawings at the Venice Biennial. He also traveled to Paris, where he spent a little over a year (January 1908-spring 1909). His long-coveted Parisian visit turned out to be filled with economic difficulties and loneliness, and yet it also proved to be very rewarding because of the experiences he had and the acquaintances he made. Between 1911 and 1915 Viani was busy working and traveling to his solo shows in many Italian cities. He served in World War I from 1916 to 1919, years in which, despite his lack of free time, he managed to draw, paint and illustrate incessantly.
      On 02 March 1919, he married Giulia Giorgietti and moved to Montecatini, where his wife was an elementary school teacher. His tender portraits of children busy studying and writing belong to this period. After two years, the couple returned to Viareggio. From 1920 to 1922 Viani regularly exhibited his work in Bologna, Lucca and Rome, started writing again and also worked on the Viareggio War Memorial, which was unveiled in July 1927. In 1924 Viani moved to Fossa dell’Abate (today’s Lido di Camaiore) where his son Franco was born the following year, after which Lorenzo left again for Paris. In 1928 he suffered the first of many asthma attacks that would plague him with varying degrees of severity for the rest of his life. This was a happy time for Viani in terms of his career: he was well known all over Italy and his exhibits became a magnet for learned and international art lovers.
      In 1933 he spent a long period of time in the psychiatric hospital of Nozano, near Lucca, after a serious bout of asthma. Throughout these dark months of pain and suffering Viani continued his work, producing an abundance of drawings: the mental patients attracted him just as the poor people of Viareggio had. They were marginalized human beings who lived in a state of total unconsciousness, without any possibility of appeal: their mental illness made them forgotten and defenseless, and thus worthy of special attention. In 1936 he was commissioned to do a series of paintings for Ostia College. After many days of incessant work he was unable to attend the inauguration and died from a severe attack of asthma.
      His most important pictures are La consuetudine (1909), Gli zingari (1912), Mimi Concetta (Madame Fleury) (1909), La signora del Crisantemo (1911), La moglie del marinaio (1915), Peritucco (1914), Il violinista (1916), La morte (1918), La ritirata di Caporetto (1918), Il filosofo (1920), Persa la vistaaaa, persa la vitaaaa (1922), La vergine pazza (1930), La Duchessa (1934), Deposizione (1936), Ai confini della mente, L' ossesso, Il dittatore, Il folle, Vecchio marinaio, Viareggio in maschera.
— Nacido en Viareggio. Hacia finales del siglo comparte las ideas políticas anarquistas y vive en la más absoluta miseria. En 1900, se inscribe en el Instituto de Arte Passaglia de Luca; en 1904 estudia en la Escuela Libre de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Florencia, donde estudia bajo la dirección de Fattori. En estos años lee mucho y admira la obra de los artistas del quattrocento italiano. En 1907, expone algunos dibujos en la Bienal de Venecia, donde descubre la obra de Laermans y de Boccioni; en ese mismo año participa con dibujos satíricos en la revista anticlerical La Fionda.
      En 1908, viaja a París donde tiene la oportunidad de ver una retrospectiva de Van Gogh y en 1909, participa con algunas obras en el Salón de Otoño; hacia 1911, se relaciona intensamente con los círculos intelectuales anarquistas de París y pinta cartones con el tema de la guerra. Su primera gran exposición es en 1915 en el Palazzo delle Aste de Milán, donde muestra seiscientas veinticuatro obras, y obtiene un importante éxito. En 1927, inicia sus colaboraciones con el periódico Corriere Della Sera y dirige la revista Riviera Versiliese; realiza el Monumento a los Caídos de Viareggio, que suscita una gran polémica. A principios de los años treinta participa en las veladas futuristas y publica poemas. En 1936, recibe el encargo de pintar los frescos del Colegio IV de Noviembre en el Lido de Roma; muere ese mismo año víctima del asma.

Self-Portrait (367x371pix, 43kb)
Famiglia di Poveri.(8066x1181pix, 146kb)
Maternità (1729x1181pix, 222kb)
Il cortile della Ruche (842x1181pix, 122kb)
Zingare (808x1181pix, 162kb)
Gli Scaricatori (60x85cm; 819x1164pix, 231kb)
La befana della bimba povera (1922; 501x340pix, 12kb)
Il pescatore (458x326pix, 31kb)

Died on a 02 November:

^ 2002 Selden Rodman, born on 19 February 1909, poet, critic, promoter of Haitian and other folk art, author of more than 40 books including Mortal Triumph and Other Poems (1932), New Anthology of Modern Poetry (1938), 1947 Horace Pippin, a Negro Painter in America (1947) Mexican Journal (1958, in it he asked painters Tamayo and Siqueiros what each thought of the other). — Links to art by Pippin [1888-1946]

2001 Epifanio Irizarry Jusino, in his native Ponce, Puerto Rico, impressionist painter born in April 1915.

^ >1949 Paul Michel Dupuy, French painter born on 22 March 1869.
–- Le Thé (1918, 60x76cm; 1080x1398pix, 111kb)
–- Le Jardin des Tuileries (58x84cm; 1050x1575pix, 138kb) —(081101)

1927 Rodolphe Wytsman, Belgian painter born (main coverage) on 11 March 1860.

>1885 Robert Thorburn [10 Mar 1818–], Scottish portrait miniaturist to Queen Victoria. Father of Archibald Thorburn [31 May 1860 – 09 Oct 1935].
The Marquess of Waterford (1840; 854x523pix excluding ornate oval frame, 629kb) _ Henry Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford, is dressed in Eglinton armor. —(091101)

1753 Candido Vitali (or Vitale) [1680–], Italian painter of still lifes of animals, birds, flowers, and fruits. He was a student of Carlo Cignani [15 May 1628 – 06 Sep 1719].
Paiolo di rame con bottiglie e fiori, bicchieri, salame e meloni (76x96cm; —(081101)

^ 1739 Charles Jervas, Irish painter and collector, active in England, born in 1675. From 1694 to 1695 he was Godfrey Kneller’s student and assistant in London. About 1698 he painted small copies of the Raphael cartoons at Hampton Court Palace, which he sold to Dr. George Clarke of All Souls, Oxford. In 1699 he went to Rome via Paris, funded by Dr. Clarke and others. In 1709 he returned to England and built up a successful practice as a fashionable portrait painter. He had literary ambitions and painted portraits of a number of his intellectual friends, including Jonathan Swift (1710) and Alexander Pope. Pope had painting lessons from Jervas and in 1713 addressed a poem to him, which was prefixed to Dryden’s translation (1716 edn) of Charles-Alphonse Du Fresnoy’s De arte graphica (1641–1645). Jervas’s own translation of Cervantes’s Don Quixote was published posthumously (under the name Jarvis) in 1742. — Thomas Gainsborough was a student of Jervas. — LINKS
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1716, 215x127cm; 1463x827pix, 225kb)
–- S*>#Benjamin Hatley Foote, when 12 years old (123x100cm; 900x719pix, 116kb) full length, standing in a landscape, wearing a blue coat, with a white brocaded waistcoat, his dog at his side and the family seat beyond. The sitter (who is standing) married Mary Mann (some years later). His son George Talbot Hatley Foote [1744-1821], a barrister and friend of James Boswell, took a lease of Malling Abbey in Kent in 1799 and bought it in 1808. There is also a recently “discovered”
      _ Ben Hatless Foote With Two Dogs (920x1300pix, kb), but it is thought to be by the pseudonymous Tom Gainsburger who claims to be a remote student of Jarvice (or some such name). — (051101)

1705 il cavaliere Daniel Seiter (or Saiter; Seutter; Seyter; Soiter, Syder), Austrian painter and draftsman, active in Italy, born in 1647. He brought an art combining the influences of Johann Carl Loth, Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti to the Savoy court in Turin.
Diane auprès du corps d'Orion (1685, 116x152cm) _ Hyriée, le fondateur d'Hyria en Béotie qui n'avait pas d'enfant, recevra chaleureusement Zeus, Hermès et Poséidon. Il supplia les dieux de lui donner un héritier. Ces derniers lui demandèrent de chercher la peau du boeuf qu'il leur avait sacrifié, urinèrent dessus et l'enterrerent. Hyriée donna le nom d'Orion (urine) au nouveau-né qui apparaîtra à cet endroit, neuf mois plus tard, et qui deviendra un Géant. Une tradition différente prétend qu'Orion serait le fils de Poséidon et d'Euryalé, fille de Minos. Sa grande taille lui permettait de traverser les mers en marchant sur le fond tout en maintenant sa tête au-dessus de l'eau. Il eut de nombreuses maîtresses. Sa femme Sidé (grenade), osa comparer sa beauté à celle d'Héra et fut jetée aux Enfers. Elle lui donna les Coronides, Ménippé et Métioché.
      Le roi Oenopion, de Chios, lui promit la main de sa fille, Méropé, s'il débarrassait l'île des bêtes sauvages. Il revint sur sa parole. Oenopion l'aveugla et le jetta sur le rivage après le viol de sa fille, Méropé, par Orion qui s'était enivré. Le Géant se rendra à Lemnos et pris, aux forges d'Héphaïstos, le jeune Cédalion sur ses épaules pour le guider vers l'Est, face aux rayons du soleil, afin de guérir. Il retourna à Chios et ne parvint pas à tuer, malgré l'aide d'Héphaïstos, Oenopion, qui s'était caché dans une chambre souterraine. Orion partit en Crète où il chassa en compagnie d'Artémis. Il fut enlevé par l'Aurore qui était amoureuse de lui. Les dieux, notamment Artémis, n'acceptèrent pas qu'une déesse prenne un mortel pour amant. L'Aurore tua Orion de ses flèches, sur l'île de Délos où elle était née.
      Une version de la mort d'Orion rapporte qu'Artémis l'aurait tué pour avoir tenté de violer Opis ou elle-même, alors qu'il débarrassait Chios des animaux sauvages. Un énorme scorpion l'aurait piqué au talon, causant sa mort. Les raisons foisonnent, selon les auteurs. Certains prétendent qu'Artémis voulait, en réalité, l'épouser ou lui reprocha de tuer tous les animaux de la terre. Selon d'autres, Apollon, le frère d'Artémis, l'aurait trompée en lui montrant un objet loin dans la mer et en pariant qu'elle ne pourrait l'atteindre. Elle toucha la cible qui était la tête d'Orion, marchant loin du rivage. Elle plaça alors son bien-aimé dans le ciel sous la forme d'une Constellation. Le Géant pourchassa, selon certains auteurs, les filles d'Atlas, les Pléiades. Elles auraient été transformées en étoiles avec leur mère Pléioné. C'est ainsi qu'Orion semble poursuivre les Pléiades dans le ciel. —(051030)

^ 1624 Cornelis van der Voort (or Voorde, Voerst), Flemish painter born in 1576.
–- S*>#A Gentleman — A Lady (two separate portraits in one image: 1609 and 1605, each 98x74cm; 603x453pix and 603x437pix, together 68kb) They both are shown 3/4-length and wear black, the lady, age 27, also a pink embroidered jacket. The man, age 49, holds a pair of gloves.
–- Wan and Mife (754x1092pix, 70kb) is the tentative title given to a recently discovered double portrait which resembles work of Van der Voort, but is believed to be by the pseudonymous Smoothorn Wonderwart and to depict not a man and wife, but twin sisters Wan and Mife, one of whom (Wan) has tried to disguise herself as a man.. A gentleman's and a lady's authentic portraits by Van der Voort are hanging on the wall behind the pair. —(051030)

Born on a 02 November:

1925 Modest Cuixart i Tàpies, Catalan painter who died (main coverage) on 31 October 2007. —(091101)

1921 Fernando Sáez, Spanish painter. — El cántabro Fernando Sáez se forma durante un breve periodo en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, en Madrid, comenzando su actividad artística en los años cuarenta. Junto a su hermano, el pintor Martín Sáez, colabora en revistas como El Español, Fantasía o La Estafeta Literaria al tiempo que realiza sus primeras exposiciones. En 1955 viaja por Europa y más tarde se establece en París gracias a una beca de la Fundación Juan March. En un principio, su obra se sitúa dentro de una figuración expresionista de denuncia que presenta una serie de personajes reducidos a sus elementos básicos, empleando un colorido sobrio y prestando atención a las calidades matéricas y las diferentes texturas. Sáez compagina su trayectoria pictórica con su faceta de ilustrador para diversas editoriales, dando lugar a otro campo de acción fundamental en su producción: el grabado, especialmente a partir de sus años de residencia en Londres. A su regreso a España, su pintura deriva hacia fórmulas más abstractas, bajo la influencia del action painting.
–- (untitled?) (1197x1199pix, 178kb _ ZOOM not recommended to overenlarged 1994x1998pix, 381kb, unless you enjoy seeing each pixel as a square) cover picture of book Fernando Sáez, the first of the collection Artes Plásticas del Siglo XXI.
–- untitled (1976, 35x47cm; 750x1000pix, 62kb) _ La influencia del action painting puede verse en esta obra, en la que sin embargo Sáez mantiene aún un sobrio colorido terroso que conecta con sus primeras obras.
Viento del Oeste (466x587pix, 46kb)
Toledo (450x907pix, 53kb) some bright colors.
— different Toledo (135x225cm; 384x640pix, 17kb) very limited and dull colors.
— yet another Toledo (470x578pix, 37kb) even duller.
Figura (97x77cm; 480x384pix, 15kb). —(081102)

^ 1837 Émile Antoine Bayard, French portrait painter and illustrator who died in 1891. — Relative? of Hippolyte Bayard [1801-1887]? — He was a popular portrait painter and a regular contributor to many different periodicals like Le Journal des Voyages, Le Journal pour Rire, Cassell’s Magazine, Le Tour du monde, L’Illustration, and others. He illustrated many of the fantasy tales of Erckmann-Chatrian (pseudonym of co-authors Émile Erckmann [20 May 1822 – 14 Mar 1899] and Louis-Alexandre Chatrian [18 Dec 1826 – 03 Sep 1890]), a number of literary works for youth by Alphonse Daudet [13 May 1840 – 16 Dec 1897], Jules Sandeau [19 Feb 1811 – 24 Apr 1883], Hector Malot [20 May 1830 – 17 Jul 1907], la Comtesse de Ségur, and several classic novels such as Les Misérables by Victor Hugo [26 Feb 1802 – 22 May 1885]. But he is probably best remembered as the illustrator of .Un Drame dans les airs (illustrated by Bayard; or images alone: 123456) in the short-story collection Le Docteur Ox of Jules Verne [08 Feb 1828 – 24 Mar 1905] and especially for Verne’s novel Autour de la lune (1872). His engravings showing the effects of weightlessness upon the pioneer astronauts; the survey of the moon’s surface; and, above all, the ‘spashdown’ picture (print; 593x409pix, 203kb) are among science fiction’s most famous illustrations. The latter piece, showing the US flag fixed above the module, proved to be amazingly prophetic when Frank Borman of the Apollo 9 moon expedition landed in the Pacific, one hundred years later, within 5 km of the point mentioned in the book.
Cherry Pickers (1880, 30x38cm; 536x678pix, 39kb) _ The man (in a striped red and white costume, suitable for Italian opera rather than work in an orchard) and the woman (who holds a basket of cherries) are not picking cherries, but are about to kiss. — (051101)

^ 1649 Jean-Baptiste Corneille, French painter and engraver who died on 12 April 1695. He studied under his father, Michel Corneille I [1601 – 13 Jan 1664], and then with Charles Errard fils. A precocious student, in 1664 he won a gold medal at the Académie Royale. From 1665 he was in Rome, later returning to France to work as a history painter. He became a member of the Académie Royale in 1675 with Busiris Making a Sacrifice to the Idols. In 1679 he married Madeleine, daughter of the well-known printseller Pierre Mariette, from whom he learnt engraving. — Brother of Michel Corneille II [02 Oct 1642 – 16 Aug 1708]
The Angel Appearing to Saint Roch

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