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DEATHS: 1837 MONSIAU — 1594 “TINTORETTO”
BIRTHS: 1860 SICKERT — 1622 BEERSTRATEN — 1892 KIKOÏNE — 1535 ALLORI 1862 NESTEROV  1860 THORBURN  1760 GARRARD 
^ Born on 31 May 1860: Walter Richard Sickert, British Post-Impressionist Camden Town Group painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer of German birth, who died on 22 January 1942. He studied under James McNeill Whistler.
— Sickert was one of the most influential British artists of the 20th century. He is often called a painter's painter, appealing primarily to artists working in the figurative tradition; there are few British figurative painters of the 20th century whose development can be adequately discussed without reference to Sickert's subject-matter or innovative techniques. He had a direct influence on the Camden Town Group and the Euston Road School, while his effect on Frank Auerbach, Howard Hodgkin and Francis Bacon was less tangible. Sickert's active career as an artist lasted for nearly 60 years. His output was vast. He may be judged equally as the last of the Victorian painters and as a major precursor of significant international developments in later 20th-century art, especially in his photo-based paintings.
— Novelist tries to prove that Sickert was sicker than thought: that he was Jack the Ripper, the 1888 murderer of 5 prostitutes.

LINKS
Les Petites Belges (51x41cm; 1003x800pix, 198kb _ ZOOM to 1601x1277pix, 401kb, and admire the surface damage)
Les Vénitiennes (1904, 46x57cm; 677x800pix, 141kb _ ZOOM to 1316x1555pix, 476kb and admire Sickert's characteristically sloppy technique)
Carolina (1904, 46x38cm; 51x41cm; 962x800pix, 171kb _ ZOOM to 1569x1305pix, 388kb, ditto)
Brighton Pierrots
Saint-Mark's, Venice (Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus) (1896, 91x120cm) _ Sickert first visited Venice in 1895. He painted Saint-Mark's basilica several times under different conditions, possibly inspired by Monet's paintings of Rouen Cathedral, which he had seen in Paris. However, unlike Monet, he was not concerned with fleeting effects of light. Instead, he concentrated on the structure and mosaics, using the light to accentuate the sparkling gold pinnacles and to emphasise the spirituality of the basilica. This is Sickert's largest and most elaborate depiction of the front elevation. The title includes the Latin motto of the city.
King Edward VIII (800x397pix, 88kb) probably copied from a photo, a very poor, pale and seemingly unfinished picture of Edward VIII [23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972] who reigned from the death of his father, George V [03 June 1865 – 20 Jan 1936] until forced to abdicate on 11 December 1936 for consorting with and intending to marry divorced and remarried Wallis Simpson [19 Jun 1896 – 24 Apr 1986]. She got her second divorce in May 1937 and Edward married her on 03 June 1937.
Hugh Walpole (800x673pix, 144kb) _ Hugh Seymour Walpole [13 Mar 1884 – 01 Jun 1941], was an English novelist.
40 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
—(060530)
^ Died on 31 May 1837: Nicolas André Monsiau (or Monsiaux), French painter and illustrator born in 1754. — {Quant aux tableaux, pas de monceaux de ceux de Monsieur Monsiau dans l'internet}
— He was a student of Jean-François-Pierre Peyron in Paris and, thanks to a sponsor, the Marquis de Couberon, followed his master to Rome in 1776. He stayed four years and made the acquaintance of Jacques-Louis David and Pierre Henri de Valenciennes. On his return to Paris he exhibited at the Salons de la Correspondance of 1781 and 1782. Monsiau was approved (agréé) as an associate of the Académie Royale on 30 June 1787 for Alexander Taming Bucephalus and was received (reçu) only on 3 October 1789, after a previous application had been refused; his morceau de réception was the Death of Agis. Affected by the hangings in 1792 and 1793 of his two protectors and by the slump in commissions brought about by the Revolution, he turned to book illustration for editions of Ovid, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Laurence Sterne, Jacques Delille and Salomon Gessner.
— Monsiau passa quelques années à Rome, fit partie de l’Académie et exposa régulièrement au Salon. A partir de 1789, son art se fit de plus en plus académique. Il se consacra à la peinture religieuse, mais acquit la célébrité dans le grand genre qui, sous la Restauration, rejoignit sous sa brosse la peinture historique et anecdotique, comme en témoigne son Louis XVI et La Pérouse (1817, Versailles) qui fit partie des collections de Louis XVIII.

Louis XVI donnant ses instructions au capitaine de vaisseau Lapérouse pour son voyage d'exploration autour du monde (1817; 272x475pix, 116kb gif) _ main detail (323x600pix, 37kb) _ copy (390x510pix, 27kb) by Édouard Nuel _ Albi comptait 9000 habitants à peine, lorsque naquit Jean-François de Galaup, le 23 août 1741 au manoir du Gô, au sein d'une famille noble, propriétaire du domaine de Lapérouse. Encouragé par un de ses parents, le marquis de la Jonquière, il trouve définitivement sa vocation en devenant, à l'âge de 15 ans, garde-marine à Brest. Commence alors l'extraordinaire aventure de cet Albigeois qui, dès l'âge de 22 ans, se voit engagé dans des conflits face à l'Angleterre. Lieutenant de vaisseau à 36 ans, ce marin pourtant endurci démontre son attachement à sa racine familiale, de même que ses qualités d'homme de coeur. Fidèle à sa parole et en dépit de la tutelle paternelle, il n'épousera Eléonore Broudou, demoiselle peu fortunée rencontrée à l'Ile de France, que... dix ans plus tard. "Mon histoire est un véritable roman" écrivit-il au Ministre de la Marine.
      La Générosité, le sens de l'honneur, Lapérouse en fait encore preuve de manière éclatante lors de la guerre d'Indépendance des États-Unis notamment après la prise des forts de la baie d'Hudson en 1782 : aux Anglais battus et dispersés dans les bois, il laissa des vivres!
      Lapérouse ne pouvait que capter l'attention de Louis XVI : promu capitaine de vaisseau à 40 ans, ne s'était-il pas déjà fait remarquer pour son audace en s'emparant de trois navires anglais au Cap Breton ? C'est donc à cet Albigeois entreprenant et humain, aux idées parfois peu conformes aux préjugés de son époque, que le Roi de France confia la plus importante expédition scientifique et maritime. En 1785 se prépare l'expédition qui allait sillonner tous les océans, à bord de deux frégates, la Boussole et l'Astrolabe.
      En 1789, on attendit mais en vain le retour de Lapérouse. Seule certitude : Lapérouse avait séjourné à Botany Bay, se dernière escale, en Australie, au début de 1788. Les premières recherches furent entreprises en 1791, par l'amiral Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux qui mourut durant ce voyage. Il fallut attendre 1827 pour que Peter Dillon et quelques mois plus tard Dumont d'Urville retrouvent sur l'île de Vanikoro les premiers vestiges du naufrage et recueillent les récits des indigènes. Le XXème siècle vit se poursuivre les recherches. Certains vestiges recueillis furent rapatriés en France et remis à la Ville d'Albi. Mais le naufrage de Lapérouse n'a pas livré tous ses secrets. Nul ne sait ce qu'est devenu le bateau de sauvetage construit par les quelques survivants. De nos jours, le mystère qui entoure la disparition du navigateur albigeois demeure comme un défi....
Odysseus ordering the women to remove the bodies of the suitors (1791; 360x720pix, 59kb)
Consulta de la République cisalpine réunie en comices à Lyon pour décerner la présidence au Premier Consul, le 26 janvier 1802 (1808; 935x1400pix, 261kb) _ Au terme de la deuxième campagne d’Italie marquée par la victoire de Marengo le 14 juin 1800, les troupes française occupent en grande partie l’Italie qui se retrouve scindée en deux républiques sœurs, liguriennes (Gênes) et cisalpine (Milan). En décembre 1801, le Premier consul réunit une Consulta législative à Lyon, c’est-à-dire une assemblée de notables (représentants de l’armée, membres du gouvernement, archevêques, évêques et curés délégués par leurs pairs, magistrats, universitaires…) choisis par Murat afin de mettre en place une nouvelle organisation des pouvoirs. La république reçoit une constitution très autoritaire, calquée sur celle de la France: le chef du pouvoir exécutif nomme les ministres, mais aussi les membres du Conseil législatif. Le 26 décembre 1801, Bonaparte lui attribue le nouveau nom de République italienne. Mais en décevant les espoirs des patriotes italiens qui souhaitaient l’unité avec le Piémont, Bonaparte entame en Italie une politique de formation de républiques vassales. Nommés par les quatre cent dix-huit députés, trente conseillers sont chargés d’élire le président de la République cisalpine. Sur l’insistance de Talleyrand, les Trente proposent à contrecœur Bonaparte.
     Le peintre Gérard refusa la commande de cette œuvre, préférant exécuter une série de portraits impériaux plutôt qu’un immense portrait de groupe. Monsiau fut donc chargé en 1806 de cette grande composition, qui devint son chef-d’œuvre, destinée à la galerie de Diane aux Tuileries, exposée au Salon de 1808, puis installée aux Tuileries en 1809. Bientôt remplacé par L’Entrée de Napoléon à Berlin par Meynier, le tableau demeura dans les réserves de 1810 à 1824. Louis-Philippe le fit entrer dans ses Galeries historiques du musée de Versailles. Le fait que l’Empire jugea opportun de célébrer un haut fait du Consulat trouve évidemment sa justification dans l’acceptation populaire du pouvoir de Napoléon. Mais dès 1810, la puissance guerrière devait supplanter, dans la propagande impériale, l’organisation législative de l’Empire: ce qui explique les divers avatars du tableau de Monsiau. Seule la soif rétrospective de Louis-Philippe, soucieux de restaurer la légitimité impériale en même temps que la puissance militaire du règne de Napoléon, sut réhabiliter cette immense composition héritière, dans la perfection de son exécution, de la grande tradition d’un David.
     La scène se tient dans la chapelle de l’ancien collège de la Trinité, actuel lycée Ampère, à Lyon. Le citoyen Napoléon Bonaparte apparaît ici entouré (à droite de la composition) de Murat, Berthier, Louis, Hortense et Joséphine de Beauharnais ; on reconnaît Chaptal assis au bas des marches. A la droite du Premier consul sont représentés Marescalchi, Talleyrand, Bernadotte, le comte Melzi d’Eril (lisant une allocution). Le moment choisi par Monsiau est celui où le citoyen Bonaparte, élu président de la République cisalpine le 24 janvier sur l’insistance de Talleyrand, vient de s’adresser en italien aux députés leur proposant d’adopter des attitudes nationales et de mettre sur pied une armée. Le nom de « république italienne » est acclamé, et lecture est donnée des noms des Italiens appelés à constituer les grands corps de l’État.
Prédication de saint Denys dans les Gaules (493x368pix, 80kb)
King Frederick the Great of Prussia Visits Voltaire in his Study (print; 402x323pix, 33kb) _ While “Voltaire” [21 Nov 1694 – 30 May 1778] was at the Chateau Cirey, he received his first letter from Frederick [24 Jan 1712 – 17 Aug 1786], who was the heir to the throne of Prussia. Frederick had a great admiration for Voltaire and they carried on a correspondence where they discussed philosophy and the topics of the day. When Frederick came to power, he invited Voltaire to visit him and did not include in the invitation the married woman with whom Voltaire was openly carrying on an affair, Gabrielle Émilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil du Châtelet [17 Dec 1706 – 10 Sep 1749]. Émilie saw this as a threat to her relationship with Voltaire. Frederick's goal was to have Voltaire become a permanent member of his court. However, Voltaire promised Émilie that he would never leave her. After Émilie's death, Voltaire accepted Frederick's invitation to come to Prussia and have a position at his court. Voltaire remained at Frederick's court for three years (from 1750-1753), and then left due to disagreements with Frederick.
Persée pétrifie ses ennemis (1806 engraving in Les Métamorphoses d'Ovide; 575x373pix, 69kb) _ Perseus shows the head of Medusa (which he had cut off) to his enemies, turning them into stone. In Greek mythology, repeated in the Metamorphoses of Ovid, Andromeda was the beautiful daughter of King Cepheus and Queen Cassiope of Joppa in Palestine (called Ethiopia). Cassiope offended the Nereids by boasting that Andromeda was more beautiful than they, so in revenge Poseidon sent a sea monster to devastate Cepheus' kingdom. Since only Andromeda's sacrifice would appease the gods, she was chained to a rock and left to be devoured by the monster. Perseus flew by on the winged horse Pegasus, fell in love with Andromeda, and asked Cepheus for her hand. Cepheus agreed, and Perseus slew the monster. At their marriage feast, however, Andromeda's uncle, Phineus, to whom she had originally been promised, tried to claim her. Perseus turned him to stone with Medusa's head. _ Cette illustration du Mythe est extrêmenent originale, dans la mesure où elle illustre la fameuse scène d'intrusion de Phinée au Mariage de la Princesse Andromède et de Persée. Or l'artiste présente ici un couple uni face aux envahisseurs, alors que la plupart des représentations ne figurent que Persée, ce qui fait qu'elles sont absentes de l'étude. Il faut noter également que la tenue de la Princesse est contemporaine de l'artiste, comme la décoration des murs.
–- An Amorous Couple (704x875pix, 35kb)
—(070530)
^ Born on 31 May 1622: Jan Abrahamszoon Beerstraten, Flemish landscape painter and printmaker who died on 01 July 1666.
— Beerstraten was the name of two Flemish landscape painters. Anthonie [1639-1665] painted mostly snow scenes somewhat similar to those of Hendrick Avercamp; Jan Abrahamszoon used more conventional subject matter.
— Beerstraten, son of a cloth weaver, became a highly skilled topographical draftsman. Influenced by his early studies with a Dutch marine painter, he painted a few sea battles. He also painted imaginary seascapes, Italianate pictures influenced by the works of such artists as Nicolaes Berchem. Beerstraten may or may not have actually visited Italy, but he accurately conveyed the southern light. He also may have copied drawings given to him by Johannes Lingelbach, who occasionally painted the figures in Beerstraten's compositions. By the 1650s, public interest in native topography had grown, and Beerstraten's views of northern Netherlandish towns, villages, and castles satisfied that demand. A somewhat romantic atmosphere pervaded his landscapes. He usually painted winter scenes, with many neutral colors and soft outlines, as well as romanticized subjects. Beerstraten's son specialized in similar subjects.

LINKS
Village of Nieukoop in Winter with Child Funeral (92x129cm; 628x888pix, 119kb) _ This is one of three paintings of the same Gothic village church and the funeral procession.
Winter Landscape (1665, 77x110cm; 439x640pix, 62kb) _ A limited palette captures the hush of a winter day, with roofs of church and homes covered in a velvety blanket of snow and skaters gliding over the canal. The skaters' activity and the townspeople engaging in their daily business at the left enliven the otherwise bleak scene. Amid these pleasant activities, the huge, leafless tree squarely in the panel's center emphasizes the starkness of winter, towering over the human-made buildings and implying the dominance of nature. The tiny size of the people under the broad Dutch sky similarly accentuates their lack of control. Despite the recognizable tower of Rhenen in the background, the exact location of this scene has not been identified; rather than an actual place, it may be a product of the artist's imagination.
— Vue imaginaire d'un port méridional avec le chevet de la cathédrale de Lyon (1652, 156x188cm) _ Lyon était fréquemment visitée par les artistes néerlandais en route vers l'Italie.
Vue imaginaire d'un port méridional, dit à tort l'ancien port de Gênes (1662, 94x129cm)
Marine (33x40cm)
The Castle of Muiden in Winter (1658, 97x130cm) _ The castle of Muiden, seen here from the north-east, is about 11 km east of Amsterdam at the entry of the Vecht river into the Zuider Zee. It probably dates from the 14th century and today looks much as it appears in the painting. In the 17th century it was the residence of the Dutch poet and historian Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft. Under his ownership the castle became the gathering place for a circle of the most eminent Dutch poets and scholars, the so-called 'Muiderkring'. The castle is frequently mentioned in Dutch poetry of the time.
Winter View of Leyden (1660, 88x128cm)
Skating on the Y before the Paalhuis and the Nieuwe Brug in Amsterdam (600x836pix)
—(060530)
^ Died on 31 May 1594: Jacopo Robusti “Tintoretto”, “il Furioso”, great Venetian Mannerist painter born in 1518.
— Tintoretto was one of the most important artists of the late Renaissance. Early paintings include Vulcan Surprising Venus and Mars, the Mannerist Christ and the Adulteress, and his masterpiece of 1594, Last Supper of S. Giorgio Maggiore ). Increasingly concerned with the drama of light and space, he achieved in his mature work (e.g., The Law and the Golden Calf, 1562) a luminous, visionary quality. He was the father of Domenico Robusti and Marietta Robusti. Tintoretto studied under Titian. Tintoretto's students included Martin de Vos.
—       Venetian Mannerist painter “Tintoretto”, was one of the foremost artists of the later 16th century. His work inspired the development of baroque art.
     Tintoretto, originally named Jacopo Robusti, was called Il Tintoretto (“the little dyer”) in allusion to his father's profession. As a young man he studied briefly with Titian, who soon discharged him from his studio; the animosity between these two great painters lasted throughout their careers. Unlike Titian, Tintoretto lived and worked exclusively in Venice. His immense output was produced entirely for the churches, confraternities, and rulers of Venice and for the Venetian state.
      In the first decade of his career (circa 1538-1548), Tintoretto searched for a style, turning to diverse sources for inspiration. Important among these were Florentine Mannerist paintings, the work of Michelangelo, and the relief sculpture of Jacopo Sansovino; from them Tintoretto learned modes of figure drawing and composition. From the Dalmatian painter Andrea Schiavone he learned an extraordinarily broad, free, sketchy way of applying paint. These elements were combined in varying ways to striking effect in Tintoretto's paintings of the 1540s. His artistic coming of age is marked by the large St. Mark (1548), painted for the Scuola di San Marco, in which Tintoretto's daring foreshortenings, spatial illusions, and high-keyed lighting mesh triumphantly to create an overwhelming impression of spontaneous action.
      In the decades that followed, Tintoretto's style intensified without essentially changing, and the huge number of commissions he received attests to its enthusiastic reception. Even his staggering facility as a designer and executant could not cope with the work load, and he was increasingly aided by a large corps of assistants, notable among them being his daughter Marietta and his son, Domenico, whose contributions are often difficult to distinguish from his own.
      As a mature artist, Tintoretto tended progressively to rely on contrasts of brilliant light and cavernous dark (in which color as such became relatively insignificant), on eccentric viewpoints and extreme foreshortenings, and on flamboyantly choreographic groupings to heighten the drama of the events portrayed. His highest powers were called forth by the theme of supernatural incursion into human events—as in the three paintings of the miracles of St. Mark, painted (1562-1566) for the Scuola di San Marco; the Last Supper (1594), in the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore; and many of the biblical paintings with which he adorned the ceilings and walls of the Scuola di San Rocco between 1564 and 1587. These last constitute the greatest pictorial enterprise of his career and one of the wonders of Renaissance painting. Almost equally extensive is the cycle of paintings he and his assistants executed for the Palazzo Ducale, culminating in the vast Paradise (1588-90), but here the level of inspiration is less consistent and the assistants' share larger.
      Tintoretto's penchant for diagonal compositions plunging or zigzagging into deep space, as well as the commanding theatricality of his lighting and the overall dynamism and expansiveness of his style, was taken up by the work of such pioneers of the baroque style as the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens and the Carracci family. His effect on Venetian painting was still greater, but less beneficial. The shorthand notations for form and light that he developed tended even in his own later work to become stereotypes; for younger artists in Venice they were empty but seemingly inescapable formulas. After Tintoretto's death in Venice, Venetian painting precipitously declined.
— His nickname derives from his father's profession of dyer (tintore). Although he was prolific and with Veronese the most successful Venetian painter in the generation after Titian's death, little is known of his life. He is said to have trained very briefly with Titian, but the style of his immature works suggests that he may also have studied with Schiavone, Paris Bordone, or Bonifazio.
      Almost all his life was spent in Venice and most of his work is still in the churches or other buildings for which it was painted. He appears to have been unpopular because he was unscrupulous in procuring commissions and ready to undercut his competitors. By 1539 he was sufficiently mature to be established independently, painting pictures composed in a traditional Venetian manner with the figures arranged parallel to the picture plane and unlinked by any strong movement or variation in the arrangement (The Adoration of the Golden Calf, 1545). His early masterpiece is the Miracle of the Slave (1548), in which many of the qualities of his maturity, particularly his love of foreshortening, begin to be distinguishable. To help him with the complex poses he favoured, Tintoretto used to make small wax models which he arranged on a stage and experimented on with spotlights for effects of light and shade and composition. This method of composing explains the frequent repetition in his works of the same figures seen from different angles. He was a formidable draughtsman and, according to Ridolfi, he had inscribed on his studio wall the motto `The drawing of Michelangelo and the color of Titian'. However, he was very different in spirit from either of his avowed models -- more emotive, using vivid exaggerations of light and movement. His drawings, unlike Michelangelo's detailed life studies, are brilliant, rapid notations, bristling with energy, and his color is more sombre and mystical than Titian's.
      Tintoretto's greatest works are the vast series of paintings he did for the Scuola di San Rocco from 1565 to 1587 -- scenes from the life of Christ in the upper hall and scenes from the life of the Virgin in the lower hall. The complicated system, starting in the upper hall, was probably not conceived by Tintoretto himself, but he interpreted it with a vividness and economy of color and detail which gives a miraculous cohesion to the whole scheme. Its personal conception of the sacred story overwhelmed Ruskin, who devoted eloquent pages to it, and Henry James wrote of the stupendous Crucifixion: `Surely no single picture in the world contains more of human life: there is everything in it, including the most exquisite beauty.' The unorthodox rough brushwork incurred the censure of Vasari, but later generations recognized it as a means of heightening the drama and tension. As well as religious works, Tintoretto painted mythological scenes and he was also a fine portraitist, particularly of old men (a self-portrait in old age is in the Louvre). Some of the weaker portraits that go under his name may be the product of his large workshop.
      His son Domenico [1560- 17 May 1635] became his foreman and is said to have painted many portraits, although none can be attributed to him with certainty. Another son, Marco [1561-1637], and a daughter, Marietta [1556-1590], were among his other assistants. The later paintings can thus be divided into those which are largely studio productions on the one hand and the visionary inspirations from Tintoretto's own hand on the other. A prime example of the latter is The Last Supper (1594), the culmination of a lifetime's development of this subject, from the traditional frontal representation to this startling diagonally viewed composition. Tintoretto had great influence on Venetian painting, but the artist who most fruitfully absorbed the visionary energy and intensity of his work was El Greco.
^
— L’anno di nascita di Jacopo Robusti, il 1519, è desunta dall’atto di morte, in cui è detto settantacinquenne. Gli scrittori d’arte del Seicento lo indicano come allievo di Tiziano, e riferiscono di gravi contrasti fra i due, che avrebbero indotto il giovane Tintoretto a lasciare la bottega del maestro. Anche se non sappiamo quando l’artista inizi la sua carriera autonoma, questa deve essere collocata prima del 1539, quando Jacopo si firma “ maestro”, con una propria bottega in campo San Cassiano. Nel giugno 1544 l’artista sottoscrive una testimonianza indicando il nome (Giambattista) e la professione (tintore) del padre: da questa gli deriva il soprannome. Al 1545 risale la decorazione di due soffitti con soggetti mitologici per la dimora veneziana di Pietro Aretino. Due anni dopo firma la pala dell’Ultima cena nella chiesa veneziana di San Marcuola. Nel 1548 Tintoretto dipinge per la Scuola grande di San Rocco il Miracolo di san Marco, che suscitò grande interesse, come testimonia la lettera d’apprezzamento scritta dall’Aretino nell’aprile di quell’anno. A questa prima importante commissione fanno seguito quelle per la pala della chiesa di San Marziale, terminata nel 1549, e per il San Rocco risana gli appestati dell’omonima chiesa veneziana. Nel corso del sesto decennio del secolo l’attività dell’artista si fa più intensa: fra il 1551-1556 esegue le portelle dell’organo della chiesa di Santa Maria dell’Orto, e quelle, su commissione di Giulio Contarini, della chiesa di Santa Maria del Giglio; nel 1559 dipinge la Piscina probatica di San Rocco e l’Ultima cena già in San Felice a Venezia e ora in Saint-François Xavier a Parigi. Dall’unione con Faustina Episcopi, che Tintoretto sposa probabilmente nel 1553, nasceranno otto figli, alcuni dei quali come Giambattista e Marco, continueranno l’attività paterna. Negli anni Settanta, la sua attività subisce un’ulteriore accelerazione; accanto ai ritratti dei più illustri personaggi veneziani, e al soffitto dell’atrio quadrato in Palazzo ducale, l’artista dipinge numerose tele di soggetto religioso: l’Adorazione del vitello d’oro e il Giudizio universale per il presbiterio della chiesa della Madonna dell’Orto (1562), la Discesa di Cristo al limbo e la Crocifissione della chiesa di San Cassiano a Venezia (1568). Nel 1564 Tintoretto dà avvio alla decorazione, che si protrarrà per quasi tre decenni, della Scuola grande di San Rocco, con i dipinti di San Rocco in gloria (1564), la Crocifissione (1565), il San Rocco in carcere confortato dagli angeli (1568), e poi, nei decenni successivi, con alcune serie di teleri e diverse pale d’altare. Divenuto uno dei massimi artisti veneziani, durante l’ultimo ventennio di attività è impegnato anche in Palazzo ducale: termina nel 1578 le quattro Allegorie nella Sala dell’anticollegio, e nel 1582 la Battaglia di Zara per la Sala dello scrutinio. Negli anni 1578-1580 dipinge le otto grandi tele con i Fasti gonzagheschi commissionate per il Palazzo ducale di Mantova. Con le due grandi tele per il presbiterio della chiesa veneziana di San Giorgio Maggiore, dipinte fra il 1592 e il 1594, si conclude l’attività di Tintoretto che muore il 31 maggio del 1594.
^
LINKS

–- Saint George and the Dragon
–- Baptism of Jesus
–- Last Supper
–- Christ Before Pilate
–- Milky Way
–- Vulcan Surprising Venus and Mars
Creation of the Animals (1550, 151x258cm) _ One of the major achievements of Tintoretto's early works is the series of canvases painted in about 1550 for the Sala dell'Albergo of the Scuola della Santissima Trinitá. And of these the Creation of the animals is certainly unique for the swirling rhythm of the composition. In a blaze of golden light, which does not entirely escape the darkness still partly enveloping the newly created earth God the Father is portrayed as if suspended in mid-air in the act of creation. The animals rush forward from behind him while the birds shoot across the sky and the fishes dart through the water like arrows from his hand. The dramatic wind-swept scene is furrowed by the profiles of the animals which cross the canvas in running lines, conveying with extraordinary concision and expressiveness the theme of the work.
Adam and Eve (1550, 150x220cm) almost monochrome _ Adam and Eve are depicted not in a landscape thrown into confusion by the hand of the Creator but in a more serene, more human dimension. In the leafy arbor the two nude figures moving around the trunk of the tree form the parallel diagonals of the composition. A strong light gives a sculptural effect to their ivory-pink flesh. But in the background, on the right, the tranquillity of the foreground scene gives way to the tumultuous epilogue to the fact of human disobedience to Divine will. With rapid brushstrokes Tintoretto evokes the fiery angel who drives Adam and Eve out into the distant desolate hills and plains.
The Birth of Saint John the Baptist (1545), 181x266cm) _ detail _ Tintoretto, transfers the evangelical birth of John the Baptist into the contemporary context of a rich 16th century Venetian household.
The Adoration by the Shepherds (1581, 54x45cm) _ The Scuola di San Rocco is one - and certainly the best preserved - of Venice's six Scuole Grandi (Major Guilds) which for many centuries, together with the minor Confraternities, formed the network of brotherhoods of religious nature. These were set up to help the poor and sick, or to protect the interests of individual professions, or to help the weak and needy members of non-Venetian communities living in the city. The guild, dedicated to San Rocco of Montpellier who died in Piacenza in 1327 and whose remains are thought to have been brought to Venice in 1485, was legally recognized in 1478. Its aim was to relieve the suffering of the sick, especially those stricken by the epidemics. After several transfer its premises were built on the Campo di San Rocco. The grandiose building was begin in 1517 and the finishing touches lasted until 1560. Four years later Jacopo Tintoretto began his pictorial decorations of the rooms. This work, which took him until 1588, constitutes one of the most fascinating pictorial undertakings ever known: from 1564 to 1567 the 27 canvases on the ceiling and walls of the Hall of the Hostel, from 1576 to 1581 the 25 canvases on the ceiling and walls of the Upper Hall; from 1582 to 1587 the eight large canvases in the Ground Floor Hall; in 1588 the altarpiece. The Adoration by the Shepherds is the first canvas on the outside wall of the Upper Hall. In an open scenic illusionism, the shepherds below present their gifts with impassioned and joyous gestures. They are counterpointed by the light and shadow created by the brightness from outside; above, main and secondary figures taking part in the divine event take on attitudes of conscious, almost solemn participation and are dazzled by the light which streams through the cracks between the wooden beams of the humble barn. The two different spiritual moments are underlined also by the different color quality: without breaking the continuity the lower part is continually struck by reverberations and reflections and at the same time carefully and realistically evokes the animals in the stall, the brightly colored peacock, the humble tools; the upper part is calmer and more relaxed although the wide chromatic background painting is strengthened by sudden, flashing rays of light.
Baptism of Christ (detail) (1581, 54x46cm) _ Ten years had hardly passed since the pictorial decoration of the Sala dell'Albergo was finished when Tintoretto was already busy decorating the Upper Hall. The Baptism of Christ is on one of the side walls. The nearness of the painting to the one portraying the Adoration of the Shepherds emphasizes the radical difference in ideas between the two paintings. Whereas in the Adoration the main moment of the event is shown off by a complex scenic and chromatic-luministic setting, in the Baptism it is given no particular importance. The two protagonists are banished to the left and evoked by the beam of light that strikes the back of the kneeling Christ whose face is sunk in shadows. John the Baptist is also immersed in the shadow as he bends forward in the act of pouring the water from the river Jordan over the head of the Son of God. Around the two main actors a wide open space is created. It is bounded on the right in the foreground by a steep rocky wing in whose deep shadow some spectators of the scene are undressing under the glance of the devout brother absorbed in prayer. On the left however, in the background beyond the river Jordan, those waiting for baptism throng together in line. They are depicted in an extraordinary sparkling of blobs of color and of luminous reflections. Evoked with astonishing rapidity of touch, the procession seems to extend on both sides, with no break in continuity, against the thick curtain of trees and under the blanket of heavy, threatening storm clouds.
Marriage at Cana
The Last Supper (1594, 365x568cm) _ The church of San Giorgio Maggiore was built on the San Giorgio Island between 1566 and 1600 using the design of Palladio. After 1590 the workshop of Tintoretto was commissioned to paint big canvases for decorating it. Due the large number of commissions, Tintoretto in his late years increasingly relied on his coworkers. However, three surviving paintings placed in a chapel consacrated in 1592 — The Harvest of Manna, The Last Supper and Entombment — were certainly painted by Tintoretto himself. Tintoretto painted the Last Supper several times in his life. This version can be described as the fest of the poors, in which the figure of Christ mingles with the crowds of apostles. However, a supernatural scene with winged figures comes into sight by the light around his head. This endows the painting with a visional character clearly differentiating it from paintings of the same subject made by earlier painters like Leonardo.
Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples (1547, 210x533cm) _ It was long supposed that this work was executed for the church of San Marcuola in Venice, but the copy still in the church better accords with another version of the subject now in Newcastle. However, there is no doubt about Tintoretto's autograph authorship of the Prado painting, which was almost certainly painted at about the same time. Typical of Tintoretto throughout his carrer is the dramatic setting for the scene, the long diagonal vistas serving to transform the humble event into an apocalyptic vision. The coloring, however, is bright and sumptuous, the modeling firm, and the space and light clear and still - a sign of the fairly early date of the work in the artist's career.
Christ before Pilate (1567, 515x380cm) _ detail _ Tintoretto decorated the walls of the Sala dell'Albergo by paintings showing important moments from the Passion of Christ and he finished them in the early months of 1567. The most admired has always been Christ before Pilate. Perhaps while painting it Tintoretto partially kept in mind one of the wood-engravings by Albrecht Dürer, evidence of the lasting spell held by German graphics of the firdt half of the 16th century over the imagination of the protagonists of Venetian mannerist interpretations. The dramatic staging of the scene is however completely original. In a very fine and measured luministic web the figure of Christ, wrapped in a white mantle, stands out like a shining bladeagainst the crowd and the architectural scenery. He is centered by a bright ray of light and stands tall in front of the hypocritically bureaucratic judge that is aPilate who is portrayed in red robes and as if sunk in shadows. Certainly taking up the idea of Carpaccio in his St Ursula cycle, Tintoretto portraits the old secretary at the foot of Pilate's throne. He leans against a stool covered with dark green cloth and with great diligent enthusiasm notes down every moment, every word spoken by the judge amid the murmurings of the pitiless crowd which obstinately clamors for the death of Christ.
The Ascent to Calvary (1567, 515x390cm) _ Tintoretto decorated the walls of the Sala dell'Albergo by paintings showing important moments from the Passion of Christ and he finished them in the early months of 1567. This agitated scene is set along a route rising at an acute angle; the first side, reading from left to right, is in deep shadow against which the chromatic tones of white, red, green, blue, yellow-orange of the robes of the two thieves and their escorts stand out vividly; the second part of the procession is done in full light against the sulphur-colored sky streaked with pink. It opens up with the dominating soldier seen against the light in the foreground who is holding the rope tied around Christ's neck and it is closed by the brightly colored group of pious women preceded by the soldier who lets the pale pink standard flutter in the wind.
Descent from the Cross (Pietà) (1559, 227x294cm) _ The subject was treated by Tintoretto several times before 1559, this version can be considered as a summary of his previous experiments. There are no unnecessary details only a closed group of figures with dominating diagonal lines. Everything is subordinated to the expression of extreme emotions. The painting is clearly demonstrating how Tintoretto broke with the traditional representations of frequently painted subjects.
Entombment (1594, 288x166cm) _ The church of San Giorgio Maggiore was built on the San Giorgio Island between 1566 and 1600 using the design of Palladio. After 1590 the workshop of Tintoretto was commissioned to paint big canvases for decorating it. Due the large number of commissions, Tintoretto in his late years increasingly relied on his coworkers. However, three surviving paintings placed in a chapel consacrated in 1592 - The Harvest of Manna, The Last Supper and Entombment - were certainly painted by Tintoretto himself. It is remarkable on this picture that the dead Christ and the fainted Mary is depicted in similar position in two different groups of figures. The representation of the figures is rather simplified, and therefore, the composition shows some similarity to late medieval, Venetian-Byzantine type passion scenes.
Saint Mark Saving a Saracen from Shipwreck (1562, 398x337cm) _ This scene depicts the episode in which Saint Mark, according to legend, saved the life of a Saracen, his secret follower, by restoring him to the boat from which he had been thrown by the Christians during a storm at sea. The figures form a diagonal which is continually broken to indicate the fury of the natural elements. The stormy sea and wind-tossed clouds evoke the meteorological conditions in a way which is almost over-dramatized. This is, however, a superb example of the visionary and fantastical style of Tintoretto, who uses light to convey the desired appearance of reality.
The Miracle of Saint Mark Freeing the Slave (1548, 415x541cm) _ The painting is the first of a series of works, painted in 1548 for the Scuola Grande di San Marco while Marco Episcopi, his future father-in-law was Grand Guardian of the School. The subject of the huge canvas is the miraculous appearence of St Mark to rescue one of his devotees, a servant of a knight of Provence, who had been condemned to having his legs broken and his eyes put out for worshipping the relics of the saint against his master's will. The scenes takes place on a kind of proscenium which seems to force the action out of the painting towards the spectator who is thus involved in the amazement of the crowd standing in a semi-circle around the protagonists: the fore-shortened figure of the slave lying on the ground, the dumbfounded executioner holding aloft the broken implements of torture, the knight of Provence starting up from his seat out of the shadow into the light, while the figure of St Mark swoops down from above. In keeping with the drama of the action is the tight construction of the painting, the dramatic fore-shortening of the forms and sudden strong contrast of light and shade.
The Stealing of the Dead Body of St Mark (1566, 398x315cm) _ In 1562 Tintoretto was commissioned by the Guardian Grande, Tommaso Ragnone to complete the decoration of the School of St Mark. This work relates the episode in which the Christians of Alexandria, taking advantage of a sudden hurricane, take possession of the body of the saint which was about to be burned by the pagans. The group in the foreground (where Ragnone himself is depicted bearing the head of the saint) stands out sculpturally from the vertiginous depth of the background created by the use of light and by the obsessive architectural sequence of arcades and mullioned windows which terminate in the phosphorescence of the construction outlined against a reddish sky heavy with clouds. Light assumes an elemental role in this phantasmagorical scene.
Saint Jerome and Saint Andrew (1552, 235x145cm) _ The works of Tintoretto after the middle of the 16th century demonstrate still more clearly the search for strong sculptural effects achieved by use of chiaroscuro, a complex scenographic spatial representation and the use of clear, bright color in direct contrast to the more subdued harmonies of Titian's 'magica alchimia cromatica'. The work 'St. Jerome and St. Andrew' is a major example of these tendencies. It was commissioned for one of the rooms of the Magistrato del Sale in the Palazzo dei Camerlenghi at Rialto by Andrea Dandolo and Girolamo Bernardo, magistrates who left office between September and October 1552. The search for a Manneristic figural rhythm within the overall compositional plan is evident. The figure of St. Andrew takes up the whole of the small space to the left of the cross, leaving more room for St. Jerome alongside the curvilinear outline of the rock. The scenic effect of the figures constrained in a small space is given unity and the poetic sense of an intense spiritual life by the expressive force of light which brings out all the gradations of color.
Saint Nicholas (114x56cm) _ probably part of a larger painting.
Saint Louis, Saint George and the Princess (1553, 226x146cm) _ This work, commissioned by Giorgio Venier and Alvise Foscarini who left the Magistratura del Sale respectively on 13 September 1551 and 10 May 1553, is a fine example of Tintoretto's achievement of a dynamic compositional tension. The incisive force of the line combines with rich and luminous color to create the firmly modelled figures. The self-conscious statement of dramatic style became another pretext for the continuing polemic between Tintoretto and Titian. Dolce clearly alludes to it when, in his 'Dialogo della pittura' of 1558, he criticizes the unfortunate position of the princess, whom he takes to be St. Margaret, astride the dragon.
Vincenzo Morosini (1580; 930x568pix, 131kb) _ Morosini [1511-1588], also the subject of a portrait in Tintoretto's The Resurrection, was a leading member of the Venetian elite, Prefect of Bergamo, Procurator of Saint-Mark's, President of the University of Padua. This is a subtle, introspective painting. The pose Morosini adopts suggests weary wisdom, as if he would rather be in a monastic retreat or his study than here, wearing his golden sash, denoting knighthood. He doesn't collar your attention theatrically like earlier Renaissance portraits such as Titian's Portrait of a Man (1510, 81x66cm; 700x550pix, 69kb) whose subject leans out of the picture and looks challengingly at you, but seems to sink into the wall, shying away from the throng. Paradoxically, this recessive quality lends the painting a magnetic power, a sense that we are confronting a real person with a real inner life. Tintoretto achieves this by leading us away from the body, from Morosini's physical presence, into a world of color. Luring the eye into the unflashy chromatic effects of muted gold on shadowy burgundy flecked by foamy white, he stimulates dense, ambiguous realms of feeling – this public man has a private self that Tintoretto hints at. This hinting is the central contribution of Venetian color to the portrait. His face is long and sculpted, a prophet's or hermit's. His eyes look back at us warily as if he has heard our foolish talk before. Behind him is a wine-tinted curtain, a world of privacy and reflection, opening out on to a landscape painted abstractly, reductively, almost Chinese in manner, implying a misty morning in northern Italy, a landscape to contemplate in unworldly thought.
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary (1575)
Venus, Vulcan, and Mars (detail) (1550)
35 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia55 images at ARC

 ^     Tintoretto stayed at home but he felt in his own person a craving for something that Titian could not teach him. The Venice he was born in was not the Venice of Titian's early youth, and his own adolescence fell in the period when Spain was rapidly making herself mistress of Italy. The haunting sense of powers almost irresistible gave a terrible fascination to Michelangelo's works. Tintoretto felt this fascination because he was in sympathy with the spirit which took form in colossal torsos and limbs. To him these were not, as they were to Michelangelo's enrolled followers, merely new patterns after which to model the nude.
      But, beside this, Tintoretto had to an even greater degree the feeling that whatever existed was for mankind. In his youth people were once more turning to religion, and in Venice poetry was making its way more than it had previously done, not only because Venice had become the refuge of men of letters, but also because of the diffusion of printed books. Tintoretto took to the new feeling for religion and poetry as to his birthright. Yet whether classic fable or Biblical episode were the subject of his art, Tintoretto colored it with his feeling for the human life at the heart of the story. His sense of power did not express itself in colossal nudes so much as in the immense energy, in the glowing health of the figures he painted, and more still in his effects of light.
It was this which enabled him to give such living versions of Biblical stories and saintly legends. For, granting that an effect of reality were attainable in painting without an adequate treatment of light and atmosphere, even then the reality would look hideous, as it does in many modern painters who attempt to paint people of today in their everyday dress and among their usual surroundings. It is not 'Realism' which makes such pictures hideous, but the want of that toning down which the atmosphere gives to things in life, and of that harmonizing to which the light subjects all colors.
"It was a great mastery of light and shadow which enabled Tintoretto to put into his pictures all the poetry there was in his soul without once tempting us to think that he might have found better expression in words. The poetry which quickens most of his works in the Scuola di San Rocco is almost entirely a matter of light and color. What is it but the light that changes the solitudes in which the Magdalen and St. Mary of Egypt are sitting, into dreamlands seen by poets in their moments of happiest inspiration? What but light and color., the gloom and chill of evening, with the white-stoled figure standing resignedly before the judge, that give the Christ before Pilate its sublime magic? What, again, but light, color., and the star-procession of cherubs that imbue the realism of the 'Annunciation' with music which thrills us through and through?
     Religion and poetry did not exist for Tintoretto because the love and cultivation of the Muses was a duty prescribed by the Greeks and Romans, and because the love of God and the saints was prescribed by the Church; but rather, as was the case with the best people of his time, because both poetry and religion were useful to man. They helped him to forget what was mean and sordid in life, they braced him to his task, and consoled him for his disappointments. Religion answered to an everliving need of the human heart. The Bible was no longer a mere document wherewith to justify Christian dogma. It was rather a series of parables and symbols pointing at all times to the path that led to a finer and nobler life. Why then continue to picture Christ and the Apostles, the Patriarchs and Prophets, as persons living under Roman rule, wearing the Roman toga, and walking about in the landscape of a Roman bas-relief? Christ and the Apostles, the Patriarchs and Prophets, were the embodiment of living principles and of living ideals. Tintoretto felt this so vividly that he could not think of them otherwise than as people of his own kind, living under conditions easily intelligible to himself and to his fellow men. Indeed, the more intelligible and the more familiar the look and garb and surroundings of Biblical and saintly personages, the more would they drive home the principles and ideas they incarnated. So Tintoretto did not hesitate to turn every Biblical episode into a picture of what the scene would look like had it taken place under his own eyes, nor to tinge it with his own mood.
     His conception of the human form was, it is true, colossal, although the slender elegance that was then coming into fashion, as if in protest against physical force and organization, influenced him considerably in his construction of the female figure; but the effect which he must always have produced upon his contemporaries, which most of his works still produce, is one of astounding reality as well as of wide sweep and power. Thus, in the Discovery of the Body of St. Mark, and in the Storm Rising while the Corpse is being Carried through the Streets of Alexandria, the figures, although colossal, are so energetic and so easy in movement, and the effects of perspective and of light and atmosphere are so on a level with the gigantic figures, that the eye at once adapts itself to the scale, and you feel as if you too partook of the strength and health of heroes.
     That feeling for reality which made the great painters look upon a picture as the representation of a cubic content of atmosphere enveloping all the objects depicted, made them also consider the fact that the given quantity of atmosphere is sure to contain other objects than those the artist wants for his purpose. He is free to leave them out, of course, but in so far as he does, so far is he from producing an effect of reality. The eye does not see everything, but all the eye would naturally see along with the principal objects must be painted,or the picture will not took true to life. This incorporation of small episodes running parallel with the subject rather than forming part of it, is one of the chief characteristics of modern as distinguished from ancient art.
     It is this which makes the Elizabethan drama so different from the Greek. It is this again which already separates the works of Duccio and Giotto from the plastic arts of Antiquity. Painting lends itself willingly to the consideration of minor episodes, and for that reason is almost as well fitted to be in touch with modern life as the novel itself. Such a treatment saves a picture from looking prepared and cold, just as light and atmosphere save it from rigidity and crudeness.
     No better illustration of this can be found among Italian masters than Tintoretto's Crucifixion in the Scuola di San Rocco. The scene is a vast one, and although Christ is on the Cross, life does not stop. To most of the people gathered there, what takes place is no more than a common execution. Many of them are attending to it as to a tedious duty. Others work away at some menial task more or less connected with the Crucifixion, as unconcerned as cobblers humming over their last. Most of the people in the huge canvas are represented, as no doubt they were in life, without much personal feeling about Christ. His own friends are painted with all their grief and despair, but the others are allowed to feel as they please. The painter does not try to give them the proper emotions. If one of the great modern novelists, if Tolstoy, for instance, were describing the Crucifixion, his account would read as if it were a description of Tintoretto's picture. But Tintoretto's fairness went even farther than letting all the spectators feel as they pleased about what he himself believed to be the greatest event that ever took place.
     Among this multitude he allowed the light of heaven to shine upon the wicked as well as upon the good, and the air to refresh them all equally. In other words, this enormous canvas is a great sea of air and light at the bottom of which the scene takes place. Without the atmosphere and the just distribution of light, it would look as lifeless and desolate, in spite of the crowd and animation, as if it were the bottom of a dried-up sea.
     While all these advances were being made, the art of portraiture had not stood still. Its popularity had only increased as the years went on. Titian was too busy with commissions for foreign princes to supply the great demand there was in Venice alone. Tintoretto painted portraits not only with much of the air of good breeding of Titian's likenesses, but with even greater splendor, and with an astonishing rapidity of execution. The Venetian portrait, it will be remembered, was expected to be more than a likeness. It was expected to give pleasure to the eye, and to stimulate the emotions. Tintoretto was ready to give ample satisfaction to all such expectations. His portraits, although they are not so individualized as Lotto's, nor such close studies of character as Titian's, always render the man at his best, in glowing health, full of life and determination. They give us the sensuous pleasure we get from jewels, and at the same time they make us look back with amazement to a State where the human plant was in such vigor as to produce old men of the kind represented in most of Tintoretto's portraits.
—(060530)
^ >Born on 31 May 1892: Michel Kikoïne, French painter who died on 04 November 1968. — {C'est Michel qui quoi ne faisait pas?})
— The gifted son of a banker in the small south-eastern town of Rechytsa in Belarus, Michel Kikoïne was barely into his teens when he began studying at Kruger's School of Drawing in Minsk. There he met Chaim Soutine [1894 – 09 Aug 1944], with whom he would have a lifelong friendship. At age sixteen he and Soutine were studying at the Fine Arts School in Vilnia and in 1911 he moved to join the growing artistic community gathering in the Montparnasse Quarter of Paris, France. This artistic community included his friend Soutine as well as fellow Belarus artist, Pinchus Kremegne [21 Jul 1890 – 05 Apr 1981] who also had studied at the Fine Arts School in Vilnia.
      For a time, the young artist lived at La Ruche while studying at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux Arts. In 1914, he married a woman from Vilnia with whom he would have a daughter and a son, Yankel Jacob Kikoïne “Jacques Yankel” [1920-2004], born in France, who also became a painter. The same year as his marriage, Kikoïne volunteered to fight in the French army, serving until the end of World War I.
      Kikoïne had his first exhibition in Paris in 1919 after which he exhibited regularly at the Salon d'Automne. His work was successful enough to provide a reasonable lifestyle for him and his family allowing them to spend summers painting landscapes in the south of France, the most notable of which is his Paysage Cézannien, inspired by Paul Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906].
      With the outbreak of World War II and the subsequent occupation of France by the Germans, Michel Kikoïne and his Jewish family avoided deportation to the Nazi death camps, staying near Toulouse. After the Allied liberation of France, he moved back to Paris where his paintings were primarily nudes, autoportraits, and portraits. In 1958 he moved to Cannes on the Mediterranean coast where he returned to landscape painting until his death.

–- Paysage de Bourgogne (1148x1350pix, 213kb) _ This barely representational picture has been transformed by the pseudonymous Macoq Pivoïne into the sensational frank abstractions
     Passage de Cigognes (2007; 775x1550pix, kb _ to xpix, kb), Pays Méchant de Vergogne, Pesage de Cigognes, Paye Mes Chants de Vergogne
Eglise de Gentilly (1928)
Saint-Jean d'Acre (1950)
Safed Landscape (42x62cm; 470x700pix, 59kb)
Claire (1928)
Femme en buste (1920)
Nu assis (1919)
Roses et pommes rouges (1935)
Outdoors Still Life with a Bird (48x62cm; 547x700pix, 84kb)
—(070530)
^ >Born on 31 May 1535: Alessandro di Cristofano di Lorenzo del Bronzino Allori, Florentine painter who died on 22 September 1607.
—      Allori had a career in the mainstream of the Florentine Mannerist tradition. Essentially an imitator, he produced work that was most characteristically influenced by Bronzino, Vasari and Michelangelo. His son Cristofano Allori [17 Oct 1577 – 01 Apr 1621] broke with the traditions kept alive by his father to become one of the foremost exponents of the Florentine Baroque.
— After the death of his father in 1540, Alessandro Allori was adopted by Bronzino, a friend of his father, and he trained in Bronzino’s workshop. From 1554 to 1560 Allori was in Rome, where he studied antique statuary and the works of Michelangelo and became known as a portrait painter. His first documented work on his return to Florence was an altarpiece, heavily influenced by Michelangelo, depicting The Last Judgment (1560). Allori became involved in a number of projects relating to Florence’s recently formed (1563) Accademia del Disegno. These included preparation of the decorations for the funeral of Michelangelo in 1564 and for the marriage the following year of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici’s son, Francesco (later Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany) to Joanna of Austria.
— Alessandro Allori was the student and adopted son of Bronzino. An early visit to Rome added the influence of late Michelangelo paintings to that of his master's courtly Mannerism. The Pearl Fishers (1570) is generally considered his masterpiece; playful and full of artifice, it combines nude figures obviously drawn from Michelangelo with Bronzino's svelteness and enamelled coloring. He was one of the last notable exponents of Mannerism, painting in a style that had become outmoded by the time of his death.
— Alessandro Allori was one of the most prolific and active painters in late sixteenth-century Florence. His father, a sword maker, died when Allori was five, and the painter Agnolo Bronzino was made guardian of the family. Allori incorporated Bronzino's name into his own, as seen in the inscription on one of his paintings: Alexander Alorius Angeli Bronzini Alumnus Faciebat A D MDLXX. After a short stay in Rome, where he was influenced by the art of Michelangelo, Allori returned to his native Florence. There he became one of the principal painters for the ruling family of Florence, the Medici. Allori was appointed director of the Florentine tapestry factory in the mid-1570s. His work, which displays the complicated twisting poses typical of Florentine Mannerism, influenced artistic developments in Tuscany for almost fifty years following his death.
— Allori's students included Lodovico Cigoli [1559-1613].

LINKS
–- Charity (1560, 23x18cm; full size)
The Body of Christ with Two Angels (45x39cm)
–- Francesco I de'Medici (60x48cm; 784x640pix, 87kb _ ZOOM 1 to 1176x960pix, 142kb _ ZOOM 2 to 2493x1959pix, 1156kb _ ZOOM 2 head alone 1181x1196pix, 119kb)
Eleonor of Toledo, Duchess of Tuscany (700x517pix, 89kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1034pix, 321kb)
A Young Man holding a tiny book and with a hand on his hip (700x394pix, 43kb _ ZOOM to 1400x788pix, 149kb)
A Young Man holding a coin and pointing to a fire (117x88cm; 915x674pix, 85kb) _ Formerly the painting was attributed to Agnolo Bronzino. The sitter was assumed to be either Grand Duke Cosimo II de' Medici [12 May 1590 – 28 Feb 1621] or his father Grand Duke Ferdinando I Medici [1550-1609]. These assumptions are, however, not proven.
Susanna and The Elders (202x117cm)
Venus and Cupid
The Abduction of Proserpine (1570, 229x348cm) _ Pluto, god of the Underworld, seizes Proserpine, daughter of the corn-goddess Ceres, ready to carry her down to his kingdom on a chariot drawn by black horses. Because Pluto allowed Proserpine to return to earth each spring for four months, the story recounted in Ovid's Metamorphoses symbolized seasonal death and rebirth. Yet, even this dire subject takes place in an enchanted setting. Characteristically, Alessandro Allori added playful touches: slender, graceful nymphs, possibly Proserpine's former companions, pick flowers and frolic while being observed by satyrs. The abrupt truncation of Pluto's chariot and horses at the bottom of the panel and the bright, saturated colors display frequent characteristics of Florentine Mannerism. Allori’s complicated, twisted poses and his cool, smooth style reflect the influence of his adopted father and master Bronzino.
—(080502)

Died on a 31 May:


1953 Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin, Russian painter born (main coverage) on 28 December 1885. —(091215)

^ 1916 Egisto Lancerotto, Italian painter born on 21 August 1848.
Bearded Italian Gentleman (1886, 125x73cm) the father of the artist?
Young Woman In A Vineyard (109x79cm)
Ballo Mazurka (178x260cm)
Picking Daisies (150x77cm) _ If you want to know what they did with the daisies, look at the next picture.
She Loves Me...She Loves Me Not... (117x85cm)
–- The Hand of Cards (150x75cm; 892x444pix, 37kb) —(070530)

1774 Claude-François Desportes, French painter and writer born in 1695. — Son of Alexandre-François Desportes [24 Feb 1661 – 20 Apr 1743] and first cousin of Nicolas Desportes [17 Jul 1718 – 26 Sep 1787]. — {Est-ce l'un des trois qui a inventé l'impôt Desportes et Fenêtres, qui a été appliqué après leur morts (Loi du 24 novembre 1798 — 4 frimaire an VII)?}— He worked under the direction of his more celebrated father as a painter of animals and still-lifes. He was received (reçu) into the Académie Royale on 25 September 1723. His morceau de réception was Still-life of Dead Game, Fruits, a Cat and a Parrot on a Marble Console. He was a competent painter, but he was never able to develop an artistic persona independent of that of his father. Even in later works, he employed François Desportes’s formula of grouping varieties of dead game in the foreground of a park setting (e.g. Dead Game Guarded by Dogs, 1766). His paintings, moreover, lack his father’s mastery of organization and often degenerate into cluttered accumulations of artefacts. His forms are also flatter and the brushwork drier. Despite his mediocre talent he did achieve some success and exhibited paintings at the Salons of 1725, 1737, 1739 and 1758. He also wrote plays and the first biography of his father.
Hounds With a Tortoise, a Parrot and Bullfinches Beside a Plant in a Garden
Chiiens et Gibier Dans un Paysage
Le Déjeûner Gras et le Déjeûner Maigre (1764) —(090530)

1588 (last possible date) Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, French draftsman and painter born in 1533.
Réné de Laudonniére and the Indian Chief Athore Visit Ribaut’s Column (1564, 10x25cm; 311x455pix, 92kb). _ Le Moyne was a member of the French expedition that settled at Fort Caroline on the St. John’s River in 1564. Although the colony failed in less than a year, Le Moyne survived and returned to Paris. In 1572, he escaped the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day and fled to London. Encouraged by Sir Walter Raleigh, Le Moyne began drawing and painting plants, insects, and scenes of Indian life remembered from his voyage. His watercolor of commander Réné de Laudonniére and Chief Athore visiting the column erected by the first French expedition is an idyllic depiction of Europeans and Amerindians sharing the riches of the New World. This imagery must have held special meaning for Le Moyne and other Huguenots, who undoubtedly saw America as a place of opportunity and sanctuary.
–- A Kingfisher on a Branch (765x1472pix, 82kb)
–- Study of a Melon With a Slice Cut Out (22x15cm; 766x501pix, 46kb) there is another almost identical picture by Le Moyne.
–- Two Bunches of Grapes, One Black and One White (642x628pix, 54kb) they look dark blue and yellowish green respectively.
–- Study of Fruits (1050x1525pix, 127kb)
–- Study of French Roses and an Ox-Eye-Daisy (805x603pix, 55kb)
–- Study of a Jay (680x1108pix, 89kb)
–-Florilegium (1050x1569pix, 215kb) _ This image shows the front cover of a manuscript and 6 of its 80 watercolor and gouache pictures of wild flowers, and the first page which bears an inscription and paraphe beneath the frontispiece: Cela (?) este donne par DuMarry; and a four-line poem on the verso:
il ne fault plus chercher l'efmail d'un gay Printéps
De qui les uiues fleurs fe fannent en une heure,
Icý la douce Flore, en fa beaulté demeure,
Et ne perd fes honneurs par la rigueur des téps.
     This remarkable, newly discovered and superbly preserved album of botanical paintings, executed in watercolor and gouache by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (circa 1533-1588), is only the fifth substantial group of works by the artist that has been identified to date. It is also the largest, its eighty images being twenty more than in any of the other known manuscripts by the artist. Dating from Le Moyne's early career in France, this is one of the earliest known French florilegia, the first coherent florilegium by the artist to come on the market since 1961, and the finest and most lavish that remains in private hands. It therefore represents an extremely significant addition to our knowledge of this fascinating and extremely rare Huguenot artist.
     Details of Le Moyne's extraordinary career and adventurous life only gradually emerged during the course of the 20th Century. He was born in Dieppe, which was at the time a great center of cartography and illumination. Nothing is known of his training and earlier career, until early 1564, when he seems to have been instructed by the French King Charles IX to travel as cartographer and official recording artist on an astonishing and ill-fated expedition to establish a Huguenot settlement in Florida, led by the notable mariners Jean Ribault and René Goulaine de Laudonnière. After his return to France in early 1566, Le Moyne wrote a fascinating illustrated description of the voyage and account of the various disasters that befell the party, most of whom perished, some at the hands of the local Indian tribes or the Spanish, and others as a result of mutiny and rebellion within their own ranks. Only fifteen returned alive. This account was published in Frankfurt by Theodor de Bry in 1591, under the title Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae provincia Gallis acciderunt; it contains 42 engraved maps and illustrations of the inhabitants of Florida and their customs, and is an extremely important early source of information on these subjects. In 1572, Le Moyne fled to England to avoid the Huguenot massacres, and remained there until his death in 1588. Soon after his arrival in England, he came to the attention of Sir Walter Raleigh, to whom he was probably introduced by his fellow artist John White, who shared similar interests in exploration, and Raleigh remained one of the artist’s most important patrons for the rest of his career. In this cultural milieu, where the interest of ethnographer and the curiosity of explorer were entwined with the refined aesthetic sensibility of the Elizabethan period, Le Moyne produced some of his most fascinating works, including the exquisite gouache of the so-called Young Daughter of the Picts.
     Prior to the identification of any original drawings by the artist, Le Moyne was only known to a very specialized audience as the writer and illustrator of the account of Laudonnière’s Florida expedition, and also as the author of an extremely rare book of woodcuts of plants, animals and birds, published at Blackfriars in 1586, under the title La Clef des Champs. In 1900, however, an original gouache on parchment by Le Moyne, relating to the Florida expedition, was discovered; representing The Indian Chief Athore showing Laudonnière the Marker Column set up by Ribault, this drawing is now in the collection of the New York Public Library (see Paul Hulton, The Work of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, Oxford 1977, vol. I, cat. no.34, reproduced vol. II, pl. 6). The rediscovery of the talent of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues as a botanical artist is also relatively recent. In 1922 Spencer Savage, librarian of the Linnean Society, recognized that a group of fifty-nine watercolors of plants on thirty-three sheets, originally contained in a small volume with a late 16th-century French brown calf binding and purchased by the Victoria & Albert Museum in 1856, were in fact the work of this previously little-known artist.
     These publications by Savage paved the way for further attributions to the artist, notably the album of fifty botanical watercolors acquired by the British Museum at Sotheby’s on 11 December 1961 (lot 177). The botanical drawings in that album were preceded by a sheet with a manuscript sonnet dated 1585 (in a hand that has been identified as that of the Huguenot writing-master John de Beauchesne). More recently, a manuscript florilegium very similar to the present example, though containing sixty rather than eighty paintings, was identified. Another group of twenty-seven rather less formally conceived works was discovered in 2003 and sold, New York, Sotheby's, 21 January 2004 (lots 29-55) , but prior to the identification of the present volume, these were the only substantial groups of works by the artist that were known. In addition to these groups, Le Moyne's other original botanical works comprise fourteen miniatures on vellum.
     The relationship, and the contrast, between the sheets of studies by Le Moyne de Morgues sold at Sotherby's one year earlier and the complete, finished work presented here, is both striking and illuminating. Though no less refined and accomplished on a technical and aesthetic level, it is clear that the less formal study sheets could never have been intended to be seen, or sold, as complete, self-contained compositions. Here, however, each exquisitely executed plant study is presented in the context of an extremely carefully constructed composition, and contained within an illusionistic frame. These frames are painted in a delicate pale orange color, heightened with a fine gold line, and many also include darker brown lines representing stylized fictive shadows, which serve to give these borders a real sense of depth. In certain cases (for example f.1, the daisy), the leaves of the plant slightly overhang the drawn border, and cast shadows onto it, thereby lending subtle emphasis to the spatial illusion. Similar painted frames are also present in the Oak Spring album, but they are less sophisticated in handling than those seen here; in fact, the borders most similar to these are to be found in the six sumptuous miniatures formerly in the Korner collection (see above).
     Another indication of the extent to which the present watercolors were conceived almost as miniatures is to be found in the nature and preparation of the paper itself. Peter Bower has made an extensive study of the papers used in the various groups of drawings by Le Moyne, and has established that the paper used here, which contains a distinctive pot watermark with the letters ISIMO/NNET (very similar to Briquet 12826), was almost certainly made on the same moulds as the paper on which the Le Moyne drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum are executed. He attributes this paper to a French manufacturer named Simonnet, and dates it to the early 1560s. The watermarks are to be found at the edges of the sheets, running through the spine and onto the next sheet, which is what one would expect when the larger sheets of paper that were produced on these moulds were folded in four, ready for binding and cutting. Moreover, one side of each sheet has been stone glazed prior to the execution of the paintings (as seems also to be the case in the Oak Spring florilegium). This process involved working over the surface of the paper with a heavy stone, to achieve a smooth, polished surface similar in texture to vellum. Sometimes, as here, an even greater smoothness was achieved by working casein into the paper during this process. The extremely smooth, vellum-like surface that resulted would have been much more suited to the artist's fine, miniaturist technique than ordinary untreated paper.
     Although the present binding of this album does, of course, post-date the drawings inside by a full two centuries, there are nonetheless clear indications that the different sheets in the volume were intended to be bound together as a set, and in this sequence, from their creation. First of all, there is the presence of the early, perhaps original, decorative frontispiece, on the back of which is a poem in a 16th-century calligrapher's hand, not so very different from that of the poem formerly in the front of the Le Moyne de Morgues album in the British Museum. Also, as Peter Bower has observed, not only do the watermarks suggest the pagination is undisturbed, but there are in some cases traces of offsets from one sheet onto the back of the preceding one, which can only have resulted from the album pages touching each other before the paint was totally dry. Lastly, when there are several studies of similar plants, these follow each other consecutively (e.g. the various pinks and marigolds, ff. 31-36), and furthermore the overall sequence of the manuscript closely parallels that of the Victoria & Albert florilegium.
     The history of the making of florilegia, both printed and, more rarely, painted, is one in which Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues is a central figure. The pioneering works of European botany were the printed herbals of authors such as Otto Brunfels (1530-1536), Leonhart Fuchs (1542) and Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1554). These books were, however, all very much conceived as scientific texts, illustrated with woodcuts that were more informative than beautiful. Slightly later in the 16th century, a parallel tradition in botanical illustration began to emerge, in which the emphasis was at least as much on the aesthetic qualities of the illustrations, and the plants were reproduced in ever more refined engravings or etchings or, in a few cases, original watercolors or gouaches. These florilegia were made for amateur botanists and aristocrats who wished to own not only a record of the rare plants that they were cultivating in their gardens - horticulture was increasingly fashionable during this period - but also a beautiful artistic object. In fact, the late 16th-century fashion for gardening was closely linked with other aspects of taste, and the work of botanical artists such as Le Moyne de Morgues reflected very closely, and also influenced, contemporary styles in costume and other textiles, and in decoration and ornament in general. Not only after his move to England in around 1572 but already in his early years in France, Le Moyne was one of the greatest and most original botanical artists of his time, and there are virtually no surviving florilegia that antedate Le Moyne's three known works of this type from his French period (those in the Victoria & Albert Museum and the Oak Spring Library, plus the present work).
     The relationship between these three florilegia is clearly a close one, and all three also demonstrate links with the group of less formal drawings sold last year. Many of the plants are represented in more than one of the manuscripts (see the list below for a full concordance), and the actual depictions of each are often very similar: the Opium Poppy with its head turned to the left, the twin, crossed sprigs of Clove Pinks, the Walnut, shown with the nut in its pith, in its shell, and open, the melon with a slice cut out and lying below, all are found in at least two versions. Yet closer examination shows that these are not in fact precise replicas, and the artist has usually removed a leaf or flower bud here and added one there, so that each image is actually a subtle variation on the original theme, which somehow satisfies more harmoniously the specific aesthetic demands of the composition in question (the aesthetic qualities of his compositions being always of paramount importance to Le Moyne). The overall consistency of style and quality, particularly with the drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum, is, however striking, not only in terms of spirit and composition, but also in the use of color and definition of detail. The touches of color on the stamens of flowers, the depiction of the little hairs on the poppy stems, the shadows built up with blocks of gray wash, all are portrayed in exactly the same ways, with an extremely subtle combination of meticulous, almost miniaturist technique and a great freedom and transparency of subtly nuanced watercolor. In the British Museum drawings, and also to a lesser extent those in the Oak Spring Library, although the techniques and range of colors used are still strikingly similar, the handling is generally a little more repetitive and formulaic, suggesting that Le Moyne was by then approaching his subjects with slightly less spontaneity and freshness of vision.
     Given Le Moyne’s extraordinary talent as an artist, and the great interest that there was during his lifetime for botanical illustration, it seems likely that the majority of his botanical drawings must be lost; even with the recent discoveries, the total number of surviving works is small. With the exception of the six miniatures and twenty-seven individual drawings auctioned in recent years, all of his previously known works are in British and American museums and libraries. The present, superbly preserved manuscript florilegium, dating from the artist's early career in France, is the largest single group of his works that has so far been identified, and an immensely important addition to the surviving oeuvre of this enormously gifted and pioneering ethnographic and botanical artist.
     The letters following the identifications of the plants in the following list indicate in which other manuscripts the same species are represented (VA = Victoria & Albert Museum; OS = Oak Spring Library; BM = British Museum; S = Sotheby's New York, 21.1.04)
f.1: Double daisy and Painted Lady butterfly (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.2: Sweet violet and butterfly (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.3: Common Mallow and Damselfly (VA, OS, BM);
f.4: Dog Rose and caterpillar (VA, OS, BM);
f.5: Wild Daffodil and insect (VA, BM, S);
f.6: Foxglove (VA);
f.7: Lily of the Valley with butterfly and grasshopper (VA, OS);
f.8: German Iris and insect (VA, OS, S);
f.9: White Iris and dragonfly ;
f.10: Wild Gladiolus and stag beetle;
f.11: Lesser Periwinkle (S);
f.12: Peony (VA, OS, S);
f.13: Species Rose with snail (VA, OS);
f.14: Cyclamen (VA, OS);
f.15: Opium poppy (VA, OS, S);
f.16: Common Vetch and Black-Veined butterfly (VA,OS);
f.17: Common Borage(VA, OS, BM, S);
f.18: Corn Cockle (VA, OS, S);
f.19: Corn Poppy (VA, OS, S);
f.20: Cornflower (VA, OS, S),
f.21: Love-in-a-mist (VA, S);
f.22: Staversacre, Delphinium staphisagria (VA);
f.23: Gilliflower,Matthiola incana (VA, OS, S);
f.24: Dragon Arum and tortoiseshell butterfly (VA, OS);
f.25: Bugloss (VA);
f.26: Cranesbill ;
f.27: Sweet-scented Chamomile (VA);
f.28: Red Clover (VA);
f.29: Honesty;
f.30: Heartsease (VA, BM, S);
f.31: Clove Pinks (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.32: Clove Pinks (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.33: Pot Marigolds (VA, OS, BM);
f.34: French Marigold (VA, OS, BM);
f.35: Plume Pink (VA);
f.36: Clove Pinks (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.37: Rue (VA);
f.38: Millet and moth (VA);
f.39: Amaranthus;
f.40: Comfrey;
f.41: Larkspur (VA, OS);
f.42: Dame's Violet, Hesperis Matronalis;
f.43: Gilliflower, Matthiola incana (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.44: Wild Columbine;
f.45: Columbine (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.46: Columbine with butterfly (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.47: Orange Lily and dragonfly (S);
f.48: Gilliflower, Matthiola incana (VA, BM, S);
f.49: Hollyhock (BM);
f.50 Solomon Seal;
f.51: Bittersweet (Woody Nightshade);
f.52: Wild Sage and butterfly;
f.53: Fern (OS);
f.54: Wild Clary;
f.55: Lavender (VA);
f.56: Spanish Broom and butterfly;
f.57: Gooseberry and butterfly;
f.58: Peach (VA, OS, BM);
f.59: Pomegranate (BM);
f.60: Bullace (VA, OS, BM);
f.61: Redcurrant;
f.62: Cob-nut (VA, BM);
f.63: Wild Cherry (VA, OS, BM);
f.64: Wild Strawberry (OS, BM);
f.65: Almond (VA, BM);
f.66: Nectarine (VA, OS);
f.67: Walnut (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.68: Wild Cherry (VA, OS, BM);
f.69: Medlar (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.70: Pear (VA, OS, BM);
f.71: Cucumber (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.72: Melon (VA, OS, S);
f.73: Grape-vine (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.74: Globe artichoke (VA, BM);
f.75: Apple (VA, OS, BM, S);
f.76. Common Fig (VA, BM);
f.77: Mulberry (VA, OS);
f.78: Seville Orange (VA, OS, BM);
f.79: Lemon (VA, OS, BM);
f.80: Quince (VA, OS, BM) –(060301)


Born on a 31 May:


^ 1964 Rodolfo Papa, Italian painter, sculptor, and historian of Christian art. He is an art history professor at the Pontifical Academy of Arts and Literature at the Pantheon in Rome, appointed by Pope John Paul II in 2000. In late April 2007 he said: “Modern architecture and art are afflicted by the loss of a sense of tradition and, with that, the abuse of tradition. To recuperate the soul of art and architecture, we must think of man in different terms than those used in political and economic ideologies of the 20th century and in the culture of mass consumption." Culture, including art, must be human. That is, it must contribute to the cultivation of man. If a culture really wishes to be a great one, it must establish deep roots that are able to find nourishment from every level of the earth. Therefore, in order to think about the future we must study our past to understand it and rediscover its lost instruments. This is what I have been trying to do for many years as an art historian and an artist. That which the technological and consumerist man has lost, during the last century, is wonder. Art must return to being a place of contemplation of the beautiful. Beauty is a pleasant knowing relative to sight, which is the most cognitive of the senses. I would also add, with Leonardo, that it must 'conform' to nature, that is to say, it must not be unnatural. And, as John Paul II said, it 'will save the world', and that, therefore, it is a manifestation of God's revelation to man. In the end, as Benedict XVI said, beauty is 'faith made visible.'”
Self-Portrait (599x500pix, 54kb)
San Bartolomeo Apostolo (round 1530x1530pix, 126kb)
Deposizione (1693x2112pix, 120kb) blurry overenlarged image.
–- The Anunciation (526x875pix, 42kb)
113 images at his site —(070505)

1955 José María Gallego López, dibujante y caricaturista español. Con Julio Rey Melijosa, es coautor de los trabajos firmados por Gallego & Rey. —(090530)

1862 Mikhail Vasilyevich Nesterov, Russian painter who died (full coverage) on 18 October 1942. —(060522)

1860 Archibald Thorburn, US painter who died (full coverage) on 09 October 1935. —(051008)

^ 1853 Eugène-Alexis Girardet, French painter, specialized in orientalism, who died on 05 May 1907. — Relative? of Jules Girardet [1856-1946]? of Edouard-Henri Girardet [31 Jul 1819 – 05 Mar 1880]? — Il est né de parents suisses. Il devient l'élève de Gérôme. Il voyage très souvent dans les pays du Maghreb à partir de 1874. Some of the places where he stayed are Boughari, El-Kantara, and Bou-Saâda, in Algeria. Il expose des œuvres orientalistes à l'Exposition Universelle de 1900. Ses œuvres mettent l'accent sur la lumière qu'il réussit à capturer avec bonheur. C'est un peintre exact, aux chauds coloris. LINKS
Souvenir de l'été (1894, 26x41cm)
Camel Train by an Oasis at Dawn (1879, 31x45cm)
Caravan in the Desert (1853x1907cm)
Caravanes de sel dans le désert (50x100cm)
In the Courtyard (60x45cm)
Leaving the Market (68x109cm)
The Almeh (66x92cm)
Passage au village blanc d'El Kantara (24x16cm; 525x700pix, 78kb)
Washerwomen by the Nile (379x569pix, 29kb)
Tailleur arabe sur le pas de sa porte (422x648pix, 40kb)
La prière (615x450pix, 60kb)
Caravane de sel dans le désert (369x750pix, 47kb)
Algeriens prenant leur café sous la tente (449x650pix, 53kb)
Voyageurs au repos (411x600pix, 37kb)
Caravane passant au gué, Algérie (418x650pix, 60kb)
Porte ouverte sur Bou-Saäda
Campement bédouin

^ >1827 Nicolaas Riegen, Amsterdam Dutch marine painter who died on 27 November 1889. Riegen woonde en werkte in Amsterdam, hij was autodidakt. Hij schilderde zeegezichten en enkele riviergezichten. In 1872 werd hij lid van "Arte et Amicitiae" te Amsterdam.
–- Sailing Vessels in an Estuary, Amsterdam in the Distance (44x67cm; 756x1201pix, 96kb).
–- Shipping in an Estuary (37x54cm; 872x1311pix, 183kb).
–- Shipping Off the Dutch Coast (33x41cm; 1039x1320pix, 183kb).
–- Fishing Boats Off a Jetty (51x81cm; 1295x2112pix, 235kb)
–- Sailing Vessels Off the Coast (20x30cm; 802x1200pix, 116kb).
–- (French Sailing Vessel Calais in Difficulty Near Coast) (52x79 cm; 1306x2040pix, 264kb).
Shipping in a River Estuary on a Windy Day (44x68cm)
A Barque in Distress Off a Rocky Coast (1851, 59x89cm) —(070531)

1821 Henriëtte Ronner-Knip, Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 02 March 1909. —(060522)

^ 1809 Frederik Hansen Sødring, Danish landscape painter who died on 18 April 1862. — Portrait of Frederik Sødring (26 May 1832, 42x38cm; 1005x877pix, 134kb) by Christen Købke [26 May 1810 – 07 Feb 1848]
View of the Marble Square with the Ruins of the Uncompleted Frederik's Church (1835, 78x98cm; 592x765pix, 44kb)
Sommerspiret på Møns Klint. Måneskin (1831, 30x42cm; 533x768pix, 400kb _ ZOOM to 1066x1536pix, 110kb)

1760 George Garrard, British painter who died (full coverage) on 08 October 1826. —(061007)

^ 1535 Andrea Appiani [–08 Nov 1817], Italian neoclassical painter.
Napoléon (1798, 100x75cm; 1983x1611pix, 416kb)
Napoléon (1805, 100x75cm; 2722x2024pix, 742kb)
Eugène Beauharnais (1800; 636kb)
14 images at Wikimedia —(080530)

1684 Georg Engelhardt Schröder, German artist who died on 17 May 1750.


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updated Wednesday 16-Dec-2009 0:21 UT
Principal updates:
v.9.40 Sunday 31-May-2009 3:00 UT
v.8.40 Saturday 31-May-2008 1:16 UT
v.7.40 Thursday 31-May-2007 17:23 UT
v.6.40 Wednesday 31-May-2006 15:57 UT
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Monday 31-May-2004 2:57 UT