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DEATH: 1596 TIBALDI
BIRTHS: 1871 ROUAULT — 1883 BOTKE
BIRTH OF DANTE who would inspire much art
^ >Born on 27 May 1871: Georges~Henri Rouault, French Fauvist and Expressionist painter, printmaker, ceramicist, and stained glass artist, who died on 13 February 1958.
— Rouault drew inspiration from French medieval artists and united religious and secular traditions divorced since the Renaissance. Although he first came to prominence with works displayed in 1905 at the Salon d’Automne in Paris, in the company of paintings by Henri Matisse and other initiators of Fauvism, he established a highly personal and emotive style. His technique and palette were also highly personal, and they ranged from watercolor blues to a rich, thick application of materials. These demonstrate, in their very complexity, not only originality but also the craft of the artist always in search of a greater form of expression. Even though he never stopped observing mankind, his deep religious feeling allowed him to imbue his work with great spirituality. 
— Rouault was born in a cellar in Paris during a bombardment of the city by the forces which were about to rout the Commune (18 Mar 1871 – 28 May 1871) at the end of la semaine sanglante. His father was a cabinetmaker. A grandfather took an interest in art and owned a collection of lithographs by Honoré Daumier [26 Feb 1808 – 11 Feb 1879]; Rouault said later that he “went first to school with Daumier.” In 1885 he enrolled in an evening course at the Paris École des Arts Décoratifs. From 1885 to 1890 he was apprenticed in a glazier's workshop; his mature style as a painter was undoubtedly influenced by his work on the restoration of medieval stained-glass windows, including those of Chartres cathedral. In 1891 he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, where he soon became one of the favorite students of the Symbolist painter Gustave Moreau [06 Apr 1826 – 18 Apr 1898], in a class that also included Henri Matisse [31 Dec 1869 – 03 Nov 1954] and Albert Marquet [26 Mar 1875 – 14 Jun 1947]. After the death of Moreau, a small Paris museum was created for his pictures, and Rouault became the curator.
      Rouault's early style was academic. But about 1898 he went through a psychological crisis,and, subsequently, partly under the influence of Vincent van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 – 29 Jul 1890], Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903], and Paul Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906], he evolved in a direction that made him, by the 1905 Paris Salon d'Automne, a fellow traveler of the Fauves, who favored the arbitrary use of strong color. Until the beginning of World War I, his most effective medium was watercolor or oil on paper, with dominant blues, dramatic lighting, emphatic forms, and an expressive scribble.
      Rouault's artistic evolution was accompanied by a religious one, for he had become, about 1895, an ardent Roman Catholic. He became a friend of the Catholic intellectuals Joris-Karl Huysmans [05 Feb 1848 – 12 May 1907] and Léon Bloy [11 Jul 46 – 02 Nov 1917]. Through another friend, a deputy public prosecutor, he began to frequent, as had Daumier, the Paris law courts, where he had a close view of humanity apparently fallen from the grace of God. His favorite subjects became prostitutes, tragic clowns, and pitiless judges.
      Without completely abandoning watercolor, after 1914 Rouault turned more and more toward the oil medium. His paint layers became thick, rich, and sensuous, his forms simplified and monumental, and his colors and heavy black lines reminiscent of stained-glass windows. His subject matter became more specifically religious, with a greater emphasis on the possibility of redemption than he had put into his pre-1914 work. In the 1930s he produced a particularly splendid series of paintings on the Passion of Christ; typical examples are Christ Mocked by Soldiers, The Holy Face, and Christ and the High Priest. During these years he got into the habit of reworking his earlier pictures; The Old King, for instance, is dated 1916–1936.
      Between World Wars I and II, at the instigation of the Paris art dealer Ambroise Vollard [1865 – 21 Jul 1939], Rouault devoted much time to engravings, illustrating Les Réincarnations du Père Ubu by Vollard, Le Cirque de l'étoile filante by Rouault himself, Les Fleurs du mal by Charles Baudelaire, and Miserere (his masterpiece in the genre), with captions by Rouault. Some of this work was left unfinished for a time and published later. In 1929 he designed the sets and costumes for a production by Sergey Diaghilev of Sergey Prokofiev's ballet The Prodigal Son. In 1937 he also did the cartoons for a series of tapestries.
      During and after World War II, Rouault painted an impressive collection of clowns, most of them almost self-portraits. He also painted some still lifes with flowers; these are exceptional, for three-quarters of his lifetime output is devoted to the human figure. In 1947 he sued the heirs of Vollard to recover a large number of works left in their possession after the death of the art dealer. Winning the suit, he established the right of an artist to things never offered for sale, and afterward he publicly burned 315 canvases that he felt were not representative of his best work. During the last 10 years of his life, he renewed his palette, adding greens andyellows, and painted some almost mystical landscapes: a good example is Christian Nocturne.
      Among the major artists of the 20th-century school of Paris, Rouault was an isolated figure in at least two respects: he practiced Expressionism, a style that has never found much favor in France {and rightly so}, and he was chiefly a religious painter, one of the most convincing in recent centuries. Both statements, however, need qualification. Rouault, fortunately, was not as rabidly Expressionistic as some of his Scandinavian and German contemporaries; in some ways his work is a late flowering of 19th-century Realism and Romanticism. And he was not an official church artist; his concern with sin and redemption was deeply personal.

LINKS
The Crucifixion (1922, 100x75cm; 800x586pix, 352kb _ ZOOM to 2364x1732pix, 3007kb)
–- “Seigneur, c'est vous, je vous reconnais” (1939, 65x51cm; 1200x943pix, 165kb)
Ballet Dancer (1906, 72x56cm; 800x610pix, 394kb _ ZOOM to 2317x1767pix, 2880kb) _ Well-known for his depictions of religious subjects, Rouault briefly turned to painting circus girls and dancers from the cabarets of Paris around 1906. They often came to his Montmartre studio to model and rest after moonlighting as prostitutes. Rouault saw these girls as tragic figures, modern victims of the absurdity of the human condition. Here, the ballet dancer becomes a pathetic figure, her gangly arms and legs protruding from an unwieldy body. Rouault heightens the power of the image by making references to stained glass through the watercolor's saturated blues and reds and its monumental format. By relating the ballet dancer to all of humanity, Rouault comments on the ultimate impoverishment of the human soul, a profound and familiar religious theme.
Gérant de cirque avec une saltimbanque (1941)
–- Paysage Biblique (1943, 22x28cm; 1086x1398pix, 107kb) peint à Beaumont dans la Sarthe.
Vieux Roi (1937, 77x54cm; 1000x671pix, 236kb)
La Parade [de cirque] (1907, 65x96cm)
Christ and the Doctors (1937, 36x30cm)
Christ [crucified] (1936)
Head of Christ (1939)
—(070526)
^ Died on 27 May 1596: Pellegrino Tibaldi da Bologna, a leading Italian Mannerist artist successful both as a painter and as an architect. Pellegrino’s frescoes reveal the strong influence of Michelangelo, while as an architect he fulfilled the requirements of the Counter-Reformation. He was born in 1527. — Brother of Domenico Tibaldi [18 Apr 1541 – 1583]
— Pellegrino Tibaldi’s early paintings show the influence of Bagnacavallo and of other Bolognese followers of Raphael, but his actual teacher is unknown. The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (1545) is, in its classical, hierarchical simplicity, clearly inspired by Raphael’s manner as interpreted by his Bolognese imitators; although it also bears delicate marks of Parmigianino’s grace, the power of its expressive dignity and the architectural background hint at Tibaldi’s future development. Tibaldi’s Adoration by the Shepherds (1546) shows an attempt at more elaborate composition, but its overtly Mannerist elements—perhaps derived from Vasari, as well as from Parmigianino—were not sufficiently digested to be fully integrated into the design.
— A builder's son, Pellegrino Tibaldi began his career under an unknown teacher in Bologna before he was thirteen. His early style combined the classicism of Innocenzo da Imola and Raphael's followers with an elegant Mannerist draftsmanship influenced by Parmigianino. Tibaldi's years in Rome were critical to defining his mature style. Arriving around 1645, he worked with on frescoes in Castel Sant'Angelo. His combination of muscular Michelangelesque Mannerism with his own graceful Mannerist style earned him the opportunity to complete the commission after his mentor's death in 1547.
     Summoned to Bologna around 1555 by Cardinal Giovanni Poggi, Tibaldi painted witty frescoes in the Palazzo Poggi, now the university, depicting the story of Ulysses. Extravagant posturings and combinations of forms created striking patterns that made space appear expansive and elastic. Pupils from the Carracci Academy studied his frescoes, and his ceilings directly inspired Annibale Carracci's decorations in the Palazzo Farnese gallery in Rome. After twenty years as architect for Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, Tibaldi traveled to Spain at the invitation of King Philip II in 1586. There he supervised the decoration of the Escorial and spread Mannerism to Spain through his vast output. Rich and ennobled, Tibaldi returned to Milan in 1596 and died shortly thereafter.
— Orazio Samacchini was a student of Tibaldi.

LINKS
The Companions of Odysseus Rob the Cattle of Helios (1556; 599x791pix, 96kb _ ZOOM to 1922x2536pix, 414kb)
Odysseus and the Daughter of Cadmos (1556; 568x800pix, 100kb _ ZOOM to 1818x2560pix, 452kb)
The Holy Family (1555; 600x476pix, 48kb _ ZOOM to 2550x2024pix, 344kb) with the child Saint John the Baptist, another young child (angel?), and what looks like a young man, but is presumably Saint Elizabeth. The expressions and attitudes of Mary, Joseph, and the Child Jesus are strange, as if Saint John was predicting the crucifixion.
The Holy Family and Saint Elizabeth (44x31cm; 599x431pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 1745x1256pix, 267kb)
Adoration of the Christ Child (1548, 1155x770pix, 127kb) Pellegrino Tibaldi (Pellegrino da Bologna) was influenced by Perin del Vaga during a stay in Rome in 1547 (as seen in the decoration of the Castel Sant' Angelo). Later he orientated towards Michelangelo. In his Adoration of the Christ Child, Pellegrino Tibaldi surrounds the infant Jesus by a whirling crowd of worshipping figures reminiscent of the angels and the damned in the Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel.
Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (1592, 419x315cm; 1111x800pix, 130kb) _ Upon his arrival at the Escorial, Tibaldi was assigned to decorate various part of the Basilica. After frescoing the ceiling and the walls of the sagraria, a narrow place behind the high altar, he completed the frescoes in the cloister, then continued in the library, and finally completed the main altar., which contained five pictures executed by Federico Zuccaro and three new works by Tibaldi, the Adoration of the Shepherds, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Martyrdom of St Lawrence. In the Martyrdom of St Lawrence the saint is grilled to a turn by the executioner's forked spear, resulting in a rather bizarre culinary interpretation of the text.
Madonna con Bambino (64x51cm; 600x476pix, 101kb) _ The strangely intersecting arms create a powerful composition of protection and restraint. The color has the translucent quality of a fresco.

Dancing Genies (1556 cupola ceiling fresco; 69kb _ ZOOM to 493kb)
—(060526)
^ Born on 27 May 1883: Jessie Hazel Arms Botke, US decorative painter who died on 02 October 1971.
— Born to English parents in Chicago, Jessie Arms Botke spent much of her free time as a child sketching and painting. At the age of fourteen she took art classes at the School of Art Institute of Chicago. When she graduated from high school, she enrolled as a full-time student at the Institute. During her summer vacations she participated in intensive painting workshops in Michigan and Maine, which led to her first exhibition at the Art Institute’s American Annual in 1904. After school, Botke worked in wall decoration and book illustration and refined her skills as a decorative artist. Inspired by an exhibition of friezes, decorations and tapestries from Herter Looms of New York, Botke moved there in 1911 and immersed herself in the city’s artistic climate. Several years later, she was employed at Herter Looms where she worked on tapestry design, painted panels and friezes, and began to specialize in painting birds.
     In 1914, Jessie Hazel Arms met design artist Cornelius Botke in Chicago and they married a year later. Together, the Botkes worked as artists in Chicago, Illinois and San Francisco and Carmel, California, and they traveled often to New York City and Europe. They both worked on major art commissions and held their largest joint exhibition in 1942 at the Ebell Club, a conservative women’s club for the advancement of women and culture. When Jessie’s eyesight began to fail in 1961, she continued painting small watercolors until surgery and contact lenses restored her vision and she resumed painting full-time. A stroke in 1967 destroyed her ability to paint and she died four years later at the age of 88.
     The indomitable Jessie Botke was one of the most celebrated decorative painters of the twentieth century. From her early plein-air landscapes to her decorative friezes and imaginary scenes, she arrived at a richly intricate mature style in the 1930’s. Working in an era when many women artists were forced to abdicate their careers, Botke successfully integrated her painting with her personal and public life. That her work was accepted in the teens and twenties, and yet remained relevant in the sixties, is a testament to her staying power and the sheer beauty of her paintings.

LINKS
Black Peacocks with Japanese Persimmons (107x128cm) _ This is representative of Botke's detailed, intricate style and her signature gold leaf technique, whereby thin sheets of gold are applied to the canvas or panel. Botke specialized in depicting birds such as peacocks, flamingos, geese and pelicans, often against an imaginary landscape or a background of exotic flowers and plants. As in many of her peacock images, the elaborate tail feathers of the black peacock take up a large portion of the canvas. In 1849, Botke wrote about her fascination with birds, “My interest in birds was not sentimental, it was always what sort of pattern they made.”
White Peacocks and Copa de Oro (1939)
The Ranch (1925)
Cockatoos with Matilija Poppies (66x81cm)
White Cockatoos and Loquats (1930, 74x86cm)
Japanese Sacred Cranes
 

Died on a 27 May:


^ 1973 Jacques Lipchitz, Lithuanian~French Cubist sculptor born on 30 August 1891. — LINKS — (060526)

^ 1837 William Anderson, British artist born in 1757. Born in Scotland, Anderson was trained as a shipwright. His knowledge of the construction of boats and ships was to stand him in good stead throughout his career as an artist, a career change resulting from his ability with a pencil, drawing construction plans for the ships he built. In about 1780 he went to London where his work, which was firmly based on the Dutch 17th century Masters, was soon noticed. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in the year of his arrival in London and soon began to make a name for himself for his highly detailed and supremely accurate drawings of ships and vessels of all types. He was not exclusively a painter of marine subjects; several of his exhibited pictures bore titles such as A View of Berwick-on-Tweed; A View of Tynemouth, and The Battle of Waterloo. Commissions which took him back to the North of England also introduced him to the Hull school of painters, notably the young John Ward, who was immediately influenced by William Anderson’s style. His son William Guido Anderson, also showed a keen interest in the sea. He served in the Royal Navy and was mortally wounded at the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801, as a midshipman on the Bellona.
     Although William Anderson painted landscapes and rustic scenes, he is best known for his marine views. His paintings, watercolors and drawings often show vessels lying at anchor and boats with small figures of fishermen attending their daily jobs. Such calm and light-filled coastal and river scenes were very popular with buyers in his lifetime and are still selling well. They are much influenced by 17th-century Dutch painting. Even his pictures showing shipping on the Thames, with London’s prominent buildings in the background, emulate the composition and luminosity of Aelbert Cuyp’s works, which Anderson could have studied in British collections alongside other Dutch artists. He occasionally painted on wood panels, the support favored by some Dutch masters because it allowed smooth paint effects. He also recorded naval engagements, including significant events in the Franco-British struggle in the Caribbean such as the Capture of Fort Louis, Martinique, 20 March 1794.. His sons George and William were also artists.
Cavalry embarking at Blackwall, 24 April 1793 (1793, 48x61cm) _ This is an interpretation of an embarkation of cavalry probably from Perry's dock, Blackwall. The troops are thought to be on their way to Ostend, where they were ordered for foreign service. The soldiers wear a uniform with red facings, and approximately 800 were embarked altogether, including the 11th and 15th Dragoons and Horse Guards. Their kit can be seen in the foreground. The transports were brought into the basin for the convenience of putting the horses on board and the painting shows the horses lined up, ready to be loaded. One horse is shown being hoisted onto the ship in a canvas sling. A temporary viewing gallery or platform can be seen on the left, and this was erected for the crowd close to the place of embarkation. The Times for 25 April 1793, observed that this viewing platform was crowded by persons of 'rank and fashion', and the Prince of Wales, the Duke of York and Prince William of Gloucester were also present, to give a 'parting cheer'.
Dutch Shipping with a Flagship and a States yacht (1670 _ A flagship on the left flies the Dutch ensign and a Dutch naval pendant. A states yacht, in port-quarter view and flying the Dutch ensign, is on the right, firing a salute to the flagship. The ships are shown sailing in a breeze, with a choppy sea. It is possible that the painting is of the Delfland, the flagship of Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, off the coast of Texel. This painting is after one by Ludolf Backhuysen.
Limehouse Reach, London (1820, 27x39cm) _ Coastal craft can be seen on the river. The two in the foreground are at anchor and are probably drying their sails. A frigate is to the right of the picture, with a boat in full sail beyond. Behind the frigates, a windmill can be seen on the shoreline and, to its right, Greenwich Hospital.
Shipping on the Thames off Deptford (1825, 32x43cm) _ A frigate is visible in the foreground, either drying its sails or preparing to come alongside in a light breeze. More ships can be seen alongside. To the right is Deptford, with a timber store in the foreground, together with a crane for hoisting the wood ashore. Two small boats are being rowed, and to the left is a coastal craft under sail. Behind it, to the right, is Greenwich Hospital.
The Capture of Fort Louis, Martinique, 20 March 1794 (1795, 91x127cm) _ On 05 February 1794, Sir John Jervis and Lieutenant General Sir Charles Grey, arrived at Martinique and by 20 March 1794 the whole island, with the exception of Fort Bourbon and Fort Royal, had submitted. Jervis ordered the Asia, 64 guns and the Zebra sloop to storm Fort Louis, the chief defense of Fort Royal. The Asia was unable to reach her position, and so Commander Faulknor of the Zebra volunteered to attempt to capture it alone. He ran his sloop close under the walls notwithstanding a very heavy fire, jumped overboard and followed by his ship's company, stormed and captured the fort. Meanwhile the boats captured Fort Royal and two days later Fort Bourbon capitulated. The painting shows the beach, with the fort beyond on the right, where a ship's barge has run ashore. Commander Faulknor is shown leading his men up the beach towards the fort, which is shrouded with gunsmoke. To the left of the fort and close under its walls is the Zebra in port-bow view, engaging to port. On the left of the picture another ship's boat is making for the shore, firing a swivel-gun from her bow. Beyond her are other boats heading for the beach and in the background is the Asia, starboard-bow view. The artist was heavily influenced by 17th century Dutch marine artists. He is best known for his works in their style although he also produced larger history paintings such as this one.
The Queen Charlotte at the Review at Spithead, 1790 (1790, 77x123cm) _ This review at Spithead, which the artist may have witnessed, demonstrated England's sea power just before the French Revolutionary Wars. In this interpretation, ships ride at anchor in Spithead, opposite Portsmouth, the most important naval base in the country. To the left of center, the dominant ship is Admiral Lord Howe's flagship, Queen Charlotte, a new 104-gun first-rate. Its figurehead is clearly shown, and it fires a salute in honor of the Admiral who is being rowed over in his barge in the foreground. Queen Charlotte flies a Union flag at the main, since Lord Howe, as senior Admiral of the Red was Admiral of the Fleet. To the left, other ships are portrayed anchored in lines both to the right of the Queen Charlotte, and on the horizon, indicating the strength and power of the Navy. It is not clear what occasion was being recorded by the artist, but it may have been connected with Russian armament. Queen Charlotte was also Howe's flagship at the Battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794. Howe was nicknamed 'Black Dick' by his officers and men due to his dark complexion and taciturnity.
The Return of George IV to Greenwich from Scotland (76x107cm) _ George IV was the first British sovereign to visit Scotland since Charles I, and here the King is portrayed on his return being rowed to the watergates at Greenwich. He has disembarked from the Royal George yacht, which the artist has portrayed at anchor. A ceremonial barge can be seen in the foreground, with the bargemen dressed in suits of scarlet. Crowds are arranged lining the front of the hospital to witness the King's return.
Sailing Vesssels Near Calshot Castle (24x36cm; 696x1024pix, 87kb) “in the style of William Anderson”.
— On a single page, two different pictures of Dutch Vessels Moored at the Quay (1800 and 1802, 14x20cm each; together 216x640pix, 20 kb)

^ 1785 Jean-Baptiste-Louis Le Paon, French artist born in 1736, 1737, or 1738. Elève du peintre Casanova, Lepaon est premier peintre du prince de Condé, pour lequel il fait de nombreux dessins de batailles entre 1768 et 1785.
–- Cavalry Patrol at Rest at the Side of a Road (21x32cm; 1010x1535pix, 185kb)
This is to certify that the bearer by the name of James has done essential services to me while I had the honour to command in this state. His intelligences from the enemy’s camp were industriously collected and faithfully delivered. He perfectly acquitted himself with some important commissions I gave him and appears to me entitled to every reward his situation can admit of.
Done under my hand, Richmond, November 21st, 1784.
Lafayette
A Horse at Yorktown glaring at slave James Armistead and ignoring General Lafayette (1783) _ It is 19 October 1781. British general Cornwallis [31 Dec 1738 – 05 Oct 1805] is about to surrender at last. In the picture Lafayette [06 Sep 1757 – 20 May 1834] is the one at the left, the horse is the tall one in the middle, and James [1759 – 09 Aug 1830] is on the right. According to one interpretation, James is getting it straight from the horse's mouth that his hat looks ridiculous. Lafayette is pointing at the ground past the left edge of the picture; it is thought that he is designating the spot which he thinks is the best for a monument commemorating the victory. With the permission of his master William Armistead, James had volunteered for service with Lafayette during the siege of Richmond in 1781. Before long, he was performing important espionage service behind enemy lines, masquerading as an escaped slave while he obtained information about the plans and movements of the British. He continued his spying as a servant in Cornwallis’s camp during the Yorktown Campaign and relayed intelligence to Lafayette that helped bring about the American victory at Yorktown. When Lafayette returned to the US in 1784, he wrote a special testimonial about James’s service [>>>] and was instrumental in helping the slave win his freedom from the Virginia General Assembly in 1787. In tribute to Lafayette, James Armistead adopted the surname Lafayette, which he used for the rest of his life. When Lafayette again returned to the US in 1824, he visited Richmond and recognized his old associate in the crowd. According to a local newspaper account, Lafayette called him by name and took him into his embrace. _ Engraving (1378x1112pix, 553kb) made by Noel Le Mire from this painting.
–- Cheval à l'arrêt Piaffant (drawing, 26x33cm; 795x1025pix, 77kb) pink and gray. — Not to be confounded with
      _ Piaf Enfant (484x350pix, 13kb) as is made plain by the improbable confrontation
      _ Piaffant et Piaf Enfant (795x1225pix, 112kb) assembled by the pseudonymous Edith Le Dindon {unrelated to Editions Dingdong}. —(070526)

1734 (28 May?) Claude Audran III, French artist born on 25 August 1658, son of engraver Germain Audran [06 Dec 1631 – 04 May 1710 buried], and brother of engravers Benoît Audran I [22 Nov 1661 – 02 Oct 1721] and Jean Audran [28 Apr 1667 – 17 Jun 1756]; and grandson of engraver Claude Audran I [1597 – 18 Nov 1677]. — He got trained under his uncles painter Claude Audran II [27 Mar 1639 – 04 Jan 1684] and engraver Girard Augran [02 Aug 1640 – 25 Jul 1703]. He was strictly a decorative artist, specializing in painted paneling, harpsichord cases and so on; he was, however, able to renew the genre with his arabesques, grotesques and singeries. He worked at Versailles, Anet, Marly, Sceaux, Meudon and La Muette. He also made many tapestry cartoons for the Gobelins, including the Douze mois grotesques (1699) and the Portières des dieux. His decorations are now known mainly through his many drawings. His style influenced the decorators of the Régence. Watteau [1684-1721] was one of his students.
— Born in Lyon to a family of engravers, he moved north to work as a decorative painter for Louis XIV at his palaces of Versailles and Fontainebleau. Audran painted walls, coaches, and harpsichords as well as designing patterns for embroidery, church vestments, stained glass windows, and Savonnerie carpets. He was hired as a designer at the Gobelins manufactory in 1699 and appointed curator of the Palais de Luxembourg five years later. Audran's delicate arabesque and singerie decorations, in which fashionably dressed monkeys ape human behavior, influenced other artists, including his pupil Jean-Antoine Watteau. Audran's works were so popular in Sweden that the Swedish monarch twice tried to tempt him to work for the Swedish court. These efforts were unsuccessful, but four thousand of Audran's drawings ended up in Sweden and are still part of the Swedish royal collection. The Swedish architect Carl Cronstedt's purchase of them from Audran's estate showed that Audran's work remained popular after his death.
Jupiter (1772 tapestry)
Sancho's Feast on the Isle of Barataria (1772 tapestry, 371x511cm) _ In an episode from the highly popular romance by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra of The Story of Don Quixote, the tapestry designer copied the painter Charles-Antoine Coypel's image of Sancho, the companion of Don Quixote, in a palatial setting. A gilt chandelier fitted with burning candles hangs above, and a buffet set with ceremonial silver stands against the back wall. To the right, the bearded and bespectacled figure of the doctor points to the table with a long stick. On his orders, the pages bring various dishes and then whisk them away as he declares their contents detrimental to Sancho's health. Around the central scene, the tapestry also features an elaborate surrounding decoration known as the alentours . Amid the garlands of flowers and fruit, two hanging bronze medallions contain profiles of knights. Two monkeys also play in the long garlands on the right and left. The monkey on the right dangles a long lance in the direction of the three sheep below, who scatter. In the opposite corner amid a pile of books, a spotted spaniel points at the other monkey above. The tapestry's title is woven in yellow thread in the bottom center.

^ 1733 Carel (or Karel) van Falens, dies in Paris, Flemish artist born on 24 November 1683 in Antwerp. In 1697 he entered the workshop of Constantin Francken [bap. 05 Apr 1661 – 12 Jan 1717]. On 24 November 1724, Carel van Falens was admitted to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture of Paris and became peintre ordinaire du Roi de France, until his death.
Riders Stopping at Slottsmur (54x65cm; 1635x2086pix, 228kb)
Landscape with Soldiers and Wagons (15x24cm)
Jachtgezelschap
–-S*> A Landscape With Horsemen, People and Dogs Gathered Around a Fountain, a Village in the Distance {43x59cm; 720x999pix, 63kb) by a follower.
— On a single page, two pictures: S*#> A Lady Hawking With her Moorish Servant / A Horse Being Shod by a Blacksmith (21x25cm each; together 900x1504pix, 409kb) by a follower.

^ 1717 Nicolas Colombel, French painter born in 1644. After studying under Pierre de Sève [1623–1695] in Paris, he travelled before 1680 to Rome, where he was profoundly influenced by Raphael and, above all, by Poussin, whose drawings and paintings he copied. In 1682 he sent to Paris four paintings of subjects taken from the life of Christ, which are his first surviving works. They are Christ Expelling the Money-changers from the Temple — Christ Healing the Blind Man — Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery — and Mary Magdalen Brought before Christ. Elected to the Accademia di S Luca in Rome in 1686, he was back in Paris by 1693 at the latest. Colombel, supported by Pierre Mignard, was approved (agréé) and then received as a full member (reçu) by the Académie Royale in 1694. There he became an associate professor (1701) and then professor (1705). He exhibited at the Salons of 1699 and 1704. Three dated paintings of this period — Mars and Rhea Silvia (1694), Bacchus and Ariadne (1699), and Fabius Maximus (1704) — reveal the powerful influence of Mignard and a late return to the austere style of Poussin. Colombel’s depiction of mythological and religious subjects also included Saint Hyacinth Saving the Image of the Virgin (1695) — Saint Cecilia playing the Bass Viol (477x342pix, 30kb)

1675 Gaspard Dughet [1613–], French painter.
Landscape (1553x2024pix, 273kb) yellowed. —(080523)


Born on a 27 May:


^ 1983 Andrei Acris, Romanian-born US painter.
Girl in Green (2005, 122x91cm; 1711x1281pix, 402kb) _ Compare:
      _ Girl in Green (968x694pix, 97kb) by Illegible Anonymous.
      _ Girl in Green (1100x800pix, 330kb) by Tamara de Lempicka [1898 – 18 Mar 1980].
      _ .Girl in Green (1100x800pix, 330kb) by Abel Warshawsky [28 Dec 1883 – 1962]
      _ Twins in Greed, Face to Face (2006; 724x1024pix, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 617kb _ ZOOM+ to 2048x2896pix, 2376kb) a metamorphosis of the Acris picture by the pseudonymous Android Acrid, who is also responsible for the equally stunning
      _ Twins in Greed, Back to Back (2006; 724x1024pix, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 617kb _ ZOOM+ to 2048x2896pix, 2376kb).
Girl in Green With Orange Blanket (2004, 122x91cm; 1550x1229pix, 361kb)
— At his site: 21 images (and 18 more images, tiny ones, all identical to this little red x. which makes one feel like this: that x won't stay down!) —(061218)

^ 1913 Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze “Wols” [–01 Sep 1951], German painter and photographer predominantly active in France. Noted for his etchings and for his use of stains (taches) of color dabbed onto the canvas, as exemplified by his painting Composition (1950), Wols pioneered a new style of expressive abstraction. Though unrecognized in his lifetime, he is considered one of the most influential artists of the Tachisme movement. He was born in Berlin into a wealthy family; his father was a high-ranking civil servant and patron of the arts who maintained friendships with many prominent artists of the period, including Otto Dix. In 1919, the family moved to Dresden. In 1924, Schulze was given a still camera, an event that, along with the death of his father in 1929, became one of the defining moments of his life. After abandoning school, Schulze pursued several interests, including ethnography before moving to Paris on 1932 on the advice of Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. In París he met Ozenfant, Léger, and Arp. After visiting Germany in 1933, he decided not to return, instead traveling to Barcelona, Mallorca and Ibiza, where he worked odd jobs, including a stint as a taxi driver and a German tutor. In 1936, he received official permission to live in Paris with the help of Fernand Léger; as an army deserter, Schulze had to report to the Paris police on a monthly basis. Beginning in 1937, he actively worked on his photographs, which were shown in many of Paris's most prestigious galleries. He befriended luminaries of the period, including Max Ernst and Jacques Prevert. As a German national, Schulze (like Ernst) was interned at the start of World War II, but was released by 1940. He spent most of the war trying to emigrate to the United States, an unsuccessful and costly enterprise that may have driven him to alcoholism. In the years following the war, Schulze concentrated on painting and etching. His health declined severely towards the end of the 1940s; in 1951 he died of food poisoning.
Bleu Optimiste (1951, 21x15cm; 1040x740pix; 226kb) —(080527)

^ 1887 (23 May?) Jakob Steinhardt, German Israeli printmaker and painter who died in 1968. He attended the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1906 and in 1907 studied painting under Lovis Corinth and etching under the German painter Hermann Struck [1876–1944]. Steinhardt went to Paris in 1907 and there he studied first under Jean-Paul Laurens, then under Matisse and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. After returning briefly to Berlin in 1910 he visited Italy the following year. In Berlin again in 1912 he co-founded Die Pathetiker group together with Ludwig Meidner and the German painter Richard Janthur [1883–]; they had their first group show at the Sturm-Galerie that year. The group emphasized dramatic content over artistic form and the resulting works, such as Steinhardt’s painting The City (1913), reveal the characteristic Expressionist style. Die Pathetiker (1912), a portfolio of the group’s work, included etchings by Steinhardt. He left Nazi Germany in 1933 for Palestine. His artistic emphasis, apart from painting, lay in print work, preferably woodcut. As an Expressionist, he belongs to the Berlin circle of "Pathmatics". Thematically, his work covers landscapes, portraits, socio-critical and Jewish themes. In Israel, he worked at the Bezalel-Art School in Jerusalem, not only conveying German Expressionism, but creating harmonious, complementary images stemming from Israeli and Arabian cultures.
Arbeiteraufstand - Rote Fahne (1920, 48x68cm; 405x600pix, 37kb)
Die Stadt (1913; 757x507pix, 41kb)
Storm in a village near Jerusalem (1945, 50x71cm; 498x700pix, 69kb)
Village Near Naharia (1954, 39x52cm; 514x700pix, 65kb)
Der Rabbiner (color woodcut, 24x35cm)
Ben Zachai II (1962 woodcut, 34x24cm)
Chassidic Dance (color woodcut, 24x35cm)
A Street in the old part of Jerusalem (1934 woodcut, 40x32cm; 918x700pix, 51kb)
Jerusalem (1940, 21x30cm; 330x480pix, 60kb)
Still Life With Fruit / A Beggar (1924 double-sided, each 66x77cm; together 1217x700pix, 97kb)
Myopic Landscape (1925, 33x49cm; 409x600pix, 47kb)
Wide Vista Landscape (40x55cm; 432x600pix, 39kb)
— (The Wise One and the Fools) _ The woodcut reflects post World War One "expressionism." Strong feelings are expressed in nonrealistic distorted facial expressions. Born in Poland and living through the horrors of war and the breakdown of traditional society, Steinhardt transforms the Prussian soldier with his pointed helmet and sword, the hero of his new land — into the wicked type whose face is graced with a bizarre smile. The wise type is smaller than the soldier, yet holding his book and pointing heavenward, he tries to reason with the soldier. The simple type wears a dunce hat and a ridiculous facial expression. The wise man points aloft to God, while the wicked soldier points at the simple one, reflecting a derisive attitude.

^ 1881 Adolf Erbslöh, German artist who died on 02 May 1947. Wird Adolf Erbslöh in New York geboren, wo der Vater als Kaufmann tätig ist. Einige Jahre später kehrt die Familie nach Deutschland zurück. Nach einer halbjährigen kaufmännischen Ausbildung schreibt sich Erbslöh 1901 an der Karlsruher Akademie für ein Kunststudium ein und lernt dort Alexander Kanoldt kennen, mit dem ihn eine lebenslange Freundschaft verbinden wird. 1904 setzt er sein Studium an der Akademie in München bei Ludwig von Herterich fort. Die Begegnung mit Alexej von Jawlensky gibt den entscheidenden Anstoß zu seiner weiteren künstlerischen Entwicklung. 1909 ist er Schriftführer im Gründungskreis der Neuen Künstlervereinigung München, mit Kandinsky, Jawlensky, Kanoldt, Münter, Werefkin und anderen, aus der dann der Blaue Reiter hervorgeht. Merkmal der neuen Kunst ist eine streng stilisierende Darstellungweise, verbunden mit intensiven Farben und einer Betonung der rhythmisierten Fläche, die die Nähe zum Expressionismus kennzeichnet. 1914, nach einer Italienreise, wird Erbslöh zum Militärdienst einberufen und dient bis Kriegsende als Kriegsmaler an der Westfront. 1916 schließt er sich der 'Neuen Sezession München' an. Die zwanziger Jahre sind von vielen Reisen geprägt, auf denen zahlreiche Landschaftsbilder entstehen. Vor allem das Motiv der Berge wird immer wieder variiert. Ab 1927 hält sich der Maler vorwiegend am Bodensee und in Oberbayern auf, wo er schließlich 1934 ein Haus im Isartal erwirbt. Nach einer großen Retrospektive im Kunstverein Barmen im Jahr 1931 wird es still um Erbslöh. Ab 1933 sind Ausstellungen und öffentliche Arbeit unmöglich, der Künstler lebt zurückgezogen mit der Familie in Irschenhausen. Es entstehen zahlreiche Bildnisse von Familienmitgliedern und Freunden. Daneben schildert er in kleinen Formaten seine unmittelbare Umgebung: den Garten, das Haus, die Kirche, die Wiesen. Vieles bleibt unvollendet, kaum eine Arbeit wird noch signiert. Jenseits aller Moden zählt der Künstler zu den bedeutenden Vertretern der Klassischen Moderne, dessen Werk die furiose Kunstentwicklung in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts spiegelt, ohne dabei beliebig zu sein.
Desenberg V (1920, 77×102cm; 356x480pix, 39kb) almost monochrome green.

^ 1868 Charles E. Prendergast, US painter who died in 1948; brother of Maurice Brazil Prendergast [10 Oct 1858 – 01 Feb 1924]. — LINKS
–-S*> Exotic Garden With Four Persons (79x50cm; 782x501pix, 108kb)
–-S*> Fruit in a Silver Bowl (50x51cm; 793x799pix, 111kb)
–- Flower Vase (1936, 51x41cm; 1193x1090pix, 117kb)
Circus (1940)
–-S*> Bounding Deer (1915, 34x49cm; 566x800pix, 101kb) monochrome

^ 1858 Juan Jiménez y Martín, Spanish artist who died in 1901. — Related? to Luis Jiménez Aranda [1845-1928]?
Harem Life (332x500pix, 64kb)
Landskap
^ 1616 Anthonie Goubau (or Antoine, Antoni, Anton; Goubeau, Goebauw, Goubaie), Antwerp Flemish painter who died on 21 March 1698. In 1629 he was apprenticed to Jan Farius and seven years later became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint-Luke. He lived in Rome from 1644 until 1650. He is known primarily as a painter of market scenes situated in Roman or Mediterranean settings and often decorated with many tiny figures. His journey to Italy and his introduction to the work of such masters as Paul Bril, Jan Miel, Michiel Sweerts and Johannes Lingelbach were of decisive importance for his development. On his return to Antwerp, he painted Italianate landscapes in the style of Bartholomeus Breenbergh and Jan Both. Rather than rendering exact topographical views, he wanted to evoke a Roman atmosphere. His earliest dated work, the Market Scene near the Triumphal Arch of Titus (1658), illustrates this clearly. Actual architectural features, such as the Arch of Titus and the ruins of the Temple of Saturn in the Forum Romanum, are combined with imaginary structures or buildings from elsewhere. The artist wanted to give a kind of synthesis of what could be seen in Rome. Other works, however, such as the View of the Piazza Navona (1680), reveal a more specific topographical interest. Apart from townscapes, he also made a number of religious compositions, mostly intended for churches in Antwerp. — [Image: Ett sydligt landskap med marknad >]
–-S*> Mercenaries Plundering a Village (73x114cm; 608x961pix, 121kb)
Landscape With People (1667, 77x129cm; 709x1000pix, 546kb)
Travelers Resting by a House, With Architectural Ruins Beyond (57x43cm)

^
Happened on a 27 May:

1265 Birth of Dante Alighieri (died on 14 Sep 1321), who would inspire much art, for example:
A page from a Divina Commedia codex
La barque de Dante
Dante drinking the waters of the Lethe
Beatrice Meeting Dante at a Marriage Feast, Denies Him Her Salutation
Dante's dream at the death of Beatrice
The First Anniversary of the Death of Beatrice: Dante Drawing the Angel
Beatrice addressing Dante from the whirl
Dante and Virgil entering Purgatory
Illustrations by Salvador Dali [11 May 1904 – 23 Jan 1989] for The Divine Comedy: http://narthex.com/gallerya.htm
Portraits of Dante: Allegoricalby Botticelliby Castagnoby Raphaelby Signorelli.
MORE ON DANTE AT HISTORY “4” “2”DAY
 

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updated Wednesday 27-May-2009 2:54 UT
Principal updates:
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