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DEATHS: 1831 PEALE — 1872 SCHNORR — 1881 PALMER
BIRTHS: 1834 BAUMGARTNER — 1728 PILLEMENT — 1895 JANCOBAPTISM: 1668 WOUWERMAN
+ ZOOM IN +^ Born on 24 May 1834: Peter Baumgartner, German painter who died in 1911. — Relative? of Austrian-Russian Adolf Constantin Stoiloff Baumgartner [1850-1924]? Klaus Baumgartner? Austrian A. Baumgartner? Swiss Alice Baumgartner? August Baumgartner [1896-1960]? Swiss Christian Baumgartner [1855-1942]? German Franz Baumgartner [1962~]? Austrian Franz Baumgartner [1876-1946]? Austrian Fritz Baumgartner [1929~]? German H. Baumgartner [1868-1927]? Swiss Hans Baumgartner? Hermann Baumgartner? German Jacob Baumgartner? German Johann Jakob Baumgartner? German Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner [16 Jun 1712 – <07 Sep 1761]? John Jay Baumgartner [1865-1946] of the US? Swiss Karl Baumgartner [1898-1981]? Marisa Baumgartner? Max Baumgartner? German Peter Baumgartner [1834-1911]? Swiss Raymond Baumgartner [1925~]? German Thomas Baumgartner [1892-1962]? Warren W. Baumgartner [1894-1963] of the US? William Baumgartner? Brauerei Josef Baumgartner? Probably not of all of them, perhaps of none.
— Born in Munich, Peter Baumgartner received his initial training at the Munich Polytechnic under Joseph Anton Rhomberg, but subsequently entered the Munich Academy where he studied under Hermann Anchutz. In 1857, Baumgartner entered the studio of Karl Theodore von Piloty, one of the most celebrated history painters of the Munich school. Piloty influenced Baumgartner's color palette and encouraged his inclination to the humorous genre. Munich, along with Dusseldorf and Berlin, was one of Germany's chief artistic centers at the time. Its genre and history painters established a widespread reputation among the country's haute bourgeoisie. Baumgartner, in conformity with this taste, represented scenes from literary sources, including German folklore and fairy tales. He also painted genre parodies of religious paintings, in which he was a forerunner of Franz Defregger, Eduard von Gruetzner, and Mathias Schmid. Nevertheless Baumgartner's connection to the Biedermeier tradition cannot be ignored.

LINKS
Der Erhorte Bittgang. Eine Prozession Vom Regen Uberrrascht (142x127cm; 1188x1000pix, 222kb)
–- A Friendly Visit (1117x947pix, 80kb) _ In a farm courtyard, an old Franciscan shows a holy picture to a timid 4-year-old girl, whose grandmother is looking on.
–- Die Martinsgans aka In the Kitchen (1127x1400pix, 92kb) _ A fat priest brings a goose, which he has just killed with an axe, to the cook who has just roasted another one to perfection.
On Their Best Behavior (1880 75x91cm; 480x589pix, 27kb)
Das Katerfrühstück (1891, 90x107cm; 327x400pix, 25kb)
Die Martinsgans (419x500pix, 34kb)
Der Ehevertrag (1866; 600x494pix, 38kb)
The Auction Sale (1863, 124x157cm; 448x580pix; 42kb) _ This is a complex narrative painting. A host of characters from various levels of mid-nineteenth German society are gathered in the attic studio of an artist, presumed to be recently deceased. The painting depicts a fleeting moment, but nonetheless speaks volumes about the players inhabiting the stage-like space and the society in which they live. While Baumgartner's early works were often drawn from folklore and fairy tales, his mature paintings are marked by ironic and sometimes humorous juxtapositions of the sacred and the profane, all the while based on accounts of everyday Bavarian life. The activity of this painting revolves around a large central image of the Immaculate Conception, before which a mother and daughter stand in awe. In sharp contrast and physically removed from this sacred reference, two men at the left foreground study a sketch of a female nude, and another, behind them, curiously lifts the drapery from an artist's mannequin. In the painting's right corner a clerk records the auction's sales, while nearby a peasant couple and their son try on a pair of used boots. Positioning such disparate activities in a common space, Baumgartner comments with humor and irony on the timeless struggle between earthly, artistic and spiritual concerns.
—(070523)
^ Died on 24 May 1831: James Peale, US painter specialized in Still Life, born in 1749. — {Is it true that the appeal of a Peale is only skin deep in the eye of the beholder?}
— James Peale was the father of Anna Claypoole Peale [06 Mar 1791 – 25 Dec 1878], Margaretta Angelica Peale [01 Oct 1795 – 17 Jan 1882], Sarah Miriam Peale [19 May 1800 – 04 Feb 1885]; and brother of Charles Willson Peale [15 Apr 1741 – 22 Feb 1827], who encouraged him to become a painter. James also worked as a frame-maker for his brother until the US War of Independence, in which he served as a lieutenant. From 1779 James shared Charles’s practice, specializing in miniatures. His early work, occasionally confused with Charles’s, shows his brother’s influence. After 1794, his style became clearly his own: more delicate with subtle color harmonies, softened outlines and free handling; it may be distinguished by a faint violet tone in the shadows and the inconspicuous signature ‘IP’. His miniatures of male subjects are frequently superior to his portraits of women, for example Benjamin Harwood (1799), but his meticulous attention to costume and his success in imparting color and sparkle to skin and eyes, as in the lovely portrait of Mrs John McCluney (1794), compensate for drawing deficiencies.

LINKS
The Artist and His Family (1795, 79x83cm)
A Porcelain Bowl with Fruit (1830, 42x57cm; 581x800pix, 79kb _ ZOOM to 1219x1679pix, 303kb)
Still Life, Apples, Grapes, Pear (1825, 46x67cm)
Still Life: Balsam Apple and Vegetables (112kb)
Rembrandt Peale (1795, 71kb) _ Rembrandt Peale [22 Feb 1778 – 03 Oct 1860] was the son of James Peale's brother Charles Willson Peale
–- George Washington (83x68cm picture on 91x68cm canvas; 921x692pix, 43kb _ ZOOM to 1694x1384pix, 128kb) _ There are two known versions of James Peale’s George Washington, of which this is probably the original. In it Washington is turned to the right, and there are in the background a tent and, in deep shadows, an attendant and a horse.
      Peale borrowed from two different sources to create this half-length portrait of the first President in military dress. The head and shoulders are after the portrait of Washington by his brother Charles Willson Peale which was painted for the Continental Congress in 1787. The inclusion of the horse and attendant is borrowed from Charles Willson’s Washington at the Battle of Princeton (1779) and according to Rembrandt Peale, the artist’s nephew, the attendant is a self-portrait by James.
      James Peale abandoned his trade as a saddler in the 1770s when his brother Charles Willson returned from London. Charles Willson shared with James the knowledge he had learned from his studies abroad with the painter Benjamin West and the two began painting side by side. James painted many portraits and landscapes but later turned his attention to miniatures for which he exhibited a particular skill. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, James, like his brother, served as an officer in the Continental Army under Washington. He joined the Maryland Battalion as an Ensign and was later promoted to First Lieutenant and then Captain. James fought in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Monmouth and Valley Forge. After the war, James returned full-time to his artistic career. Encouraged undoubtedly by both his brother’s success with his portraits of Washington as well as his own military experience, James painted several portraits of the first President. James accompanied his brother and nephew in 1795 for a sitting with Washington. Rembrandt wrote in his memoir, “During the sittings for this portrait I stood behind my father’s chair watching its progress and the movements of the sitter’s countenance, during his familiar conversation with my father. This left an indelible impression on my memory. This portrait, which was only head size, was copied by my uncle James Peale on a larger canvas, adding the figure in military costume, and an attendant with a horse in the background. The attendant is a portrait of himself”.
      When James Peale first copied the head and shoulders from this portrait into his half-length portraits of Washington is not definitely known, but the head and figure in all of the portraits of this type are practically the same; it is only in the background that the portraits differ. Probably James Peale recognized that there was a market for a smaller portrait than his brother’s full length, of which many replicas had been painted and sold. He, therefore, as Rembrandt Peale says, copied the head from the portrait of 1787 on a larger canvas, adding the figure in military costume, and attendant with a horse in the background. This description would indicate that the first portrait of this type was the one or was similar to the one hanging in the New York Public Library or was the portrait owned by L.V. Lockwood, Esq., of New York City, as these are the only two exhibiting a horse and attendant. Conservation of the work has revealed pentimenti on the jacket, where the placement of the buttons has been substantially altered. This version may likely be the first of the aforementioned portraits as the artist was still determining the correct placement of the buttons rather than directly copying from a previous composition.
George Washington (76x64cm; 1078x868pix, 123kb) second version. Washington is turned towards the left. There is a US flag in the background.
William Young (1817, 96x66cm; 1175x932pix, 136kb)
Madame Dubocq and her Four Children (1807) _ Madame Marie (Trochon) Dubocq was born in Nantes, France, the daughter of Count Trochon de Lorrière. Marie Trochon was taken as a child to Haiti. There she met and married French merchant, Guillaume Dubocq. The Dubocq family moved to Philadelphia during the Haitian Insurrection, but relocated to Shippingport, Kentucky, during the early 1830s. James Peale painted Madame Dubocq and her children while the family lived in Philadelphia. James Peale painted several large-scale portraits like this one, but specialized in miniatures. The Dubocq family brought the portrait with them when they moved to Kentucky. Like many affluent families who migrated to the state, the Dubocqs sought to retain some of their cultural traditions even in the wilderness of Kentucky.
The Ambush of Captain Allan McLane (1803) _ James Peale began his artistic career as a student of his famous elder brother, Charles Willson Peale. James's steady progress as a portraitist was interrupted by the Revolutionary War, in which he served as an officer in the Continental Army under George Washington. At the Battle of Long Island, James Peale's regiment was reduced from 1000 men to a little over 150. Peale painted The Ambush of Captain Allan McLane at the request of Charles, who had heard of McLane's colorful military exploits. Captain McLane himself told James the story of his encounter with a British ambush in 1778 near Philadelphia. McLane shot one dragoon (cavalryman armed with a musket) and clubbed another with his pistol, then escaped. The captain posed for Peale to re-create this dramatic moment, thus lending to the work additional historical interest. Attentive to naturalistic details, Peale simultaneously endowed McLane with a sense of strength and nobility that serve to commemorate the struggle for independence in heroic overtones.
32 images at The Athenaeum
—(060523)
^ Born on 24 May 1728: Jean~Baptiste Pillement, French Rococo painter and draftsman who died on 26 April 1808.
— He was an extremely varied and prolific artist who became fashionable early in his career. First trained by Daniel Sarrabat in Lyon, Pillement received a good grounding in the Rococo style of genre painting exemplified in the work of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. After a brief spell at the Gobelins, in 1745 he left for Madrid. He stayed there for three years, and his work was much appreciated both in Spain and in Portugal, which he visited often. He supervised sets of Rococo singeries and chinoiseries painted for Quinta de Alegria, the house at Seteais, near Sintra, of the Dutch consul in Lisbon, Jan Gildemeester, and soon after he was offered the title of Painter to the King. He declined this honor and instead went to London. There he stayed for the next 10 years, during which time he fully exploited the English taste for landscapes.
      In addition to his brightly colored, artificial landscapes, inspired by Nicolaes Berchem and Claude-Joseph Vernet, Pillement painted fancy pieces, which were theatrical in composition and inspired by prints rather than nature. In 1761, having sold off his remaining work at the annual exhibition in London of the Society of Artists, Pillement went to Vienna. In 1763–1764 he decorated rooms at the Hofburg and he also worked for Wenceslas, Prince of Liechtenstein. In 1766 Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski, King of Poland, requested that Pillement decorate interiors at the royal castle in Warsaw. The result was a room of exquisite chinoiseries as well as the Pillement Room at the Ujazdow Palace. Made Pictor Regius by the Polish king in 1767, Pillement had in the meantime discovered a new method of printing on silk with fast colors (recorded in his Memoirs, 1764).
— Francisco Vieira Portuense was a student of Pillement.

LINKS
Shepherds Resting near a Stream (1779, 77x101cm)
Rocky Landscape with Figures
Bamboo Flowers and Cactus (octagon, 21x21cm)
Pagoda Flowers and Roses (octagon, 21x21cm)
Trumpet Flowers and Daisies (octagon, 21x21cm)
 
^ Died on 24 May 1872: Julius Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German painter and draftsman born on 26 March 1794, brother of Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld [11 Oct 1788 – 13 Apr 53].
— Julius was taught engraving by his father and then trained under Heinrich Füger at the Akademie in Vienna (1811–1815). Though not particularly excited by the curriculum, he was inspired by his friendship with Ferdinand Olivier and Joseph Anton Koch and the circle around A. W. Schlegel to an interest in both landscape sketching and in old German and Netherlandish art, as reflected in the style of the detailed pen drawing of The Prodigal Son (1816). From 1815 to 1818 he lived in the house of Ferdinand Olivier, whose step-daughter, Marie Heller, he later married. A painting of 1817, Saint Roch Distributing Alms, is an excellent record of this period, as it contains portraits of Ferdinand Olivier and Marie Heller, and a landscape background similar to that sketched by Schnorr von Carolsfeld with Ferdinand and Friedrich Olivier (who was his assistant) near Salzburg.
— Melchior Paul von Deschwanden and Karl Theodor von Piloty were students of Schnorr.

LINKS
Die breite Föhre nächst der Brühl bei Mödling (1838; 600x1072pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2501pix)
Ruth in Boaz's Field (59x70cm) _ This picture was painted in Munich, based on drawings made a few years earlier in Italy. The artist had spent ten years in that country, and was a leading figure in a group of German and Austrian artists named the Nazarenes who sought to invest modern painting with the purity of form and spiritual values that they saw in Renaissance art. The subject is taken from the Old Testament Book of Ruth. Here the Moabite Ruth is gleaning (gathering up corn left after the harvest) to support her widowed mother-in-law. The landowner Boaz who talks to her has come to show his admiration for her support for her family. The two eventually married, and King David, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus were among their descendants.
Der Sechskampf auf der Insel Lipadusa (1816, 102x170cm)
Verkündigung (1820; 600x460pix)
Maria mit dem Kind (1820; 600x500pix)
Siegfrieds Abschied von Kriemhild (1843; 600x596pix)
Frau Clara Bianca von Quandt (1820; 600x404pix)
Bathseba im Bade (1825; 600x496pix)
 
^ >Born on 24 May 1895: Marcel Janco (or Iancu), Romanian Israeli painter, printmaker, architect, and writer, who died on 21 April 1984.
— He was a student of the painter Iosif Iser and from 1915 studied architecture in Zurich. With Tristan Tzara [16 Apr 1896 – 24 Dec 1963], Hans Arp [16 Sep 1886 – 07 Jun 1966], Richard Huelsenbeck [23 Apr 1892 – 20 Apr 1974], and Hugo Ball [22 Feb 1886 – 14 Sep 1927], Janco participated in the Dada performances of the Cabaret Voltaire. Janco made props and posters for the Dada group and illustrated with engravings the books of Tristan Tzara. Janco broke with Dada in 1922. In 1918 he became involved with the Neue Leben group in Basle. After returning to Romania in 1920 he took part in all the major avant-garde exhibitions, showed at the Maison d’Art in Bucharest (1922) and was a member of the group Contimporanul (1924), which published an eponymous review and organized the first international avant-garde exhibition in December 1924.
      Janco was prolific as an artist, drawing, painting, engraving, designing buildings (e.g. Wexler House, 1931, Bucharest, with his brother, Jules Janco) and also writing manifestos and articles. As well as abstract graphic compositions, in which he explored the possibilities of a universal formal language, Janco produced works of traditional genres. In his portraits in Indian ink he took up the formal aspects of Expressionism. His paintings also display such elements. Although some abstract reliefs of 1918–1920 show an inclination towards geometric abstraction, Janco never fully came to terms with it. In 1940 he emigrated, settling in Tel Aviv. The move marked a renewal in his art, away from abstraction to vigorous interpretations of the colorful local life. He also became involved in progressive art education. In 1948 he founded the New Horizons group, and in 1953 he set up the artists’ colony of Ein Hod in the ancient Arab village of Carmel. In 1967 he was awarded the Grand Prix National d’Israel.

–- Composition with an Owl, Galloping Horse and a Pipe (1944, 45x70cm)
–- Don Quixote and Sancho Panche (sic) (1945, 35x50cm)
–- Don Quixote and Sancho Pancha (sic) (1955, 20x32cm)
–- Don Quihote and Sansho Pansha (sic) (28x20cm)
–- Goat (1950, 35x50cm)
–- Man Smoking Pipe (1965, 35x50cm)
–- Man Sitting (1945, 17x21cm)
–- Nude (29x21cm)
–- Acre (1945, 24x33cm)
–- Jaffa (27x40cm)
–- Tiberiade (1949, 33x44cm)
–- Composition (26x37cm)
–- Landscape (24x36cm)
–- Marine Landscape (1955, 25x35cm)
–- On the Banks of the Yarkon River (1975, 16x20cm)
–- Fabulation Dada (38x56cm)
–- Euphorie Dada (40x31cm)
–- Untitled (1170x1400pix, 110kb) a bottle, a pipe, and a mostly white whatsit.
–- Port Scene (950x1393pix, 82kb)
–- Ein Hod (943x1400pix, 133kb)
–- Goat (1018x1395pix, 114kb) a white one
–- Goat (1024x1398pix, 156kb) a tan one
–- Kinneret (1000x1398pix, 123kb)
–- The Straits of Messina (1025x1398pix, 187kb)
–- Hommes de Paix (1055x1398pix, 193kb) sarcastic title: they all carry rifles.
–- Autumn Leaves (60x80cm; 915x1225pix, 95kb)
–- Geometric Composition (1095x1404pix, 99kb) monochrome brown _ This has been transformed by the pseudonymous Jean Colin Lecrâne into the colorful and intricate
      _ Geocentric Comparation aka Mid Dam (2006; screen filling, 244kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1474kb).
–- Composition (847x1225pix, 105kb)
–- The Tractor (1965, 53x72cm; 663x896pix, 61kb) _ Auctioned at Sotheby's, Tel Aviv, on 01 May 2005, estimated at about $30'000.
Les Tablettes (1918 lithograph, 16x20cm; 635x500pix, 118kb)
Two Guns to the Head (1940 drawing)
—(080524)
^ Died on 24 May 1881: Samuel Palmer, English Romantic landscape painter, draftsman, and etcher, born on 27 January 1805.
— Palmer studied under John Varley. Palmer was a key figure of English Romantic painting who represented, at least in his early work, its pastoral, intuitive and nostalgic aspects at their most intense. He is widely described as a visionary and linked with his friend and mentor William Blake, though he stood at an almost opposite extreme in his commitment to landscape and his innocent approach to its imagery. He had none of Blake’s irony or complexity and was inspired by a passionate love of nature that found its philosophical dimension in unquestioning Neo-Platonism.
— Palmer painted from an early age, but it was his meeting with William Blake in 1824 that intensified the spiritual “visionary” qualities of his work in which landscapes were treated as visions of paradise. Soon he was leader of a group of artists who called themselves the Ancients, based in Shoreham, Kent. Although his work’s mystical qualities are less apparent by the 1830s, he continued to paint and make etchings of more conventional pastoral subjects until the end of his life.
— Palmer showed a precocious talent, exhibiting landscape drawings at the Royal Academy when he was 14. In 1822 he met Linnell, who introduced him to William Blake in 1824. Palmer had had visionary experiences from childhood and the effect of Blake upon him was to intensify an inherent mystical bent. In 1826 he moved to Shoreham, near Sevenoaks, Kent, where he was the central figure of the group of artists known as the Ancients and produced what are now his most famous works, landscapes charged with a sense of pantheistic fecundity and other-worldly beauty.
      In about 1832 what he called his ‘primitive and infantine feeling’ for landscape began to fade, and after returning to London in 1835, marrying Linnell's daughter in 1837, and spending a two-year honeymoon in Italy, the break with his visionary manner was complete. His later paintings were in a much more conventional topographical or pastoral mode, highly-wrought and often sentimental in feeling. In his etchings, however, something of his early genius remained; at his death he was working on an edition of Virgil's Eclogues, translated and illustrated by himself. His early work was virtually forgotten until the 1920s, but it has subsequently influenced modern romantic landscape artists such as Paul Nash and Graham Sutherland.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1825, 29x23cm; 864x700pix, 82kb) _ This self-portrait, with hollow and haunted eyes, seems an attempt to understand the processes at work within the artist and projected on to the pages of his sketchbooks. It is a revolutionary image of the artist as seer, as mystic, as poet. Forget painting portraits of country gentlemen, or views of their estates. Forget art that wants to play a part in the ordinary affairs of market and court. This is a portrait of the artist with no responsibility, almost no awareness beyond his own intense engagement with what he sees and dreams.
      Palmer's eyes are wide and powerful, and yet strangely unfocused, almost drugged; he has the power to see, but he is not that interested in the surface appearance of things. His painting of his own appearance is oddly unaffirmative and weightless; he seems to be made of cloud rather than flesh, his white collar a cumulus of soft lines, his jacket formless, his face and hair shaggy. He's half-formed, a distracted presence, or absence. A sleepwalker. His dirty face and his tangled, messy, awkward hair is enough to scare away society, he's really not bothered what you think of him. He's thinking about something else.
      In his heart, even as he paints himself in the mirror, he's hearing a hymn, feeling the evening breeze on his face in the meadow, seeing the moon's magic glow turning the woodland glade blue, green, purple. How can he make you see what he knows is there, the rapture of it? He feels lonely to be burdened with this vision and have no means to share it, except through the clumsy medium of paint.
The Magic Apple Tree (1830, 35x27cm; full size) _ As far as we know, Palmer himself did not call his picture The Magic Apple Tree, but it is hardly surprising that this is how we know it now. There is clearly something otherworldly about this tree laden with glowing fruit in a golden landscape. Although the landscape glows as if in sunlight the sky itself is dark, suggesting an almost supernatural presence. Nature appears transformed and the mood is similar to one of Palmer’s letters where he wrote that ‘sometimes, when the spirits are in Heav’n, earth itself, in emulation, blooms again into Eden.’
Early Morning (1825, 19x23cm; 700x872pix, 165kb) _ The sense of a new beginning, of spiritual rebirth, is hinted at through the rabbit climbing a sunlit path, and by the figures who have come out to hear the sounds of creatures greeting the dawn.
Harvesting (1863, 19x42cm; 283x635pix, 82kb) _ A dog stands transfixed in the center foreground, its attention caught by the dramatic sunset behind the ruined abbey. The all enveloping blaze of light, seen through the church window, suggests God’s bountiful presence in this harmonious, idyllic landscape. The harvesters, at the end of a day’s labor, suggest Biblical figures – a water-carrier and a mother and child. Palmer uses complementary blue and orange colors to increase the contrast and heighten the sunset’s visionary nature.
The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1825, 150kb)
Coming from Evening Church (1830)
26 prints at FAMSF
 
^ Baptized as an infant on 24 May 1619: Philips Wouwermans, Dutch Baroque era painter buried on 23 May 1668, specialized in horses. He studied under Jan Wynants.
— The most celebrated member of a family of Dutch painters from Haarlem, where he worked virtually all his life. He became a member of the painters' guild in 1640 and is said by a contemporary source to have been a student of Frans Hals. The only thing he has in common with Hals, however, is his nimble brushwork, for he specialized in landscapes of hilly country with horses - cavalry skirmishes, camps, hunts, travelers halting outside an inn, and so on. In this genre he was immensely prolific and also immensely successful. He had many imitators, including his brother Peter (1623-1682), and his great popularity continued throughout the 18th century. Subsequently he has perhaps been underrated, for although his work generally follows a successful formula, he maintained a high quality; his draughtsmanship is elegant, his composition sure, his coloring delicate, and his touch lively.
— Wouwerman's students included Adriaen van de Velde.

LINKS
Landscape with Bathers (1660, 59x81cm; 315x440 587x820pix, 66kb _ ZOOM to 895x1250pix, 164kb _ ZOOM+ to 1790x2500pix, 799kb, and admire the badly crackled paint surface in the sky and the background mountains) _ Wouwerman specialized mainly in equestrian scenes and history paintings. This painting takes up a theme that was popular above all in Italian painting. The seventeenth century is familiar with this motif from mythological portrayals, e.g. Diana and Actaeon, with the young man surprising the goddess and her companions as they bathe. Artists like Pieter van Laer [1594–1642] and others also make it a subject in its own right. In contemporary cycles of the seasons, young bathers symbolize the spring. Bathing outdoors was probably something of a spring ritual that was not just for washing, but also expressed delight at rising temperatures. This certainly applies to the exclusively male bathers in Wouwerman’s painting: one happily removes his warm winter clothing, another washes himself while a third plays in the water with a dog. This merry company is in open countryside, and is being watched with amusement by passing travelers. Yet the theme of bathers is not used here merely to create skilful variations on ideal types. On the contrary, the figures are modeled very much from life in a way that allows us to apply Karel van Mander’s remark about Dutch painting’s “lamentable” nudes to this painting too. The landscape itself is neither Dutch nor Italian. The sight of the brick buildings at the water’s edge first brings Central Europe to mind. Wouwerman never went to Italy, but owes the warm light in his painting to the example of the so-called Italianizers, Dutch artists like Pieter van Laer who returned home with a preference for southern landscapes and themes such as life in the streets and squares of Rome.
The Gray (1646, 44x38cm) _ With a few figures in a simple composition Philips Wouwerman created a scene with a monumental presence on this small panel. The grey horse is the central focus, standing with the servant holding the reins, waiting for the rider to return after relieving himself at the roadside. By placing the servant in the shade and the horse's head in the light, Wouwerman focused all the attention on the mount. The gnarled tree trunk in the foreground is employed here as a repoussoir to give the painting depth. The sand path, which crosses the picture diagonally, also lends a spatial effect.
     It was a few years after Wouwerman that Paulus Potter [bap. 20 Nov 1625 – 17 Jan 1654 bur.] painted his Two Horses (1649, 24x30cm). Potter was a virtuoso painter of animals who portrayed numerous sorts of cattle in addition to horses. Potter gave the Dutch landscape in which he set the horses a golden, Mediterranean glow. The precise opposite of Wouwerman who bathed his Italian landscapes in a cool Dutch light. The Gray features a typical Dutch sky with gathering rain clouds. Neither of these artists had ever been to Italy.
Merry and Rowdy Peasants at an Inn (1653, 70x112cm; 600x960pix, 370kb _ ZOOM to 1596x2560pix, 2478kb) _ detail (875x3685pix, 262kb) the people, without much of the landscape _ Wouwermans, one of the most prolific artists of the seventeenth century, created approximately 1000 canvasses during his short life of forty-eight years. Out of this vast body of work, Wouwermans dated very few of his canvases. This one is distinctive in that it is one of the rare works dated by Wouwermans. More significant is that it is the only work known to be dated in the year of 1653, which places it early within the artist's mature period when his ability to synthesize the elements of panoramic landscape and human activities into a balanced, harmonious whole first become evident. Although the activities in Merry and Rowdy Peasants at an Inn strike a humorous note by modern-day standards, the painting's original intent was to provide moral instruction to the viewer through illustrating the negative consequences of excessive drink. Wouwermans's ability to infuse his peasants with a sense of individuality and naturalness of gesture leaves no room for misinterpretation of their drunken behaviors.
Two Horses (33x32cm) _ Wouwerman was a specialist in painting horses. Elisabetta Farnese, the wife of King Philip V had a collection of his paintings in La Granja, the royal palace near to Segovia. This painting belonged to her collection.
A Pause During the Falcon Hunt _ detail (546x800pix, 69kb _ ZOOM to 1748x2560pix, 378kb)
Cavalry Battle in front of a Burning Mill (1665, 55x67cm; 787x976pix, 130kb) _ The most successful Dutch painter of horses was prolific Philips Wouverman of Haarlem. He rarely painted large pictures: his speciality was small-scale landscapes and genre scenes which included horses - battles, skirmishes, encampments, scenes at a smithy or in front of an inn, and hunts.
Riding School (68x83cm) _ Wouwerman was a Dutch painter of landscapes with battle and hunting scenes and genre scenes of soldiers in camp reminiscent of Pieter van Laer. He frequently disposed dozens of small figures in his canvases and he had a special fondness for white horses. There are about 1200 recorded paintings by him, only very few dated. His brothers Jan and Pieter were also landscape painters, Pieter imitated Philips and used a confusingly similar PW monogram. The picture shown here depicts a scene of horse training with a mountainous landscape in the background. A company of horse trainers are seen in a woodland glade in the mountains breaking in horses. In this composition the figures of the riders, grooms and children, all clothed in bright color, are no more important than the horses. The trees, billowing cumulus clouds and rather misty landscape suggest a more southerly setting than the place where this picture was in fact painted. The prancing movements of the saddled horses make this an exceptionally animated composition.
Rocky Landscape with resting Travelers (45x61cm) _ The most successful Dutch painter of horses was prolific Philips Wouverman of Haarlem. He rarely painted large pictures: his speciality was small-scale landscapes and genre scenes which included horses - battles, skirmishes, encampments, scenes at a smithy or in front of an inn, and hunts.
Stag Hunt in a River (1655, 130x190cm) _ This painting represents a prerogative of aristocrats; even they were permitted to hunt deer only one day per year. The Italianate, rose colored landscape seems a leisure ground, a never-never land rather than a productive hunting field, even if the run-down cottage hints at the transience of such pleasures.
The White Horse (1645)
—(060522)

Died on a 24 May:


1998 Lucio Muñoz, Spanish painter born (main coverage) on 27 December 1929. —(091226)

^ 1949 Eduardo Chícharro Agüera, Spanish painter born on 16 June 1873, father of the poet and painter Eduardo Chícharro Briones [13 Jun 1905 – 16 Mar 1964], who married the Italian painter Nanda Papiri.
(¿La Silla Vacía?) (1912, 260x300cm; 652x760pix, 119kb)
La Hija del Artista (50x40cm)

1896 Joseph-Victor Ranvier, French artist born on 09 July 1832.

1889 Hermann Kauffmann I, German painter born on 07 November 1808. He was trained in 1824 in the studio of the history and portrait painter Gerdt Hardorff the elder [1769–1864] in Hamburg and also made his own studies after nature. He first exhibited his work in 1826. The following year he moved to Münich and joined a circle of landscape painters working en plein air with Christian Morgenstern. The paintings Upper Bavarian Landscape and Mountain Valley in Upper Bavaria (both 1829) are typical of Kauffmann’s early style: they are pure landscapes with lively colors, directly descriptive and infused with a poetic mood. In the 1830s and 1840s, under the influence of popular Münich genre painters such as Heinrich Bürkel [1802–1869], Kauffmann’s pictures became anecdotal, sometimes even dramatically so, but not sentimental. Most contain large groups of figures, for example Bear Dance in the Village (1836). Kauffmann was also a gifted portrait painter.

1862 Armand-François-Christophe Toussaint, French artist born on 07 April 1806.

1854 Johann Peter Gmelin, German artist born on 03 February 1810.

1825 Horace Hone, English painter and engraver born in 1754. He was a son of Nathaniel Hone I [24 Apr 1718 – 14 August 1784] and brother of John Camillus Hone [1759 — 23 May 1836]. Horace Hone entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1770, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1772 and being elected ARA in 1779. In 1782 he went to Dublin and established a practice as a miniature portrait painter. He specialized in richly colored head-and-shoulders miniatures, as in his portraits of Sarah Siddons (1784) and James Gandon (1799), working mostly in watercolor and occasionally in enamel; he also produced some engravings. Appointed Miniature Painter to the Prince of Wales (later George IV) in 1795, he returned to London in 1804, also working in Bath that year. He continued to exhibit at the Royal Academy until 1822.

^ 1764 Luis González Velázquez, Spanish painter and stage designer born on 25 August 1715, son of sculptor Pablo González Velázquez [1664–1727]. He was trained initially in Madrid, both in his father’s studio, where he worked with his relatives, and later with the Italian decorator Giacomo Bonavia. Subsequently he joined the classes of the preparatory committee of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, where he was an outstanding student. Family difficulties prevented a journey to Italy to obtain a further apprenticeship, and Luis remained in Madrid. His main activity was as a painter of frescoes in a late Baroque style, using brilliant colors, as in the frescoes he painted for the chapel of Santa Teresa in the church of San José, where he worked with his brother Alejandro González Velázquez [1719-1772] and where he also made a series of paintings of the Life of Saint Teresa (1737). In 1746, on the accession of Ferdinand VI, to whom he later became court painter, Luis was involved in the decoration of the streets of Madrid. That year he also painted the Vision of Saint Ildefonsus and several saints for the main altarpiece of the Jesuit church in Toledo. In 1752 he painted in fresco four scenes from the Life of Saint Mark on the dome of the church of San Marcos in Madrid and was appointed honorary academician at the recently founded Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, for which he painted the canvas Mercury and Argus (1752). In 1754 he became deputy director of painting at the Academia. For the church of the convent of La Visitación (now Santa Bárbara) in Madrid, he painted the Four Evangelists on the pendentives, and the Coronation of the Virgin, the Apparition to Saint Francis de Sales, Saint Francis de Sales Preaching, Saint Barbara and other religious motifs on the dome, all after religious sketches by Corrado Giaquinto.

^ 1752 (25 May?) Charles Parrocel, French painter and engraver born on 06 May 1688. — First cousin of the brothers Pierre Parrocel [16 Mar 1670 – 26 Aug 1739] and Ignace-Jacques Parrocel [1667-1722]. — Charles Parrocel studied at first under his father Joseph Parrocel [03 October 1646 – 01 Mar 1704] and, after the latter’s death, under his godfather Charles de La Fosse, under Bon Boullogne [bap. 22 Feb 1649 – 17 May 1717], and under Pierre-Jacques Cazes [1676 – 25 Jun 1754]. Charles Parrocel apparently enlisted in the cavalry in 1706, but by 1709 he was competing, without success, for the Prix de Rome. In 1712 he moved to Rome where he was a pensionnaire at the Académie de France from 1713 to 1716. He traveled in Italy, visited Malta and settled in Venice for four years.
     Parrocel returned to Paris in 1721 and at once executed two paintings for Louis XV depicting the visit to France of the Turkish ambassador Mehemet Effendi; these were later reproduced in the form of tapestries at the Gobelins manufactory. In the same year he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale, Paris. He executed a number of equestrian portraits, including that of Louis XV (1724), but with the faces of the sitters painted by other artists (Jean-Baptiste van Loo in the case of Louis XV).
     Like his father, however, he was principally a painter of battles and hunts. In 1736–1738 he painted for the Petits Appartements at the château of Versailles an Elephant Hunt and a Wild Bull Hunt. One of Parrocels most remarkable drawings, 3900 cm long (!), represents the procession celebrating the proclamation in 1739 of the second Peace of Vienna, which marked the end of the War of the Polish Succession.
     Parrocel took part in the 1737, 1738, 1745 and 1746 Salons, and he rose through the academic hierarchy to become a professor in 1745. During the War of the Austrian Succession he was present at several battles, including Fontenoy (11 May 1745) and Lawfeld (02 Jul 1747). Of his sketches for a series of ten battle pictures intended for the gallery in the château of Choisy, he was prevented by ill-health from painting more than two; the second was completed by Pierre L’Enfant. Among Charles Parrocel's engravings are 18 plates for François de La Guérinière’s École de cavalerie (1733) (such as this one), as well as some of various other military subjects.
—    Philibert-Benoît de La Rue was a student of Charles Parrocel.
Halte de grenadiers à cheval de la maison du roi. (1737, 219x249cm) _ Outre la remarquable nature morte du premier plan, et le détail des uniformes et de l'équipement, cette peinture témoigne de l'organisation d'un régiment en marche.
Study Sheet of Seven Soldiers (16x26cm)
Cavaliers —(060522)


Born on a 24 May:


^ 1933 Joaquín Vaquero Turcios, Spanish sculptor and painter, son of Joaquín Vaquero Palacios [1900-1998].
Verde con medias claves (1990, 80x80cm; 644x650pix, 359kb) _ This abstraction has been transformed by the pseudonymous José Aquino Torero Grecios into the meta-abstractions
      _ Rojo con calcetines encriptados aka Ella Calle (2006; screen filling, 182kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1527kb) and
      _ Verte con medias clavadas aka Elle Selle (2006; screen filling, 301kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 3054kb) —(060522)

1869 Albert André, French painter who died (main coverage) on 11 July 1954. —(090710)

1850 Sir Ernest Albert Waterloo, British artist who died on 25 October 1919. — {Did people hate being introduced to him, because then they met their Waterloo?}

1849 Baldomero Galafre y Giménez (or Jiménez), Spanish artist who died on 20 July 1902.

1619 Jacob-Willemszoon Delff II, Dutch artist who died on 12 June 1661. Presumably son of Delft engraver Willem Jacobszoon Delff [15 Sep 1580 – 11 Apr 1638] and therefore grandson of Delft portrait painter Jacob Willemszoon Delff I [1550-1601].


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