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DEATHS: 1782 ERIKSEN — 1648 LE NAIN 1918 MAUFRA BURIAL: 1668 WOUWERMAN 
BIRTHS: 1683 PESNE 1813 JACQUE   1598 MELLAN 
^ Died on 23 (or 24) May 1782: Vigilius Eriksen, (or Erichsen), Danish painter, active also in Russia, specialized in portraits (especially of Catherine the Great), born on 02 September 1722.
— He was apprenticed to the portrait painter Johann Salomon Wahl in Copenhagen. In 1755 he competed unsuccessfully for the gold medal at the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen with a historical painting, Lot and his Wife. In a letter he complained that the rules did not allow him to enter a portrait, a genre more suited to his talents. Presumably in 1756 he completed the portraits of the registrar of the royal art collections, Lorenz Spengler and his wife Gertrud Sabine (Trott) Spengler. These portraits already show the specific features of Eriksen’s style, characterized by precise rendering of the sitter, distinct modeling of form and a cool virtuosity in the unemphatic treatment of dresses and accessories. Erichsen's magnificent full-length portrait of the Dowager Queen Juliane Marie (1778, 284x194cm _ b&w image) was his principal Danish work. He subsequently worked in Russia.

Grand Prince Pavel Petrovich in his Study (1766; 91kb)
Catherine II the Great (471x363pix, 35kb)
Catherine II in Profile (1761, 54x42cm; 575x444pix, 98kb)
Catherine II in front of a Mirror (1763, 262x201cm)
Catherine II in a Guard uniform on horseback, on 28 June 1762 (1764, 195x178cm; 575x520pix, 125kb) _ Katharina II af Rusland, ridende i garderuniform pĺ hesten Brillante, den 28. juni 1762 (97x88cm; 525x469pix, 41kb) _ 2 almost versions differing only in the size of the originals and in minor details, mostly of the background.
Caspar von Saldern (25x18cm)
Duke Frederick (1777, 236x196cm; 575x389pix, 77kb)
Kunstdrejer og kunstkammerforvalter Lorenz Spengler (1758, 78x62cm; 601x484pix, 36kb)
Gertrud Sabine (Trott) Spengler (1758, 79x62cm; )
Peter Cramer (1778; 78x62cm; 320x244pix, 14kb)
Storfyrste Paul, senere Zar Paul I (1764, 61x49cm; 320x251pix, 15kb) _ Pavel Petrovich [01 Oct 1754 – 23 Mar 1801] was the son of Peter III [21 Feb 1728 – 18 Jul 1762] and Catherine II the Great [02 May 1729– 17 Nov 1796], who took power on 09 July 1762 from mentally feeble Peter III, who had reigned from 05 January 1762, (and had him assassinated) and marginalized Paul, who nevertheless succeeded her at her death and reversed many of her policies. His disastrous reign was ended when high officials, with the tacit approval of his son Alexander I [23 Dec 1777 – 01 Dec 1825], assassinated him, whereupon Alexander became tsar, as had been Catherine the Great's intention in the first place.
 
^ Born on 23 May 1683: Antoine Pesne, French painter active in Prussia, who died on 05 August 1757.
— Pesne studied under his father, the portrait painter Thomas Pesne [1653–1727], and his maternal great-uncle, Charles de La Fosse. In 1703, as a student at the Académie Royale, he would have won the Prix de Rome with his Moses and the Daughters of Jethro, had not Jules Hardouin Mansart, adviser to the Académie, deemed all entries that year unworthy. Nevertheless Pesne left for Italy, making the acquaintance of Jean Raoux in Venice and being allowed the use of a studio in Rome by Charles Poërson, Director of the Académie de France. While in Venice, Pesne painted the portrait of Friedrich Ernst von Knyphausen (destroyed in 1893), a lively work indebted to Veronese that is said to have decided King Frederick I of Prussia to invite Pesne to Berlin.
— Antoine Pesne was born in Paris into the family of the painter T. Pesne. Antoine received his first lessons in art from his father, later he studied in the Academy and from his gifted and resourceful uncle, Charles de la Fosse [1636-1716]. In 1710-1711 Antoine made an extensive tour of Italy. He came to Berlin in 1711 to teach art to Prince Frederick and his more artistically talented younger brother. Soon Pesne became a court painter of the Prussian king and remained a highly esteemed and highly paid figure at Berlin’s court for over 46 years. Pesne painted portraits, historical and religious subjects, executed monumental decorative works. In 1720, he became a member of the Paris Academy of Arts. In 1722-1724, Pesne went to England. He was also the director of the Berlin Academy. The artist died in Berlin.
— Pesne's students included Georg Wenceslaus Knobelsdorff, Philip von Mercier, Bernhard Rode, Anna Dorothea Therbusch.

LINKS
Self-portrait with Daughters (1754, 167x150cm) _ Pesne was a painter of portraits and historical subjects at the court of Prussia, contributing to the French influences at the court of Frederick II. He also painted portraits at many other francophile German courts.
Fortune Teller (1710, 222x218cm)
Baron von Erlach with His Family (1711, 288x317cm) _ detail _ Sigismund von Erlach [1661-1722], was a military specialist; since 1699 he was the ambassador of the Prussian Elector in Switzerland; later he was a Hofmarschall of the Prussian court. He wrote the book Grundlehren des Krieges und ihre Anwendung auf die Taktik und die Mannszucht der preussischen Truppen. In the portrait the baron wears the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle. This portrait was the first work by Pesne in Berlin.
Johann Melhior Dinglinger (1721, 149x110 cm) _ Johann Melchior Dinglinger [1664-1731], a famous Dresden jeweler, born in Biberach and trained as goldsmith in Ulm. From 1698, he was a court jeweler of the Saxon Elector and King of Poland Augustus II the Strong [1670-1733]. He is an outstanding master of decorative art of the Baroque. Today Dinglinger's reputation as one of the world's most famous goldsmiths, on par with Benvenuto Cellini and Carl Fabergé, is taken for granted. In this portrait Dinglinger is with a cup of his making known as Bath of Diana.
Maria Susanna Dinglinger (1721, 148x113cm) _ Maria Susanna Dinglinger [1698-1726], née Guterman, the 4th wife of Johann M. Dinglinger. Their wedding bells went ding-ling in 1721.
Frederick the Great as Crown Prince (1739, 78x63cm) _ Frederick II the Great [1712-1786], Prussian King since 1740, was born in Berlin, the son of Frederick William I and Sophia-Dorothea, daughter of George I of Great Britain. Pesne painted the portrait in 1739, the 27-year old prince Frederick II is wearing the Order of the Black Eagle, which was founded by his grandfather Frederick I in 1701. The painter foreshortened the prince’s large nose.
Frederick II (1743, 234x161cm) _ After Frederick became king he never sat for artists and made sure that no portrait of himself was ever in sight at any royal residence. This second portrait of Frederick II by Pesne, made for Catherine II, dates to 1743. In this portrait Frederick II holds a field-marshall’s baton and wears the Russian Order of St. Andrew, which he received in 1740. This portrait was probably made on the basis of the first portrait.
Birth of Christ (1745, 48x72cm)
The Dancer Barbara Campanini, Called Barbarina (1745, 221x40cm) _ Barbara Campanini (1721-1799) known as Barnarina, was an Italian dancer with European fame. In 1739, she successfully performed in Paris, and then went to London for a still more triumphant career. By 1744, she was a famous dancer in Venice, and Frederick II the Great invited her to dance at the Berlin Opera from 1744 to 1748. This portrait of Barbarina was commissioned by Frederick and was originally installed behind his desk in his oval white and gold study at the Berlin Palace. The dancer's marriage to the son of the Prussian High Chancellor incurred the king's rage. Upon her divorce, Barbarina was given the title of Countess of Campanini.
The Actress Babette Cochois (1750)
Marianne Cochois (1750, 78x107cm) _ Marianne Cochois, a French dancer, was the premičre danseuse at the Berlin Opera since 1742. Frederick II the Great, Prussian king since 1740, found her equal to Terpsichore, muse of the Dance. She was the younger sister of Babette Cochois, dramatic actress.
A Man (66x56cm)
Luise Eleonore von Wreech, née von Schöning [1708-1784] (1737; 804x685pix, 37kb)
Albertine (?) von der Marwitz [1718–] (1738; 871x786pix, 38kb)
Frau von dem Bussche (1719; 828x698pix, 44kb)
Dorothea Luise von Wittenhorst-Sonsfeld [1681-1746] (1715; 609x532pix, 17kb)
Poetry surrounded by puti (462x1052pix, 55kb)
Iris on the Rainbow (797x1031pix, 94kb)
Puto (Hymen) carrying a torch (798x638pix, 30kb)
Venus and Cupid (1742; 520x772pix, 30kb)
Prometheus steals Fire from the Sun's Chariot (432x891pix, 30kb)
Flirting at a Masked Ball (874x1378pix, 171kb — ZOOM to 875x1898pix, 142kb)
 
^ Died on 23 May 1648: Louis Le Nain, French Baroque painter born in 1593 (1603?), brother of Antoine Le Nain [1588 – 25 May 1648] and Mathieu Le Nain “le Chevalier” [1607 – 20 Apr 1677]. All three worked together and their individual works cannot be distinguished.
— There were three brothers of this name, all born in Laon. Antoine was in Paris from 1629 and his two brothers Louis and Mathieu from 1630. They had established a common workshop in Paris. They remained unmarried and are traditionally said to have worked in harmony, often collaborating on the same picture. The "Le Nain problem" of determining which of them painted what is complicated because no signed work bears a first initial and no work completed after 1648 is dated. Evaluation of the three personalities early in the 20th century was therefore based on the dubious establishment of three stylistic groups. Art scholars today no longer try to attribute individual works, and the three brothers are treated as a single artist.
— In spite of intensive study, the oeuvre of the three Le Nain brothers — Louis, Antoine, and Mathieu — remains difficult to attribute with complete assurance. Born in Laon in northern France to a family of property but of peasant origins, the brothers all elected an artistic career, moving to Paris by 1629. There they worked together in the same studio, collaborated on some works, and signed their paintings simply Le Nain. They were not only genre painters but produced portraits, mythologies, and religious pictures as well. They were patronized by the aristocracy and their paintings were prized by connoisseurs. The brothers participated in the first session of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648. Both Antoine and Louis died that same year, presumably victims of a contagious disease. Mathieu is the youngest and best documented of the brothers, but information on Antoine and Louis is oflen too vague for firm distinctions. However, Louis has been traditionally assigned the peasant scenes which depict people with round, heavy faces and a melancholy air (The Cart, 1641, and Peasant Meal, 1642). His technique is more fluent, his work has more breadth, and his somber color schemes reflect a serious, thoughtful temperament. The Le Nains refused to embrace the prevailing tenets of French classicism, adhering rather to the realist tradition by portraying ordinary people from their provincial boyhood. As painters of reality, their work remains fundamental to the artistic heritage of France.
— Brothers Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu Le Nain were born at Laon but had all moved to Paris by 1630. The traditional birth-dates for Antoine and Louis are 1588 and 1593, respectively, but it is now thought that they were born shortly before and shortly after 1600, so that all three brothers were of much the same generation. Mathieu was made painter to the city of Paris in 1633, and all three were foundation members of the Academy in 1648. Apart from this, little is known of their careers and the assigning of works to one or the other of them is fraught with difficulty and controversy, for such paintings as are signed bear only their surname, and of those that are dated none is later than 1648, when all were still alive. The finest and most original works associated with the brothers – powerful and dignified genre scenes of peasants – are conventionally given to Louis; Antoine is credited with a group of small-scale and richly colored family scenes, mainly on copper; and in a third group, attributed to Mathieu, are paintings of more eclectic style, chiefly portraits and group portraits in a manner suggesting influence from Holland. The brothers are also said to have collaborated on religious works. In 1978-1979 a major exhibition in Paris brought together most of the pictures associated with the brothers, but it raised as many problems as it solved. It also confirmed the stature of Louis, whose sympathetic and unaffected peasant scenes are the main reason why the Le Nains have attracted so much attention. It has recently been proposed that the traditional description of the figures in these paintings as 'peasants' is a misnomer (they are said to be too well dressed for that) and that in fact they represent members of the bourgeoisie.
^
LINKS

The Supper at Emmaus (1645, 75x92cm)
Four Figures at Table (1635, 46x55cm) _ The early years of the three Le Nain brothers, Antoine, Louis and Mathieu, are ill-documented, and their individual artistic identities are submerged under the surname with which they signed their works. They were born in Laon between 1600 and 1610 and were working in Paris by 1629; Antoine and Louis died within two days of each other in May 1648 but Mathieu survived until 1677. All three became members of the French Royal Academy at its formation in 1648. In circumstances which have not yet been clarified, Mathieu seems to have enjoyed the personal protection of Louis XIV for 'his services in the armies of the King', and from 1658 aspired to the nobility.
      Although the Le Nain first made their reputation with large-scale mythological and allegorical compositions and altarpieces (many of which were lost during the French Revolution) and continued to receive commissions of this type, they are now chiefly known for their small and striking paintings of 'low-life', especially those depicting peasants. Recent scholarship has associated their new kind of realistic rustic genre, neither romanticising nor satirising country dwellers, with an emergent class of bourgeois landowners whose ideals of the dignity of agricultural labour and of the partnership between owners of land and tenant farmers they seem to reflect.
      Four Figures at Table is one of many 'peasant meals' painted by the Le Nain. The strong light falling from the upper left emphasises the darkness and stillness of the humble but respectable interior - brightened only by the well-washed linen - at the same time as it delineates form, texture and expression. It has been suggested that the picture depicts the Three Ages, the old woman's lined face, marked by resignation, contrasting with the interrogatory glance of the young woman, the wide-eyed eagerness or apprehension of the little girl and the contented indifference of the boy cutting the bread. But an allegorical interpretation seems neither necessary nor probable; the painting speaks to us directly of shared human destiny, borne with dignity.
      What looks like a pentimento, a painter's change of mind, in the face of the little boy has been revealed by X-radiography to be a crimson ornament in the costume of a bust-length portrait of a bearded man painted underneath. This figure is not a sketch, but a finished, or nearly finished, work. He wears a ruff and a grey doublet with cream braiding. Whether the sitter refused the portrait, or was painted in preparation for a larger picture or an engraving, we do not know, but it seems that not long afterwards, and in the same studio, this prosperous citizen was effaced by four country people at their frugal meal.
^Venus at the Forge of Vulcan (1641, 150x117cm) _ It is unusual for this often repeated mythological subject to be treated as a genre piece, although this occurs in Velázquez's celebrated The Forge of Vulcan (1630). The problem of collaboration of the three Le Nain brothers is highlighted in the Venus at the Forge of Vulcan. It is dated 1641 which was during the last period when all three brothers were alive. In this painting the figure of Venus herself seems an uneasy adaptation of a Renaissance model. Perhaps including an obvious quotation was the artist's way of making it plain to the client that the picture had a well-known precedent.
      The rest of the picture, however, reveals great powers of observation. Especially perceptive are the two figures in the background, silhouetted against the light of the furnace. In all the French art of the seventeenth century, this is the first time that a painter has been able to observe nature without adding mannerisms of his own: even Georges de La Tour at his most realistic created an artificial world in which everything was secondary to his fascination with candlelight. Here, the figure on the left glances towards Venus in a completely natural way, and it is this naturalism, which occurs again and again in parts of their pictures, that sets the Le Nain brothers apart from all their French contemporaries.
Blacksmith at His Forge (69x57cm) _ The Venus at the Forge of Vulcan and the Blacksmith at His Forge are close in style, in the latter the artist simply removed Venus and painted a straightforward genre picture in which he could concentrate on the most sympathetic rendering of men working in a forge. The smith himself looks towards the spectator as if he has been disturbed by the artist and asked to hold the pose while a photograph is taken. The other figures look in different directions, exactly as a group of people will do today when caught unawares by the camera. Especially perceptive is the depiction of the seated old man on the right - he is staring into space exactly as many old people tend to do, particularly when they are preoccupied with something which is not part of the event in front of them. The gazes of the three children are alert but lacking the concentration of the adults. Thus the painters of this picture have observed, for the first time in French painting, a 'slice of life'. The depiction of the better-off peasantry is interesting from a sociological point of view because there are so few renderings of that class, but, even more important, it showed that masterpieces could be produced from humble material. This realistic treatment of 'low' subjects was not to be found again in French art until Courbet in the nineteenth century.
Peasants at their Cottage Door (1645, 55x68cm) _ In this painting the approach is unusually stark for the Le Nain brothers. Instead of a landscape background, there is a two-storey house belonging to the peasants, whose relative prosperity is indicated by the glass in the windows (all over Europe at this time many of the poorer classes lived in conditions far more primitive than those recorded by the Le Nain brothers). This unassuming picture is one of the most perceptive paintings to be produced in the 1640s. As in the Forge, the treatment of the low-life subject is given a totally unexpected dignity. The boy on the right and the old man next to him stare through us into space, and together they counterbalance the large area of pale stone of the house behind them. Into their expressions the artist have distilled a timelessness as far removed from anecdote as possible. Whereas in Georges de La Tour this timelessness is easier to understand because of the spiritual content of his subjects, in the depiction of a peasant's face it is rare for the artist not to be interested in telling a story, but simply to be observing what he sees. This approach, which was to preoccupy many of the most important painters of the nineteenth century, from Courbet to the Impressionists, was an anachronism in the seventeenth century and the reason why the Le Nain brothers were so untypical of artists of their time.
Landscape with Peasants and a Chapel (41x55cm) _ Like their peasant scenes, the landscapes of the Le Nain brothers are careful observations of what they saw, rather than derivations from other painters' works. An example is this painting, in which, although figures dominate the foreground, the main effort has been concentrated on the landscape. In the distance there is a large village with traces of its decaying fortifications, and a small Gothic chapel outside its walls. Such a sight may still be seen today, in the remoter parts of northern and eastern France. Again, the Le Nain brothers have told us what the people and the landscape of the time looked like.
Peasant Family (1640, 113x160cm) _ This painting is the collective work of Louis and Antoine Le Nain. The three brothers produced their work collectively. This is supported by the fact that they never used any other form of signature but 'Le Nain', as a kind of studio stamp. It explains the existence of complex pictures where brilliant passages of paintings are to be found alongside mediocre areas executed by assistants or students. But there are also others of a high level where the brothers worked alone or with each other, without help from outsiders. The Louvre has two paintings depicting peasant families by Le Nain, one of them is an austere and virile work. This one, however, strikes a note of profound intimacy, a warmth of spirit, like the atmosphere of a domestic festivity. The general harmony of greys and browns is in keeping with the spirit of austerity reigning in French painting in the time of Louis XIII. Unlike the Flemings, who made their scenes of rustic life an occasion for depicting the unleashing of the coarsest sensual instincts, Louis Le Nain saw in the peasant soul a profound gravity, even solemnity; the expression of a life of toil whose hard realities have bestowed on it a sense of its own dignity. The paint quality is flowing and rich, with touches of impasto used not simply for effect, as in the work of Frans Hals, but giving proof of a sensitive brush, searching out the modelling with attention and feeling. Several early copies give evidence of the paintings reputation.
Peasant Interior (1642, 56x65cm) _ In the pictures of peasant interiors by the Le Nain brothers there is as much diversity as in the exterior scenes, and attempts have een made to group them round each of the brothers. The categories into which they have been divided make sense, even if no name can convincingly attached to each one. Closest to the Dutch models, especially to the art of Jan Miense Molenaer, is the group of peasant scenes painted on a minute scale. One of the best is the Peasant Interior signed 'Lenain fecit' and dated 1642. Although exquisitely painted, the figures seem to be in a very curious spatial relationship with one another; the mother seems far too small and the children far too big. All their expressions are lively and alert and, as usual in Le Nain, they look in different directions, as if caught by surprise.
The Peasant Meal (1642, 97x122cm) _ The Louvre has two paintings depicting peasant families by Le Nain. This one of them is an austere and virile work. The other one, however, strikes a note of profound intimacy, a warmth of spirit, like the atmosphere of a domestic festivity.
Smokers in an Interior (1643, 117x137cm) _ Not all the Le Nain genre scenes depict peasants. Some of them show middle-class sitters, even rarer in art than the depiction of the poor. It is one of these larger 'bourgeois compositions' which admits the Le Nain brothers into that small group of painters capable of creating a masterpiece. This is the Smokers in an Interior in the Louvre, dated 1643. Its technique must have been learned during the painting of the Forge, but the brushwork is far more precise. The composition is much less original, being closer to the type familiar from the Dutch. The figures are grouped round a table illuminated by a solitary candle, and the figure on the left has fallen asleep at the table.
      In this painting it seems that the depiction of low life — here middle-class men smoking in an interior — has risen beyond its normal pictorial limitations to create a masterpiece which is, perforce, unexpected. While Nicolas Poussin was obsessed with the concept of beauty and with the need to be able to paint exactly what he thought, here the painter's desire arises from an opposite need, the need to observe. Each of the models appears to be a portrait, although it is difficult to explain why the sitters should have chosen to be depicted with such casualness.
      There is no clue to the possibility of a confraternity, although the curious emblems on the carpet on the table could be symbols of some secret society. The eerie quality of the picture is emphasized by the fall of the shadows on the faces and by the way in which the figures stare into space just like the peasants in other pictures and the seated figure on the right has all the appearance of being under the influence of some drug. There is no satisfactory explanation for such a picture; it is as if this trio of painters, observers of a small fragment of their times, never intended the meanings of their pictures to be divined. _ detail _ Each of the models appears to be a portrait, although it is difficult to explain why the sitters should have chosen to be depicted with such casualness. There is no clue to the possibility of a confraternity, although the curious emblems on the carpet on the table could be symbols of some secret society. The eerie quality of the picture is emphasized by the fall of the shadows on the faces and by the way in which the figures stare into space just like the peasants in other pictures and the seated figure on the right has all the appearance of being under the influence of some drug.
6 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
—(060522)

Died on a 23 May:


^ 1955 Auguste Elisée Chabaud, French painter, sculptor, and writer, born on 04 (03?) October 1882. He got trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Avignon under Pierre Grivolas [1824–1905]. After moving to Paris in 1899 he attended Fernand Cormon’s atelier in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and William-Adolphe Bouguereau’s studio in the Académie Julian. He also studied at the Académie Carričre, where he met Matisse, Jean Puy, André Derain and Pierre Laprade. While family responsibilities from 1901 and military service in World War I sharply curtailed much of his early output, he nonetheless produced noteworthy paintings and sculptures from 1907, the first year he exhibited at the Paris Salon, to 1913, when he exhibited at the Armory Show in New York. His reputation was assured by 1912, the year of his one-man show at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris. He returned to Graveson in 1919, remaining there until his death.
La Route Blanche (1925; 477x800pix, 61kb)
Falaises et Rochers (1930, 54x73cm; 340x500pix, 41kb)
Chemin prčs de Juverte (1925, 67x106cm; 451x650pix, 63kb) —(070520)

1918 Maxime-Émile-Camille-Louis Maufra, French painter born (full coverage) on 17 May 1861. —(060522)

^ >1726 Jean-Baptiste Nattier, suicide, French painter born on 27 September 1678. He was taught first by his father, Marc Nattier [1642 – 24 Oct 1705], a portraitist and his mother, miniaturist Marie Nattier [née Courtois] [1655 – 13 Oct 1703]. He had a royal licence to reproduce Rubens’s famous cycle of paintings the History of Marie de’ Medici, then in the Palais du Luxembourg, Paris. Before he died, Marc made the licence over to Jean-Baptiste and his other son Jean-Marc Nattier [17 Mar 1685 – 07 Nov 1766]. The two produced a series of drawings after it for some of the foremost engravers of the day, including Gérard Edelinck, Bernard Picart and Gaspard Duchange. The drawings appeared in 1710 under the title La Galerie du Palais du Luxembourg. Both painters subsequently worked as history painters, as had been their father’s intention, but Jean-Marc is best known for his fashionable portraits.
     From 1704 to 1709 Jean-Baptiste Nattier was a student at the Académie de France in Rome. In 1712 he became a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture on presentation of Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife. He is principally known for his history paintings, such as David with the Head of Goliath. His career came to an abrupt end when a scandal in his private life resulted in his expulsion from the Académie Royale and his imprisonment in the Bastille, where he took his own life.
David with Goliath's Head
–- Caritas Romana aka Cimon and Pero (95x74cm; 700x523pix, 28kb) _ Compare
     _ by Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640] Cimon and Pero (1630; 1315x1600pix, 224kb)
     _ by Greuze Cimon and Pero: Roman Charity
     _ by Hans Sebald Beham [1500-1550] Cimon and Pero —(070520)


^ 1669 Joris Abrahamszoon van der Haagen, (or Hagen, Verhaege, Verhagen), Dutch Baroque painter born in the period 1615-1620. Panoramiste de talent et peintre occasionnel de vues urbaines, délicates et sereines, Joris van der Haagen ajoute ŕ son riche répertoire de topographe et d'artiste itinérant de remarquables paysages boisés, inspirés quelquefois par les foręts des environs de La Haye. — LINKS
A River Landscape (1660, 109x129cm) _ This painting was previously attributed to Jan Looten [1618 - 1680] but shows close similarities to signed paintings by Joris van der Haagen. Van der Haagen painted wooded landscapes as well as his better-known topographical views. This picture can be compared to similar signed works by him.
Small pasture with cattle in the woods (50x60cm) _ The cattle was painted by Paulus Potter [1625-1654].

1668 (burial) Philips Wouwerman(s), Dutch painter who was baptized as an infant (full coverage) on 24 May 1619. —(060522)


Born on a 23 May:

^ 1950 René Daniëls, Dutch painter. Born in Eindhoven, he had only a short time in which to build an artistic reputation. His first exhibition was held in 1977, and ten years later a severe stroke put an end to his career as a painter. During this brief period, Daniëls created a unique and fascinating body of work, which draws national as well as international attention. He continually managed to surprise his audience with new changes in the course of his visual thinking, never contenting himself with the clearing of a single path, always seeking adventurous lateral routes that led to yet other paths. This gave diversity to his oeuvre without detracting from the coherence among the individual works. His work can be described as lucid and enigmatic, humorous but also shrewd and intelligent. He considers himself a kindred spirit of Duchamp, Picabia, and Broodthaers, artists who pursued not so much the development of a style but the chance to take different routes time and again. He once referred to his field of activity as ‘the former no man’s land between literature, visual art and life.’
— (a man) (669x500pix, 36kb) self-portrait??? _ Not knowing who this picture is supposed to represent, the pseudonymous Morné Baltassärs decided to transform it into a much grander picture which is not supposed to represent anything, since it is an abstraction, the symmetrical
      _ Out of the Fiery Furnace aka Name Man (2006; screen filling, 218kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1537kb)
–- Z (1980, 68x67cm; 841x837pix, 123kb) there is no Z nor any other letter to be seen in this picture. This deplorable violation of Truth in Titling has been gloriously remedied by Baltassärs with his pair of abstractions
      _ See Z (2007; 755x1096pix, 229kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 441kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 1068kb) and
      _ Why Y? (2007; 755x1096pix, 229kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 441kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 1068kb).
Mystic Transportation (1987, 150x200cm; 512x505pix, 37kb) 15 repetitive black and blue-black hourglass shapes and a small perforated dark blue flag on a white background. This dreary picture has been metamorphosed into the gloriously colorful symmetrical abstraction
      _ My Shtick Transformation aka Trop Sport (2006; screen filling, 233kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1543kb) by Baltassärs.
Een grammofoonplaat kan soms op de meest onverwachte momenten blijven .... (1983, 190x170cm; 1038x912pix, 311kb)
Plattegronden (1986, 140x190cm; 912x1218pix, 249kb) _ This has been endowed by Baltassärs with a wealth of fine detail and bright colors and thoroughly transformed into the splendid twin abstractions
      _ Plate Ground In (2007; 755x1096pix, 287kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 576kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 1410kb) and
      _ Le Plat Te Gronde (2007; 755x1096pix, 287kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 576kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 1410kb).
Borsalino (1951; 735x492pix, 165kb) an almost blank face, monochrome pinkish brown. _ This has been transformed by Baltassärs into the beautifully detailed and colorful semi-abstract portrait of the mythical conjoined twin generals
      _ Dum Tweedle and Dul Tweedle (2007; 755x1096pix, 330kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 696kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1477kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 3298kb) in full conjoined military uniform, with Dum's left side stuck to Dul's right side; and, for those who insist that they were stuck on their other sides, the alternative version
      _ Dul Tweedle and Dum Tweedle (2007; 755x1096pix, 330kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 696kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1477kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 3298kb)
–- Leda en de Zwaan (370x807pix, 75kb) rough sketch of two gray swans (one of them decapitated by the top edge) on yellow water; no Leda. —(070519)

^ >1930 Richard Anuszkiewicz, US painter. — LINKS
Rose Red Centered (1977, 152x122cm; 2168x1728pix, 566kb)
Dual Red (415x1000pix, 90kb)) —(071219)

^ >1910 Franz Josef Kline [–13 May 1962], US painter, one of the original champions of Abstract Expressionism, which was the dominant movement in painting in New York City during the 1950s. He was born in Wilkes-Barre, in the coal mining region of Pennsylvania, ugly industrial and machine forms seem to be reflected in many of his paintings. He studied painting at Boston University (1931-1935) and in London at the Heatherley School of Fine Art (1937-1938). During the 1950s Kline taught art at Black Mountain College in North Carolina; the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, the Philadelphia Museum School of Art; and the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City.
     Until the late 1940s Kline painted people and urban landscapes in a somewhat conventional, realist style. He began to experiment with abstraction about 1946. In 1949, after viewing his black-and-white rough sketches enlarged by a projector, he began to paint larger ones with huge, rough brushstrokes, using cheap commercial paints and housepainters’ brushes. In some of his paintings both the white and black areas are equally sketchy. Mahoning (1956), for example, can be seen as white shapes on a black background or as black shapes on a white background. Some commentators claimed that these sloppy “action paintings” were an entirely original form of expression and a major contribution to Abstract Expressionism
    In Kline's later years he made some of his paintings with brightly colored sections, but most of them, such as in Meryon (1961), were still like his previous dull black-and-white pictures. — LINKS
Self Portrait (1947; 800x730pix, 64kb)
Black on Green, Red, and Yellow (1948, 101x81cm; 800x636pix, 116kb)
Lester (1959; 800x616pix, 58kb)
untitled (1950; 800x632pix, 70kb)
untitled (1959; 614x800pix, 60kb) orange, greens, yellow, blues, violet, on white, roughly applied; if it took more than 10 minutes to paint (not counting drying times), it was a waste of time.
Painting Number 2 (1954, 204x271cm; 611x808pix, 59kb)
New York, NY (1953, 201x130cm; 899x561pix, 67kb)
41 images at Ciudad de la Pintura. —(090523)

^ >1861 József Rippl-Rónai, Kaposvár Hungarian painter, printmaker, pastelist, ceramicist, and designer, who died on 27 (25?) November 1927. — {How much of a ripple did he make on art history?}— In 1881 he graduated in pharmacy from the Budapest University of Sciences. He worked as a pharmacist for a short time and then became tutor to Count Ödön Zichy. In 1884 he registered at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, becoming a student in the life class and studying under Johann Caspar Herterich [1843–1905] and Wilhelm von Diez [1839–1907]. In 1887 he went to Paris to work in the studio of Mihály Munkácsy, for whom he copied and finished paintings for export to the US. In 1889 Rippl-Rónai went to Pont-Aven, where he painted In a Pont-Aven Bar (1889) and Woman in a White Spotted Dress (1889), which shows the influence of Whistler (which persisted throughout his career) and in which, as in many of his paintings of this period, the dominant color is black. In 1890 he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris and became friendly with James Pitcairn-Knowles, Aristide Maillol and Edouard Vuillard. Between 1890 and 1900 he made a number of embroideries and tapestries with the help of his wife. — He studied at the Academy of Munich between 1884 and 1887; then, on a Hungarian State scholarship, be went to Paris; he lived in France until 1901. While in Paris, he worked in Mihály Munkácsy's studio and visited the Julian Academy. In 1889 he turned away from Munkácsy's style and, together with the Scottish painter Knowles, he moved to Neuilly near Paris. It was here that he developed his style based on the reduction of colors, characteristic of his period between 1889 and 1900. His painting. My Grandmother was exhibited in the Salon du Champ-de-Mars in 1894. It was this picture that aroused the interest of the Nabis group (Bonnard, Denis, Vuillard) and of "les artistes intelligents", the group of young artists gathered around the magazine Revue Blanche, who invited Rippl-Rónai to join their company. In 1896 Rippl-Rónai was commissioned by Count Tivadar Andrássy to design the dining room and the entire furniture of his palace in Budapest. In this way he became involved in the applied arts, too, designing glass windows, furniture, chinaware, glasses and gobelins. The embroidery designed by him and executed by his French wife, Lazarinne, won them a silver medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1897. In 1890 he left Paris and returned to Hungary, setting in his home town, Kaposvár. Initially, he painted intimate interiors here then developed his characteristic "corn kernels" style, using bright colors and small brush-strokes which left the tiny patches of paint distinct. In 1912 his work was awarded with a silver medal at the International Fine Art Exhibition in Amsterdam: two years later he won a gold medal in Vienna with Maillol's Portrait. In 1925 his work was honored with Belgium's Medal of the Knight of the Leopold Order. Still in the same year he received an invitation from the Uffizi Gallery of Florence to contribute to is world-famous collection of self-portraits.
LINKS
Self-portrait with Red Beret (1924, 53x43cm; 850x676pix, 84kb) _ "I want to paint everyone who made this small country great which suffered a lot vicissitudes," wrote Rippl-Rónai to Lajos Ernst in 1923. This is why he painted portraits of Mihály Babits, Ernő Osváth, Zsigmond Móricz, Lőrincz Szabó, Frigyes Karinthy, Alaldár Schöpflin and Miksa Fenyő. Although it cannot be considered as a next item of the series, the portrait was painted in less than a year, as if to crown his late period.
     He sat down full of curiosity in front of the mirror to observe how age had changed him ... An old man looked back from the mirror, the moustache and the hair turned white, a red cap tilted on the one side and a scarf of the same color around the neck. He is looking at us seriously, he is wearing a winter coat. He looks gravely at us from under his cap over the eyes. Defiance of young age has not disappeared from his face. This is how a man faces destiny who examined his conscience, who is aware of the fact that he defied mortality in his way because he managed to make it more beautiful and richer.
Last Self-portrait (1927, 49x40cm; 1071x869pix, 108kb) the red of the beret is now duller.
Piacsek bacsi babakkal (1905; 682x1014pix, 123kb)
Mezei munka (52x40cm; 810x644pix, 144kb)
Alkonyat egy intim szobaban (1892; 837x690pix, 37kb)
Riccardo Vines Roda zongoraművész (1914)
Fekete kesztyűs nő - Zorka (1924)
Aristide Maillol (1899, 100x75cm; 1001x738pix, 123kb) _ and another image of the same Aristide Maillol (800x580pix, 136kb) _ Compare this with the
      _ Self-Portrait (800x576pix, 95kb) of Maillol [08 Dec 1861 – 27 Sep 1944], a French painter, printmaker, and one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century.
Inn at Pont-Aven (1889, 108x148cm; 787x1072pix, 115kb)
Woman in a Polka Dots Dress (1889, 187x75cm; 812x318pix, 70kb) _ This painting shows that Rippl had freed himself from Munkácsy's influence and that he was in search of new ways. J.P. Knowles introduced the art of Whistler to him whose elegant expression and greyish-black colors influenced the young Rippl. In his longish pictures, Rippl painted mostly interiors with tools controlled and a sensitive kind of portrayal was accompanied by delicate arrangement. The graceful woman posing in a somewhat affected way in the front, and the indistinct background indicate that Rippl was using a model, but details emphasizing decorativity in planes, colors deliberately subdued and delicate brushwork reflect a new approach. After giving up academic genre painting of the 19th century, Ripple did the first step towards art nouveau and post-impressionism similar to Whistler's art.
A Woman (1889, 41x31,5cm; 1093x850pix, 135kb)
Sitting Child with Basket (1890, 56x62cm; 962x1075pix, 116kb) This is a piece cut from the larger painting Interior of a Room in the Outskirts of Paris.
Mother with Child (1890, 41x32cm; 1218x939pix, 121kb)
Mlle Dutile (1891, 46x38cm; 1058x862pix, 87kb)
Twilight in an Intimate Room (1894, 65x54cm; 995x813pix, 112kb)
Girl with Cage (1892, 186x130cm; 830x588pix, 32kb) _ Delicate art, harmonious colors and a composition delicately balanced characterize this picture, an outstanding one in the "black" period of Neuilly. The slim silhouette of a standing woman is in an interior painted in different shades of green. She leans slightly backwards with the cage in the hand, the unbalanced movement responds to vague colors blurred. In the artificial light suggesting a room, objects can be sensed in vague contours, but the profile and the hands of the woman holding the cage are surprisingly white against the dark background. Colors and patches are blurred and recall abstract compositions of art nouveau. The "quiet and serious, often sad" atmosphere of timeless moment dominates Rippl's art nouveau. Space only suggested, the graceful gesture of a figure deprived of plasticity and the delicate sensuality of colors close to one another in shades indicate Rippl's individual style analysis and decorative world of forms.
James Pitcairn Knowles (1892, 54x64cm; 860x804pix, 102kb) monochrome pinkish brown _ Knowles [28 Sep 1863 – 02 Jan 1954], shown wearing a wide-brimmed hat, was a painter of Scots descent. He sympathized with Rippl-Rónai's aims and aspirations, was a close friend at Neuilly, and introduced him to Maillol. It was Rippl-Rónai who turned Maillol's attention to sculpture, while, in turn, Maillol aroused Rippl-Rónai's interest in the design of wall carpets, and the applied arts in general.
Margit Piátsek (1892, 48x36cm; 1058x863pix, 54kb) _ Margit Piátsek was the artist's sister-in-law, the wife of his younger brother Lajos Rónai.
Mrs Pataki (1892, 46x38cm; 1049x873pix, 104kb)
Skittle-players (1892, 80x117cm; 700x1020pix, 146kb) monochrome brown _ This is one of the principal works of Rippl-Rónai's "black" period. The figures, delineated with just a few bare contours and dark areas of color, bear witness to the calm and economy of motion that attracted Rippl-Rónai to the game. This and other similar paintings of the time, slightly sketched with a thin coat of paint, reveal the influence of an important group of artists including Vuillard Bonnard, Valloton and Denis, who came to regard Rippl-Rónai as one of their group.
Cemetery in the Great Plain (1894, 58x82cm; 827x1158pix, 108kb) under snow, almost monochrome.
My Grandmother (1894, 152x111cm; 1056x799pix, 59kb)
Birth of Christ (1895 tapestry, 44x111cm; 438x948pix, 187kb)
Woman in the Garden aka Walking Woman (1895 partly colored drawing, 21x17cm; 800x639pix, 146kb) _ In 1895 Samuel Bing, owner of the Art Nouveau Gallery in Paris, commissioned József Rippl-Rónai, the Hungarian artist then living in Paris, to produce a volume of drawings. The lithographs were published in the company of poems explicitly written for these drawings by Georges Rodenbach under the title Les Vierges. The theme of women in a garden was often taken up by the Nabis, a group of modern painters to which Rippl-Rónai also belonged. Maurice Denis, Edouard Vuillard, Paul Ranson and other members laid emphasis on inner felicity and a feeling of constancy. The pattern always filled out the picture plain evenly, and the design was characterized by the rhythm of decorative contours. The pictorial interaction between mood and idea in Rippl-Rónai's drawing Women in the Garden is symbolized by the walking woman, a representation of fertility. The same theme was later varied in a gobelin design.
Old Woman with Violet (1895, 163x97cm; 824x490pix, 71kb) _ Whistler who was living in Paris in the 1890s influenced Rippl's art. Later Rippl wrote in his "Memoirs", that he made the longish form of artists fashionable and women or men in black or gray clothes either sitting or standing in an elegant way. The picture belongs to a group of pictures which have one figure only and a symbolic interior (e.g. "Woman in White Spotted Dress", 1889, "Woman with Cage",1892, "Slim Woman with Vase", 1892, "Mother", 1894, etc.). The picture is suggestive of old age and loneliness. The everyday clothes of the woman and the bunch of violets symbolizing mortality raise the picture to the sphere of lyric, subjective and intimate. A world of intimate interiors dominates the art of Nabis, a group of French painters, too. In the gray and undefined space behind the model, the fireplace is the only sign of an interior. Colors of the background are subdued: blue, ochre, olive green, brick-red and purple. Contours typical of art nouveau and silhouettes with plasticity inside them are accompanied by realism which is brought about by brush strokes following shapes, and shades expressing shadows. Wrinkles on the face are also delicately blurred.
Lady with Black Veil (1896, 100x80cm; 880x721pix, 72kb) almost monochrome gray _ The painting depicts the painter Madame Mazet as the embodiment of cosmopolitan "fin de siècle" woman. The painter intends her to be an ambiguous figure; while she appears to be in a mood of mourning, her facial expression is enigmatic, hinting at something possibly frivolous and flirtatious, even a touch of "femme fatale".
Woman Dressed in White (1896, 31x25cm; 840x645pix, 126kb) _ Together with Knowles, Rippl-Rónai was working on a book in 1895. After Rippl-Rónai's lithographs and Knowles' woodcuts had been ready, they found a publisher who had a text written for the illustrations. "... The texts for Knowles' pictures are sad, mine are cheerful, his pictures recall death, mine life, the summer is mine, and the winter is his, my book is light itself, youth, the sun shining and nature, young girls hesitating at the threshold of life and later when they look back at their young age...," he wrote in one of his letters. Rippl's book came out with the title "Les Vierges" and had four colored graphics. He did the drawing once more in 1896, the result was a picture in pastel which became popular. A white-dressed woman wearing a hat with a wide brim which is hanging down is holding a book in her hand. She is walking on green grass, there are trees in the background with red round fruits. There is a garden road with stones in the middle of the picture. The female figure is a white patch with a wide contour. The lines of the contour are curving gracefully, there is not an angular form anywhere, everything is rounded. The green field and the trees consist of small rounded patches with plastic elements of Art Nouveau.
Countess Tivadar Andrássy (1896, 55x38cm; 1134832pix, 123kb)
My Father and My Mother (1897, 70x96cm; 759x1036pix, 90kb)
Pierre Bonnard (1897, 61x49cm; 870x534pix, 58kb) almost monochrome brown _ As a member of Nabis Rippl painted the portraits of some members (Vuillard, 1897; and Maillol, 1899) and that of Thadée Natanson, editor-in-chief of the symbolist Revue Blanche. Bonnard's portrait is a part of the series (the Hungarian National Gallery has another portrait by Rippl supposed to portray Bonnard). Rippl thought that "Bonnard was a Montmartre figure in form, way of thinking and art".
     The portrait is an intimate picture of the sitter, who is lost in his thoughts, forms are soft and blurred. Sharp contours of previous portraits are no longer present in the picture from 1897 and the plain portrayal is lost, too. "Portrait of Pierre Bonnard, French Painter" is the result of Rippl-Rónai's coal reduction period, it consists of gray, black and brown. The picture arises from the harmony of light and dark patches. The face partly in shadow is covered with dark hair, beard and moustache. The black silhouette of the model separates him from the grayish background. Loose brush strokes produced a thin layer of transparent paint. The interesting character of the composition comes from its asymmetric diagonal arrangement. Unlike in traditional portraits, the hand of the model is not fully seen in the picture.
Pierre Bonnard (1897, 61x49cm; 876x711pix, 125kb) almost monochrome gray.
Self-portrait in a Brown Hat (1897, 64x88cm; 826x1140pix, 132kb)
My Parents after 40 Years of Marriage (1897, 156x119cm; 1074x809pix, 71kb)
Uncle Rippl, an Admirer of Kossuth (1897, 192x75cm; 848x316pix, 42kb)
Young Woman with Rose (1898 tapestry, 230x125cm; 881x480pix, 149kb)
The Old Guard and the Rooster (1902, 70x82cm; 904x1049pix, 116kb)
Banyuls-sur-Mer 1899, 75x100cm; 734x976pix, 185kb)
Still-life with Oranges (50x65cm; 744x968pix, 101kb)
Still-life with Geape (48x68cm; 658x945pix, 127kb)
Cléo de Merode's Kin (1901, 37x29cm; 862x648pix, 68kb)
White Wall, Brown Furniture (1903, 68x100cm; 782x1157pix, 98kb)
Christmas (1903, 67x99cm; 680x994pix, 129kb) _ Christmas and Sadness recall the same subject-matter, they probably followed one another in time. Sadness is a more condensed variety of Christmas, and it includes more devotion. After he had returned to Kaposvár, he bought a house there and its rooms served as interiors. Christmas shows a complete interior with objects special for Rippl. Dark patches of the picture - Lazarine writing a letter and the artist's mother, an old woman, about to leave - recall his French "black" period. The figure of the old woman is a serious element of the composition as dark patches are important from the point of view rhythm. Rippl was fascinated by the effect of blacks and bright colors The decorative head kerchief behind the Christmas tree, furniture with striped cover over it, the lively green of the philodendron and the Christmas decorations flash up to soften the seriousness of the composition and reflect the atmosphere of Christmas.
The Comfy Child (1904, 70x59cm; 1037x865pix, 123kb)
When One Lives on Memories (1904, 70x103cm; 612x910pix, 104kb) _ To this great example of intimate interior pictures was awarded the prize of the National Society of Art in 1906. It is closely linked to the atmospheres and colors of "White Wall with White Furniture" and "Flox and Filox", but the intensity and variety of its colors are in favor of "When One Lives on One's Memories". Its composition is superb: by applying space near and far he expresses the physical and psychic departure of the old woman, the central figure of the picture, whose relationship to the world is slowly fading. Grayish-blue of the second space are in an intrinsic contrast with the cheerful foreground full of colors, with elements of Rippl's former pictures, e.g. the red of the colorful head kerchief. The mirror in the axis of the window and the door symbolizes that life and mortality cannot be helped: it is out of use and serves decoration only.
Uncle Piacsek in front of the Black Sideboard (1906, 67x97cm; 762x1133pix, 112kb)
Manor-house at Körtvélyes (1907, 52x70cm; 760x1016pix, 178kb) _ During his trip to Italy in 1904-1905, Rippl-Rónai was fascinated by the monumentality and decorativity of Italian mosaic pictures. Later, he included his experiences in his pictures and established the technique of the so-called corn-period. From 1907-1908 onwards, his pictures contained about the same brush work, lively and dynamic elements of large patches. Contours intensify decorativity and small spots emphasize mass.
     Manor-house at Körtvélyes is a somewhat haphazard attempt to establish this style. He painted several pictures of this castle of Körtvélyes, which belonged to the Andrássy family. As an influence of impressionism, he blurs continuous contours and makes the contrast of light and shadow important, but he gives up divisionism and does not break up colors: pure, unmixed and strong colors play a more important role. The two red spots, the sun shade and the skirt of the woman in the foreground, serve only decorativity.
Father and Uncle Piacsek Drinking Red Wine (1907, 68x100cm; 991x1454pix, 161kb)
Nude on a Balcony (1909, 75x56cm; 856x628pix, 109kb)
In the Garden (1909, 51x68cm; 825x1128pix, 143kb)
Nudes (Models) (1910, 67x97cm; 626x898pix, 118kb) _ In the early 1910s, Rippl was engaged in painting female nudes (Nude on Terrasse, 1909; Two Nudes on Red Couch). Fenella, a Spanish model who he met in Paris, arrived in Kaposvár at that time. She was a major inspiration for the artist to paint nudes. He was engaged in portraying the female body in graphics as well (Three, Nude, 1910). He did a series in tint entitled Models Putting on Stockings about 1910, and published Fifty Drawings by József Rippl-Rónai, an album with nudes, in 1913. Both models are portrayed with yellow patches, typical of the "corn" pictures, in the background in an interior in Kaposvár. Forms are emphasized with wide brown contours. The decorativity of the picture arises from unmixed noisy colors and a plain composition. The deliberate use of blue-yellow and green-red, i.e. the complementary colors, make the effect more intensive. The cardboard appears under the rough, mosaic-like brushwork. Rippl-Rónai does not use colors consequently on all objects in the background and the surroundings, he paints the female bodies in mixed colors and uses contrasts of light and shadow to make figures more plastic. Plainness, decorativity and contours can be interpreted as a second, late appearance of art nouveau. The picture is linked to this style because of its frivolous and provocative composition.
Parisian Interior (1910, 75x105cm; 756x1046pix, 153kb) _ another image of the same Parisian Interior (1910; 527x730pix, 97kb).
Stained Glass Window of the Phone Booth in Cafe Japan (1910, 49x108 cm; 818x399pix, 101kb) _ The window was executed by Miksa Róth after the design of József Rippl-Rónai.
Lazarine and Anella in the Park (1910, 69x100cm; 711x1000pix, 192kb)
Parc Monceau (1910, 75x105cm; 692x980pix, 171kb)
Park with Nudes (1910, 70x102cm; 698x999pix, 191kb) _ another image of the same: Park aktokkal (679x995pix, 140kb) _ In 1908, Rippl bought a villa in the middle of a woodland on the Róma-hill, a part of Kaposvár. After evocative interiors, he painted a series of nudes there. He selected models from people around him: "In my art, there is a long and feverish Lazarine-peiord. In addition, ... Anella, the child of my wife's sister ... The third model, in whom I was particularly interested, was Fenella." These pictures of Rippl-Rónai represented the "corn" style of patches of paint. The picture shows six nudes bending rhythmically. There are two slim female figures in the background with hare hounds lying and standing, a hedge running crosswise, tree trunks, trees, bushes and patches of the sky. It is a decorative plain composition. A dotted brown contour surrounds the female nudes. Rippl-Rónai painted bodies as if they were plain, yet the brush left traces of whorls. He modeled the homogenous surface richer. This basically two-dimensional composition highlighted the main character, i.e. the series of nudes moving harmonically. Other elements of the picture are completely homogenous, they consist of patches of paint on one another. He uses two shades of green: the path is fawn-colored, the sky is yellow, the tree trunk is purple and the color of the pulp paper appears here and there. Rippl-Rónai was for alla prima painting which assumed quick work. The method he applied was as follows: first, he drew contours which soaked into the pulp paper, then he filled surfaces in between with unpolished colors He painted the colors right out of the tubes. "One mustn't mix colors on the picture," this was Rippl-Rónai's negative order of making colors fiery.
Painter with Models (1910, 70x100cm; 715x1000pix, 138kb) _ This painting presents, through the refined beauty of its female bodies, a brilliant interplay of form. The female nude was also a recurrent theme in Rippl-Rónai's early paintings, but the mystery and melancholy of his black period was here replaced by a masterly handling of flat color. Though Rippl-Rónai's interest in the nude was rather more abstract, something slightly provocative and frivolous remains, linking his work to the conceptual framework of Art Nouveau.
Elek Petrovics and Simon Meller (1912, 84x104cm; 1008x1212pix, 169kb)
Work in the Fields (1912, 52x40cm; 810x644pix, 143kb) _ The rather sketchy picture consists of freshly colored smudges. Red roofs of houses with white walls flash up in the decoratively green landscape on the horizon. They rhyme with white clothes of peasants working in the field and the white patch of the horse harnessed to the cart.
Painting for the Schiffer Villa (1911, 153x330cm; 446x999pix, 111kb) _ There were many fine architects working in Budapest at the beginning of the 20th century whose designs evidence a fascinating combination of late nineteenth-century Eclecticism and elements of international and Hungarian Art Nouveau. József Vágo's Schiffer Villa (1910-1912) is an excellent example of contemporary aspirations, and brought together such great artists as Károly Kernstok, who designed the glass windows, and István Csók, Béla Iványi Grünwald and József Rippl-Rónai, who painted the interior panels. Such collaboration between artists and architects changed the face of Budapest, to create a pleasant and inspiring environment in tune with the new bourgeois, middle-class way of life.
Pál Szinyei Merse (1911, 70x96cm; 768x1025pix, 122kb)
Lazarine and Anella (1911, 70x100cm; 768x1128pix, 154kb)
Interior (1912, 36x48cm; 630x860pix, 109kb) _ Rippl was the only artist who brought fresh blood to Hungarian painting and he was the Hungarian Cézanne and Gauguin and what one might one call an impressionist," write Lajos Fülep in his study on art in 1910. It is true that Rippl-Rónai's art represented a decorative style similar to that of the French, and other than the anachronistic academism, the prevailing style of the time. His style was richer in content and more modern than the Nagybánya post-impressionism: Rippl-Rónai represented modern painting in the very sense of the word.
     Interior was painted after his return from Paris when he had settled down in Kaposvár. He painted series of interiors of sleepy yet friendly middle-class homes with light brushwork (Christmas, 1903, When One Relies on One's Memories, 1904, Small Interior in Kaposvár). These interiors with mostly biedermeier furniture fascinate the spectator with an atmosphere of intimacy and with Rippl's particularly fresh colors.
Mansion at Geszt (1912, 72x100cm; 768x1076pix, 163kb)
Girls Getting Dressed (red furniture and yellow wall) (1913, 68x96cm; 800x1131pix, 136kb)
Lajos Rippl-Rónai (1913, 70x100cm; 646x926pix, 124kb)
Emperor Franz Josef (1914 drawing; 922x732pix, 922 145kb)
The Pianist Riccardo Vines Roda (1914, 70x100cm; 1073x750pix, 151kb)
Shivering Girl with a Blue Ring (1916, 50x40cm; 1053x855pix, 93kb)
Portrait of László Vágó (1916, 52x42cm; 992x789pix, 139kb)
Ms. László Vágó in a Black Dress (1916, 51,5x42cm; 964x791pix, 140kb)
Profile of a Woman (Zorka) (1916, 53x42cm; 836x664pix, 177kb)
Zorka in a Red Armchair (1918, 52x42cm; 1023x800pix, 100kb)
Lajos and Ödön (My Brothers) (1918, 71x99cm; 770x1064pix, 136kb)
Zorka Bányai in a Black Dress (1911, 121,5x86cm; 1050x750pix, 102kb)
Woman with a Chinese Cup (1920, 51x41cm; 1051x840pix, 97kb)
Mihály Babits (1923, 54x43cm; 826x646pix, 118kb) _ Babits [26 Nov 1883 – 04 Aug 1941] was a Hungarian poet, writer and translator.
Zsigmond Móricz (1923, 50x40cm; 1068x788pix, 74kb) _ Móricz [26 June 1879 – 04 Sep 1942] was a Hungarian writer. You can find the English translation of one of his short novels in the Hungarian Electronic Library.
Lorinc Szabó (1923, 50x40cm; 1140x886pix, 83kb) _ Szabó [31 Mar 1900 – 03 Oct 1957] was a Hungarian poet. _ "I want to paint everyone who made this small country great which suffered a lot vicissitudes," wrote Rippl-Rónai to Lajos Ernst in 1923. This is why he painted portraits of Mihály Babits, Ernő Osváth, Zsigmond Móricz, Lőrincz Szabó, Frigyes Karinthy, Alaldár Schöpflin and Miksa Fenyő.
Frigyes Karinthy (1925, 41x51cm; 875x1075pix, 136kb) _ Karinthy [25 Jun 1887 – 29 Aug 1938] was a Hungarian author, playwright, poet, journalist, and translator. You can find English translations of some of his works in the Hungarian Electronic Library
–- Jeune Femme (900x657pix, 67kb) fuzzy as if out-of-focus.
–- Hatvany Garden (487x860pix, 286kb) fuzzy as if the artist can't draw. —(070520)

^ 1846 John Alexander Harrington Bird [–1936]. Born into a British military family in India, Harrington Bird studied art at the Royal Academy in London in 1868. He emigrated to Montreal in 1877 in order to assume the post of Director at the Montreal School of Art. Within several years he had also become the professor of art at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario. His paintings and prints were widely exhibited and Bird became best known for his sporting art and genre scenes. Shortly before his return to England in 1888, Harrington Bird was elected an Associate of the Royal Canadian Academy. In Britain Bird continued to exhibit his art at many institutions, including the royal Academy, London. During this period he designed large etchings of major English race horses, with particular emphasis on Derby champions.
Hunting Scene (25x35cm)
Returning Home —(080522)

1813 Charle-Émile Jacque, French painter who died (full coverage) on 07 May 1894. —(060521)

^ 1810 Alfred de Dreux (or Dedreux), French artist who died on 05 March 1860. Alfred de Dreux was raised in an artistic milieu. His uncle was a minor painter who often took de Dreux to the studio of his friend Théodore Géricault. Those horse paintings had a profound influence on the adolescent. In 1833, barely twenty-three years old, de Dreux received his first important commission, the Equestrian Portrait of the Duc d'Orleans. De Dreux was also very much inspired by English painters such as Stubbs, Constable, and Landseer, whom he had met when he was in England with Louis-Philippe. He had considerable success for more than thirty years with both the French and English nobility, who appreciated the elegance of his work. — Alfred de Dreux was greatly influenced by the work of Géricault, who was a family friend. His best work was painted in the Orientalist style and featured beautiful Arab horses, often with their grooms. He first exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1830 and his work was an immediate success; so much so that his art soon became much in demand. In 1840, he began perhaps his most famous series of paintings, a set of portraits of the great horses from the celebrated stables of the duc d’Orléans. De Dreux painted several equestrian portraits of Napoléon III [20 Apr 1808 – 09 Jan 1873] and his sons. Despite his connections with the aristocracy, de Dreux’s work remained popular in France. Alfred de Dreux was killed in a mysterious duel, fought with Comte Fleury, the Emperor’s aide de camp, in 1860. — Alfred Dedreux enfant (1818, 46x38cm) by Jean-Louis-André-Théodore Géricault [26 Sep 1791 – 26 Jan 1824] _ In this unconventional portrait, the child appears intensely serious, more adult than childlike, while the dark clouds in the background convey an unsettling, ominous quality.
Fidelité (982x820pix, 108kb)
Out Hunting (1854, 86x122cm)
Napoléon III (476x357pix, 31kb)
An Elegant Lady on a Dapple-Grey Stallion in a Summer Landscape (46x33cm)
An Elegant Lady on a Dark Stallion in an Autumn Landscape (46x33cm)
An African Groom Holding a Stallion with a Dog (1858, 61x77cm; 404x500pix, 45kb)
Le Pansage (lithograph after Dedreux)
Nubian Horseman at a Gallop
Le comte de Paris et le duc de Chartres (1849) _ Philippe d'Orléans [24 Aug 1838 – 08 Sep 1894] , became heir to the French throne and the candidate of the Orleanists at the 1842 death of his father, Ferdinand, duc d'Orléans, son and heir of King Louis-Philippe [06 Oct 1773 – 26 Aug 1850]. The title of comte de Paris was created for him. During the Revolution of 1848 he and his brother Robert Philippe Louis Eugène Ferdinand d'Orléans duc de Chartres [1840-1910], were taken into exile in England. That is where Dedreux visited them. The comte de Paris became pretender to the French throne at the death of Louis-Philippe. The two brothers fought on the Union side in the US Civil War and were photographed by Matthew Brady [1823 – 15 Jan 1896]. The comte de Paris was an aide to general George B. McClellan [03 Dec 1826 – 29 Oct 1885] and he wrote The History of the Civil War in America.
Le Cheval de Bois Tricycle (476x315pix, 35kb)
Count Klein (1850, 127x104cm) _ This painting belongs to a series of equestrian portraits made in the 1850s. Other works in similar format include Count Montgomery and Count Aguado. The noblemen are shown in vast romantic landscapes, in which their possessions are opulently displayed. Eugène-Joseph-Napoléon Klein, Count Klein-d'Arberg [1813-1875] was one of the most fashionable figures of the Second Empire. The sitter is mounted on a magnificent dark stallion. The noble posture of the horse reflects the proud attitude of its master. They stand still before a forest landscape in which a chateau can be seen in the distance. This painting, along with Colonel Fleury leading the Imperial Guard was selected by de Dreux to show at the Exposition Universelle of 1855.

^ 1620 Pieter Neeffs II, Flemish painter who died after 1675, son of Peeter Neeffs I [1578-1660], brother of Lodewijk (or Lodevicus) Neeffs [22 Jan 1617 – 1649]. By 1640 he was collaborating with his father and was never apparently enrolled as an independent master in the Guild of St Luke. He was still active in 1675, the year that appears on his last known dated painting. All three members of the family specialized in paintings of architectural interiors. Their most frequent subject was the interior of Antwerp Cathedral; the details of sculpture, altars and paintings vary in accuracy, and sometimes the subject seems to be very freely interpreted. The Neefs also liked to depict the effects of artificial illumination in crypt-like spaces (in the manner of Hendrick van Steenwijck the younger). Iconographic and stylistic similarities make the works of Pieter I and Pieter II often difficult to distinguish. On a few occasions the father signed his works Den Auden Neefs. Generally speaking, those works dated before 1640 (when Pieter II would have become involved in the workshop) are superior in quality. It is also possible that works attributed to either Pieter I or Pieter II are, in fact, by Lodewijk, the least-known member of the family. The figures in the architectural views by the various Neefs were painted by such artists as Frans Francken II and Frans Francken III, Jan Breughel I, Sebastiaen Vrancx, Adriaen van Stalbemt, David Teniers II, Gonzales Coques, and Bonaventura Peeters.
–- Interior of a cathedral with people attending a sermon (36x52cm; 700x1016pix, 93kb) while others, and at least one dog, just walk by. —(070520)

^ 1614 (baptized as an infant) Bertholet Flémal (or Flémalle, Flemaël), Flemish French painter and architect who died on 10 July 1675. He was born into a family of artists, and his first apprenticeship was probably in Ličge with his father, Renier Flémal [–1585], a painter of stained glass. Bertholet was later a student of Henri Trippet [1600–1674] before completing his training during the 1630s with Gérard Douffet. In 1638 Flémal went to Rome and on the return journey visited Florence and stayed for some time in Paris. He had returned to Ličge by 1646. Flémal had a successful career there, painting for private collectors, but he was also commissioned to work for the many religious establishments. His patron was Canon Lambert de Liverloo, Chancellor to the Prince-Bishop of Ličge. In addition, Flémal made designs for religious buildings and fittings as well as for his own house, but none of this architectural work has survived. In 1670 he was at the peak of his career. He was painter to the Prince-Bishop, Maximilian-Henry of Bavaria, and for Louis XIV of France he painted an allegory, Religion Protecting France (1670; destroyed in 1871), for the ceiling of the audience chamber at the Tuileries, Paris. In the same year he was appointed Professor at the Académie Royale in Paris. The Prince-Bishop made him a canonical prebendary of the collegiate church of St Paul at Ličge.
— Pour le grand centre artistique que fut Ličge au XVII sičcle, Bertholet Flémal joua un peu, avec le décalage d'une génération, le męme rôle que Poussin pour Paris. Né ŕ Ličge męme, il s'y forma avant de gagner Rome, oů il se trouve dčs 1638. Il semble y avoir particuličrement fréquenté le cercle des Français. Dčs 1646-1647 il regagne sa ville natale, avec un arręt ŕ Paris, oů il peint notamment le Sacrifice d'Iphigénie pour le Cabinet de l'Amour de l'Hôtel Lambert. Sa carričre, longue et brillante, sera désormais semée de grandes commandes religieuses (dont certaines sont encore en place dans les églises de la ville, comme la magistrale Invention de la Sainte Croix dans l'église du męme nom).Mais il n'abandonnera pas les sujets profanes. Face ŕ un Gérard Douffet et ŕ un François Walschartz, marqués par la poétique caravagesque, Flémal ramčne ŕ Ličge un art savant, soucieux de retrouver ŕ l'attrait de la couleur dans toute sa richesse et de l'histoire mise en scčne dans toute sa complexité.
— Jean-Guillaume Carlier was a student of Flémal.
Heliodorus Driven from the Temple (1662, 146x174cm; 830x968pix, 144kb) _ This Flemish painting refers to a different cultural current from the grand Antwerp works of the Baroque. Whilst the Southern Low Countries were succumbing to Rubens' genius, Liège artists were looking towards contemporary Italian and French painters. Returning to Liège in 1646 after a long stay in Rome, Florence and Paris, Bertholet Flémal imported the Poussinesque ideas that he had soaked up during his trip. Hence there flourished, not far from Antwerp, a Franco-Roman current of which Bertholet Flémal is the best representative. (Other artists of this school were Gerard Douffet, J. W. Carlier, Gerard de Lairesse.)
      Typical of this art, Heliodorus Driven from the Temple must have been intended for an amateur collection. The subject, which prefigures the conversion of St Paul, is taken from the second book of Maccabees (3:22-30). The general Heliodorus had been sent to Jerusalem by the King of Syria to confiscate the sacred treasure of the Temple. Having entered it with his guards, he was carrying out his heinous deed when a horseman and two young men appeared to him. According to the Bible, the horse reared above Heliodorus, whilst the two messengers of God flogged him, at which point the Syrian troops fled. It is this precise moment that Flémal illustrates.
      The main scene, set against a background of imposing antique architecture, groups the various protagonists. The fiery horseman and the general knocked to the floor are inspired by Raphael's fresco adorning the Stanza dell'Eliodoro in the Vatican. The painting captures this precise moment, with the main group thrown into relief by the lively colors, mixed with white highlights and strong shadows. We also note the painter's consummate art in the modelling of the draperies, with their typically tight folds. The composition is balanced, with the central group in the foreground offset on both sides by two secondary groups in the background. To the left prostrate Jews implore heaven to avoid the profanation of the holy place, to the right Heliodorus' soldiers flee empty-handed. The large red curtain, hanging in what is otherwise a void, imparts a sense of space to the composition.
      Flémal never signed or dated his paintings. But there is no doubt as to the attribution of this one, which is so characteristic of his art, and can be situated in his mature period, in the late 1650s and early 1660s.
L'enfance d'Hercule (522x715pix, 55kb) _ L'enfance des héros s'embellit d'ordinaire de prodiges. Il n'en pouvait ętre autrement pour Hercule, demi-dieu et destiné ŕ ętre accueilli dans l'Olympe. Sa mčre Alcmčne, épouse fidčle du général thébain Amphitryon, avait plu ŕ Jupiter. Mais ce dernier n'avait pas pu s'approcher d'elle qu'en profitant d'une absence d'amphitryon et prenant son apparence. On sait comment un Moličre, puis un Giraudoux, ont conté ŕ leur maničre cette histoire scabreuse. Le présent tableau évoque l'épisode qui suit : celui oů l'enfant de ce faux adultčre révčle sa nature divine. Junon, dans sa jalousie, a envoyé deux serpents le tuer dans son berceau : mais le jeune Hercule, sans manifester de crainte, les étouffe. L'un est déjŕ mort, l'autre dresse encore une gueule impuissante. La scčne est donc commandée par un double ressort : l'épouvante et l'admiration. Elle se déroule dans un palais ŕ l'architecture sévčre, aux perspectives soigneusement dessinées, telles que Flémal aime ŕ les peindre. Quelques détails précisent l'histoire. Au centre accroché au mur, un bouclier orné de l'aigle et du foudre rappelle la présence de Jupiter. Le berceau d'Hercule est tendu d'une peau de lion, qui sera un jour son emblčme. Quoique la scčne se situe de nuit, Flémal n'a pas cherché un effet de type caravagesque. La robe d'Alcmčne introduit une belle tache jaune. Surtout le grand manteau bleu d'Amphitryon aux plis savamment sculptés, traduit avec une force sans égale l'élan d'un grand corps d'homme éperdu.

1598 Claude Mellan, French painter who died (full coverage) on 09 September 1688. —(060521)


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