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BIRTHS: 1828 KOLLER —  1846 MERSON — 1471 DÜRER 1844 “LE DOUANIER” 
click for full painting^ Born on 21 May 1828: Johann Rudolf Koller, Swiss painter who died on 05 January 1905. — {En colère, Koller devait coller des kollages, non?}
— Koller studied in Zürich under such artists as Johann Jakob Ulrich before going to Düsseldorf in 1846 to work with Carl Ferdinand Sohn. In 1847 he was in Paris where he shared a studio with Arnold Böcklin. Two years later he went to Munich where he worked with a group of artists called the ‘Schweizer’, whose leader was Johann Gottfried Steffan. He returned to Zürich in 1851 and painted mainly pastoral landscapes (e.g. Waterfall near Zürich, 1851) evoking prevailing romantic sensibilities. His later paintings combine realist subject-matter with a carefully arranged and executed classical composition. He frequently chose rustic farm scenes containing animals, whom he believed represented a dignified and pure image of nature that was to be treated with respect. He was often considered to be the 19th-century counterpart to Paulus Potter whose paintings of animals were emulated at the time. His works are similar to those of Rosa Bonheur, as seen in Cows in the Roman Countryside (1869).
      Koller's most celebrated painting is the Saint Gotthard Mailcoach (1873), which depicts a coach at full speed attempting to stop suddenly for a herd of cattle obstructing the narrow road. After 1870, problems with his eyesight forced him to paint less, yet even late in life he was still capable of producing such lyrical paintings as Horses at the Drinking Fountain (1890). With Frank Buchser and Gustave Castan he worked diligently to advance the status of Swiss painters in the second half of the 19th century.

LINKS
–- Gotthardpost (1873, 117x100cm; 806x700pix, 44kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x1222pix, 230kb) _ 1848 entstand aus dem altertümlichen Staatenbund der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft der moderne, föderalistische, demokratische Bundesstaat; gleichzeitig begann sich eine frische, an Begabungen reiche Künstlergeneration zu regen: Anker, Böcklin, Buchser, Koller, Stückelberg, Zünd u.a.m. erreichten mit ihrer eindrücklichen regionalen Ausprägung des internationalen Realismus für dies bisher eher periphere Land den Anschluss an die europäische Malerei. Mit künstlerischen Mitteln gestalten sie eine Wirklichkeit, die Allgemeines erkennen lässt: die Gotthardpost rollt über den damals erst seit wenigen Jahrzehnten fahrbaren Pass, auf dem während Jahrhunderten der Trott des Viehs das Tempo bestimmte: Koller komponiert sein berühmtes Gemälde so als eine Allegorie der Beschleunigung der Moderne.
–- Schimmelpaar Bei Herannahendem Gewitter (1877, 102x132cm; 642x850pix)
Kühe in der Schwemme (600x1048pix, 185kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2413pix, 638kb)
Mädchen mit Rind (1866; 600x488pix, 102kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1139pix)
The Richisau (1858)
Der Junge auf dem Schimmel (600x744pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1736pix)
Die Strickerin (600x518pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1209pix)
Kühe auf der Weide (600x902pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2105pix) _ One of the cows is confronting a lady with a young child in tow and a parasol.
Junger Mann mit Pferd an der Küste (25x40cm; 1347x1575pix, 383kb)

—(090328)
 ^ Born and baptized on 21 May 1846: Nicolas Luc-Olivier Merson, French painter and illustrator who died on 13 (14?) November 1920.
— He was the son of the painter and art critic Charles-Olivier Merson [1822–1902] and was trained initially at the École de Dessin in Paris under Gustave Adolphe Chassevent [1818–1901] and then at the École des Beaux-Arts under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils. He made his début at the Salon in 1867 and won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1869 with the melodramatic work, Le Soldat de Marathon (1869). As a prizewinner he then spent five years in Italy, where he was impressed and influenced by the works of the Italian Primitives, as is apparent in such works as St Edmund, King and Martyr (1871), with its muted colors and rigid composition. In the Salon of 1875 he exhibited Sacrifice for the Country, St Michael, which had been commissioned as a design for a Gobelins tapestry for the Salle des Evêques in the Panthéon, Paris. Soon afterwards he was chosen to decorate the Galerie de St Louis in the Palais de Justice, Paris, with scenes from the life of Louis IX. This resulted in two large works, Louis Opening the Doors of the Gaols on his Accession and Louis Condemning Sire Enguerrand de Coucy (both 1877). He also used historical, often religious, subjects for his smaller-scale works, as in St Francis of Assisi Preaching to the Fish (1880). Some, such as Le Repos Pendant la Fuite en Égypte (1880), resemble Symbolist art in their sense of mystery and use of diffuse light effects.
— Né d'un père peintre et critique d'art, Luc-Olivier Merson fut un peintre académique célèbre (parfois qualifié de peintre pompier) issu de l'École des Beaux-Arts à Paris. Elève de Gustave Chassevent et de Pils, il expose au Salon dès 1866. Après un séjour en Italie il réalise des toiles pseudo-médiévales, des sujets allégoriques, historiques et bibliques, il reçoit le prix de Rome d'histoire en 1869 avec Le Soldat de Marathon. Il entre à l'Institut en 1892, et est nommé professeur à l'Académie des Beaux-Arts en 1906. Il en démissionne en 1911, jugeant que celle-ci “abandonne sa vocation au profit des influences et procédés modernes.”
     Prénomé Nicolas comme le peintre Poussin, et Luc comme le saint qui réussit dit-on à reproduire les traits de la Vierge: la prédestination du jeune Nicolas Luc Olivier à peindre des sujets religieux était sans doute inéluctable... Olivier, son père issu d'une famille installée en Vendée au XVIII ème siècle, lui-même peintre, critique d'art et sous-inspecteur des musées avait sans doute placé beaucoup d'espoir en son fils.
      Bercés par une culture académique héritée de David et d'Ingres, les Merson fréquentaient régulièrement le Louvre en compagnie de leur fils et c'est très jeune qu'il entre dans l'atelier de Pils. Dès 1866 il expose au Salon sa première toile : Leucothoë et Anaxandre. Ce n'est pas un succès, mais on devine déjà dans ce tableau son talent de dessinateur qui ne sera jamais démenti et qui trouvera son apogée lorsque plus tard Merson abordera les vitraux et les illustrations de livres. Toute sa vie, Olivier témoignera envers son fils d'une profonde affection et d'une grande fierté.
      On peut considérer qu'il y a deux grandes périodes dans la vie de Luc-Olivier Merson : l'une heureuse et tranquille où malgré les terribles événements de 1870 et 1871, il est gai, enjoué, volontiers farçeur cabot même, puis, à partir de 1900 environ, une longue série de deuils (son fils, son épouse, son père) le plonge dans une tristesse quasi-permanente.
— Merson's students included Ben Foster, William Sergeant Kendall, René Auberjonois, Bertha Menzler-Payton, Jean-Louis Boussingault, Nicolae Darascu, André Dunoyer de Segonzac, Aleksandr Golovin, Jean Marchand, Bertrand Py.
Drawing of Merson (359x308pix, 35kb gif) by Quesnel.
— Caricature by Émile Cohl in La Caricature #386 of 21 May 1887: La Grande Revue des Peintres par le Général Boulanger (773x585pix, 127kb), where Merson has the sphinx of Repos under his arm. .

LINKS
La Vérité aka L'Espérance (1901, 221x372cm _ ZOOMable to 1288x2183pix, 1686kb)
Le Repos Pendant la Fuite en Égypte (1880 _ ZOOMable to 1502x2752pix, 1271kb)
Awakening Spring (62x92cm)
L'arrivée à Bethléem (1897)
Le Loup de Gubbio (1877, 88x133cm) _ detail
Une larme pour une goutte d'eau (1903; 700x427pix, 182kb)
 
click for full self-portrait^ Born on 21 May 1471: Albrecht Dürer, artist and mathematician, who died on 06 April 1528. 
            [click on image for complete self-portrait >]
            Albrecht Dürer died in Nürnberg, Germany, where he was born the son of a prosperous goldsmith Albrecht Dürer the Elder [1427-1502] who was his first art teacher, and Barbara Holper. His early training was in drawing, woodcutting and printing, which were to remain his main and favorite media throughout his artistic career. From 1486 through 1489 he was an apprentice in the workshop of Michael Wolgemut [1435-1519], Nuremberg's leading artiSaint Wolgemut was also a successful entrepreneur, handling a broad range of artistic work, such as painting altarpieces and portraits, designing stained glass and producing woodcut prints. He had one of the largest artist’s workshops in Germany.  Dürer also studied under Matthias Grünewald [1470-1528].
            He traveled much. In 1490 he left his native city for four year, probably initially visiting Cologne and possibly the Netherlands. He traveled to Italy twice in 1494-95 and 1505-07, visited Venice and Bologna, perhaps Florence and Rome. His fame was broadcast through his engravings, and artists in Italy were soon drawing on them for ideas. In Venice he knew and admired above all the aged Giovanni Bellini. In 1495 he established his own workshop in Nuremberg. 
            His best known works are his 18 engravings of the Apocalypse cycle, the most interesting of which is The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1498). One of his patrons was Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony from 1496, whose portrait he painted in 1496. He commissioned Dürer to paint several altarpieces: The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin (1497), The Jabach Altarpiece (1504), The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508 _ ZOOM to 1400x1213pix) and The Adoration by the Magi(1504), which is considered to be one of the Dürer's masterpieces. Dürer's other patrons for religious works were wealthy Nuremberg citizens, who commissioned the following pieces: Lot Fleeing with His Daughters from Sodom (1498), The Paumgartner Altarpiece (1504), Lamentation for Christ (1503), The Adoration of the Holy Trinity (1511), The Virgin and Child Before an Archway.
      Dürer was also known for his portraits, which were frequently commissioned from him. Among his best are Portrait of Dürer's Father at 70 (1497), Portrait of Oswolt Krel (1499), Portrait of Bernard von Reesen (1521), Portrait of Hieronymus Holzschuher (1526). He also painted several self-portraits, which give us the greatest insight into his character and beliefs: Self-Portrait at 13 (1484), Self-Portrait at 22 (1493), Self-Portrait at 26 (1498) and Self-Portrait at 28 (1500).
            Throughout his life Dürer produced a lot of watercolor landscapes and nature studies, the best are Saint John's Church (1489), House by a Pond (1496), Willow Mill (1496-1498), A Young Hare (1502), The Large Turf (1503).
            Dürer's greatest achievement in printmaking were the three engravings of 1513-1514, regarded as his masterpieces Knight, Death and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in His Study (1514) and Melancolia I (1514). After completing these engravings Dürer worked for the Emperor Maximilian , who commissioned him to design a huge print The Triumphal Arch, to celebrate the Emperor's achievements. This monumental project, composed of 192 woodblocks and 330 cm (11') high, is still the largest woodcut print ever made. In 1515 Emperor Maximilian granted him a pension of 100 florins, although it was stopped after his death in 1519. Dürer had to travel to the Netherlands in 1520-1521 to the court of the Emperor Charles V to have the pension confirmed. During his journey he met many famous Netherlands painters such as Quentin Massys, Joos van Cleve, Lucys van Leyden and others. In Antwerp he met Erasmus [27 Oct 1469 – 12 Jul 1536], the humanist scholar, and drew this: IMAGO•ERASMI •ROTERODA= MI •AB •ALBERTO •DVRERO •AD VIVAM •EFFIGIEM •DELINIATA • •MDXXVI • (engraving; 1600x1248pix, 668kb).
            Dürer became an early and enthusiastic follower of Martin Luther. His new faith can be sensed in the growing austerity of style and subject in his religious works after 1520. The climax of this trend is represented by The Four Holy Men (1526).
            Albrecht Dürer is akin to Leonardo [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] in his restless intellectual curiosity. He wrote and published theoretical works: Manual of Measurement (1525); Various Instructions for the Fortification of Towns, Castles and other Localities (1527). His Four Books on Human Proportion were published in October 1528. 
—     Dürer's assistants included Georg Pencz [1500-1550], Hans Leonhard Schäufelein [1480-1540], Wolf Traut.
—     Dürer's students included his brother Hans Dürer [21 Feb 1490 – 1538], Hans Baldung Grien [1484 – Sep 1545], Hans Süss von Kulmbach [1476-1522], Jan van Scorel [01 Aug 1495 – 06 Dec 1562].

click to ZOOM IN on complete pictureDürer's first Saint Jerome engraving. 
      On 08 August 1492 was published Saint Jerome's Letters at Bâle, Germany. The book itself was not as significant as its title page which was a woodcut by a rising 21-year-old artiSaint Within a few years men would say Germany had only two artists: Holbien and Dürer. Few would achieve Albrecht Dürer's equal with engravings.
      This early Saint Jerome was homey, set in a very European building. The lines were simple and yet the cloth of Jerome's robe is full of folds and encases all but the great scholar's face. The face seems somewhat anxious, not particularly scholarly or spiritual. Books stand on a shelf behind Jerome and there is some illusion of depth as the young artist works with the new Renaissance techniques of perspective and shadow. The lion at Jerome's feet, however, is almost a caricature. The whole is strong but static.
      In 1512 Dürer did a picture of Saint Jerome Seated Near a Pollard Willow. By then his mastery was complete. Using the techniques of dry point, he placed Jerome out of doors beneath a tree. Jerome looks every inch the prophet. His muscular arms are bare. He sits amidst rocky crags. The lion rests its head upon great padded feet. Jerome's hands are couched for prayer. Half-tones abound. The mastery of the earlier work is transcended. This Saint Jerome is considered one of the greatest works ever done, full of proportion and inner life. Dürer did another Jerome in 1514. This Saint Jerome in His Study (25x19cm; 642x491pix, 44kb _ ZOOM) is in an elongated room and shows perspective at its beSaint
      Dürer's work was no idle pleasure. It was not even merely an effort to support himself. It was instead an offering to God of the work of one's hands and a venture in Christian education. Few people could then read. Pictures were used in religious works to instruct the illiterate. Dürer did some of the beSaint Imbued with the Renaissance zest for knowledge and mastery of self and world and with a religious desire for a personal relationship with God, Dürer drew a simply incredible range of subject material into his largely religious work and did it all well -- allegories, animals, bible stories, buildings, fantasy, figure studies, plants, portraits, self-portraits, utensils.
      Soon after Martin Luther [10 Nov 1483 – 18 Feb 1546] posted his heretical Ninety-five Theses in Wittenberg (31 Oct 1517), Dürer unwittingly became his admirer. After Luther was “kidnapped” (04 May 1521) and rumored dead (it was not known that Luther had agreed to be “kidnapped” by supporters and taken to the castle of Wartburg to hide from those who might want to kill him as an outlaw), Dürer exclaimed in his diary, “O God, if Luther is dead, who will henceforth explain to us the gospel?” As many others at the time, Dürer thought of Luther as a promoter of needed reforms within the Catholic Church, which the artist had no intention of leaving. He would not abandon the faith of his deeply pious parents. Dürer died too soon to see the full import of Protestantism.
His art reflected his Catholic faith. In his Malencolia the dreadful apparition of a comet (representing God's wrath) is buried in a rainbow (representing his mercy). His work is an example of the vital role of the Christian faith in the arts in the history of the Western world. 

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1493; 600x448pix, 110kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1045pix)
Self-Portrait (1498; 600x464pix _ ZOOM to 1483x1146pix, 319kb)
Self Portrait (1500, 67x49cm; 1000x711pix, 140kb _ ZOOMable to 1947x1384pix, 233kb)
     _ detail: face (1712x1250pix, 207kb; which is on the scale of the whole picture 3505x2491pix _ ZOOMable)
Self Portrait at 13 (1484 drawing, _ ZOOMable)
–- Saint Jerome in His Study (1514) _ This Saint Jerome is in an elongated room and shows perspective at its beSaint
–- Saint Jerome in the Wilderness (1494)
–- Saint Jerome Penitent in the Landscape (1496)
–- Saint Jerome Seated Near a Pollard Willow (1512) _ Using the techniques of dry point, Dürer places Jerome out of doors beneath a tree. Jerome looks every inch the prophet. His muscular arms are bare. He sits amidst rocky crags. The lion rests its head upon great padded feet. Jerome's hands are couched for prayer. Half-tones abound. This Saint Jerome is considered one of the greatest works ever done, full of proportion and inner life.
–- Saint Jerome [with a headache?] (1521)
Der Jesusknabe unter den Schriftgelehrten (1506; 600x764pix _ ZOOM to 1166x1487pix, 286kb _ ZOOM++ to 1400x1783pix)

Der Jesusknabe unter den Schriftgelehrten (1506; 600x764pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1783pix)
Emperor Maximilian I (1519, 74x62cm _ _ ZOOMable)
Albrecht Dürer Sr. (1490, 47x39cm; _ ZOOMable)
Barbara Dürer (1490, 47x38cm; _ ZOOMable)
Adoration of the Trinity aka Landauer Altar (1511, 135x123cm; _ ZOOMable)
Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508, 99x87cm; _ ZOOMable)
Adam (1507, 209x81cm; _ ZOOM to 3336x1275pix, 350kb, as above)
Eve (1507, 209x81cm; _ ZOOMable)
Christ among the Doctors (1506, 65x80cm; _ ZOOMable)
get the BIG pictureMadonna with the Siskin (1506, 91x76cm; 1000x792pix, 293kb _ ZOOM to 3129x2352pix, 999kb) _ the siskin [>>>] is the small bird perched on the left arm of Jesus. It is a male Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus), a kind of finch.
A Young Venetian Woman (1505, 32x24cm; _ ZOOMable)
Oswolt Krel (1499, 50x39cm; 1000x761pix, 230kb _ ZOOM to 1827x1391pix, 331kb, as above _ ZOOM++ to 2397x1780pix cropped from 2397x1825pix, 322kb)
263 images at ARC
—(080514)

Died on a 21 May:


^ 2000 Waldo Aguiar Carmona, Madrid Spanish painter born in 1930, taught by his father José Aguiar García [18 Apr 1895 – 15 Feb 1976] and at the Facultad de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid.
El Arenal. Bilbao (1973; 570x655pix, 108kb)
Peces (1964, 38x55cm; 435x640pix, 159kb).
–- La Tierra (1955, 65x80cm; 500x660pix, 36kb) —(090521)

^ 1915 Max Alfred Buri, Swiss artist born on 24 July 1868. — {They did bury Buri, even if he didn't die of beri-beri.}{Where did they bury Buri's work that I can't find much of it on the Internet?} — While still at school he was given drawing lessons by Paul Volmar [1832–1906] in Berne. From 1883 he was a student of Fritz Schider [1846–1907] in Basle, where he became acquainted with the works of Hans Holbein the younger and Arnold Böcklin. In 1886 he went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich, transferring in 1887 to Simon Hollósy’s painting school. After seeing the works of the French Impressionists exhibited in Munich, he moved to the Académie Julian in Paris in 1889. He made several visits to Algeria, Holland, Belgium and England, and in 1893 he returned to Munich to study under Albert von Keller. In 1898 he settled in Switzerland, living first at Lucerne, then from 1903 in Brienz, near Interlaken. About 1900, influenced by the paintings of Ferdinand Hodler, Buri moved on from his early genre pictures, which were in mawkish shades of pink in the style of Keller and Hóllosy, to achieve an individual style that brought him great popularity. He established his reputation with Village Politicians (1904). He painted mainly the landscape and people of the Bernese Oberland, often depicting single figures and groups in front of bare indoor walls in realistic everyday scenes. The expressiveness of the compositions is achieved by clear contours and powerful clearly differentiated surfaces in local colors. Buri’s works are essentially populist rather than intellectual and avoid Hodler’s strict parallelism and Symbolist content.
Kunstsalon Wolfsberg (1913; 425x316pix, 51kb)

^ 1875 Johann Adam Klein, German painter and printmaker born on 24 (25?) November 1792. — [Klein was not gross.] — He received his first lessons in drawing in 1801 from Georg Christoph Gottlieb von Bemmel [1765–1811] and, from 1802 to 1805, trained at the Städtische Zeichenschule in Nuremberg under Gustav Philipp Zwinger [1744–1813]. In 1805 he entered the Nuremberg studio of Ambrosius Gabler [1762–1834], who instructed him in printmaking techniques, introduced him to Dutch 17th-century paintings and etchings and took him on sketching trips in the countryside around Nuremberg. Klein’s watercolor sketches made on such occasions were later published in Nuremberg (1820–1830) as outline engravings by Philip Heinrich Dunker. Under Gabler, Klein also started (1808) to make prints, initially lithographs, again favoring landscape views. He also made copies of watercolors by Wilhelm von Kobell, with the artist’s permission. — At the age of thirteen, Klein was apprenticed to the engraver Ambrosius Gabler, who instructed him in printmaking techniques, introduced him to Dutch 17th century painting and took him on sketching trips in the countryside around Nuremberg. Klein also began to make prints, initially landscape views and copies of watercolors by Wilhelm von Kobell. In 1811, Klein settled in Vienna and pursued his studies at the academy. In 1815 he returned briefly to Nuremberg and went on sketching tours of the Rhine and Main valleys. He lived and worked in Vienna again from 1816 to 1818, where his artist friends introduced him to aristocratic patrons and to publishers who took an interest in his prints and drawings. In 1817, Klein obtained the patronage of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, the French ambassador Marquis de Caraman and also attracted the attention of Clemens Prince Metternich. Towards the end of 1819, Klein traveled via Switzerland to Rome, where he remained until 1821 and became acquainted with Joseph Anton Koch and Johann Christian Reinhart. He spent the remainder of his long, successful life in Nuremberg and Munich, where he died in 1875. — badlinkSF#>Portrait of Klein (oval etching, 19x13cm) by J.G. Mansfeld
Cattle in an Alpine Landscape near Berchtesgaden (1819, 18x20cm) _ In August 1818, Klein undertook a walking tour from Salzburg to Berchtesgaden together with his artist friends Johann Christoph Erhard, Ernst Welker and the brothers Friedrich Philipp and Heinrich Reinhold . This painting, made in Klein’s Munich studio or later in Nuremberg, is a document of this journey. It depicts mountains north of Berchtesgaden towards Salzburg and provides a topographically exact view: the Reiteralpe on the left, next to it the Müllner Horn, in front the Fuder Heuberg and the Staufen, with the Loferer Steinberge in the distance. In Munich, Klein held close contact with Albrecht Adam and Wilhelm von Kobell, whose influence is clearly visible in this picture.
41 etchings at FAMSF — (060518)

^ 1868 Jean-Antoine Duclaux, French painter born on 26 June 1783.
Inside of a Stable (1817, 119x183cm)

^ 1819 Dionys van Dongen, Dutch painter born on 03 September 1748 in Dordrecht. He was first a flower painter in Breda, and later became the student for two years of the flower painter J. Xavery in The Hague. In 1771 he moved to Rotterdam where he studied the works of of Cuyp, Potter and Wijnants. His studio became a popular meeting place and his work achieved a certain reputation. An affliction of the eyes is said to have prevented him painting in old age. He died in Rotterdam. The few works now recorded include landscapes, animal subjects and seascapes, and reflect his admiration for seventeenth-century Dutch painting.
Cattle (1797, 40x37cm)
Mountain Lake Landscape (220x293pix, 7kb)

^ 1813 Christiaen van Pol, Dutch artist born on 14 March 1752.
Flower Still Life


Born on a 21 May:


^ 1949 Stephen Gjertson, US Classical Realist painter.
27 images at ARC 22 of them ZOOMable. —(061016)

^ 1939 Peter Phillips, English painter and printmaker. He studied at Moseley Road Secondary School of Art in Birmingham, a school of applied arts, from 1953 to 1955, continuing his training at Birmingham College of Art (1955–1959) and the Royal College of Art in London (1959–1962). There, in the company of like-minded students, he produced some of the earliest works of Pop art. Entertainment Machine (1961, 183x183cm) typically places imagery from popular culture, such as comic books and pinball machines, within a formalized, symmetrical format derived equally from Italian pre-Renaissance altarpieces and geometrical abstraction. In 1964 Phillips left England, initially moving to the US on a Harkness Fellowship (1964–1966) before making his home in Switzerland; in 1988 he settled in Mallorca. In New York he began using airbrushes to produce a sleek and homogeneous, mechanical-looking finish, suggesting an ironic identification with factory production. He elaborated on this metaphor in 1965 by setting up a market research partnership, Hybrid Enterprises, with another English artist, Gerald Laing [1936~]. They sent detailed questionnaires to collectors, dealers and critics, using the tabulated data to produce an edition of a sculpture that reflected as accurately as possible the requirements of contemporary taste. In his Custom Painting series, initiated in 1964, Phillips recycled images taken from printed sources, without comment but in deliberately jarring juxtapositions. He took the machine aesthetic further than the other British Pop artists, sometimes working on a huge, billboard-like scale and implying that his pictorial elements were interchangeable parts. Works from his Mosaikbild series of the mid-1970s, conceived in friendly competition with US Photorealism, were virtuoso demonstrations of airbrush technique. In 1980 Phillips moved away for a time from Pop to a more reticent idiom, in which fragments of barely recognizable images, floating in dense fields of color, are depicted with an almost hallucinatory intensity (e.g. Entanglement Series: Perpetual Flux, 1982) — LINKS
Art-O Matic
Custom Painting No 5
For Men Only: MM and BB as stars
Lions vs Eagles
30 images at Tate — (060619)

^ >1897 Conrad Felix Müller “Felixmüller”, German Expressionist printmaker who died on 24 March 1977. — Not to be confused with Felix Müller [21 Oct 1904 – 29 Oct 1997] — From 1911 to 1915 Conrad Felix Müller (later Felixmüller) attended the School of Applied Arts in Dresden. He met Arnold Schonberg in 1914 and immediately became a member of the Dresden Secession. During his stay in Berlin in 1915 he met Ludwig Meidner and started working for Der Sturm periodical. Between 1916-27 he contributed to Die Aktion, a similar publication. Felixmuller joined the November Group in 1919 after founding the Dresden Secession Group. In 1923 he met Frans Masereel and exhibited at the National Gallery in Berlin. Felixmuller's work was shown at both the Nazi exhibition Reflections of Decay in 1933 and the Entartete Kunst exhibition in Munich in 1937. He visited Norway and England in 1938-39. After the war he was appointed Professor at the Martin Luther University from 1949-1962. — Conrad Felixmüller wurde am 21. Mai 1897 in Dresden geboren. Nachdem er 1911 ein Musikstudium aufgab, begann er 1912 ein Studium an der Kunstakademie in Dresden; 1914 wurde er Meisterschüler von Carl Bantzer. 1915 machte er sich als freischaffender Künstler selbständig und stellte 1916 in der Galerie "Sturm" (Berlin) und 1917 in der Galerie Hams Goltz (München) aus, im selben Jahr noch wurde er zum Militärdienst eingezogen. 1919 wurde er Gründungsmitglied und Präsident der "Dresdner Sezession" und Mitglied der "Novembergruppe". 1928 erhielt er den "Großen Preis des Dresdner Kunstvereins" und stellte 1929 in der Berliner Galerie Gurlitt aus. 1936 waren rund 40 seiner Werke Teil Bestandteil der nationalsozialistischen Ausstellung Entartete Kunst, Felixmüller wurde aus dem Berliner Künstlerbund ausgeschlossen, seine Bilder aus allen öffentlichen Sammlungen entfernt. Die Nationalsozialisten vernichteten zwischen 1938 und 1939 insgesamt 151 seiner Werke. Felixmüllers' auch künstlerisch bedeutender schriftlicher Nachlass liegt seit 1980 im Archiv für Bildende Kunst des Germanischen Nationalmuseums. Felixmüller gilt heute als einer der wichtigsten und inzwischen auch teuersten Expressionisten der Dresdner Malschule. Conrad Felixmüller starb am 24. März 1977 in Berlin-Zehlendorf. — Nach dem Besuch der Dresdner Kunstgewerbeschule, wo Felixmüller ein Jahr lang Zeichenunterricht nimmt, tritt er 1912 zuerst in die Privatschule des Künstlers Ferdinand Dorsch und noch im selben Jahr in die Klasse von Professor Carl Bantzer in der Kgl. Kunstakademie in Dresden ein, um seine Ausbildung als Maler zu beginnen. Als Felixmüller 1915 die Akademie verlässt, ist er als freischaffender Künstler in Dresden tätig, hält sich aber öfter in Berlin auf, wo er im Atelier von Ludwig Meidner malt und außerdem an der von Herwarth Walden herausgegebenen Zeitschrift 'Der Sturm' mitarbeitet. Mit dem Buchhändler Felix Stiemer zusammen gründet der Künstler 1917 die Kunst- und Literaturzeitschrift 'MENSCHEN', bei der er, ebenso wie beim 'Sturm', als grafischer Gestalter tätig ist. Daneben finden Ausstellungen bei Hans Goltz in München und zusammen mit Heckel, Kirchner und Schmidt-Rottluff in der Galerie Arnold in Dresden statt. Dorthin übersiedelt Felixmüller 1918. Er wird Gründer und Vorsitzender der 'Dresdner Sezession' und Mitglied der 'November-Gruppe'. Nebenbei arbeitet er an verschiedenen Zeitschriften (z.B. 'Die Sichel', Regensburg; 'Rote Erde', Hamburg) mit und veröffentlicht eigene literarische Texte wie z.B. die Autobiografie 'Mein Werden' (Kunstblatt) oder Gedanken über 'Künstlerische Gestaltung' (Kestnerbuch, Hannover). Felixmüllers bildnerisches Schaffen ist in der Frühphase von starken Einflüssen des Expressionismus bestimmt, den er im sozialkritischen Sinn versteht und bald zu einem expressiven Realismus von individueller Prägung transformiert. In den kraftvollen Linien der Holzschnitte hält er Szenen des alltäglichen Lebens fest. Um 1930 zeigen sich Tendenzen zu einem Wandel, der sich thematisch in einer zunehmend genrehaften, erzählerischen Entwicklung, formal in dem Streben nach einer ruhigeren Bildsprache äußert. 1933 ist Felixmüller mit 40 Arbeiten in der Dresdner Ausstellung 'Entartete Kunst' zu sehen. In der Hoffnung auf freiere Arbeitsmöglichkeiten übersiedelt er 1934 nach Berlin-Charlottenburg. 1937 werden 151 Werke des Künstlers aus öffentlichem Besitz beschlagnahmt. Als 1941 das Berliner Domizil durch Bomben zerstört wird, findet Felixmüller Asyl in Damsdorf in der Mark. 1944 zieht er nach Tautenhain, wird aber noch im selben Jahr zum Kriegsdienst einberufen. Nach kurzer sowjetischer Kriegsgefangenschaft kehrt er 1945 nach Tautenhain zurück. 1949 erfolgt die Berufung zum Professor an die Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle mit einem Lehrauftrag für Zeichnen und Malen innerhalb der Pädagogischen Fakultät. Als er 1961 emeritiert wird, geht Felixmüller zurück nach Berlin. Ab dem Kriegsende bis zu seinem Tod im Jahr 1977 finden zahlreiche Ausstellungen in beiden Teilen Deutschlands sowie in Paris, Rom, Bologna und Florenz statt. — LINKS
Self-Portrait (woodcut; 800x554pix, kb)
Death of the Poet Walter Rheiner (1925; 800x480pix, 100kb) _ Drug addict Walter Heinrich Schnorrenberg “Walter Rheiner” [18 Mar 1895 – 12 Jun 1925], a friend of Felixmüller, commited suicide by taking an overdose of morphine and jumping out of a window. This monumental and powerful painting represents the peak of Felixmüller’s artistic career. Charged with personal symbolism and an apocalyptic vision, it is undoubtedly one of the most haunting and dramatic icons of German Expressionist art. Felixmüller chose to depict Rheiner as he is reaching for the curtain to leap through the open window into the pulsating urban nightscape of Berlin, clutching a syringe in his large, over-emphasised hand. The painting thereby dramatically captures the moment between life and death as the poet makes his wild and violent suicide leap. In the years before his suicide, the young poet suffered from severe depression and had turned to cocaine and morphine for consolation, which Felixmüller makes reference to by depicting him with syringe in hand. In the portrait Felixmüller also depicts Rheiner with elements of the artist’s physiognomy, thus extending the meaning of the poet’s image beyond its bibliographical significance and creating a more personal statement of the artist’s angst-ridden self.
Workers on Their Way Home (800x778pix, 157kb) two of them, one young and one old, both apparently suffering from some sort of green leprosy of the face and from twisted noses.
–- Clemens Braun (1931, 115x75pix; 1131x730pix, 36kb) sold for $1'136'000 at Sotheby's on 02 November 2005. Mostly black and near-black.
Walter Kunzel (1922 drawing, 65x50cm)
Brüder am Rhein (1920 drypoint, 27x28cm) — (070516)

^ 1889 Jan Trampota, Czech landscape painter who died on 19 October 1942. Jan Trampota pochází z peti detí žižkovského obuvníka Jana Trampoty a jeho manželky Vendelíny Trampotové. Narodil se v Praze 21. kvetna 1889. V roce 1910 se celá rodina krome Jana odstehovala do Ameriky. V letech 1907 až 1909 studoval na Umeleckoprumyslove škole u profesora Dítete a vecerní akt u profesora Preislera. Predtím se vyucil zahradníkem. V r. 1913 byl prijat do SVU Mánes a úcastnil se spolecných výstav i v zahranicí. V r. 1915 pobýval spolecne s prítelem socharem Josefem Kubíckem a O. Nejedlým v Nové Vsi u Chotebore u mecenášky J. Mixove-Štastné. V letech 1916 až 1918 bojoval na jižní fronte, pobyl v Salcburku, Bergheimu a pozdeji v Novu Ledu, Fondu a Male. V roce 1918 jej pozval sochar Kubícek k sobe do Nových Hradu u Vysokého Mýta a spolecne v dubnu 1919 vystavovali v Praze. Byla to jeho první souborná výstava. V roce 1921 se oženil a narodil se mu syn Vratislav. V tomto roce jej pozval Josef Kubícek do svého rodište Slatiny nad Zdobnici. Roku 1922 navštívil Slovensko a Uherské Hradište, kde vzniklo nekolik obrazu a rada kreseb. V roce 1923 se usídlil v Pecíne u Žamberka, kde zustal až do konce života. V dubnu 1927 se konala druhá Trampotova souborná výstava v Mánesu a téhož roku v Hradci Králové. V r. 1928 mu umírá manželka. V roce 1929 opet vystavuje v Hradci Králove. V letech 1930 - 1931 pobyl spolecne s prítelem Rudolfem Kremlickou ve Francii a oblíbil si normandský Etretat. V kvetnu a cervnu vystavuje na páté souborné výstave v Praze v Mánesu výber obrazu z Normandie. Vrací se již natrvalo do Pecína, uzavren do soukromí. Roku 1939 zacala kritická fáze malírovy choroby. Vznikají vrcholná díla druhého pecínského období, maluje zátiší, která zustala již nedokoncená. Zemrel 19. ríjna 1942 v Podebradech.
Cervene strechy (384x438pix, 77kb gif)
Stran (93x115cm; 523x600pix; 164kb gif)
Humna v Novych Hradech (1915, 70x96cm; 442x600pix, 130kb gif)
Podzim we Slatinê (1921, 73x101cm; 488x600pix, 173kb)
Rûzová Zima (1940, 87x105cm; 515x600pix, 155kb gif)
Pecin (1915, 29x44cm; 267x400pix, 24kb)
Kostelík (1915, 27x15cm; 500x344pix, 111kb)

^ 1857 (or 12 May?) Emilio Boggio, Venezuelan French artist who died on 07 May (or in June?) 1920. He traveled to France in 1864 and studied at the Lycée Michelet in Paris until 1870. He returned to Caracas in 1873 but made a second journey to Paris in 1877, where he was a student of Jean-Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian. In 1889 Boggio was awarded the bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. Between 1907 and 1909 he lived in Italy, where he painted seascapes. Boggio excelled in landscape painting, and Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro were decisive influences on the Impressionist style of his work. In 1919 he stayed briefly in Caracas and held an exhibition at the Academia de Bellas Artes, which greatly influenced local artistic circles. Notable among his works was End of the Day (1912) — Nació en Caracas en 1857 y murió en 1920. Estudió pintura en París. Comenzó a exhibir su trabajo en el salón de Artistas Franceses y fue un importante miembro del Salón de Otoño de París. En vida el artista decidió no realizar exposiciones individuales, haciendo una sola excepción en el Salón de la Escuela de Bellas Artes en 1919. Influenciado por la escuela impresionista francesa, Boggio fue un inspirador de nuevos movimientos en la pintura Venezolana.
Viejo Rodolfo (1919, 33x50cm)
Manzano en Flor (1910, 54x64cm)
Costa de la Liguria (1908, 38x55cm)
Río Oisse (1908, 51x61cm)

1844 Henri Julien Félix “le Douanier” Rousseau, French painter who died (full coverage) on 02 September 1843. — (050831)

^ 1844 Edmond-Georges Grandjean, French painter of genre subjects and portraits who died in 1908. He was born in Paris. Having finished his schooling in 1862, he decided to take up a career in art, and began studying at the Beaux-Arts school. During this time he was a student of Yvon, Signol, and Pils. Throughout the nineteenth century Paris was considered by European artists, writers and musicians to be the cultural capital of the world. Evoking both the anxiety and excitement of the modern era, the broad boulevards of Napolean III’s capital offered wide vistas from which to see and be seen. In his studio in Passy, Grandjean reworked the street scenes which he sketched throughout the city of Paris including Le Boulevard des Italiens, Les Champs-Élyseés, and La Place Saint-Georges. Capturing the architectural splendor of the city in his spacious compositions, Grandjean represented the beauty and isolation of urban life, specifically the domain of Baudelaire’s elusive flaneur.
View of the Champs-Elysées from the Place de l'Étoile in Paris (1878, 85x36cm; 561x912pix, 218kb)
Le Boulevard des Italiens
La Place Saint-Georges (1879, 75x100cm) _ detail

^ 1826 Adolf Heinrich Lier, German landscape painter who died on 30 September 1882. — {Lier liar lyre player? No}{Fou à lier, Lier? Non. — Allié, Lier? Ça dépend avec qui.}
Die Theresienwiese mit der Bavaria bei Abenlicht (1882, 110x205cm; 367x700pix, 93kb)
Sommerlandschaft am Starnberg See (1858, 42x76cm; 298x558pix plus frame, 139kb)
Russiche Fürstin (1863, 67x83cm; 485x395pix plus frame, 254kb)


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