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ART “4” “2”-DAY  20 May v.8.40
^ Born on 20 May 1856: Henri-Edmond Delacroix “Cross”, French Pointillist painter who died on 16 May 1910.
— Henri was the only surviving child of Alcide Delacroix, a French adventurer and failed businessman, and the British-born Fanny Woollett. He was encouraged as a youth to develop his artistic talent by his father’s cousin, Dr Auguste Soins. He enrolled in 1878 at the Écoles Académiques de Dessin et d’Architecture in Lille, where he remained for three years under the guidance of Alphonse Colas [1818–1887]. He then moved to Paris and studied under Émile Dupont-Zipcy [1822–1865], also from Douai, whom he listed as his teacher when exhibiting at Salons of the early 1880s. His few extant works from this period are Realist portraits and still-lifes, painted with a heavy touch and somber palette
— Henri-Edmond Delacroix did not want to be confused with the great Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix [26 Apr 1798 – 13 Aug 1863] (as if there had been any danger of that!). So, since his mother was English, he Anglicized his name in 1881. Cross studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lille, and in Paris with François Bonvin. In 1884 he helped organize the Salon des Indépendants, where Georges Seurat exhibited his first painting in the divisionist style. Inspired by this new work, Cross abandoned his academic style and became a follower of Seurat. As a member of the group variously called the divisionists, pointillists, or neoimpressionists, Cross utilized a technique of juxtaposing small dots of pure color to define objects and planes and to create effects of light and shadow.

Self Portrait with Cigarette (1880) _ {Did he die of lung cancer?}
— Woman Combing her Hair (1892)
Evening Breeze (1894)
The Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli near Assisi (1909)
La Terrasse Fleurie
Soleil couchant sur la lagune,Venice
Femmes liant la vigne (1890)
The Flowered Column (1901) _ The Flowered Column (1901) two slightly different versions, the first one with brighter colors.
101 images at the Athenaeum
^Died on 20 May 1965: Charles Camoin, French Fauvist painter born on 23 September 1879. — {C'est Camoin qu'a moins de quoi? — De ses oeuvres dignement représentées dans l'internet. Je ne trouve que quelques images pas beaucoup plus grandes que des timbres-poste.}. {Et penser qu'il aurait suffit d'intervertir son nid et son eau pour qu'il soit un camion!}
— After the death of his father, Charles was brought up by his mother alone, whose endless travels seem to have affected his studies. At 16 he simultaneously enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts, Marseille, which he attended in the morning, and at the École de Commerce. After winning a prize for drawing, he was encouraged by his mother to enter Gustave Moreau’s studio at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which he did in May 1898, shortly before Moreau’s death. Although he barely had time to derive any benefit from Moreau’s teaching, he formed several lasting friendships among fellow students later associated with Fauvism: Manguin, Puy [1876-1960], Rouault, Matisse, and especially Marquet [27 Mar 1875 – 13 Jun 1947], with whose work his own shows marked affinities.
— Charles Camoin loses his father at an early age. It is thus his mother who enrolls him at the Beaux-Arts de Paris where he establishes an undying friendship with Henri Matisse and Alber Marquet. Charles Camoin spends his childhood between Paris, and southern towns which exert an irresistible attraction on him: Nice, Cannes, Marseille. During his military service, for which he's transferred to Aix-en-Provence, the young man provokes a meeting with Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906], with whom he will correspond actively up until the latter's death. Beginning in 1903, Camoin exhibits at the Independent's then at the Fall Salon, namely at the 1905 Salon where "Fauvism" breaks out. Quickly recognized, Camoin abandons fauvism in favor of a more gentle painting and avoids the major intellectual and artistic movements of his time such as Dadaism and Cubism. Following the rupture caused by the First World War and after his marriage in 1920, Camoin divides his time between Paris and Saint-Tropez, whose port he loves to paint, simplifying the contours and playing with light. Camoin paints portraits and also views, bouquets, and countless marine landscapes. Nobody could define his interests better than the painter himself: “I still consider myself a Fauve. there are two kinds of colors, real ones and superficial ones. You have to choose. I think you must deal with the real ones and it's what I've done since the outset”. Charles Camoin died in Paris.
— Camoin was born in Marseille and met Matisse in the class taught by Gustave Moreau [06 Apr 1826 – 18 Apr 1898] at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Matisse [31 Dec 1869 – 03 Nov 1954] and his friends (including Camoin, Henri Manguin [1874-1949], Albert Marquet, and Georges Rouault [27 May 1871 – 13 Feb 1958]), joined by André Derain [10 Jun 1880 – 08 Sep 1954] and Maurice de Vlaminck [04 Apr 1876 – 11 Oct 1958], two close friends then sharing a studio, and slightly after by Braque [13 May 1882 – 31 Aug 1963], Dufy [03 Jun 1877 – 23 Mar 1953], and Kees van Dongen [26 Jan 1877 – 28 May 1968], formed the original group mockingly labeled Les Fauves for their wild, expressionist use of color and their general refusal to paint like anyone else then showing at the salons. Camoin always remained close to Matisse, whose portrait he painted {not found on the Internet}, but he also came to admire Cézanne, Renoir [25 Feb 1841 – 03 Dec 1919], and Bonnard [03 Oct 1867 – 23 Jan 1947].

Voiliers à Ploumanach aka Marine (1931, 33x46cm) _ Ce voilier devant l'un des célèbres rochers de granit rose de Ploumanach, appelé en raison de sa forme "le chapeau de Napoléon" a été peint lors du séjour de Camoin chez ses amis Eiffel. Suivant une touche légère et fluide, Camoin joue avec dextérité et liberté des effets colorés et lumineux, animant cette paisible "marine" de quelques taches et coups de pinceau. Elle apparaît plus "méditerranéenne" que "bretonne" et montre que le peintre, profondément marqué par la lumière du midi, n'a pu, à l'occasion de ses trop courts séjours en Bretagne, prendre en compte les caractères particuliers des paysages et de la lumière.
Une Sévillaine (1907; 800x626pix, 82kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1096pix)
Cargo à Saint-Tropez (80x122cm)
Le Port de Saint-Tropez (1907, 32x47cm; 272x420pix, 42kb)
Minaret à Tanger (1913, 65x81cm; 484x600pix, 37kb)
Nature Morte aux Tomates (26x41cm, 363x624pix, 30kb)
— Nature Morte aux Zinias (525x655pix, 34kb)
Portrait (26x21cm, 591x432pix, 72kb)
Rue de Montmartre (14x18cm, 432x553pix, 63kb)
^ Born on 20 May 1726: Francis Cotes, English painter and pastelist who died on 19 July 1770. — [Is it true that, when applying paint to canvas, he would have preferred several Cotes, but could not find any relative to assist him?]
— He was the son of an apothecary and the elder brother of miniaturist Samuel Cotes [1734–1818]. About 1741 Francis Cotes was apprenticed to George Knapton, who taught him to paint in oil and to draw in crayon, at which he became very accomplished. Rosalba Carriera had popularized crayon portraiture among Grand Tourists in Venice, and her example no doubt helped Cotes in his early work. Nevertheless, he did not imitate her soft modeling and delicate color in such portraits as Elizabeth, Lady Carysfoot (1751), in which he used bold tones, strong lines, and an almost universal portrait format, established in the 1740s and 1750s. He was fortunate in making crayon portraits of Maria Gunning and Elizabeth Gunning (1751; various versions), as his work reached a wide public through engravings made after them. Between 1753 and 1756 the Swiss pastelist Jean Etienne Liotard was in England, and his realistic approach to portraiture persuaded Cotes to abandon the Rococo portrait type. In Taylor White (1758) he adopted a very naturalistic pose, in which the sitter is seen to be engaged in checking ledgers — an appropriate pose for the Treasurer of Thomas Coram’s hospital for abandoned children.
— Cotes was born in London, the eldest child of Robert Cotes and his second wife Elizabeth Lynn. At about the age of fifteen he entered the studio of George Knapton, who worked in pastel in the style of Rosalba as well as in oils. He began practice as a portraitist in his father's house on Cork Street, deriving from him an understanding of chemistry, the basis of his expertise in making pastels. Cotes' reputation was assured by the pastels he did in 1751 of the beautiful Gunning sisters, then idolized by society and the populace. His practice in oils dates from the late 1750s. In 1763 Cotes bought the large and elegant house on fashionable Cavendish Square later occupied by George Romney, took in students, of whom Russell was the principal, and employed Peter Toms as his drapery painter. He exhibited each year at the Society of Artists, becoming a director in 1765, the year he married Sarah (whose parentage is unknown). Forced, as a result of intrigue, to resign along with fifteen other directors in 1768, he was responsible, with William Chambers, Benjamin West, and Mary Moser, for founding the Royal Academy of Arts. He exhibited there from 1769 to 1770. He was then at the peak of his career, patronized and highly regarded by the royal family. He died in Richmond on 19 July 1770.
— Peter Toms was an assistant of Cotes. — John Russell was a student of Cotes.

Admiral Thomas Craven [1715-1772]
Admiral Edward Hawke [21 Feb 1710 – 17 Oct 1781] (1770, 127x102cm; 865x700pix, 117kb) _ The sitter wears a British flag-officer's undress uniform, 1767-1783, of blue jacket and gold braid with the ribbon and star of the Order of Bath and a tie-wig. He stands against a rocky background with, on the left, the fleet at anchor together with a barge flying the Union flag. Hawke is best known for his defeat of the French fleet in Quiberon Bay in November 1759, an extremely hazardous action fought close in on a rocky coast, in the fading light of a November evening.
     As commander of the fleet blockading the French naval station of Brest in 1759, Hawke played a vital role in the conquest of Canada by the British when he prevented reinforcements from reaching the French army in Canada. The French decided, as a counteroffensive, to invade Great Britain; the French fleet at Brest was crucial to this plan. On 14 November 1759, the French admiral Hubert de Brienne, comte de Conflans [1690-1777], taking advantage of an opening in Hawke's blockade, headed southeast from Brest along the French coast to pick up troops for the invasion. On 20 November Hawke's fleet of some 23 ships caught up with Conflans' 21-vessel squadron and drove it into Quiberon Bay. During a three-hour battle, an extremely hazardous action fought close in on a rocky coast, in the fading light of a November evening, and its aftermath, nine French ships were destroyed, and the French unit was rendered incapable of further aggressive action. Hawke then retired from sea duty. He served as first lord of the Admiralty from 1766 to 1771.
Anna Maria Astley, Aged Seven, and her Brother Edward, Aged Five and a Half (1767, 200x160cm) _ The children's father Sir Edward Astley [bap. 26 Dec 1729 – 27 Mar 1802], of Melton Constable, Norfolk, represented the county in Parliament from 1768 to 1790. The mother of these children was the second of his three wives, Anne Milles [–11 Jul 1792], daughter of Christopher Milles of Nackington who is thought to have commissioned this portrait. Children's groups were always a challenge to artists, since they required more informality, movement, and inventiveness than adult portraiture. Cotes uses here the playful device of Anna Maria trying to run off with her brother's magnificent hat. The huge dog reminds us that these are still small children. Anna Maria's vitality is deceptive: she was to die the following year. Little Edward John Astley [11 Jul 1761 — 03 Jun 1806] grew up to pursue a successful career in the army in which he rose to colonel. Benjamin West [10 Oct 1738 – 11 Mar 1820] painted in 1771 Sir Edward Astley's portrait {not found on the Internet} of which, in the same year, Richard Earlom [1743 – 09 Oct 1822] made this engraving (51x31cm; 360x282pix, 34kb)
Portrait of a Lady (1768, 127x 102cm) _ This elegant and ornamental portrait is a fine example of Cotes's style, which emphasises outward fashion opposed to depiction of character. The sitter, whose identity is not certain, sits on a garden bench in an artificial yet striking pose. Her gown and its lace are arranged decoratively about her, the pink and white coloring echoed by the foxgloves behind her, and the roses in the urn on the left.The portrait was painted in 1768, the same year as the foundation of the Royal Academy. Cotes was one of its founder members, which his prominent signature on the tree trunk, 'F Cotes RA px', proudly announces.
Paul Sandby (1761, 125x100cm) _ Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the idea of the artist became romanticized. Here, the landscape painter Paul Sandby [Jan 1731 – 07 Nov 1809] is shown in a relaxed attitude, sketching a view beyond the open window. His enraptured gaze and the fact that he is looking out of the window, rather than self-consciously presenting himself to the viewer, shows a new attitude towards the idea of the artist, emphasising his emotional involvement with his subject matter rather than his position in society.
^Beerbohm caricaturesDied on 20 May 1956: Sir Henry Maximilian Beerbohm
     Born on 24 August 1872, he was an English caricaturist, writer, dandy, and wit whose sophisticated drawings and parodies were unique in capturing, usually without malice, whatever was pretentious, affected, or absurd in his famous and fashionable contemporaries. He was accustomed to fashionable society from his boyhood.
      While still an undergraduate at Merton College, Oxford, he published witty essays in the famous Yellow Book. In 1895 he toured the United States as press agent for Beerbohm Tree's theatrical company. His first literary collection, The Works of Max Beerbohm, and his first book of drawings, Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, appeared in 1896. In 1898 he succeeded Shaw as drama critic of the Saturday Review. His charming fable The Happy Hypocrite appeared in 1897 and his only novel, Zuleika Dobson, a burlesque of Oxford life, in 1911. The Christmas Garland (1912) is a group of Christmas stories that mirror the stylistic faults of a number of well-known writers, notably Henry James. His collection of stories, Seven Men (1919), is a masterpiece.
      In 1910 Beerbohm married the US-born British actress Florence Kahn, and they settled in Rapallo, Italy, where, except for a return to England for the duration of World Wars I and II, they made their home for the rest of their lives. Though Beerbohm's caricatures hit home, they remained civilized criticism and seldom alienated their subjects. In spite of the fun he had caricaturing successive generations of the royal family, he was knighted in 1939.
      The only two targets he attacked with ferocity were British imperialism in the persona of a blustering John Bull -- and Rudyard Kipling. As a parodist, he is frequently held to be unsurpassed.

When Labour Rules (1920, 25x30cm; half~size)
Sketch for "The Trick Election” (1921)
First study for Si Vieillesse (1921)
Walt Whitman, Inciting the Bird (1904)
26 images at the Tate
Caricatures of Sargent: -1-   -2-   -3-   -4-
Images from Rossetti and His Circle

  • And Even Now
  • And Even Now
  • Seven Men
  • The Works of Max Beerbohm
  • Yet Again
  • Yet Again
  • Zuleika Dobson
  • Zuleika Dobson

  • Died on a 20 May:

    ^ 1975 Barbara Hepworth, British abstract sculptor and draftswoman born on 10 January 1903, dies as the result of a fire in her studio, perhaps caused by a cigarette setting fire to the bedclothes. — LINKS

    1886 Pierre-Édouard Frère, French painter born on 10 January 1819. — Il était le frère du peintre orientaliste Charles-Théodore Frère [21 Jun 1814 – 24 Mar 1888] — {Ils avaient un Frère pour père sans que cela soit le moins du monde anormal.}— At the age of 17, Édouard Frère entered the atelier of Paul Delaroche at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He exhibited regularly at the Salon in Paris from 1842 to 1886 and at the Royal Academy in London from 1868 to 1885. Unlike many other 19th-century artists, preferred not to live in Paris, where he was born, but in Ecouen, where he died.

    ^ 1824 Thomas Hickey, Irish portrait painter born in 1741, the son of a Capel Street confectioner. Thomas Hickey worked as an artist in Dublin, London, and India. He was the brother of sculptor John Hickey [07 Nov 1751 – 12 Jan 1795]. Hickey worked in India between March 1784 and January 1791, returning to England 'not overburdened with riches.' He joined as official artist Lord Macartney's embassy to China, 1792-1794, returned to Ireland in 1796 and was drawn again to India in 1798. During his final period at Madras, 1802-1822, Hickey painted in 1816 the Scotsman, Colin Mackenzie, soldier of the Mysore Wars, who was to become India's first Surveyor General in 1817
    Mrs. Johnson, the Begum Johnson (1725-1812) (75x62cm; 400x328pix, 23kb) _ The British Empire was not acquired in a fit of absence of mind so much as in a fit of absence of wives. Until the late 18th century, very few British women ventured to come to India. The original charters of the East India Company forbade women on its trading posts. About 1800, of the Europeans in Bengal and its dependencies, there were only 250 women as against 4000 men. The cost of landing a European wife at Calcutta worked out to Rs 5000, far beyond the means of ordinary company officials. A famous exception was the “Begum” Johnson (strictly, begum in India meant a Muslim woman of high rank), who was born Frances Croke on 10 April 1728 in Fort St. David, Bengal, the daughter of its Governor, Edward Croke [1690 – 12 Feb 1769]. She first got married at the age of 12 and took her fifth (but not last) husband when she was nineteen. On 24 March 1749 she married William Watts [1722 – 04 Aug 1764], Governor of Bengal; their daughter Sophia married George Poyntz Ricketts (1st), Governor of Barbados; their daughter Amelia [22 Dec 1750 – 20 Jul 1770 bur.] married on 09 February 1769 British politician Charles Jenkinson [26 Apr 1727 – 17 Dec 1808] (later 1st Earl of Liverpool), and died not long after giving birth to the future British Prime Minister (08 Jun 1812 – 17 Feb 1827) Robert Banks Johnson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool [07 Jun 1770 – 04 Dec 1828]. After the Begum Johnson died in Calcutta on 03 February 1812, having become the grand old dame of Calcutta society, she was given a state funeral.
    Purniya, Chief Minister of Mysore (1801, 127x100cm; 439x308pix, 44kb) {please note that there is no “eye” between “My” and “sore”}_ Purniya was a Brahmin Hindu, but served both the Sufi Muslims sultans of Mysore Tipu [20 Nov 1750 – 04 May 1799] and his father, Haidar Ali [1721 – Dec 1782], before the fall of the capital, Seringapatam on 04 May 1799, ending the Fourth Mysore War which the British governor-general of India, Lord Mornington, had started on the pretext that Tipu was negotiating with Revolutionary France. After Tipu's death, the British re-instated the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Wadeyars, and Purniya was appointed guardian of the young Rajah, then only four years old. Formerly Tipu's Chief Minister, he now became Diwan (Chief Minister) of Mysore, with an annual salary of 6000 pagodas (£2400) and a bonus of 1% of the State Revenue. In Hickey's portrait, the bronze figure of Justice, with her balancing scales, alludes to Purniya's reputation for fairness and justice: his hand rests on a pile of petitions. The tall column symbolizes his firmness of purpose, and the rich silk garment and regal shawl emphasize his dignity and status. Hickey was the only portrait painter on the spot when the Fourth Mysore War ended in 1799, and planned a related series of seven historical paintings. In preparation, between June 1799 and November 1801, he made at least 55 chalk drawings of the principal Indian and British participants, including Allan, Beatson, Baird, the young Krishnaraja Wadeyar III and Purniya. Work on numerous other commissions for oil portraits, including those of William Kirkpatrick and Richard Wellesley, eventually superseded his ambitious plan for history paintings. Hickey did use the drawings as references, for a series of 16 half - and three-quarter length portraits of Tipu's sons, courtiers and ministers.
    Dr. John Heath (1779, 75x62cm; b&w image 512x424pix, 24kb)
    A Girl Leaning against a Piano (1780, 91x71cm; b&w image 512x392pix, 28kb)

    1673 Michiel Simons, Dutch artist born in 1620.

    Born on a 20 May:

    ^ 1919 Bernard Cathelin, French painter who died on 17 April 2004.
    –- Le Bégonia de Marie-Louise (900x598pix, 46kb) _ The pseudonymous Zurichard Catheter has metamorphosed this into the amazing twin abstractions:
          _ The Begum Married Louis (2007, 775x1096pix, 248kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 509kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1240kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 2429kb) and
          _ They Beg One Merry Louise (2007, 775x1096pix, 248kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 509kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1240kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 2429kb)
    –- Bouquet au Paysage d'Hiver (900x579pix, 47kb) _ Catheter has metamorphosed this into the richly detailed and colorful twin abstractions:
          _ Boucs Sages aux Pays Divers (2007, 775x1096pix, 332kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 680kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1739kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4104kb) and
          _ Book Pay to Diver Sages (2007, 775x1096pix, 332kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 680kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1739kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4104kb)
    Andalusian landscape, La Carolina (1998, 120x120cm; 564x566pix, 92kb) _ Catheter has transformed this into the very patriotique
          _ And Lucien Lands Escaping to South Carolina aka Treacle Lore aka Libéralité et Qualité, Fraternisez! (2007; 791x1119pix, 142kb _ ZOOM to 1119x1582pix, 269kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 520kb _ ZOOM++ to3244x4587pix, 1213kb). —(070514)

    ^ 1857 Herman Gustaf af Sillén, Swedish naval officer and marine painter who died on 29 December 1908.
    En lotsbåts infart till Ostende (92x67cm; 2000x1458pix, 89kb)
    Viborgska gatloppet (112x150cm; 472x640pix, 41kb)
    Räddad (1892, 130x195cm; 1272x1898pix, 279kb) _ aka Marin med segelfartyg (1892, 130x195cm; 415x640pix, 38kb) —(060519)

    ^ 1843 Emil Adam, German painter, specialized in race horses, who died in 1924. — Related? to Albrecht Adam [16 Apr 1786 – 28 Aug 1862] and his grandson Richard Benno Adam [05 Mar 1873 – 20 Jan 1937]?
    –- Weathercock With Jockey Up (1896, 56x67cm; 900x1108pix, 111kb) _ Weathercock was a bay colt foaled in 1888 by Torpedo out of Vicissitude and bred by Mr. M. Wheeler. It was sold to Lord Rosslyn for whom he won three races at Epsom, Newmarket, and Chester. In 1891 it was exported to Germany where it continued to race. Adam has painted Weathercock as an eight year old, presumably in commemoration of a victory in 1896. (Up is NOT the name of the jockey who is up on the back of the horse).
    (horse in a stable) (772x1073pix, 52kb).
    (horse in a stable) (763x1073pix, 53kb).
    –- Indienne (1884; 800x992pix, 67kb) horse in a stable.
    –- Conception (1885; 763x1053pix, 53kb) horse in a stable, glaring at a cat.
    –- Chelsea (1885; 808x1002pix, 69kb) horse in a stable.
    –- Aworp (1886; 805x1002pix, 69kb) horse in a stable. —(070515)

    ^ 1815 Barthélémy Menn, Swiss painter and teacher who died on 13 (11?) October 1893. — {In his family there were only Menn; even the women were Menn, at least until they married, and then they ceased being Menn, but only if the men they married were not Menn.}— Menn began his career with drawing lessons from W. A. Töpffer but c. 1831 began painting under Léonard Lugardon [1801–1884], who had studied with Ingres and Antoine-Jean Gros. In 1833 Menn went to Paris to study with Ingres; when Ingres became Director of the Académie de France in Rome in 1835 Menn followed him to Italy, where he met such artists as Léopold Robert, Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, the Flandrin brothers, Xavier Sigalon, Bertel Thorvaldsen and Dominique Papety (with whom he later shared a studio). In 1838 he returned to Paris, where he was attracted to the works of the landscape painters François-Louis Français, Charles-François Daubigny, Théodore Rousseau and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, whom he especially admired for his control of tonal values. In Paris Menn was also introduced to George Sand, whose son Maurice Dudevant became his student; he attended her salon and met Chopin, who bought some of his works, as well as Delacroix, who later asked him to assist in the decoration of the Palais Bourbon, an invitation that Menn declined. — One of Menn's assistants was Friedrich Rudolf Simon. Menn's students included Albert Bartholomé, Ferdinand Hodler, Auguste Baud-Bovy, Eugène Burnand, Édouard Castres.

    ^ 1766 Adam Wolfgang Töpffer, Geneva painter, caricaturist, and engraver, who died on 10 August 1847. He was trained as an engraver in Lausanne and while there illustrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure’s Voyage dans les Alpes (1779) in 1786. He studied under Joseph-Benoît Suvée in Paris (1789–1791) and was influenced by Jean-Louis Demarne. On Töpffer's return to Geneva he went on painting expeditions with Pierre-Louis De La Rive; these studies of the environs of the city inspired his best work. In 1796 he exhibited caricatures at the Salon in Geneva and from 1804 to 1807 was in Paris, where he was Drawing Master to Joséphine Bonaparte. From 1810 he concentrated on painting such scenes from local village life as Open-air Sermon (1810). His anecdotal, animated landscapes were very popular not only in Switzerland but also in France, where he exhibited at the Salons of 1804 and 1812 in Paris. He won a gold medal at the latter Salon for the contemporary history painting Re-establishment of Religion in France after the Revolution (1811), a subject he had first treated at least twice in 1803. In 1816 he visited England, where he exhibited at the Royal Academy. Under the influence of English painting his work became more colorful, vigorous and economical. He also admired Hogarth’s work and emulated his style in his own political caricatures (e.g. La Planche appartient à M. Frédéric Raisin, 1817). On his return to Geneva in 1816 he began to produce such sparse, sober and balanced paintings as Vue du Mont Blanc. After a visit to Italy in 1824, he was inspired to do quick sketches of city life on the streets of Geneva. He was the most comprehensive recorder of the city and its surroundings of any 19th-century Genevese artist.— He was the father of Rodolphe Töpffer [31 Jan 1799 – 08 Jun 1846], a school teacher, writer, and draftsman who created the first comics, his “histoires en images”
    L'embarquement de la noce (1814, 84x115cm; 388x484pix, 43kb)
    Die Auswahl der Kinder von Sparta (1818 caricature; 468x630pix, 255kb gif) _ Bezieht sich auf Artikel 10 der reaktionären Verfassung Genfs von 1814, nach dem die Wahlzettel u.a. durch den Ersten der jeweiligen Pastoren und Professoren ausgezählt wurden. Der Geistliche ist Pastor Choisy von der "Vénérable Compagnie ecclésiastique". Die Töpfe spielen auf die Redensarten "sourd comme un pot" = stocktaub und "payer les pots cassés" = für etwas den Kopf hinhalten müssen an. —(060519)

    1726 Gabriel-François Doyen, French painter who died on 13 March 1806. In 1748 he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition and subsequently became a student of Carle Vanloo at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés, Paris. In 1752 he arrived to complete his artistic education at the Académie de France in Rome, where he discovered the art of Raphael and of Domenichino, as well as that of such Baroque masters as Pietro da Cortona, Luca Giordano and Francesco Solimena. He also stayed in Parma and visited Venice, Bologna and Turin. His experiences in Italy confirmed him in his lifelong vocation for large-scale history painting. — Doyen's students included Jean-Victor Bertin, Etienne-Barthélemy Garnier, Orest Kiprensky, Pierre Lélu, Guillaume Lethière, Jean-Charles-Nicaise Perrin, Pierre-Henri Valenciennes. — LINKS
    Miracle des Ardents (1773, semi-circular top; 1276x760pix, 89kb) Le Mal des Ardents, appelé encore feu sacré, feu Saint Antoine, a sévi à plusieurs reprises sous la forme épidémique dans certaines provinces de France, en Allemagne, en Espagne, et en Sicile du Xème au XIIème siècles. En 994, de grandes pluies ravagèrent l'Aquitaine. Le seigle était alors l'aliment de base. Dans ces conditions l'ergot de seigle (un champignon parasite qui contient le poison ergotamine), se développa et fut la cause (inconnue à l'époque) de l'épidémie. L'ergotisme gangreneux trouva au sein de populations aux conditions de vie précaires et rudes, un terrain de choix pour se propager. Le terrible fléau apparut à Limoges ainsi que dans toute l'Aquitaine, la Touraine et jusqu'en Bourgogne. Dans la foi vivante de cette époque, les Lémovices implorèrent avec une très grande ferveur leur Saint protecteur, saint Martial. Devant tant de détresse, l'évêque Hilduin sacré Évêque de Limoges en 990, en accord avec son frère, l'abbé de Saint Martial, Geoffroy Ier, convoqua à Limoges tous les évêques de l'Aquitaine pour y célébrer avec eux une cérémonie d'intercession. Un jeûne de trois jours et de prières précéda ce grand rassemblement. Le 12 Novembre 994, l'abbé de Saint Martial Geoffroy Ier, Hilduin Évêque de Limoges, Gondebaud archevêque de Bordeaux et l'archevêque de Bourges, les évêques d'Angoulême, de Clermont, de Mende, de Périgueux, de Poitiers, du Puy et de Saintes, les moines de l'abbaye de Saint Martial, Guillaume IV duc d'Aquitaine, suivis d'une foule immense de pèlerins portèrent en une procession solennelle les Reliques des Saints Limousins, la Relique de saint Martial, de la basilique du Sauveur(1) sur une colline dominant la ville. La contagion cessa soudain à la suite de cette première ostension des Saints Limousins. Le nom de Mont de la joie ou Montjovis fut donné à cette colline. En signe de reconnaissance d'un tel miracle et pour en perpétuer le souvenir on décida d'élever en ce lieu une chapelle qui prit le nom de Saint Martial de Mont-Jauvy. Elle devait disparaître peu après la révolution. Dans la joie de la santé retrouvée et mettant à profit la réunion à Limoges des évêques autour de l'évêque Hilduin, ceux-ci avisèrent d'imposer aux seigneurs un "Pacte de Paix et de Justice" avec menaces d'interdits contre ceux qui ne le respecteraient pas, leur enjoignant de limiter la guerre aux combattants et de respecter les populations et leurs biens. Dans un monde de sévices étaient jetés les germes de pacification, premier jalon de ce qui deviendra plus tard en 1040 sous l'influence de Saint Odilon de Cluny, la " Trêve de Dieu ".
         Deux réflexions: Les moines de l'abbaye de Saint Martial vont recueillir de ce Miracle un surcroît de prestige pour leur abbaye et leur Saint Patron.
         Les évêques manifestent par leur intervention en faveur de la paix leur rôle social de défenseurs des populations et des faibles. Ils restent fidèles à leur mission sacrée d'autant qu'eux mêmes appartiennent par leurs origines à ce même monde féodal. —(080519)

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