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BIRTHS: 1860 LILJEFORS — 1887 DASBURG — 1919 AÏZPIRI — BAPTISM: 1727 GAINSBOROUGH
^ Born on 14 May 1860: Bruno Andreas Liljefors, Swedish painter who died on 18 December 1939, specialized in Wildlife.
— He studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm (1879–1882). During a trip abroad in 1882–1883 he attended lectures by the German animal painter Carl Friedrich Deiker [–1892] in Düsseldorf, where he also made animal studies at the city zoo, one of the largest in Europe. He concluded his travels by visiting France in 1883–1884 and again in 1886. For a while he was a member of the Scandinavian artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing and he exhibited at the Salon in Paris in 1884. The influence of both French plein-air painting and Japanese woodcuts is apparent in his first important work, Hawk and Black Game (1884), a ‘close-up’ of nature that fills the whole picture surface. The birds’ struggle in the center of the painting is depicted with detailed precision, and the animals’ lightning movements at the moment of attack are accurately caught. The surroundings are smoothly sketched in pale gray tones.

LINKS
A Sea Eagle Chasing Eider Duck (1912, 88x136cm)
Eluding the Fox (1912, 71x102cm)
A Family of Foxes (1905, 70x100cm)
— Hawk Attacking Prey (1900, 81x116cm)
 
^ Born on 14 May 1887: Andrew Michael Dasburg, French-born US painter, specialized in the US West, who died in 1979.
— 1892 Emigrated to U.S. with mother to New York City — 1902 Studied with Robert Henri — 1902 Studied at Art Students League — 1907 Back to Paris to visit Matisse and Leo Stein — 1913 Exhibited in the Armory Show New York — 1921 Moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico — 1925 Second Prize Pan American Exhibition Los Angeles — 1927 Third Prize at 26th International of Painting Carnegie Institute — 1931 Allegheny Garden Club Prize Carnegie International — 1932 Awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship — 1933 Moved to Taos, New Mexico.
— Andrew Dasburg was born in Paris, and moved to the US at the age of 5. Dasburg was trained in New York at the Art Students League under Birge Harrison, with whom Dasburg would later have stylistic difficulties. Dasburg was an avowed modernist, likely influenced by his studies in Paris, and his introduction to the works of Cé zanne, among others. Returning to the US, Dasburg exhibited at the pivotal Armory Exhibition in 1913 as a member of the Synchromist Movement. Dasburg later moved to Taos, New Mexico, where he was criticized by local artists, but, nonetheless credited with bringing national attention to the region. Born in Paris, Andrew Dasburg became a pioneer of US modernism. He was a master teacher at Woodstock, New York where he rebelled against the traditional approach of John Fabian Carlson and Birge Harrison.
     In 1918, Dasburg began trips to Taos, New Mexico at the invitation of Mabel Dodge Luhan, and he later settled there. In New York, he studied at the Art Students League with Kenyon Cox and Birge Harrison, whose tonalist style he countered by helping to form a group called the Sunflower Club, dedicated to using bright colors. He then went to France. He exhibited in the Armory Show of 1913 and is associated with American Synchromist painters of that time, having shared a house at Woodstock with Synchromist leader Morgan Russell. Dasburg was a proponent of Cézanne and criticized by Taos Artists for being too closely associated with that artist. Dasburg is credited with being a major factor in bringing Taos artists art to the attention of the general public.

LINKS
Apples (1920)
Chantet Lane (1926)
Still Life with Fruit (1931)
Taos Landscape (1931, 37x52cm; 452x640pix, 90kb)
Landscape, Taos (1933, 17 1/4 x 22; 600x446pix, 65kb) multicolored scribbles. If ought not to have taken more than 5 minutes to paint.
Ranchos de Taos Landscape (1933)
Rolling Hills (33x41cm)
Bent Street, Taos, New Mexico (1922, 32x39cm)
Brett's Place (1975, 41x59cm; 448x640pix, 27kb)
Springtime in the Canyon (1922, 39x49cm; 480x629pix, 51kb)
Seated Nude (sketch)
 
^ Born on 14 May 1919: Paul~Augustin , French artist particularly appreciated in Japan, where an Aïzpiri Museum was opened in 1966. — {Did he turn to art when he found out that no one wanted to buy his headache remedy, aïzpirin?} {Et l'invention de l'aïzpirateur, c'était de lui aussi?}
— Paul Aïzpiri was born in Paris. His mother was Italian; his father, Ignacio Gorriti de Aïzpiri, was a Basque who had come to Paris to study sculpture at the École National Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. When his failing eyesight no longer allowed him to carry on as a sculptor, Ignacio Aïzpiri became an antique dealer. Paul began to sketch when he was six, and at the age of eight he executed his grandmother’s portrait. As he matured he expressed an aïzpiration to be an artist, but his father insisted that he first learn a trade as a means of assuring his livelihood in the event he could not support himself with his art. At the age of fourteen, Paul Aïzpiri entered l’École Bulle to learn antique restoration. The course lasted three years, after which he entered the Beaux-Arts to study painting. Though the instruction at the Beaux-Arts was excellent, the traditionalist spirit reigning there repelled Aïzpiri. With Maurice Verdier and Roger Courderc, two friends he made at the Beaux-Arts, he went to Villeneuve to paint the countryside where his parents had owned a country home.
      Just before the outbreak of the war he married Françoise, and Gilles was born in 1939. He entered the army and when France fell he was interned in Brittany by the Germans. He escaped from the prison camp and made his own way to Paris. Upon arrival he found that all his family had fled Paris before the Germans arrived, seeking shelter in Périgueux. 1942 brought the birth of his daughter, Colette. Despite the dangers of being an escaped prisoner of War, Aïzpiri returned to Paris after only a few months in Périgueux. Unable to support his family as an artist under wartime conditions, he turned to his trade and began to restore paintings, make frames and repair antique furniture.
      The rigors of living in France at this time did not curb Aïzpiri’s desire to paint. During the night and on Sunday’s when he went to Villeneuve, he took out his brushes and oils. He rarely could find the money for food for his family, much less for scraps of canvas. He used pieces of wood salvaged from his antique shop in lieu of canvas. It was during the occupation that Aïzpiri met Dr. Sutter which made his first exhibition possible at the Gallerie Parvillée. Though not a great financial success, the exhibition drew excellent notices from the critics. Aïzpiri was certainly encouraged as a young painter in his early 20’s, during somber war-torn France, exhibiting amongst the painters of l’École Pont-Aven and the Nabis.
      He then became a member of the Salon d’Automne in 1945. The very next year he won Third Prize at the Salon de Moins de Trente Ans, of which he was a founding member. He later showed at the Salon “Les Peintres Témoin de leur Temps”. Aïzpiri has been active in the Salons des Tuileries and the noted Salon des Indépendants for many years.
      In 1948, Aïzpiri won the Prix Corsica which allowed him to go to Marseilles. His stay there so impressed him, that he declared it was a turning point of his art. Not only did he find a whole new world to paint which was far different subjectively from any life he had known in Paris, but also a new world of color. He painted the port, the quays, sketched the busy streets, the people, the open air markets, and then returned to Paris with a portfolio filled with what he had seen. For several years after that his canvases were mainly based on the sketches he had brought back with him, but during the same period, he also painted circus scenes, a subject in which he had become interested in Paris after the liberation of France. The same year in which Aïzpiri went to Marseilles he started exhibiting his paintings outside the Parisian area. Copenhagen in 1948 was perhaps his first introduction to the art world outside of France.
      The 1950’s marked the beginnings of the artist’s international success and recognition and major critical acclaim. In 1951, Aïzpiri showed in Lisbon and the Biennale of Menton. He also exhibited with Reyberrolle, Buffet and Minaux at the Biennale de Venice where he obtained the Prix Nationale. In 1952, the Musée de L’Athénée in Geneva devoted an exhibition to his work. It was during this period that he met Paul Pétridès, the prominent Parisian art dealer who exhibited Aïzpiri’s work world-wide for over a decade. In 1956, he showed at the Wildenstein Gallery in New York. In 1959, at the O’Hana Gallery in London. He was subsequently contracted by the Gallerie Romanet in Paris, which was later to become the Galerie Taménaga. And in succeeding years Aïzpiri’s work has been represented in many art galleries, acquired by major museums, important public institutions and fine private sectors throughout Europe, Asia and the USA.
      In 1984, a retrospective was organized at the Espace Pierre Cardin which featured paintings, ceramics as well as important lithographic works. In 1966 the Aïzpiri Museum in Japan was opened and featured a retrospective of his works.
      Paul Aïzpiri’s son, Gilles Gorriti, is also a painter.

Bouquet sur fond bleu (1244x1017pix, 128kb)
–- Saint-Tropez (73x91cm; 1080x1400pix, 158kb)
–- Saint-Tropez (73x93cm; 1100x1400pix, 215kb) another version, very similar but with brighter colors.
–- La Table Rose (1000x1398pix, 101kb)
Nature morte avec bougie (405x511pix, 262kb)
Bouquet avec coq (102kb)
Bouquet sur fond gris (110kb)
Bouquet sur fond jaune (110kb)
Arlequin (19x15cm; 407x310pix, 30kb)
La Salle à Manger en Été (43x58cm; 307x394pix, 44kb)
—(070511)
^ Baptized (soon after birth) on 14 May 1727: Thomas Gainsborough, English Rococo era and Romantic painter, draftsman, and printmaker, specialized in Portraits, who died on 02 August 1788; uncle of Gainsborough Dupont [1754-1794], the son of Gainsborough's sister, Sarah, and her husband, Philip Dupont, a carpenter in Sudbury. Since 1772 he was Gainsborough's student and, after his formal apprenticeship was completed, he remained as a studio assistant. After the uncle's death, he pursued a career as a portrait painter and landscapist; his style was wholly influenced by his uncle's.
— Thomas Gainsborough's Portrait of Gainsborough Dupont (1775).
— Gainsborough was born in Suffolk, the fifth son of a wool merchant. He studied at Saint Martin's Lane Academy in London from 1740 to 1748 under Hubert Gravelot, an engraver and illustrator in the French rococo style, and Francis Hayman, a painter of small portrait groups. To support himself, Gainsborough copied and repaired seventeenth-century Dutch landscapes, notably those of Jan Wynants and Jacob van Ruisdael, which were popular with English collectors. He was an acknowledged landscape painter by 1748 when he presented The Charterhouse to the Foundling Hospital. He returned to Suffolk in 1748, eventually settling in Ipswich as a portrait painter. From 1759 to 1774 Gainsborough lived in Bath, the fashionable resort of the aristocracy, where he deliberately refined his portrait style in the manner of Anthony van Dyck. He exhibited at the Society for Artists in London from 1761 to 1768, and was invited to be a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768. After several disagreements with the academy over the hanging of his pictures, Gainsborough withdrew and exhibited his work annually from 1784 at Schomberg House, his London residence. Gainsborough died in August 1788, and later that year his great rival Sir Joshua Reynolds paid special tribute to this artist in his fourteenth discourse to the Royal Academy. First interest in his printmaking from Max Friedländer just before 1914. Important in development of processes of aquatint and soft ground etching.
—   Peter Toms was an assistant of Gainsborough.
— Gainsborough was the contemporary and rival of Joshua Reynolds [16 Jul 1723 – 23 Feb 1792], who honored him on 10 December 1788 with a Valedictory Discourse, in which he stated: ‘If ever this nation should produce genius sufficient to acquire to us the honourable distinction of an English School, the name of Gainsborough will be transmitted to posterity, in the history of Art, among the very first of that rising name.’ He went on to consider Gainsborough’s portraits, landscapes and fancy pictures within the Old Master tradition, against which, in his view, modern painting had always to match itself. Reynolds was acknowledging a general opinion that Gainsborough was one of the most significant painters of their generation.
      Less ambitious than Reynolds in his portraits, Gainsborough nevertheless painted with elegance and virtuosity. He founded his landscape manner largely on the study of northern European artists and developed a very beautiful and often poignant imagery of the British countryside. By the mid-1760s he was making formal allusions to a wide range of previous art, from Rubens and Watteau to, eventually, Claude and Titian. He was as various in his drawings and was among the first to take up the new printmaking techniques of aquatint and soft-ground etching. Because his friend, the musician and painter William Jackson [1730–1803], claimed that Gainsborough detested reading, there has been a tendency to deny him any literacy. He was, nevertheless, as his surviving letters show, verbally adept, extremely witty and highly cultured. He loved music and performed well. He was a person of rapidly changing moods, humorous, brilliant and witty. At the time of his death he was expanding the range of his art, having lived through one of the more complex and creative phases in the history of British painting. He painted with unmatched skill and bravura; while giving the impression of a kind of holy innocence, he was among the most artistically learned and sophisticated painters of his generation. It has been usual to consider his career in terms of the rivalry with Reynolds that was acknowledged by their contemporaries; while Reynolds maintained an intellectual and academic ideal of art, Gainsborough grounded his imagery on contemporary life, maintaining an aesthetic outlook previously given its most powerful expression by William Hogarth. His portraits, landscapes and subject pictures are only now coming to be studied in all their complexity; having previously been viewed as being isolated from the social, philosophical and ideological currents of their time, they have yet to be fully related to them. It is clear, however, that his landscapes and rural pieces, and some of his portraits, were as significant as Reynolds acknowledged them to be in 1788.
^
— Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He showed artistic ability at an early age, and when he was 15 years old he studied drawing and etching in London with the French engraver Hubert Gravelot. Later he studied painting with Francis Hayman, a painter of historical events. Through Gravelot, who had been a student of the great French painter Antoine Watteau, Gainsborough came under Watteau's influence. Later he was also influenced by the painters of the Dutch school and by the Flemish painter Sir Anthony van Dyck. From 1745 to 1760 Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. From 1760 to 1774 he lived in Bath, a fashionable health resort, where he painted numerous portraits and landscapes. In 1768 he was elected one of the original members of the Royal Academy of Arts; and in 1774 he painted, by royal invitation, portraits of King George III and the queen consort, Charlotte Sophia. Gainsborough settled in London the same year. He was the favorite painter of the British aristocracy, becoming wealthy through commissions for portraits. Gainsborough died in London.
     Gainsborough made more than 500 paintings, of which more than 200 are portraits. His portraits are characterized by the noble and refined grace of the figures, by poetic charm, and by cool and fresh colors, chiefly greens and blues, thinly applied. Among his world-famous portraits are Orpin, the Parish Clerk; The Baillie Family (1784) and Mrs. Siddons (1785); Perdita Robinson (1781); The Hon. Francis Duncombe (1777); (1787); he Blue Boy (1779). His portrait Mr. and Mrs. Andrews (1750) is unusually balanced between portrait and landscape painting.

     The effect of poetic melancholy induced by faint lighting characterizes Gainsborough's paintings. He was obviously influenced by Dutch 17th-century landscape painting. Forest scenes, or rough and broken country, are the usual subjects of his landscapes, most notably Cornard Wood (1748) and The Watering Place (1777). Gainsborough also made many memorable drawings and etchings.
— English portrait and landscape painter, the most versatile English painter of the 18th century. Some of his early portraits show the sitters grouped in a landscape (Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, 1750). As he became famous and his sitters fashionable, he adopted a more formal manner that owed something to Anthony Van Dyck (The Blue Boy, 1770). His landscapes are of idyllic scenes. During his last years he also painted seascapes and idealized full-size pictures of rustics and country children.
      Gainsborough was the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a maker of woolen goods. When he was 13, he persuaded his father to send him to London to study on the strength of his promise at landscape. He worked as an assistant to Hubert Gravelot, a French painter and engraver and an important figure in London art circles at the time. From him Gainsborough learned something of the French Rococo idiom, which had a considerable influence on the development of his style. In 1746 in London he married Margaret Burr, the illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Beaufort (The Artist's Wife, 1758).
      Soon afterward he returned to Suffolk and settled in Ipswich in 1752; his daughters Mary and Margaret were born in 1748 and 1752, respectively. In Ipswich Gainsborough met his first biographer, Philip Thicknesse. He early acquired some reputation as a portrait and landscape painter and made an adequate living.
      Gainsborough declared that his first love was landscape and began to learn the language of this art from the Dutch 17th-century landscapists, who by 1740 were becoming popular with English collectors; his first landscapes were influenced by Jan Wynants. The earliest dated picture with a landscape background is a study of a bull terrier — Bumper—A Bull Terrier (1745), in which many of the details are taken straight from Wynants. But by 1748, when he painted Cornard Wood, Jacob van Ruisdael had become the predominant influence; although it is full of naturalistic detail, Gainsborough probably never painted directly from nature. The Charterhouse, one of his few topographical views, dates from the same year as Cornard Wood and in the subtle effect of light on various surfaces proclaims Dutch influence. In the background to Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, he anticipates the realism of the great English landscapist of the next century, John Constable, but for the most part fancy held sway. In many of the early landscapes the influence of Rococo design learned from Gravelot is evident, together with a feeling for the French pastoral tradition. The Woodcutter Courting a Milkmaid is an Anglicized version of a French theme, which recalls compositions by Fragonard. Although Gainsborough preferred landscape, he knew he must paint portraits for economic reasons. The small heads painted in Suffolk, although sometimes rather stiff, are penetrating character studies delicately and freely pencilled, particularly the jaunty self-portrait in a cocked hat at Houghton. Gainsborough painted few full-length portraits in Suffolk. Mr. William Woollaston, although an ambitious composition, is intimate and informal. The The Painter's Daughters Chasing a Butterfly, composed in the last years at Ipswich, is, in its easy naturalism and sympathetic understanding, one of the best English portraits of children.
      As well as straight portraits, he painted in Suffolk a number of delightful spontaneous groups of small figures in landscapes closely related to conversation pieces. Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, which has been described as the most English of English pictures, is set in a typical Suffolk landscape. Lady and Gentleman in Landscape is more Frenchified, with its vivacious Rococo rhythms, but Heneage Lloyd and His Sister is more stylized, the charming little figures being posed against a conventional background of steps and decorative urns.
      To obtain a wider public, Gainsborough moved in 1759 to Bath, where his studio was soon thronged with fashionable sitters. He moved in musical and theatrical circles, and among his friends were members of the Linley family, whose portraits he painted. At Bath he also met the actor David Garrick, for whom he had a profound admiration and whom he painted on many occasions. His passion for music and the stage continued throughout his life. In the west country he visited many of the great houses and at Wilton fell under the spell of Anthony Van Dyck, the predominating influence in his later work. In spite of the demand for portraits, he continued to paint landscapes.
      In 1761 he sent a portrait of Earl Nugent to the Society of Artists, and in the following year the first notice of his work appeared in the London press. Throughout the 1760s he exhibited regularly in London and in 1768 was elected a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Characteristically he never took much part in the deliberations.
      After Gainsborough moved to Bath, he had less time for landscape and worked a good deal from memory, often drawing by candlelight from little model landscapes set up in his studio. About 1760 Peter Paul Rubens supplanted the Dutch painters as Gainsborough's chief love. This is particularly noticeable in Peasants Returning from Market, with its rich color and beautiful creamy pastel shades. The influence of Rubens is also apparent in The Harvest Wagon in the fluency of the drawing and the scale of the great beech trees so different from the stubby oaks of Suffolk. The idyllic scene is a perfect blend of the real and the ideal. The group in the cart is based on Rubens' Descent from the Cross (1611-14) in Antwerp cathedral, which Gainsborough copied.
      In Bath, Gainsborough had to satisfy a more sophisticated clientele and adopted a more formal and elegant portrait style based largely on a study of Van Dyck at Wilton, where he made a free copy of Van Dyck's painting of the Pembroke family. By 1769, when he painted Isabella Countess of Sefton, it is easy to see the refining influence of Van Dyck in the dignified simplicity of the design and the subtle muted coloring. One of Gainsborough's most famous pictures, The Blue Boy, was probably painted in 1770. In painting this subject in Van Dyck dress, he was following an 18th-century fashion in painting, as well as doing homage to his hero. The influence of Van Dyck is most clearly seen in the more official portraits. John, 4th Duke of Argyll in his splendid robes is composed in the grand manner, and Augustus John, Third Earl of Bristol rivals Reynolds' portraits of the kind. Gainsborough preferred to paint his friends rather than public figures, and a group of portraits of the 1760s — Uvedale Price, Sir William St. Quinton, and Thomas Coward, all oldish men of strong character — illustrate Gainsborough's sense of humour and his individual approach to sympathetic sitters.
      In 1774 Gainsborough moved to London and settled in part of Schomberg House in Pall Mall. Fairly soon he began to be noticed by the royal family and partly because of his informality and Tory politics was preferred by George III above the official court painter, Sir Joshua Reynolds. In 1781 he was commissioned to paint the King and Queen.
      Gainsborough continued his landscape work. The Watering Place was described by Horace Walpole, the English man of letters, as in the style of Rubens, but it also has much of the classic calm of Claude Lorrain, whose etchings Gainsborough owned. In 1783 he made an expedition to the Lake District to see for himself the wild scenery extolled by the devotees of the picturesque. On his return he painted a number of mountain scenes that have analogies with the work of Gaspard Dughet, whose works were widely distributed in English country houses. Some sea pieces dating from the 1780s show a new kind of realism, harking back to the Dutch seascape tradition. During his last years Gainsborough was haunted by his nostalgia for Arcadia in the English countryside and painted a series of pictures of peasant life more ideal than real, for example, The Cottage Door.  But one of the latest landscapes, The Market Cart, is less idealized and more true to nature and looks forward to Constable in its treatment of the light breaking through the massive foliage.
      Gainsborough was the only important English portrait painter to devote much time to landscape drawing. He composed a great many drawings in a variety of mediums including chalk, pen and wash, and watercolor, some of them varnished. He was always eager to find new papers and new techniques. He produced a magic lantern to give striking lighting effects; the box is still in the Victoria and Albert Museum, together with some of the slides. In addition Gainsborough made a series of soft-ground etchings and aquatints. He never sold his drawings and, although many of them are closely related to pictures, they are not studies in the ordinary sense but works of art in their own right.
      Gainsborough was not methodical in keeping sitter books, and comparatively few of the portraits in the early years in London are dated. In 1777 he exhibited at the Royal Academy the well-known Mrs. Graham, C.F. Abel, William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Maria, Duchess of Gloucester, all deliberately glamorous and painted in richly heightened color. Queen Charlotte is more restrained; the painting of the flounced white dress decorated with ribbons and laces makes her look every inch a queen. It is significant that Gainsborough, unlike most of his contemporaries, did not generally use drapery painters. In 1784 he quarreled with the Academy because they insisted on hanging The Three Eldest Princesses at the normal height from the floor, which Gainsborough maintained was too high to appreciate his lightness of touch and delicate penciling. In protest he withdrew the pictures he had intended for the exhibition and never showed again at the Academy. 
      In some of Gainsborough's later portraits of women, he dispensed with precise finish, and, without sacrificing the likeness, he concentrated on the general effect. Mrs. Sheridan melts into the landscape, while Lady Bate Dudley, a symphony in blue and green, is an insubstantial form, almost an abstract. Mrs. Siddons, on the other hand, shows that Gainsborough could still paint a splendid objective study. Few of the later male portraits are of a pronounced character, but exceptions are two particularly good pictures of musicians, Johann Christian Fischer and the unfinished Lord Abingdon.
      A new venture in 1783 was The Mall in St. James' Park, a park scene described by Horace Walpole as all a flutter like a lady's fan. The Morning Walk, with romanticized figures strolling in a landscape, is painted in the same spirit. The fancy pictures painted in the 1780s gave Gainsborough particular pleasure. They are full-sized, idealized portraits of country children and peasants painted from models — for example, The Cottage Girl with a Bowl of Milk. The idea appeared in immature form in the little rustic Suffolk figures, and he may have been fired to exploit it further by seeing Saint John of Murillo [01 Jan 1618 – 03 Apr 1682], which he copied.
      Of all the 18th-century English painters, Thomas Gainsborough was the most inventive and original, always prepared to experiment with new ideas and techniques, and yet he complained of his contemporary Sir Joshua Reynolds, Damn him, how various he is. Gainsborough alone among the great portrait painters of the era also devoted serious attention to landscapes. Unlike Reynolds, he was no great believer in an academic tradition and laughed at the fashion for history painting; an instinctive painter, he delighted in the poetry of paint. In his racy letters Gainsborough shows a warm-hearted and generous character and an independent mind. His comments on his own work and methods, as well as on some of the old masters, are very revealing and throw considerable light on contemporary views of art.
— Gainsborough, painter of portraits, landscapes, and fancy pictures, was one of the most individual geniuses in British art. He was born at Sudbury, Soffolk, and went to London in about 1740, probably studying with the French engraver Gravelot. He returned to Sudbury in 1748 and in 1752 he set up as a portrait painter at Ipswitch. His work at this time consisted mainly of heads and half-length, but he also painted some small portrait groups in landscape settings which are the most lyrical of all English conversation pieces (Heneage Lloyd and his Sister). His patrons were the merchants of the town and the neighboring squires, but when in 1759 he moved to Bath, his new sitters were members of Society, and he developed a free and elegant mode of painting seen at its most characteristic in full-length portraits (Mary, Countess Howe, 1764).      In 1768 he was elected a foundation member of the Royal Academy, and in 1774 he moved permanently to London. Here he further developed the personal style he had evolved at Bath, working with light and rapid brush-strokes and delicate and evanescent colors. He became a favorite painter of the Royal Family, even though his rival Reynolds was appointed King's Principal Painter.
      Gainsborough sometimes said that while portraiture was his profession landscape painting was his pleasure, and he continued to paint landscapes long after he had left a country neighborhood. He produced many landscape drawings, some in pencil, some in charcoal and chalk, and he occasionally made drawings which he varnished. He also, in later years, painted fancy pictures of pastoral subjects (Peasant Girl Gathering Sticks, 1782). Gainsborough's style had diverse sources. His early works show the influence of French engraving and of Dutch landscape painting; at Bath his change of portrait style owed much to a close study of van Dyck (his admiration is most clear in The Blue Boy, 1770, 118x122cm); and in his later landscapes (The Watering Place, 1777, 147x180cm) he is sometimes influenced by Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640]. But he was an independent and original genius, able to assimilate to his own ends what he learnt from others, and he relied always mainly on his own resources. With the exception of his nephew Gainsborough Dupont, he had no assistants and unlike most of his contemporaries he never employed a drapery painter.
      He was in many ways the antithesis of Reynolds. Whereas Reynolds was sober-minded and the complete professional, Gainsborough (even though his output was prodigious) was much more easy-going and often overdue with his commissions, writing that ‘painting and punctuality mix like oil and vinegar'. Although he was an entertaining letter-writer, Gainsborough, unlike Reynolds, had no interest in literary or historical themes, his great passion outside painting being music (his friend William Jackson the composer wrote that he ‘avoided the company of literary men, who were his aversion... he detested reading'). Gainsborough and Reynolds had great mutual respect, however; Gainsborough asked for Reynolds to visit him on his deathbed, and Reynolds paid posthumous tribute to his rival in his Fourteenth Discourse. Recognizing the fluid brilliance of his brushwork, Reynolds praised ‘his manner of forming all the parts of a picture together', and wrote of ‘all those odd scratches and marks’ that ‘by a kind of magic, at a certain distance... seem to drop into their proper places'.
^
—     Thomas Gainsborough was a landscape and portrait painter, one of the great English masters. He was born in Sudbury, Suffolk in the family of a clothier. He showed an aptitude for drawing early and first was encouraged by his mother, who was a woman of well-cultivated mind and excelled in flower-painting. He used to spend a lot of time outdoors, drawing. In 1740, at the age of 13 he was sent to London to study art. He spent several years working in the studios of different artists, one of whom was Hubert Gravelot, a draughtsman and engraver, another one was a scene-painter and illustrator Francis Hayman.
      In 1748 Gainsborough presented The Charterhouse (1748) to the Foundling Hospital, it was a way for the artist to show one of his works, because at that time there were no other possibilities for young artists. In 1746 Gainsborough married Margaret Burr, an illegitimate daughter of Duke of Beaufort. His wife brought the family an annuity of £200, which enabled him to start his career as a portrait-painter in Ipswich.
       He first did not have many commissions there and had a lot of time to indulge in his favorite pursuit: to draw landscapes. Also he created many beautiful pictures of his wife and daughters such as Self-Portrait with His Wife, Margaret (probably) (1747), Thomas Gainsborough, with His Wife and Elder Daughter, Mary,  (1752), The Painter's Daughters, Margaret and Mary, Chasing Butterfly, (1756), The Painter's Daughters, Margaret and Mary, Holding a Cat, (1759).  The most notable portraits of that period are Robert Andrews and His Wife Frances (1749), Heneage Lloyd and His Sister (1755), William Wollaston. (1759).
       In 1760 Gainsborough decided to move to Bath, where it was possible for him to have portraits commissioned by the much wealthier and nobler persons. Bath, famous for its mineral waters, was the principal lounging place for persons of wealth and leisure in winter. Gainsborough became well-known there in his first year after moving and since then always had a lot of sitters. His portraits combine the elegance of Van Dyck with his own characteristic informality. There are such early masterpieces as Mrs. Philip Thicknesse (1760), Mary, Countess Howe (1764), The Blue Boy (exhibited R.A. 1770), and the landscape The Harvest Wagon (exhibited S.A. 1767). In 1768 he became one of the foundation members of the Royal Academy, at which he exhibited annually until 1784, when he retired after the disagreement over the hanging of his pictures at the exhibition.
       In 1774 Gainsborough moved to London. He was an established master by then. To this last great period of his life belong such masterpieces of portraiture as The Hon. Mrs. Thomas Graham (exhibited R.A. 1777), The Hon. Frances Duncombe (1778), Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, née Elizabeth Linley (1785), William Hallett and His Wife Elizabeth, née Stephen, aka The Morning Walk (1785), Mrs. Sarah Siddons (1785), and landscapes The Watering Place (1777), The Cottage Door (exhibited R.A. 1780). Mountain Landscape with Peasants Crossing a Bridge (1784), The Woodsman (1788). He died from cancer.
^
LINKS

–- Self-Portrait (1754; main detail 872x1180pix, 73kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2469x2024pix, 182kb)
–- Self-Portrait = Self-Portrait (1787)
–- The Artist with his Wife and Daughter (1748, 92x70cm) _ also the dog, drinking from a puddle.
–- Johann~Christian Bach
–- Haymaker and Sleeping Girl
–- Girl With Pigs
–- Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire (1783) _ Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire [1757-1806], wife of William, 5th Duke of Devonshire, was not only the leader of London's high society, but one of the most popular figures that English social life has ever produced. She was a friend of the Prince of Wales (later George IV) [his 1782 portrait by Gainsborough] and of Charles James Fox, for whose election in 1784 she campaigned.
–- Heneage Lloyd and his Sister (main detail 882x1177pix, 95kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 1627x2024pix, 278kb)
–- Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, née Elizabeth Linley (1785; main detail 875x1163pix, 67kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2293x1576pix, 180kb) _ Elizabeth was a political wife since 1780 when playwright Richard Sheridan [30 Oct 1751 – 07 Jul 1816] entered the House of Commons (representing Stafford) as a Whig. He was spectacularly unfaithful to her, having affairs with several society beauties. Elizabeth reacted by having an affair of her own, with Lord Edward Fitzgerald [15 Oct 1763 – 04 Jun 1798] (who would die in prison from being wounded when arrested on 19 May 1798 as an Irish rebel), by whom she had a daughter, Mary, who died in 1795, three years after Elizabeth died of tuberculosis.
      Elizabeth Ann Linley [07 Sep 1754 – 1792] was the second of the twelve children of the conductor and composer Thomas Linley [1719 – 14 Aug 1788] and his wife Mary Johnson. Elizabeth and six of her siblings were destined for musical careers. It is said that Elizabeth possessed the greatest talent and beauty. Elizabeth was trained by her father at an early age. Elizabeth's first performance was at age twelve, when she and her brother played in The Fairy Favour at Covent Garden Theater on 31 January 1767. In May Elizabeth sang and Thomas played the violin in a concert at Bath. They received much encouragement, and their father promised to see to their improvement. Elizabeth soon had a reputation as a musically precocious and celebrated soprano. In London concert rooms were readily available to her. But the family moved to Bath where her father became head of the Academy of Oratorios. In 1700 Elizabeth was contracted to marry a 60-year-old squire named Walter Long, but Long, for some reason, dissolved the contract by paying her father and giving Elizabeth some family jewels. The event was publicized and became the plot of Samuel Foote's play The Maid of Bath [which opened on 26 June 1776]. Then Captain Thomas Mathews, a married man, forced his attentions upon Elizabeth, telling her he would ruin her virtue and/or her reputation. Elizabeth confided in young Richard Sheridan, whose father Thomas Sheridan [1719 – 14 Aug 1788] was head of the Academy of Oratorios at Bath, and they decided to elope to France in March 1772, where she would stay in a convent until Mathews stopped provoking her. By the end of April 1772, Elizabeth and Richard were back in England. However, Mathews felt that his honor was assailed by a letter Richard wrote to him. In a duel at Covent Garden in London, Richard bested him and forced Mathews to apologize. But Mathews revoked the apology he had given and this led to a second duel at Kingsdown near Bath. Richard was disarmed and severely wounded by Mathew's slashes to his neck and chest. Mathews fled to France; Elizabeth cared for Richard and they were married on 13 April 1773, the day after her last public performance. The couple moved to London where Elizabeth held musicales and Richard began to write plays.
–- Mrs. Siddons (main detail 991x1182pix, 73kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2011x1576pix, 185kb) _ Mrs. Sarah Siddons [1755-1831] was an English actress, the eldest child of Roger Kemble, manager of a small travelling theatrical company and sister of Charles, John Philip and Stephen Kemble, English actors. She acted in her father's traveling theater since early childhood and in 1782 joined Drury Lane. Her success was immediate, and from then on she was the undisputed queen of tragedy on the London stage. In 1803 she followed her brother John Philip Kemble to Covent Garden, where she performed until her retirement actress, the eldest child of Roger Kemble, manager of a small travelling theatrical company and sister of Charles, John Philip and Stephen Kemble, English actors. She acted in her father's traveling theater since early childhood and in 1782 joined Drury Lane. Her success was immediate, and from then on she was the undisputed queen of tragedy on the London stage. In 1803 she followed her brother John Philip Kemble to Covent Garden, where she performed until her retirement.
–- Molly and Peggy with Drawing Supplies(1762; 750x628pix, 39kb _ .ZOOM to 1499x1256pix, 124kb)
–- Mr. and Mrs. Andrews = Mr and Mrs Andrews (1748, 70x119cm) _ Robert Andrews and his wife Frances Mary, née Carter, were married in 1748, not long before Gainsborough painted their portraits — and that of Auberies, their farm near Sudbury. The church in the background is Saint-Peter's, Sudbury, and the tower to the left is that of Lavenham church. The small full-length portrait in an open-air rustic setting is typical of Gainsborough's early works, painted in his native Suffolk after his return from London; the identifiable view is unusual, and may have been specified by the patrons. We must not imagine that they sat together under a tree while Gainsborough set up his easel among the sheaves of corn; their costumes were most likely painted from dressed-up artist's mannequins, which may account for their doll-like appearance, and the landscape would have been studied separately. This kind of picture, commissioned by people 'who lived in rooms which were neat but not spacious', in Ellis Waterhouse's happy phrase about Gainsborough's contemporary Arthur Devis, was a speciality of painters who were not 'out of the top drawer'. The sitters, or their mannequin stand-ins, are posed in 'genteel attitudes' derived from manuals of manners. The nonchalant Mr. Andrews, fortunate possessor of a game licence, has his gun under his arm; Mrs. Andrews, ramrod straight and neatly composed, may have been meant to hold a book, or, it has been suggested, a bird which her husband has shot. In the event, a reserved space left in her lap has not been filled in with any identifiable object. Out of these conventional ingredients Gainsborough has composed the most tartly lyrical picture in the history of art. Mr. Andrews's satisfaction in his well-kept farmlands is as nothing to the intensity of the painter's feeling for the gold and green of fields and copses, the supple curves of fertile land meeting the stately clouds. The figures stand out brittle against that glorious yet ordered bounty. But how marvellously the acid blue hooped skirt is deployed, almost, but not quite, rhyming with the curved bench back, the pointy silk shoes in sly communion with the bench feet, while Mr. Andrews's substantial shoes converse with tree roots. (The faithful gun dog had better watch out for his unshod paws.) More rhymes and assonances link the lines of gun, thighs, dog, calf, coat; a coat tail answers the hanging ribbon of a sun hat; something jaunty in the husband's tricorn catches the corner of his wife's eye. Deep affection and naive artifice combine to create the earliest successful depiction of a truly English idyll.
–- The Blue Boy (1770, 178x112cm; half-length detail 863x1152pix, 78kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2375x1576pix, 249kb) _ This is a portrait of Jonathan Buttall, the son of a successful hardware merchant who was a close friend of the artist. This was painted during Gainsborough's extended stay in Bath before he finally settled in London in 1774. The artist has dressed the young man in a costume dating from about 140 years before the portrait was painted. This type of costume was familiar through the portraits of the great Flemish painter, Anthony van Dyck [1559-1641], who was resident in England during the early 17th century. Gainsborough greatly admired the work of Van Dyck and seems to have conceived The Blue Boy as an act of homage to that master.
–- The Artist's Daughters with a Cat (1761, 76x63cm; main detail 876x1169pix, 97kb _ .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 1531x1256pix, 182kb) _ This unfinished picture was painted soon after the artist arrived in Bath. There is no more than the ghost of the cat (is it in between some of it's nine lives?).
The Fallen Tree (1752, 102x91cm; 1014x914pix, 783kb _ ZOOM to 2130x1923pix, 3058kb) _ Gainsborough did paint some landscapes, and here are three of them.
Cottage Girl with Dog and Pitcher (1785, 174x125cm)
Shepherd Boys with Dogs Fighting (1783, 224x168cm) _ The top dog's boy is stopping the other boy from hitting it with a stick.
— George, Lord Vernon (1767, 246x150cm) _ pawed by his friendly dog.
John and Henry Trueman Villebois (1783, 195x155cm) _ making a house of cards.
King George III (1781, 239x159cm) _ Barrel-shaped George III [04 Jun 1738 – 29 Jan 1820] was the first of the House of Hanover to command general respect on becoming king of Great Britain (25 Oct 1760), and at the outset he conciliated all classes of his subjects. In 1761 he married Charlotte Sophia, princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. During the 1770-1782 administration of George III's favorite prime minister, Lord North [13 Apr 1732 – 05 Aug 1792], the American colonies, protesting England's attempts at taxation, proclaimed, on the 04 July 1776, and, eventually, achieved their independence. The peace treaty was signed in February 1783. George III welcomed the union between Ireland and Great Britain, but refused the proposed Catholic emancipation, which led to the resignation of William Pitt in 1801. In 1810, his favorite child, Princess Amelia, fell dangerously ill; this caused an attack of mental derangement, not the first he had had. In 1811, his eldest son George, Prince of Wales (later George IV) was appointed regent. George III was hopelessly insane until his death; he also lost his sight. His ailment is now believed to have been caused by porphyria.
Carl Friedrich Abel (1777, 223x147cm) _ Carl Friedrich Abel [1725-1787] was a German-born and trained musician and composer, who came to London in 1759 and pursued a successful career in England. For some time he shared a house with Johann Christian Bach; in 1775 they opened their own concert hall in Hanover Square. Abel was a close friend of Gainsborough. In the painting, Abel is seated at a table writing music, while a cello is leaning on his left knee. Abel's dog, lying under the table at its owner's feet, was again portrayed by Gainsborough in Pomeranian Bitch and Pup (1777).
John Plampin (1755, 50x60cm) _ Plampin [1727-1805] was a local landowner. A dog is interested in whatever it is that he is holding in his left hand. He holds his right hand inside his jacket, in a manner that would be typical of Napoleon (stomach ulcer?)
The Marsham Children (1787, 243x182cm) _ In the rococo period all over Europe Watteau stood as symbol of a new gracefulness and ease: the proof that the painter can tackle apparently flippant subject-matter and yet be a great artist. Watteau's own attitude was soon to matter no longer; he represented something which he might not always have wished to be. His compositions exercised an influence which was perhaps sometimes hardly conscious. A Frenchified grace in genre subjects was attempted everywhere, even in England. The most personal response to Watteau is in Gainsborough, a great painter who yet seldom painted anything resembling a Watteau subject. Several of Gainsborough's early portraits show him utilizing Watteau's compositions for his sitters. But Gainsborough borrows more than a pose, as his later pictures confirm. It is freedom that exhales from his portraits: the freedom of nature and natural settings is allied to free handling, and the whole expresses the idiosyncratic character of his sitters, so relaxed and yet lively, just like Gainsborough's own nature. The painter who described himself in a letter to a patron as `but a wild goose at best' was dearly Watteau's cousin, taking the same freedom for the artist as he expressed in his art, and conscious of being the odd man out in ordinary society. Gainsborough, if anyone, was the heir to Watteau's art, but he was not to torn to the 'fancy picture' until late in life; and there would have been little patronage for an English painter producing fêtes galantes in preference to portraits.
Master John Heathcote (1770, 127x101cm)
Conversation in a Park (1740, 73x68cm) _ This charming picture belongs to Gainsborough's early period, when he was working in London and Suffolk. The theme of the conversation in a park evokes Watteau and his school; it denotes a French influence, which played a considerable part in the formation of the artist — he was in fact a student of the French engraver Gravelot at the St Martins Lane Academy. This picture has been thought to represent Thomas Sandby and his wife. At the Watson sale in 1832, it was described as depicting the artist and his wife. The painter's marriage took place in 1746; a very similar work, Mr and Mrs Andrews, is dated 1748. The open-air portrait is a familiar theme in the English school, whereas in eighteenth-century France the portrait is usually in an interior. The evocation of nature by the English portrait painters is on the whole conventional; it is quite another matter with Gainsborough, however, who has treated the landscape for its own sake.

—(060513)
Mr and Mrs William Hallett ('The Morning Walk') (1785, 236x179cm) _ Instinctive, unpompous, drawn to music and the theatre more than to literature or history, and to nature more than to anything, Gainsborough continues to enchant us, as the serious Reynolds seldom can. Suffolk-born, like Constable, he also became, within his means and times, a 'natural painter' — albeit of a very different kind. Although he said he wished nothing more than 'to take my Viol de Gamba and walk off to some sweet Village where I can paint Landskips', his feeling for nature encompassed much more than landscape. Children and animals, women and men, everything that dances, shimmers, breathes, whispers or sings, look natural in Gainsborough's enchanted world, so that 'nature' comes to encompass silks and gauzes, ostrich feathers and powdered hair as much as woods and ponds and butterflies. But this rapturous manner of painting, in which all parts of a canvas were worked on together with a flickering brush, only appears in mature works, such as this famous and splendid picture. In his early years in Sudbury, after his training in London restoring Dutch landscapes and working with a French engraver, Gainsborough's finish was less free. After moving to the resort town of Bath in about 1759, he found a metropolitan clientele, and discovered Van Dyck in country-house collections. Both were to be decisive, and the effects are best judged in his portraits of women sitters, on the scale of life, in which elegance and ease of manner combine with a new, more tender color range and a loosening of paint texture. In 1774 he moved permanently to London, where he built up a great portrait practice, but also began to paint imaginative 'fancy pictures' inspired by Murillo. He never aspired to 'history painting' in the Grand Manner. His poetry resides mainly in his brush, not in compositional inventiveness. It was surely Gainsborough's own inclination, however, to interpret a formal marriage portrait, for which the sitters probably sat separately, as a parkland promenade. William Hallett was 21 and his wife Elizabeth, née Stephen, 20 when they solemnly linked arms to walk in step together through life. A Spitz dog paces at their side, right foot forward like theirs, as pale and fluffy as Mrs Hallet is pale and gauzy. Being only a dog with no sense of occasion he pants joyfully hoping for attention. The parkland is a painted backdrop, like those of Victorian photographers, yet it provides a pretext for depicting urban sitters in urban finery as if in the dappled light of a world fresh with dew.
Johann Christian Fischer (1780, 229x151cm) _ Johann Christian Fischer was an outstanding musician. He was born in 1733 in Germany at Freiburg-im-Breisgau and played for a time in the court band at Dresden before entering the service of Frederick the Great. On coming to London, where he is first recorded on 02 June 1768, he became a member of Queen Charlotte's Band and played regularly at court. His performance of Handel's fourth oboe concerto during the Handel Commemoration at Westminster Abbey in 1784 gave particular pleasure to George III. Regardless of such successes, he failed in 1786 to secure the post of Master of the King's Band. He collapsed in 1800 while playing in a concert at court and died shortly afterwards (29 April 1800). Fischer was a composer and virtuoso oboist. His two-keyed oboe is visible on the harpsichord-cum-piano against which the musician leans. Fanny Burney praised the 'sweet-flowing, melting celestial notes of Fischer's hautboy,' but the Italian violinist Felice de' Giardini [1716-1793] referred to Fischer's 'impudence of tone as no other instrument could contend with.' In the portrait on the chair behind Fischer is a violin, on which he was apparently also an accomplished performer although only in private. The harpsichord-cum-piano, made by Joseph Merlin who came to London from the Netherlands in 1760 and established a successful business in the production of pianofortes, presumably refers to his abilities as a composer, as no doubt do the piles of musical scores. This portrait of Johann Christian Fischer stands as testimony to Gainsborough's own love of music. The artist preferred the company of actors, artists, dramatists and musicians to that of politicians, writers or scholars, and was himself a talented amateur musician in addition to being a painter. Gainsborough once wrote to William Jackson: 'I'm sick of Portraits and wish very much to take my Viol da Gamba and walk off to some sweet Village when I can paint Landskips and enjoy the fag End of Life in quietness and ease.' Yet some of his finest portraits are of musicians and include, in addition to that of Fischer, the composers
Johann Christian Bach
(1776). These two portraits date from the late 1770s, whereas that of Johann Christian Fischer was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1780. Gainsborough seems to have known Fischer while he was still living in Bath (Fischer moved permanently to London in 1774). As early as 1775 Fischer evinced an interest in the artist's elder daughter Mary [1748-1826], whom he married at St Ann's Church, Soho, on 21 February 1780. The wedding was agreed to reluctantly by Gainsborough, who, although he admired Fischer as a musician, perhaps hoped that his elder daughter might make a better marriage, and lodged doubts about the musician's character. He wrote to his sister on 23 February 1780: 'I can't say I have any reason to doubt the man's honesty or goodness of heart, as I never heard anyone speak anything amiss of him; and as to his oddities and temper, she must learn to like as she likes his person, for nothing can be altered now. I pray God she may be happy with him and have her health.' The marriage did not last and Mary gradually became insane. Whatever tensions Gainsborough might have been experiencing with regard to Fischer's relationship with his daughter, Gainsborough's portrait is masterly in its compositional sophistication, use of color and sympathetic characterization. It is clear, however, that the likeness has been painted over another portrait which will no doubt be revealed by X-ray. The portrait came into the Royal Collection indirectly. It appears to have been painted for Willoughby Bertie, 4th Earl of Abingdon [–1799], a radical politician and a talented amateur musician, but was sold by his successor. Eventually it was acquired by Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, who in 1809 presented it to his brother, the Prince of Wales (later George IV). Both were admirers of Gainsborough's work.

 

Died on a 14 May:


1905 Jan Evert Morel
, Dutch painter born (main coverage) on 24 February 1835. — (060405)

^ 1891 Johan Conrad Greive, Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 02 April 1837. — {Did they grieve for Greive?}— He initially wanted to be a musician like his father, but he decided to become a painter and was taught his uncle, the genre and figure painter P. F. Greive [1811–1872]. Thereafter he became a student of Cornelis Springer [25 May 1817 – 20 Feb 1891], and about 1861 he worked with L. Lingeman [1829–1894] in the latter’s studio.
Een visser die zijn netten te drogen hangt, een stad op de achtergrond (24x38cm; 279x439pix, 38kb)
Gezigt op het Westerdok, Amsterdam (color lithograph, 27x43cm; 531x823pix, 54kb).

^ 1781 Franz Schütz (or Schüz), German artist born on 16 (15?) December 1751, brother of Johann Georg Schütz "Römer-Schütz" [16 May 1755 – 11 May 1813]. Franz Schütz wird als erster Sohn von Christian Georg Schütz I "dem Älteren" [24 Sep 1718 – 03 Dec 1791] und seiner Ehefrau Anna Maria am 15. Dezember 1751 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. Gwinner schreibt später in "Kunst und Künstler in Frankfurt am Main über Franz Schütz: "Ihm würde ohne Zweifel die erste Stelle unter allen Gliedern dieser Familie gebühren, wenn Genialität und angeborenes Talent allein Künstler machten. Aber sein Geist war zu ungeordnet, sein Charakter zu haltlos, als daß aus dem Kunstgenie ein harmonisch gebildeter Künstler hätte werden können". Franz zeichnet und komponiert mit außerordentlicher Leichtigkeit und ist fast unerschöpflich an Ideen. Oft ist es zweifelhaft, ob er nicht eher Musiker denn Maler sei. Er spielt meisterlich Violine, hat aber für den Wert des Geldes keinen Begriff. Wenn er Geld hat, opfert er dies und den größten Teil seiner Zeit seiner unangemessenen Liebe zur Musik, zum Wein, zu endlosen Mahlzeiten und lustigen Gesellschaften. Er wird Opfer der Schwindsucht. Er lehnt ärztliche Hilfe ab, und so ereilt ihn im noch nicht vollendeten 30. Lebensjahr der Tod. Er erliegt der Schwindsucht am 14. Mai 1781 in Genf. Burckhard, sein ihm bis zuletzt treu gebliebener Freund, läßt ihn in der Katholischen Gemeinde Saconnex auf französischem Gebiet beerdigen. Er bezahlt zudem alle seine Schulden und Verbindlichkeiten, behält dafür aber seine Hinterlassenschaft an Zeichnungen und Bildern.
Schweizer Gebirgslandschaft mit Hütte hoch auf einem Felsen und einem Gebirgsbach, über den ein Steg führt, den zwei Wanderer überqueren (Swiss mountainous region with a hut high on a rock and a mountain stream crossed by two hikers on a footbridge.) (engraving, 25x34cm; 370x500pix, 72kb) _ Seine Schweizer Zeichnungen, während oder nach der Reise durch die Schweiz nach Mailand, in Begleitung seines Gönners Gedeon Burckhard, und zwar u. a. diejenigen nach dem Besuch Mailands, sind hervorragende Zeugnisse für die Entwicklung der deutschen Landschaftskunst gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, weg von der Ideallandschaft und den bereits realistischen niederländischen Vorbildern hin zu einer rein naturnahen Wiedergabe. (Vgl. dazu die bekannten 6 Aschaffenburger Ansichten des Ferdinand Kobell von 1786). Unter dem Eindruck der gewaltigen Schweizer Gebirgslandschaft und der Mailänder Gemäldesammlungen, muss sich Schütz vollends von der hergebrachten Darstellungsweise befreit haben, so dass er nun in der Lage war, die vorgefundene Natur adäquat und zum Teil völlig spontan zu charakterisieren, was ihn letzten Endes über die Kunst seines berühmten Vaters hätte weit hinausführen müssen, wenn er länger gelebt hätte. — His Swiss drawings, done during or after his travel through Switzerland to Milan – accompanied by his patron Gedeon Burckhard – are excellent examples of the evolution of German landscape paisnisc from an idealized view to the more realistic Dutch style of painting nature. (Compare the 6 well known 1786 views of Aschaffenburg by Ferdinand Kobell). Impressed by the beautiful sights of the Swiss mountains and by the splendor of the art collections in Milan, Schütz got a completely new insight into the painting of nature.

^ 1666 Joost Corneliszoon Droogsloot (or Droochsloot), Dutch painter born in 1586. — Jacob Duck [1600 – 28 Jan 1667 bur.] was a student of Droochsloot.
Self-Portrait in a Landscape (1627, 37x50cm; 575x779pix, 214kb)
De zeven werken van barmhartigheid (1644, 61x107cm; 444x800pix, 50kb) _ (1) het spijzigen der hongerigen (2) het laven der dorstigen (3) het begraven der doden (4) het troosten der zieken (5) het herbergen van reizigers (6) het kleden der naakten (7) het loskopen van gevangenen (Mattheus 25:34.)
Landscape of a Village (38x60cm; 262x385pix, 16kb)
Winter in a Dutch Town (51x75cm; 575x859pix, 230kb) _ a typical image of a wintertime Dutch town, perhaps Droochsloot's own native Utrecht. The frozen canal between the town walls is crowded with people: there are burghers out to take the air, anglers who are making holes in the ice and children dashing around on skates. On the banks of the canal we can see urban buildings - towers, gates with drawbridges, windmills and dwelling houses. The artist's attention is spread between the depiction of a variety of motifs - everything seems fascinating to him. The result might be described as pictures within a picture, where every little scene has a significance and finished character of its own. Droochsloot paints the landscape and the figures with equal attention. The picturesque disorderliness of the crowd and the untidy lines of the landscape are harmonized by a restrained color scheme, the dingy sunlight and the strict use of perspective in the construction of space.
The Pool of Bethesda (100x152cm; 325x498pix, 23kb) _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3

^ 1626 cavaliere Cristoforo (or Cristofano, Cristofo) Roncalli “il Pomarancio”, Italian painter and draftsman born in 1552 in Pomarance, near Volterra. He studied under Nicolò Circignani [1517 – < 09 Oct 1596] who also, as well as his son Antonio Circignani, was called “il Pomarancio” (and later “Pomarancio il Vecchio”) , having been born in the same Pomarance. By 1575 he had moved to Siena, where Ippolito Agostini commissioned him to paint an altarpiece for the cathedral, a Virgin and Child with SS Anthony and Agatha (1576) which shows the influence of Domenico Beccafumi, and to fresco a ceiling in Agostini’s palace with allegories from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Roncalli was associated with Prospero Antichi; he also collaborated with Cherubino Alberti. — After his initial training in Volterra and Florence, about 1575 Pomarancio moved to Siena, where he painted an altarpiece of The Madonna and Child with Sts Anthony and Agatha (1576, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena) and scenes from Ovid's Metamorphoses (Palazzo Bindi, Siena) for Ippolito Agostini. By 1582 Pomarancio was in Rome. His first major commission, two frescoes for the Oratorio del Santissimo Crocifisso at San Marcello, illustrates events from the history of the confraternity (1583-1584). These frescoes, and fresco cycles depicting scenes from the Passion of Christ and the life of St Paul, respectively in the Mattei and Della Valle Chapels in Santa Maria in Aracoeli (1585-1590), are still heavily indebted to late sixteenth-century Mannerism. Paintings with episodes from the life of St Filippo Neri in Santa Maria in Vallicella (1596-1599), however, are characterised by a new realism and dramatic contrasts of light and shade. They represent a new phase in Pomarancio's artistic development as does his altarpiece from 1598-99 of St Domitilla with Sts Nereus and Achilleus (Chiesa dei Santi Nereo e Achilleo, Rome), which reveals an increasingly monumental and classical approach. For the Jubilee of 1600, he painted the Baptism of Constantine and the figure of St Simon in the transept of San Giovanni in Laterano (c. 1599) and designed the mosaics for the Clementine Chapel in St Peter's (c. 1600). In both cases he worked under the supervision of Cavaliere d'Arpino. Fresco cycles in the new sacristy (1605-1610) and the cupola of the basilica of Santa Maria at Loreto (1609-1615; destroyed) occupied the artist during his later years. — Cristoforo Roncalli was born and raised in the provincial Tuscan town of Pomarance and became one of the most acclaimed painters working in Rome. He began his career studying in Florence for a brief period, then moved to Siena in 1575, where he produced his first notable commissions-altarpieces and frescoes. While on a study trip to Rome in 1580 Roncalli was drawn to the city's inspirational sites, influential contacts, and abundant patronage. He remained there until the end of his life, receiving numerous commissions for frescoes with Biblical themes, such as scenes from the life of Saint Pauland the Passion of Christ. In 1588 he became a member of the distinguished Accademia di San Luca. Roncalli's work throughout this period retained the influences of Florentine Mannerism, but by the mid 1590s a new realism and more dramatic contrasts between light and shade appeared in his work. This shift in Roncalli's style may reflect the influence of his friend Caravaggio. By the turn of the century Roncalli procured the patronage of Pope Clement VIII, and was nominated to oversee decorative works in St. Peter's Basilica. He was promoted to Cavaliere di Cristo, the highest designation for an artist in the church, in 1607. — Cristoforo Roncalli detto Il Pomarancio (1552/’53-1626) Cristoforo Roncalli nacque, intorno al 1552-’53, a Pomarance, vicino Volterra da una famiglia bergamasca. Dalla città di origine derivò il soprannome di Pomarancio. La sua formazione avvenne in Toscana tra Volterra, Firenze e Siena, dove realizzò le sue prime opere di un certo rilievo. Verso l’inizio del 1578, avvenne il suo trasferimento a Roma, dove si appoggiò al conterraneo Niccolò Circignani, anch’egli detto il Pomarancio, attivo nelle maggiori imprese decorative promosse da Gregorio XIII. Roma fu al centro dei suoi interessi artistici e professionali e qui si svolse gran parte della sua attività, con l’unica eccezione della lunga parentesi di Loreto (1605-1615), dove decorò la volta della Sacrestia Nuova e la cupola della Basilica. Associato alla cerchia degli Oratoriani di San Filippo Neri alla Vallicella, a cui appartenevano gli esponenti delle più importanti famiglie dell’aristocrazia romana, conquistò in breve tempo i favori della corte pontificia e di Clemente VIII che gli affidò la direzione di gran parte dei cantieri avviati per la nuova decorazione di San Pietro in occasione del Giubileo del 1600. Divenne in breve uno dei dominatori della scena artistica romana dove rappresentò, accanto alle più radicali posizioni dei Carracci e di Caravaggio, la continuità di una tradizione riformata in senso moderno, le esigenze dell’ortodossia, del decoro e della chiarezza, con una misura di stile che già i contemporanei intesero come del tutto originale e indipendente. C. Maccari, "Simboli delle litanie" Attraverso lo studio assiduo dei modelli classici del primo Cinquecento, Raffaello soprattutto e Michelangelo, e della statuaria antica, il Roncalli elaborò uno stile monumentale ed enfatico, solenne e clamante che decretò il suo grandissimo successo. Di modi affabili e signorili e dotato di notevoli capacità organizzative -fu un vero e proprio imprenditore che lavorò con squadre di aiuti, tenendo aperti più cantieri contemporaneamente-, guadagnò la stima dei più grandi tra i suoi contemporanei -Rubens, Annibale Carracci, Caravaggio-, l’amicizia di personaggi eminenti - nel 1606 accompagnò il marchese Giustiniani in un viaggio in Europa- e commissioni di grandissimo prestigio, quali quelle per Loreto. Verso il 1607 fu nominato Cavaliere di Cristo, ricevendo così il più alto riconoscimento conferito dalla Chiesa ad un artista. Si conservano sue opere a Roma, in San Pietro, in San Giovanni in Laterano, all’Aracoeli, ai Santi Nereo e Achilleo, in Santa Maria degli Angeli, in Palazzo Mattei, in Santa Maria in Vallicella, in San Giacomo in Augusta , in Santa Maria della Scala, in Sant’Andrea Della Valle, in San Silvestro in Capite, in San Gregorio al Celio, nella Galleria Borghese, ecc. Sue opere venivano richieste da Napoli, da Genova, dalla duchessa di Mantova, per il tramite del Rubens: rimane un carteggio, risalente al 1608, tra la duchessa ed il Rubens a proposito della stima data dal fiammingo di un’opera del Roncalli “..che è riputato de’ primi di Roma..” e giudicata troppo alta dalla Duchessa che aveva pagato meno un quadro del Caravaggio che, scrive, “..era maggiore di questo et di pittore più famoso et tenuto in maggior pregio..”. Con Roncalli, in San Silvestro in Capite, si diede avvio a Roma alla decorazione delle cupole di crociera; l’affidamento a lui della decorazione della perduta cupola di Loreto, dove elaborò un progetto originalissimo e di grande effetto illusionistico, testimonia della competenza che gli era riconosciuta in tale difficile genere di pittura. Rientrato a Roma ormai anziano e in una situazione economica florida grazie anche agli enormi cospicui guadagni ricavati dall’impresa lauretana, quasi 19'000'000 scudi, rimase comunque attivo fino alla fine. Morì nel maggio del 1626, lasciando inevasa una commissione della Congregazione della Fabbrica di San Pietro.
— Roncalli had, among his students, Bartolomeo Cavarozzi, Bartolomeo Manfredi, Matteo Zaccolini, Giovanni Battista Crescenzi, Pietro Paolo Jacometti. — LINKS
Saint Domitilla with Saints Nereus and Achilleus (1599, 275x170cm; 1191x702pix 131kb) _ Pomarancio's painting is an important historical document. It was painted for an altar in the left transept of Santi Nereo e Achilleo in Rome. When he was appointed a cardinal in 1596, Cesare Baronio, who was associated with the Congregation of the Oratory, chose this then rather dilapidated structure as his titular church. His reasons for doing so were twofold: firstly, its apparent simplicity fitted well with his publicly avowed modesty; and secondly, it was closely tied to the early, `heroic' phase of Christianity. Baronio also believed that Saint Gregory the Great, to whom the Oratory's initial church was also dedicated, had preached there. In 1599, in celebration of the reconstruction, which he had financed himself, Baronio had the relics of SS. Domitilla, Nereus, and Achilleus returned from Sant'Adriano ai Fori (destroyed 1935), where they had been transferred in 1228 under Pope Gregory IX. All three martyrs are depicted in the painting. The central figure of Saint Domitilla is based on a Saint Cecilia by Raphael. Domitilla looks towards heaven as three angels swoop down holding wreaths. There is, however, a marked difference to Raphael's saint: Domitilla has been set in motion. Her left foot rests one step lower than her right, as if she were descending a staircase and approaching the spectator. This suggestion of movement is underlined by the fall of her drapery. She holds a palm frond in her right hand and is flanked by the two other saints, who are placed at a higher level and look directly at the viewer. Although Pomarancio's work conforms to all the conventions of the time, he has succeeded in enlivening it to such an extent that there seems to be real interaction between the saints and their audience. He thereby employs an artistic mode used to an even greater extent by the artists who followed him, including Caravaggio, Cavarozzi, and Lanfranco.
Madonna con il Bambino, San Agostino, la Maddalena e angeli


Born on a 14 May:

^ 1905 Antonio Berni, Argentine painter, sculptor and printmaker, who died on 13 October 1981. — {With a stutter, he could have been Bernini.}— He was trained at the stained-glass window workshop of Buxadera & Compañía, Rosario, province of Santa Fé, and by Eugenio Fornels and Enrique Munné. He held his first exhibition in 1920. At the age of 20 he won a scholarship for study in Europe awarded by the Jockey Club of Rosario, which enabled him to study in Paris under André Lhote [05 Jul 1885 – 24 Jan 1962] and under Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. After showing his European works in Buenos Aires in 1927 he obtained another scholarship, this time from the government of the province of Santa Fé, as a result of which he established contact with the Surrealists in 1928; in particular he befriended Louis Aragon [03 Oct 1897 – 24 Dec 1982] and the French philosopher Henri Lefebvre. — Berni was Argentina’s most influential 20th century artist. Berni used a technique of recycling materials to construct all of his works, which include paintings, sculptures, installations, and prints. Berni, a social realist whose career began in the 1930s, examined the marginalized sectors of Argentinean society during the utopian 1960s with monsters and fictitious characters from the fringes of society. In order to depict the lives of the slum dwellers of Buenos Aires, Berni went to the villas miserias and collected trash from which he assembled his works. A set of his ink drawings, collages, and engravings won a prize at the Venice International Biennial in 1962. His extravagant assemblages composed of urban detritus set the standard for the critically engaged art that followed.— LINKS
La Puerta Abierta (1932, 53x44cm; 800x649pix, 140kb) _ The pseudonymous Wasponio Zurichi has transformed this into the full-fledged abstraction
      _ Elle l'Apporta au Bêta aka Porte Trappe (2006; screen filling, 227kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1983kb).
La muerte acecha en cada esquina (1932; 579x800pix, 130kb) _ The abstraction into which Zurichi has metamorphosed Berni's surrealist picture is
      _ La Muette a Sêché en Catastrophe de Ski aka Eco Roce (2006; screen filling, 287kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2288kb).
Juanito en la laguna (160x105cm; 518x331pix, 120kb)
29 images at Argentinidad —(060513)


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