search 8500 artists, their works, museums, movements, countries, time periods, media, specializations
<<< ART 10 May
ANY DAY ...IN ART ...IN HISTORY ||| HISTORY “4” MAY 11 ||| ALTERNATE SITES
ART 12 May >>>
BEAU
MOT TUA
abspic1
4~2day
ART “4” “2”-DAY  11 May v.10.40
OR
AIL
abspic2
4~2day
DEATHS: 1866 PETTER — 1664 DE BRAY 1927 “GRIS”
BIRTHS: 1815 ANSDELL — 1889 NASH — 1904 DALÍ 1824 GÉRÔME 1823 STEVENS
^ Born on 11 May 1815: Richard Ansdell, British painter who died on 20 April 1885.
— He was the son of an artisan and in 1835 entered the Liverpool Academy Schools, where he later became president (1845–6). One of his earliest and largest dated works is the Waterloo Coursing Meeting. This canvas demonstrates his considerable skill as a portrait painter and creates a detailed record of a major sporting event of the period which was attended by many members of the local aristocracy, some of whom, notably the 3rd Earl of Sefton, were his patrons. It was engraved and published in 1843, and other works were similarly popularized. Shooting Party in the Highlands (1840; Liverpool, Walker A.G.) was the first of 149 works exhibited at the Royal Academy. It shows huntsmen with their horses and dogs resting after a good day’s sport, a theme that Ansdell often depicted. He also portrayed other rural scenes such as gamekeepers or shepherds with domestic and wild animals, often in historical settings. All are painted with precision and sensitivity and without sentimentality. Although based in London from 1847 until 1884, Ansdell owned houses in Lancashire and Scotland and found inspiration in northern landscape. He travelled to Spain with the painter John Phillip in 1856 and alone in 1857 and produced several works of Spanish inspiration, for example Feeding Goats in the Alhambra (Preston, Harris Mus. & A.G.). He also collaborated with William Powell Frith and Thomas Creswick in rural genre scenes. Ansdell was commercially successful and was elected ARA in 1861 and RA in 1870. His animal subjects often rival those of Landseer, both in execution and composition, and place him in the forefront of Victorian sporting art. The contents of Ansdell’s studio were sold at Christie’s, London, 19 March 1886.

LINKS
The Blacksmith's Shop (1858, 103x140cm; 727x1000pix, 179kb)
A Ewe with Lambs and a Heron Beside a Loch (1867, 82x112cm) {“Ewe with Lambs” NOT “You with Lambs”}
The Lucky Dogs (1881, 118x161cm)
Good Friends (91x71cm)
Lost In The Storm (82x130cm)
The Goatherds, Gibraltar - Looking Across The Strait Into Africa (121x189cm)
The Gamekeeper (32x24cm)
A Ploughing Match (78x135cm)
Dog with Wild Duck (36x46cm)
The Deer Hunt (176x375pix, 32kb) _ The painting shows a man taking a drink next to the carcass of a deer lying across the back of a grazind horse, with a tricolored collie on the right and two deer hounds on the left; in the distance another man is bringing a horse similarly loaded with a dead deer.
 
^ Died on 11 May 1866: Franz Xaver Petter, Viennese painter specialized in Still Life, born on 22 October 1791.
— The tradition of painting detailed, carefully observed arrangements of flowers began in seventeenth century Holland, but remained popular and continues to be practiced in our own time. The still life is an ideal subject matter for the artist to display both his or her talent in describing different textures, as well as an individual sense of order and harmony. In nineteenth century Vienna, the still life was a standard subject at the Academy of Arts and was a favored subject with the Imperial Court, which collected examples by the Dutch masters and by local Viennese painters. Among these artists, Franz Petter distinguished himself as a disciplined and sensitive creator of still life subjects. Petter painted large opulent still lifes for Viennese homes which provided him with a regular income; but it was his small-scale studies of flowers and fruit that established his lasting reputation for their meticulous craftsmanship, compositional clarity, and sense of simplicity and intimacy.
— Der berühmte Künstler wurde an der Wiener Akademie unter Johann Baptist Drechsler und Sebastian Wegmayr ausgebildet und avancierte zu einem der angesehensten Blumenmaler der Biedermeier-Zeit. Bereits 1814 wurde er Korrektor an der akademischen Blumenzeichenschule, 1832 Professor und 1835 Akademischer Rat und Direktor an der Manufaktur-Zeichenschule der Wiener Akademie. Seine lebendigen und in prachtvollen Farben ausgeführten Blumenstücke fanden große Wertschätzung in Hof-, Adels- und (gehobenen) Bürgerkreisen und befinden sich heute in wichtigen Museen und in Privatsammlungen.
Portrait of Petter (1847 lithograph; 384x257pix, 25kb) by T. Petter.

An Arrangement of Flowers with a Bird's Nest
An Arrangement of Flowers with Fruit
Großes, dekoratives Blumenstilleben mit sitzendem Affen (1835, 79x63cm; 500x396pix, 74kb)
Großes Blumenstück (1841, 110x86cm; 450x350pix, 59kb) _ In seinen großen Blumenstilleben – wie in nebenstehendem Meisterwerk – setzt Petter die von den Niederländern des 17. Jahrhunderts beeinflußte Blumenmalerei Drechslers fort: auf einer Marmorplatte steht ein barockes Prunkgefäß, das als Vase für das meisterhaft arrangierte Bouquet fungiert. Wie ein dicht gesetztes Puzzle türmen sich die plastisch und in sämtlichen leuchtenden Farben der Palette gemalten Blüten von Rosen, Rhododendren, Orchideen, Tulpen, Mohn oder Pfingstrosen übereinander; der Fuß der Vase ist flankiert von frischen und prallen Früchten. Die eindrucksvoll vermittelte „barocke“ Lebensfreude und Naturfrische sowie die botanisch und malerisch perfekt wiedergegebenen Blumen machen das Gemälde zu einem imposanten Hauptwerk des Künstlers.
 
^ Born on 11 May 1889: Paul Nash, English Surrealist painter who died on 11 July 1946. — Brother of John Northcote Nash [11 Apr 1893 – 23 Sep 1977].
— Nash, the son of a successful lawyer, was born London. Nash was educated at St. Paul's School and the Slade School of Art, where he met Stanley Spencer, Mark Gertler, William Roberts and C. R. W. Nevinson. Influenced by the work of William Blake, Nash had one-man shows in 1912 and 1913.
     On the outbreak Nash enlisted in the Artists' Rifles and was sent to the Western Front. Nash, who took part in the offensive at Ypres, had reached the rank of lieutenant in the Hampshire Regiment by 1916. Whenever possible, Nash made sketches of life in the trenches. In May, 1917 he was invalided home after a non-military accident. While recuperating in London, Nash worked from his sketches to produce a series of war paintings. This work was well-received when exhibited later that year.
     As a result of this exhibition, Charles Masterman, head of the government's War Propaganda Bureau (WPB) recruited Nash as a war artist. In November 1917 he returned to the Western Front where he painted several more pictures. Nash's work during the war included The Menin Road, The Ypres Salient at Night, The Mule Track (1918), A Howitzer Firing, Ruined Country and Spring in the Trenches. Nash was unhappy with his work as a member of War Propaganda Bureau. He wrote at the time: "I am no longer an artist. I am a messenger who will bring back word from the men who are fighting to those who want the war to go on for ever. Feeble, inarticulate will be my message, but it will have a bitter truth and may it burn their lousy souls." After the war Nash experimented with surrealism and abstract art. Nash also taught at the Royal College of Art and worked as a designer and book illustrator. During the Second World War Nash was employed by the Ministry of Information and the Air Ministry and paintings produced by him during this period include The Battle of Britain and Totes Meer.

LINKS
Wood on the Downs (1929) _ Nash helped organise and exhibited in the first surrealist exhibition of 1936. He is ranked as one of the greatest lyric artists of the English School - alongside Turner and Blake. It has been said of him that he was: Essentially a landscape painter, no artist has interpreted the beauty and rhythm of the English countryside as perfectly as he. Wood on the Downs is an articulate and monumental treatment of a vivid but unsensational subject. It is described in English Art & Modernism as a painting that summarises the first three decades of twentieth century British painting. There is an emphasis on a substantial paint surface, a feature of the best work of the Camden Town Group and a clear formal structure testifies to a continued recognition of the importance of Cezanne. The continental influences of Surrealism and Cubism were being gradually adopted into a context that became entirely appropriate to English painting.
Northern Adventure (1929) _ This is the second version of a view from the window of Nash's flat in London which overlooked St. Pancras Station, across a vacant lot, containing an advertising hoarding. The work demonstrates Nash's increasing interest in architectural landscapes and in Surrealism. In the first version, oval windows line the station building. In Northern Adventure these have been removed, substituted for an outsized window which floats in space at an angle. This strange displacement of the window calls to mind the work of the Surrealists. It was a device used by the Italian artist, Giorgio De Chirico and its inclusion in Nash's work provides a reflection of the sky which is otherwise cut from the composition. In Nash's autobiography, 'Outline', his notes under the chapter titled 'Searching' read; "A new vision and a new style. The change begins. Northern Adventure and other adventures."
Winter Sea (71x97cm) _ Muted shades of green and white are combined with black to create an impression of the sea at night. As well as suggesting moonlight, the palette of steely colors conveys a sense of somberness and cold. Concentrating on color and form, Nash represented nature as a pattern that verges on the abstract. The sharp, angular shapes of the waves evoke the forbidding nature of the winter sea.
A Howitzer Firing (71x91cm) _ Along with Nevinson and Wyndham Lewis, Nash (1889-1946) was one of the major British war painters who, like them, had been influenced by Cubism and Futurism prior to 1914. He signed up in 1914, was made a lieutenant in 1916, and fought near Ypres. An accident led to his repatriation in May 1917. He then set down to work from memory and from his sketches. Nash's paintings rely on detailed observation, from which he extracts the substance of his pictorial, lyrical and tragic effects. This is the case with this picture, where Nash is not content merely with a representation of the gun under camouflage nets. The initial flash of light and the reddening of the sky in contrast with the shadow of the foreground heighten the picture's expressiveness.
Night Bombardment (1919, 183x214cm) _ Produced for the Canadian War Memorial, this painting is reminiscent of the work of Vallotton, in spite of the difference in the two painters' ages, training and experience of the war. In this commemorative picture, Nash combines figurative elements - mainly tree trunks, barbed wire and the dark entrance to a dugout - with geometrical elements - now curved, like craters and smoke etc., now angular, like the explosion, parapets and wooden frames. It reminds one of early Nevinson, which relies on the same pictorial system. However, faced with a monumental format, Nash introduces a further element, with the brutality of his earthy colors, the muddy grey-browns, the red of the barbed wire and the whitish lights, forming sharp contrasts against the backdrop of an opaque sky.
The Ypres Salient at Night (1918, 71x91cm)
Void (1918, 72x92cm)
The Menin Road (1919, 183x317cm) _ The battle around Ypres lasted as long as the war itself. This appalling blood-bath was for the Commonwealth troops like Verdun for the French: an endless carnage in a marshy landscape where the wounded were swallowed up in the mud. These three paintings, while showing how Nash moved from Cubo-Futurism towards descriptive naturalism, bear witness to the extreme violence of the destruction, in the wetlands, in the mutilated woodlands and around the town, itself destroyed. Void can be seen as the archetype of the Great War landscapes: not a soldier to be seen, abandoned lorries and guns, flooded trenches, a limp corpse among the shells and rifles, smoke and, in the distance a plane, either dropping bombs or falling to the ground, we cannot tell. On top of everything, it rains continually. There can be no more hope of coming back alive from such a place which no longer has a name, which has become a field of death.
Behind the Inn (1922, 63x76cm)
 
^ Died on 11 May 1664: Salomon de Bray (or Braij), Dutch painter born in 1597.
— Salomon de Bray was the son of Simon de Bray, who moved to Holland from Aelst in the Catholic southern Netherlands. Salomon was a man of versatile talents, with interests ranging from painting to poetry and urban planning. He married in 1625 and three of his sons became artists: Jan de Bray [1627-1697], Dirck de Bray, an engraver and painter, and Joseph de Bray, a painter of still-lifes. Jan de Bray's Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra (1669) is generally thought to depict his parents as Anthony and Cleopatra and himself and his siblings as their attendants.
     Salomon was a painter of biblical and allegorical scenes, who settled in Haarlem about 1625. He was the pupil of Goltzius, whose manner he occasionally imitated, but his portraits, like those by his son and student Jan, are often close to Hals. He wrote a book, Architecture Moderna (1631), describing the buildings of Hendrick de Keyser. He was a member of the civic guard company of Saint-Adriaen in Haarlem, where he remained until his death.
      He was a sensitive and intelligent man who played an important role in various cultural projects and institutions in the city. In 1627 he was paid for sketches of the Zeylpoort in Haarlem; he co-founded the Haarlem Guild of Saint Hubert; in 1631 he helped reform the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, serving on its executive committee from 1633 to 1640; in 1634 he supervised the repairs to an organ in a Haarlem church; and he took an interest in many architectural projects for the city, contributing, among other things, a plan for the enlargement of the city and models and drawings for the Nieuwe Kerk. In 1644-1645 he was summoned to Nijmegen as a consultant architect to supervise the alterations to an orphanage and an old people's home, and in 1649-1650 he contributed large decorated fields to the painted decoration of the Oranjezaal at the Huis ten Bosch outside the Hague.
      Salomon de Bray, his wife, two of their sons, and two daughters died during the 1663-1664 plague epidemic in Haarlem.
— Architect and painter Salomon de Bray spent nearly his whole life in Haarlem, where Mannerist artists Cornelis van Haarlem and Hendrick Goltzius were probably his first teachers. He painted mostly religious and mythological scenes, along with portraits, landscapes, and genre pictures. An active and accomplished draftsman, De Bray made architectural drawings and highly finished preliminary studies for paintings.
      De Bray's artistic development is not well documented. In 1635 he seemed to favor half-length figures, which at that time had become rather old-fashioned. By about 1640, his work showed the influence of Rembrandt van Rijn's chiaroscuro. In the following decade, De Bray began incorporating classical compositions into his work, a style introduced two decades earlier by fellow townsman Pieter de Grebber.
      De Bray played an important role in Haarlem's cultural projects and institutions. Unfortunately, many of his architectural designs were never carried out. He helped reorganize the Guild of Saint Luke in 1631, along with Pieter Molijn. Sensitive and intelligent, De Bray published a collection of love poems and a book on contemporary architecture.
      In 1663 - 1664, the plague struck the De Bray family, killing both parents and four of their ten children. The surviving sons Jan, Dirck, and Joseph became painters.

LINKS
The Twins Clara and Aelbert de Bray (1646, 780x1001pix, 104kb) _ Salomon de Bray is usually remembered for his classical compositions. Yet his double portrait of his nephew's twins puts him squarely in the tradition of Dutch naturalistic portraiture. The chiaroscuro effect and the color scheme of the painting are reminiscent of works by Rembrandt in the 1640s, but stylistic slots are the last thing to come to mind when confronted by this touching image of two peaceful tiny babies wearing what are presumably their baptismal lockets lying in a richly carved gilded Baroque shell-like cradle.
Adoration by the Magi (round; 686x686pix, 208kb _ ZOOM to 1030x1029, 75kb)
David with His Sword (1636, 62x51cm) _ In the classic biblical story of faith, daring, and skill overcoming brute strength and superior odds (1 Samuel), the shepherd boy David slew the armored Philistine giant Goliath with just a stave, a slingshot, and a pouch containing a few pebbles from a local brook. After stunning Goliath with a stone from his slingshot, David quickly took up the giant's sword and severed his head. Assured that his audience knew the story, Salomon de Bray could evoke a meaningful narrative by depicting only a boy with an oversize sword. De Bray's David embodies youth and naiveté; he is an ordinary, rather blank-faced, Dutch youth, not an idealized heroic type. David with His Sword and Samson with the Jawbone share the same size, medium, and composition; they were probably paired as pendants or as part of a series of Old Testament heroes.
Samson with the Jawbone (1636, 62x51cm) _ Holding his attribute the jawbone, Samson looks upward, perhaps to God. The great strongman slew a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass (Judges 15:19). Overcome by thirst, he then drank from the rock at Lechi, a name that also means "jawbone" in Hebrew. A mistaken translation in the Dutch Bible led some artists, like de Bray, to depict Samson with a jawbone issuing water, rather than the spring's rocky source. In this half-length composition, Salomon de Bray used a clear light and plain background, showing his awareness of the artistic conventions of the Utrecht Caravaggisti.
Landscape with a couple of sleeping shepherds (1633; 600x848pix)
Young Nun (1622; 600x496pix)

 
Dali^ Born on 11 May 1904: Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domenech, Figueres Catalan Surrealist painter, printmaker, and writer, who died on 23 January 1989.— {Did Dalí dilly dally?}
— He was born in Figueras, Catalonia, and educated at the School of Fine Arts, Madrid. After 1929 he espoused surrealism, although the leaders of the movement later denounced Dalí as overly commercial. Dalí's paintings from this period depict dream imagery and everyday objects in unexpected forms, such as the famous limp watches in The Persistence of Memory. Dalí moved to the United States in 1940, where he remained until 1948. His later paintings, often on religious themes, are more classical in style. They include Crucifixion and The Sacrament of the Last Supper. Dalí's paintings are characterized by meticulous draftsmanship and realistic detail, with brilliant colors heightened by transparent glazes. Dalí designed and produced surrealist films, illustrated books, handcrafted jewelry, and created theatrical sets and costumes. Among his writings are ballet scenarios and several books, including The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942) and Diary of a Genius (1965).
— Dali was born in the small agricultural town of Figueres, Catalonia, in the foothills of the Pyrenees, 25 km from the French border, the son of a prosperous notary. He spent his childhood in Figueres and at the family's summer home in the coastal fishing village of Cadaques. His first studio was built for him by his parents and was situated in Cadaques. For most of his adult life he lived in a fantastic villa in nearby Port Lligat.
     As a young man, Dali attended the San Fernando Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. His first one-man show was held in Barcelona in 1925. He got international fame when three of his paintings were shown in the third annual Carnegie International Exhibition in Pittsburgh in 1928.
     Dali went to Paris the following year, again holding a one-man show, and joined the Paris Surrealist Group. It was in this same year that Dali met Gala Eluard when she visited him in Cadaques with her husband, the French poet Paul Eluard. She became Dali's lover, muse, business manager, and the source of inspiration for many of Dali's greatest works. They were married in 1934 at a civil ceremony and made their first trip to America.
     Dali emerged as a leader of the Surrealist movement and his painting, Persistence of Memory (1931) is still one of the best known surrealist works. But, as war approached, the apolitical Dali clashed with the Surrealists and he was expelled during a trial conducted by the group in 1934. Although he did exhibit works in international surrealist exhibitions throughout the decade, asserting: “le Surréalisme c'est moi”, by 1940 he was ready to move into a new era, one that he termed “classic.”
     During World War II Dali and his wife, Gala, took refuge in the United States, returning after the war's end to Spain. His international reputation continued to grow, based as much on his flamboyance and flair for publicity as on his prodigious output of paintings, graphic works, and book illustrations; and designs for jewellrey, textiles, clothing, costumes, shop interiors, and stage sets. His writings include poetry, fiction, and a controversial autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dali.
     Dali returned to the Catholic faith of his youth and he and Gala were married in a second ceremony in 1958, this time in a chapel near Girona, Spain.
     Dali produced two films - An Andalusian Dog (1928) and The Golden Age (1930) — in collaboration with Buñuel. Considered surrealist classics, they are filled with grotesque images.
     In 1974 Dali opened the Teatro Museo Dali in Figueres. This was followed by retrospectives in Paris and London at the end of the decade.
     After Gala's death in 1982, Dali's health began to fail. It deteriorated further after he was severely burned in a fire in Gala's castle in Pubol, Spain, in 1984. Two years later, a pacemaker was implanted. Much of the years 1980-89 were spent in almost total seclusion, first in Pubol and later in his private room in the Torre Galatea, adjacent to the Teatro Museo Dali. Dali died in a hospital in Figueres from heart failure and respiratory complications.
— Salvador Dalì was born in the Catalan town of Figueras, near Barcelona. He was given the same name of his brother, who died at the age of 21 months from a case of meningitis, possibly brought on by his father’s blows to the infant’s head. The second Salvador Dalì became a world-renowned Surrealist painter and avatar of the bizarre, with a combination of technical accomplishment, haunting imagery, and thirst for publicity that made him one of the most recognized artists of the 20th century.
      Dalì was the son of a rich, atheistic notary and a devoutly Catholic, adoring mother. The artist forged a very close relationship to his younger sister, Ana Maria, who remained his only model until 1929 (rumors exist that the relationship crossed the line into incest). Bored in school, Dalì was expelled at the age of fifteen. This expulsion, though, afforded Dalì more time for private art lessons and for mastering the finer points of classical technique that would become crucial to his "lucid dream" style. In 1921, Dalì won acceptance to the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. There he became the youngest member of an avant-garde circle of students that included the surrealist filmmaker, Luis Buñuel, and the poet, Federico Garcia Lorca. Dalì later collaborated with Buñuel on two notorious Surrealist films, Un Chien Andalou and L’Age d’Or. Garcia Lorca soon became a very close friend of Dalì’s (and according to some, possibly Dalì’s lover), spending many holidays at Dalì’s family house in the Spanish beach town of Cadaques. In 1930, however, Lorca and Dalì quarreled violently, and the two reconciled only a year before Lorca’s death in 1936 as a dissident in the Spanish Civil War.
      During his years at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Dalì spent his mornings painting and drawing. Afternoons were spent dressed as a dandy, drinking in cafés and discussing current avant-garde movements like Dadaism, Futurism, and the newly forming Surrealism. Eventually, Dalì’s eccentricities and political beliefs became too much for the Madrid academy. In 1923, he was expelled from school and even jailed for a month for disturbance of the peace and political agitation. He subsequently returned home to work on his paintings in Figueres and at the family beach house in Cadaques. During these student years, Dalì discovered what would become one of the most important influences on his painting style, Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams. Dalì’s personal take on Freud’s theory of the subconscious became the basis of his so-called "paranoiac-critical method" of painting, by which Dalì discovered or hallucinated images of his own subconscious desires and libidinal urges and painted the results. Dalì called the paintings of this period "hand-painted dream photographs."
      As a result of his "paranoiac critical-method, " Dalì achieved his first significant recognition as an artist and soon became identified with the Surrealist movement. In 1925, Dalì had his first one-man show in Barcelona. In 1928, three of his paintings, including Basket of Bread, were shown in Pittsburgh. 1928 also marked his first trip to Paris, where Spanish painter Joan Miró introduced Dalì to the Surrealists, an artistic movement led by the poet André Breton and dedicated, in Breton’s words, to "reuniting the realms of conscious and unconscious experience". Dalì soon became the best-known member of the group, though other members, including Breton, resented the newcomer’s flair for publicity and ultimately tried to expel the Figueras native.
      The end of the 1920s marked a crucial point in Dalì’s life. In 1929, he met Gala (née Helena Deluvina Diakinoff), a Russian immigrant eleven years older who was then married to the Surrealist poet Paul Eluard. During a summer visit to Cadaques, Gala began a relationship with Dalì that would last over fifty years. The two married in 1934, and Gala became Dalì’s only model and managed all of the artist’s financial affairs, earning herself a reputation as a harpy. At least initially, Gala deserved credit for maintaining order in Dalì’s personal life so that he could concentrate on his art. In 1931, Dalì painted his most famous painting, The Persistence of Memory, with its melting clocks becoming a Surrealist icon. Throughout the 1930s, Dalì’s paintings were including in Surrealist group shows in the U.S. and Europe. These paintings featured wild juxtapositions of animals, objects and biomorphic shapes, usually placed in the harshly lit landscapes of his native Catalan. One buyer astutely commented that Dalì’s titles, like The Lugubrious Game (1929) or Atmospheric Skull Sodomising a Grand Piano (1934), were worth as much as the paintings.
      During World War II, Dalì and Gala took refuge in the U.S., returning to Spain only in 1955. As Dalì’s international fame continued to grow, the artist thirstily sought publicity, stating "My motto has always been, ‘Let them speak of Dalì, even if they speak well of him.’" Unfortunately, Gala’s constant demands for money caused Dalì to take on too many commissions, triggering deterioration in the quality and creativity of his work. During his return to Catholicism during the fifties and sixties, Dalì produced a series of large, classically influenced, religious and historical canvases. While these pieces sold well, art critics received the works less enthusiastically than Dalì’s surrealist works. In addition to painting, Dalì also began his kaleidoscopic output of drawings, poetry, a novel (Hidden Faces), an invention-filled autobiography (The Secret Life of Savador Dalì), book illustrations, and designs for jewelry, textiles, clothing, costumes, shop windows, and stage sets.
      Beyond artistic endeavors, Dalì and his wife captured the public imagination through their increasingly decadent (and well-publicized) social life in New York, Paris, and several Spanish cities. They hosted surrealist balls that resembled performance art happenings, with food served in shoes, live animals as decorations, and bartenders with ties made of hair. Surrounded by a collection of hippies and freaks called the "Court of Miracles," Dalì and Gala also hosted "sexual cabarets" in European castles, populated by transvestites, young girls, and dwarfs. Gala, pushing seventy, topped off this excess by having an extended affair with a man who played Jesus Christ Superstar off-Broadway. Ultimately, Dalì and Gala’s need for more and more money to support their outrageous lifestyle led to "The Dalì Scandal" of the 70s. During these years, Dalì signed several contracts for the reproduction of paintings created many years prior. In addition, he put his name on many other articles besides paintings and prints, the most extreme example being a set of Tarot cards for which he signed over 17'500 copies. These actions ultimately prompted a revaluation during the 1980s of the many Dalì prints on the market.
      In 1974, Dalì opened the Teatro Museo Dalì in Figueres. Retrospectives in Paris and London followed at the end of the seventies, paying tribute to Dalì’s life accomplishments as a painter. After Gala's death from heart failure in 1982, Dalì's slipped in and out of sanity and almost completely stopped eating. During the last years of his life, the artist lived in seclusion, receiving almost no visitors (exceptions were the King and Queen of Spain) and receiving medical help from private nurses. Salvador Dalì died in a hospital in Figueres from heart failure and respiratory complications.

LINKS
Autoportrait_au_Cou_de_Raphael
Autoportrait_Cubiste
1164 pictures at fotos.org (page 1 to page 97)
The Persistence of Memory (1324x1800pix, 928kb)
The Elephants (1200x1600pix, 305kb)
Enid Haldorn (ZOOM)
Dorothy Spreckels Munn (ZOOM)
A Shot from Destino (1700x3000pix, 473kb) _ This has been transformed by the pseudonymous Ana da Liana into a series of colorful abstractions accessible by clicks of the mouse from any of them, such as for example the symmetrical
     _ Des Tonneaux (2009; 928x1312pix, 432kb _ zoom I down to 656x928pix, 238kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 851kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1474kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 2194kb) or the asymmetrical
     _ This Tea No (2009; 928x1312pix, 433kb _ zoom I down to 656x928pix, 238kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 857kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1489kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 2221kb)
Sleep (1937; 1800x3000pix, 217kb) copy by the pseudonymous Mr. Hack.
The Madonna of Port Lligat I (1949, 49x38cm; 840x640pix, 79kb)
The Madonna of Port Lligat II (1950, 368x246cm; 881x640pix, 143kb) _ detail, the Child, 1413x1107pix, 241kb) _ This immense canvas, one of Dali’s most famous, marks the beginning of a new period in his work. At the same time, i is his first picture this large, it is the first of his religious paintings, and it heralds his corpuscular epoch. The whole composition is arranged around the eucharistic bread visible thought a hole in the center of Jesus’ body, the point of intersection of the diagonal lines indicating the middle of the painting. Gala is depicted as the Virgin and also as the cuttlefish-angels on the right side of canvas. A little boy of Cadaqués called Juan Figueras was used as the model for the infant Jesus. "Gala Madonna embodies all the geological virtues of Port Lligat," the painter wrote in 1956; "for example, the nurse, from whose back the night stand was taken, has this time been sublimated into the tabernacle of living flesh through which the celestial sky may be seen, and in turn another tabernacle cut from the chest of the infant Jesus, containing eucharistic bread in suspension." There are two oils of the same subject; this is the second one. The first, which is smaller in size, was submitted by Dali to Pope Pius XII for approval and is now at Marquette University. About the larger canvas, Dali has commented: "This picture because of its size was destined to know many mishaps. In the midst of an awful storm we had to have a contractor come to Port Lligat to enlarge the window in the room. Then Gala had to hire a truck, because it was to big for the train , to ship first to Paris and then to Le Havre, in order to ship it by boat to America. In New York, it was too big for any elevator; they had to hoist it up with a rope to the windows of the floor on which the Carstairs Gallery was located and where it was to be shown. The dealer, George Keller, himself said at the time, ‘ This painting is magnificent, but I will never be able to sell it, because there is no house big enough for it, and it costs to much to ship it around.’ It is, however, the one which opened the doors to the sale of all my large pictures." Today The Madonna of Port Lligat is in the collection of Lady Beaverbrook in Canada. It is never shown in retrospective exhibitions because, in order to get it out, it would be necessary to knock down the door or take out one of the windows in the library where it hangs. (There is also a Madonna of Port Lligat II in Tokyo, apparently identical to this one, except that it is 144x96cm. It is not clear which of these two is shown in the reproductions.)
Juan de Pareja, the Assistant to Velázquez (1960, 74x88cm; 975x1158pix _ ZOOM to 1857x2205pix) _ Unlike many of his fellow Surrealists who rejected the influence of the past, Dali maintained a deep admiration for the art of the Old Masters. This work was conceived by Dali as an homage to Diego Velázquez [bap. 05 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660], and it loosely quotes several elements from two of the great master's most famous works,
      _ Las Meninas (1657, 318x276cm; 1336x1136pix, 104kb — ZOOM to 2405x2045pix, 295kb) and the portrait of
      _ Juan de Pareja (1650, 81x70cm). Those elements most easily discerned are: the palace official from Las Meninas who stands in the doorway at left; and, Juan de Pareja's hand with extended thumb at bottom center. More elusive to the viewer, however, is the profile of Juan de Pareja, the outline of which is defined by a figural grouping from the Las Meninas . Velázquez's easel defines the bridge of Pareja's nose, while the Spanish princess and her attendants form his mustache and beard.
The Dream of Christopher Columbus aka The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (1959; 1171x841pix, 292kb) _ Three major influences (other than Gala, who was ALWAYS Dali's chief muse) inspired Dali to create this Masterwork, which is more than 4 meters tall. The first of these was the appraching 300th anniversary of the death of Velázquez, who was very important to Dali. The second was that there was considerable academic debate at the time regarding the true nationality of Columbus. Some were asserting that Columbus had been Catalonian rather than Italian, and Dali seized upon this opportunity to further glorify his homeland. Finally, the gallery which commissioned Dali to paint this work, the Huntington Hartford Gallery, was situated on Columbus Circle in New York City.
      The appointment of Columbus to explore the New World by King Ferdinand, and Queen Isabella of Spain is depicted in the upper center of the painting. Just to the right of that, the flying crosses, and the lances, standards and polearms held aloft by the figures below are direct references to the Velázquez painting The Surrender at Breda (or The Lances). In this way, Dali is paying his direct respects to the 17th Century Spanish Master who has so influenced him.
      The center of the painting is dominated by a young Columbus who is leading one of his ships onto the shoreline of the New World. He holds in his right hand, a standard on which the visage of Gala is depicted in the pose of St. Helena, the mother of Constantine. Contantine was the founder of Constantinople and the Byzantium Empire, which so heavily influenced the development of Western Civilization. To the right of Columbus, is a kneeling figure of a monk, who is actually Dali, and in the lower right hand corner, the figure whose head is totally covered by the cloak is representative of the introspective and private side of his wife Gala.
      In the lower left hand corner, a transluscent bishop holds his staff aloft amongst a series of crosses and other objects. This is Saint Narcisso, the Bishop of Gerona, who had been murdered in his own abbey. There was a Spanish legend that said whenever any foreign invaders would advance into the area of St. Narcisso's tomb, that huge clouds of gadflies would pour forth in order to drive the foreign invaders away.
     Behind the lances on the right there is a faint image resembling Dali's
      _ Christ of Saint John of the Cross (1951; 1178x656pix, 121kb _ ZOOM to 3439x2514pix, 286kb)
      This painting, above all, is a tribute to Dali's Spanish Catholic heritage. The pose of Gala on the banner held by Columbus symbolizes the way in which Gala helped Dali to discover America. She was very much responsible for many of the antics for which he became famous.
  _ The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (1958-1959) This work exemplifies Dalì’s "classic" period, when he created large, epic canvases depicting religious or historical themes. These paintings sold very well to private collectors and exhibited a full development of technique, as Dalì created them over a much longer period of time than his earlier works. In abandoning his earlier system of symbols for universal and classic themes, however, Dalì was derided by critics. The major inspirations for this painting were the 300th anniversary of the death of Velasquez (a Spanish painter Dalì considered an important influence), historical rumors that Columbus was Catalonian rather than Italian, and the commissioning gallery’s address on Columbus Circle. The most Dalìesque features of the painting are the surprising, dynamic perspective and the dreamlike quality sparked by the lack of distinction between sea and sky. This work also reveals Dalì’s favorite habit of depicting his wife, Gala, as a religious figure. Here, he paints Gala as St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, founder of the Byzantium Empire. Dalì himself also appears in the painting, as a black-hooded monk kneeling next to the ship. The forest of crosses, lances, standards and pole arms serves as a direct reference to Velasquez’s painting The Surrender at Breda (or The Lances), and a transparent Christ on the cross is visible among these symbols.
^
The Vision of Hell (1962) _ This is a highly sophisticated painting that juxtaposes Salvador Dali's earlier style, Surrealism, (for which he was most famous) with a more classical style of religious mysticism which he developed later in life.
      Most critics believe that Dali's greatest works were those done during his Surrealistic period, (before the 1940's). It was then that Dali, greatly influenced by The Interpretation of Dreams of Sigmund Freud, tried to enter the subconscious world while he was painting, in order to fathom subconscious imagery. To this end he tried various methods. For example, he attempted to simulate insanity while painting, and he tried setting up his canvas at the base of his bed to paint before sleeping and upon rising.
      During this period of his life certain images repeated themselves in his art: eyes, hands, noses, bones, crutches, clouds, mountains, blood, soft bodies and/or objects. In Vision of Hell we find all of these symbols, called cliches by some critics, but, here they seem to be much more than a trite convention. They are an expression of Dali himself. Too Dali uses the techniques of double images, hidden appearances, counter appearances.
      It is important to note that although in the early 1960's (the time when Vision of Hell was painted) Dali's art was pejoratively classified as "academic", "religious," and "mystic," and despite the fact that he was, at the time, often excluded from the company if Surrealists, Dali deliberately chose the lapse into his previous surrealist style to accomplish these portrayal of hell. Note, his old style, surrealism,dominates these portrayal of hell (the left side of the painting), while his newer style of "Religious Mysticism" is used on the right side of the painting in the portrayal of Our Lady of Fatima. A close look at Our Lady of Fatima shows that an experimental technique was used around her upper body. The paint has texture. It is interesting to note that Dali does not use his wife Gala as the subject for his portrayal of Mary, as he had in previous ones (The Madonna of Port Lligat (1950)); however, in Vision of Hell, Our Lady of Fatima does hold her hands open in a similar way as the Madonna of Port Lligat.
      The central image in the painting is that of eight carving forks, that, in the form of a circle are piercing a body that, typical of Dali's earlier period, is soft. The parts most visible in this human form are the left chest, the left arm and the head. Note, too, the blood. Vision of Hell is Dali's portrayal of death. Whenever an artist seriously approaches the subject of death, we can expect profundity. When this part of the painting is placed side by side with Dali's famous birth painting,
      _ Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man (1943; 402x480pix, 79kb) the comparison is startling. Both bodies are curved in a type of fetal position; there are large drops of blood; the arm, the navel and the breast are the central focus of attention. Vision of Hell would be well shown beside ...Birth of a New Man. One painting shows life, the other death.
      Not to be dismissed is the elongated eye of the pierced victim. Eyes have always been a symbol for Dali, particularly in his own polymorphic self-portraits. His paintings The First Days of Spring, Illuminated Pleasure, The Enigma of Desire and The Persistence of Memory all show a head, a face and a prominent eye. Those eyes, however, are all closed. The long extended eye in Vision of Hell is open, as if to say, the victim's eyes have been opened at death. This eye is a double image, typical of Dali. From one side it seems to be a human eye, bent out of shape, from the other it is the eye of a strange creature (Bosch like) with its mouth wide open ready to take a bite.
Hieronymus Bosch Influenced Dali's Vision of Hell
      Dali, as well as other surrealist painters, were greatly influenced by the Dutch painter, Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516). Vision of Hell actually copies a part of Hieronymus Bosch's Hell, portrayed in the right hand panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights (triptych). The burning buildings shown in the top left if Dali's painting closely resemble Bosch's burning building in hell, and, interestingly, Dali also picks up from Bosch's inferno the image of the tattered flag, as well as a rectangular structure from which emanate four rays of light.
Crutches
      In his earlier, much more famous works, Dali frequently employed crutches in his paintings. He, himself, says he finds the crutch to be "the significance of life and death...a support for inadequacy." It is well known that Dali, for a long time, had a fetish about crutches, which stemmed from his youthful desire to place a crutch under the breast of a woman whom he saw working in the fields. The orange/red spirit, shown escaping from the pierced body in Vision of Hell, has two crutches, one under or on each breast. They seem claw-like, clutching. These crutches are more easily seen when the painting is lighted by high intensity artificial light. (Recall that Dali sometimes painted with artificial light and a jewelers eye piece.)
Hidden Self Portrait Salvador
Dali often hides images and faces within his paintings, and many of his works are self-portraits. There are three places in this painting where it seems Dali is portraying himself. First, in the polymorphic body. Second, in a whimsical face which appears in a puff of smoke in the lower left center part of the painting. However, there is another face, hidden face, composed of an eye and a nose, that dominates the painting.
      Before studying this last hidden face in Vision of Hell, remember that eyes and noses are among the dominant symbols in Dali's art. (Refer to The Enigma of Desire, Illuminated Pleasures and The Persistence of Memory). One might do well to look at a photographic portrait of Dali which was done in 1955. In it Dali holds a magnifying glass over his eye and nose.
      The dominant face in Vision of Hell can be found by focusing on the black drops that appear in the middle left side of the painting. These black drops (which echo the red drops on the lighter side) if seen as tears falling from a closed eye, anchor us into position to see a bushy black eyebrow above the crying eye, the inside edge of which is being pierced by two carving forks. If one perceives the eye, then the large white nose, which too is being pierced by carving forks, appears. the hidden face is composed of an eye crying black tears, a bushy eyebrow and a large nose, all of which closely resemble Dali's own features. When viewed in this way, the hell of Hieronymus Bosch appears to be flushing from the mind, (to the left of the eye).
      This dominant and tormented face, floating in the air, recalls the lines which Dali used to inspire the painting, “plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form...raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves...” (from St. Lucia's description of hell). The "flames that issued from within" could well be the Hieronymus Bosch flames that are issuing from the mind of this tormented face.
      Why did Dali choose to sign his name so prominently in the middle of the painting? Could it be that Vision of Hell is not only a portrayal of the vision of hell seen by the three shepherd children of Fatima (which he was commissioned for $15'000 to portray here) but also a portrayal of Dali himself, tormented and crying. Is a serious portrayal of death, such as this, a minor work?
The Lower Half of the Painting
      The lower half of the painting has yet to be explored. But, one must note that a solitary female figure who stand on the cracked earth is holding a cross in her right hand, just as St. John of the Cross held a cross in Dali's painting The Temptation of St. Anthony (1946). She also had another form in her left hand which may be a shepherd staff. The painting must be examined with a magnifying glass in order to determine this. If it is a shepherd's crook, this figure could very well represent Lucia, the sole survivor and one of the three shepherd children who saw Our Lady of Fatima. and hell. It was Lucia's account of the vision of hell that Salvador Dali studied before he painted Vision of Hell. The White Circle
      The white circle on Our Lady's stomach could very well symbolize Jesus. An extremely thick glob of paint, this circle seems to be molded, like clay, into a shape that still needs to be explored with a magnifying glass. It does recall, in corporal placement, the square tabernacle forms found in Dali's representation of the
      _ Madonna of Port Lligat (1949, 632x496pix, 59kb)."
La Naissance des désirs liquides (1932, 96x112cm) _ By the time Salvador Dalí joined the Surrealist group in 1929, he had formulated his “paranoid-critical” approach to art, which consisted in conveying his deepest psychological conflicts to the viewer in the hopes of eliciting an empathetic response. He embodied this theoretical approach in a fastidiously detailed painting style. One of his hallucinatory obsessions was the legend of William Tell, which represented for him the archetypal theme of paternal assault. The subject occurs frequently in his paintings from 1929, when he entered into a liaison with Gala Eluard, his future wife, against his father’s wishes. Dalí felt an acute sense of rejection during the early 1930s because of his father’s attitude toward him. Here father, son, and perhaps mother seem to be fused in the grotesque dream-image of the hermaphroditic creature at center. William Tell’s apple is replaced by a loaf of bread, with attendant castration Symbolism [more]. (Elsewhere Dalí uses a lamb chop to suggest his father’s cannibalistic impulses.) Out of the bread arises a lugubrious cloud vision inspired by the imagery of Arnold Böcklin. In one of the recesses of this cloud is an enigmatic inscription in French: “Consigne: gâcher l’ardoise totale?” Reference to the remote past seems to be made in the two forlorn figures shown in the distant left background, which may convey Dalí’s memory of the fond communion of father and child. The infinite expanse of landscape recalls Yves Tanguy’s work of the 1920s. The biomorphic structure dominating the composition suggests at once a violin, the weathered rock formations of Port Lligat on the eastern coast of Spain, the architecture of the Catalan visionary Antoni Gaudí, the sculpture of Jean Arp, a prehistoric monster, and an artist’s palette. The form has an antecedent in Dalí’s own work in the gigantic vision of his mother in The Enigma of Desire of 1929 (Collection Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich). The repressed, guilty desire of the central figure is indicated by its attitude of both protestation and arousal toward the forbidden flower-headed woman (presumably Gala). The shadow darkening the scene is cast by an object outside the picture and may represent the father’s threatening presence, or a more general prescience of doom, the advance of age, or the extinction of life.
— The Persistence of Memory, painted during the period when Dalì produced some of his best-known pieces, is not only the artist’s most famous work but also the world’s most famous Surrealist painting. Like his other Surrealist paintings, this work shows ordinary objects (most notably, watches) and multiple images altered in a startling way against the stark landscape of Cadaques and rendered with the eerie clarity of a dream. While several theories exist regarding the symbolic importance of this work’s "melting watches," Dalì attempted to offer insight into their meaning by stating: "You may be quite sure that the famous soft watches are nothing less than the tender, extravagant, solitary camembert of time and space." With a pronounced interested in scientific breakthroughs (he once dedicated a huge canvas to Watson and Crick), Dalì may have drawn his conception of time and space as soft cheese from Einstein’s theory of relativity. However, a naughtier, more Freudian interpretation also has been advanced. Many objects in Dalì’s canvases are soft when they should be hard, suggesting impotence. In the work, a Freudian might link the soft watch (in French, "les montres molles") to the idea of a sick child showing his soft tongue (in French, "montre sa langue"), and the tongue in turn to a soft penis. The inclusion of swarming ants in this work gives some credence to such an interpretation, as the ants — a favorite Dalì animal motif — are said to represent overwhelming sexual desire as well as death and decay. Whatever the ultimate significance of the melting watches, this painting still maintains a freshness and iconic power seventy years after its completion.
— Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937-1938) This painting shows the full development of Dalì’s surrealist style, with rich color, detail, classical references, and a strong use of repeated images. The profusion of detail, from the dog in the corner to the naked dancers in the background, has invited comparisons to Hieronymous Bosch, a nothern European painter from the late Middle Ages. Like The Persistence of Memory, this work also includes references to death and decay, from the emaciated dog chewing on blood to the ants crawling over the petrified hand.
Old Age, Adolescence, Infancy (The Three Ages) (1940) Here, Dalí used double images to create the allegorical faces of Old Age, Adolescence, Infancy. Glimpses of Port Lligat are seen through the apertures where illusions of faces also appear. These openings were suggested to Dalí by the worn arches of the ruins of Ampurias. On the left, the bowed head of the woman from Millet's Angelus makes up the eye of Old Age; the hole in the brick wall forms her head's outline, and the rest of the figure forms the nose and mouth. The nose and mouth of Adolescence, the figure in the center, is created from the head and scarf of Dalí's nurse sitting on the ground with her back to us. The eyes emerge from the isolated houses seen in the hills across the Bay of Cadaques. On the right, a fisherwoman repairing a net composes the barely-formed face of Infancy.
Endless Enigma
Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of a New Man (1943)
Naissance du Nouveau Monde (1942, 35x45cm; 510x645pix, 111kb) _ Dali's wartime years in the United States were highly productive. He continued to paint and write, produced and designed new ballets, created interior decors and made portraits for wealthy US clients. In 1942 his biography The Secret Life of Salvador Dali was published. `
      Given the uncertain future of the Old World, Dali, like many refugees from the war in Europe, contemplated the possibility of a new life in a New World. “New skin, a new land! And a land of liberty, if that is possible!” he exclaimed in the closing passages of The Secret Life. Paradoxically, however, the metamorphosis Dali foresaw was one of tradition - a “renaissance” that he announced as a return to old values in painting as in religion. “On my arrival in Paris I too, with Miró, wanted to assassinate painting. Today, it is painting that assassinates me, for I only want to save it...”.
      The theme in the present work is the cycle of life and death and rebirth. The composition is divided into two dualistic halves, with representatives of the old American West - a slave and a pioneer - on the left and on the right figures from the Biblical East. This latter section can be read as a reworking of the Nativity, with a mystical Joseph and the Virgin Mary leaning over a `regenerative' ball of energy or a whirlwind of creation, while the infant Jesus himself tumbles down the steps that cut across the right corner. The setting behind the figures is the Catalonian Ampurdan Plain, which forms the backdrop to so many of Dali's earlier works, but towering up from the barren landscape are two mighty Redwood trees, reflecting Dali's newfound delight in the wonders of the New World.
      The present work was commissioned to be used as an illustration in the December 1942 edition of Esquire magazine. Although the circumstances of its creation - a wartime illustration for a magazine by an artist in exile - might have limited the scope and nature of the work in lesser hands, Dali creates one of his most powerful and complex paintings from the 1940s in Naissance du Nouveau monde.
Dali at Age Six, When He Thought He Was a Girl, Lifting the Skin of the Water to See the Dog Sleeping in the Shade of the Sea
Dali from the Back Painting Gala from the Back Eternalized by Six Virtual Corneas Provisionally Reflected by Six Real Mirrors
Gala and the Angelus of Millet Preceding the Imminent Arrival of Conical Anamorphoses
Galacidalacidesoxiribunucleicacid {sic} (Homage to Crick and Watson)
L'Enfant Malade
The Enigma of Hitler
Partial Hallucination. Six Apparitions of Lenin on a Piano
Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire
Millet's Architectural Angelus
Portrait of Gala or Gala's Angelus
–- Echo Nostalgique (1935, 96x96cm; 1131x1131pix, 51kb) _ The uncanny images and strange scenarios that Dalí rendered in his paintings all derived, in one way or another, from life. For some of his compositions Dalí painted hyper-realistic depictions of objects or people, such as his wife Gala, which gave his compositions a certain photographic truth. In others, he created improbable imagery that had no relation to the known world but nevertheless resonated on some level with the human experience. Echo Nostalgique is an example of a picture that combines both techniques. Robert Descharnes explains that the figure of the girl skipping rope was inspired by the image of the belltower of Ana Maria Dalí's school in Figueras. One can only guess the origin of other elements of this composition. For example, the pentagonal portal, dotted by a spherical window, has no specific architectural correlation, but the familarity of its shape invites an assortment of comparisons, from a key hole to the form of the letter "i." Dalí appreciated the randomness of these associations and reveled in manipulating the visual expectations of his audience. This was a hallmark of Surrealist painting, and Dalí was a genius at exploiting this effect to its greatest potential.
      Dalí is the most famous Surrealist for the excellent reason that his work is the most accomplished, the most startling, and the best advertised. Dalí developed to an extreme pitch the Surrealist technique: 'scandals', protests, affronts, and so on. However, it is considered to be perfectly honorable to advertise a bona fide ware and Dalí beyond doubt has the goods. His technique, which he called 'handmade photography,' bowls over the people who come to carp. Dalí's process was to pick an image out of his imagination and allow it to suggest associated images. In this way, his pictures are not composed but filled up.
      Prior to painting Echo nostalgique , Dalí did a pencil study for it and a few related paintings, including Morphological Echo (1936). There are similarities between Dalí's Echo compositions and Giorgio de Chirico's Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. The severity of the architecture, the desolateness of the landscape and the child-like figure, skipping rope through the deserted plaza evoke the sense of forebodance and looming danger that characterized de Chirico's Metaphysical compositions of the 1910s. Dalí said this about Chirico's aesthetic: “All the calm, the tranquility, the stasis of Giorgio de Chirico was dramatic because constantly threatened. All that geometric anesthesia was moving because it abandoned Futurism and vaguely foreshadowed Surrealism”.
      In Echo nostalgique, simultaneously with his development of the multiple image, Dalí has adapted to his own use a related visual phenomenon: that of the object which, once seen, recurs in the imagination time and again, sometimes varying as to identity and scale but always remaining the same in general outline. For want of a better term, the phenomenon may be called that of the repetitive form. It has been more or less widely experienced, since nearly everyone has at times been troubled by a shape which recurs everywhere, assuming inexplicable guise. Dalí has recorded his own paranoiac sensitivity to the phenomenon in a number of paintings. In Echo nostalgique the bell in the tower becomes in succession a girl skipping rope, a keyhole in the chest of drawer, and a shadowly figure standing under the far arcade. As in the case of the multiple image, Dalí believed the recognition of repetitive images to be limited only by 'paranoiac' capacity.
Morphological Echo (1936; 680x736pix, 368kb) _ This yellow monochrome has been transformed by the pseudonymous Iliade Saint-Sauveur into the stricly abstract multicolored Métamorphose Écologique aka Reloj Oler (2006, screen filling, 231kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1638kb).
1029 images at karelia.ru (slow loading if you are not in Russia, but worth it)

Prints
La Divina Commedia _ 34 Inferno images _ 33 Purgatorio images _ 33 Paraiso images _ the 25x35cm colored wood engravings (shown about 310x220 pixels, i.e. 8x5.7cm on my screen) illustrations which Dali made for Dante's poem in three parts, each of 33 cantos, in which Dante imagines himself guided by Virgil through the nine circles of Inferno, then up the mountain of Purgatory, at the top of which he meets Beatrice who takes him to Paradise.
— Biblia Sacra: page 1 (21 images) _ page 2 (21 images) _ page 3 (19 images) _ page 4 (19 images) _ page 5 (25 images)
Decameron (10 images... what did you expect? After all, it's not called Hectomeron)
Tristan and Iseult (22 images)
— 14 Lithographs numbered plates measuring 21.25" x 30" illustrating L'ART D'AIMER D'OVIDE (330x226 pixels) (Ars amatoria) : by Ovid (43 BC-17 AD). Written 2000 years ago, the Art of Love consists of three songs dedicated to seduction and intrigue, then to masculine conquest and finally to female seduction. This manual of the art of being attractive is also a picture of the morals of Roman times and a precious study of characters.
 
^ Dali's four periods:

— 1. Early (1910-1927)
      The styles and subject matter of this period do not reflect those of his more celebrated surrealist works of the 1930s. In general, the primary subject matter of Dalí's early period is the landscape of his home in northern Catalonia, Spain. Images of the picturesque countryside near Figueres, where the artist was born in 1904, as well as images of the seaside town of Cadaques where the Dalí family had a summer home characterize his early work. In fact, this area with its romantic history and deep traditions had a powerful influence on Dalí's art and imagination throughout his career.
      These early years also contain evidence of Dalí's developing artistic styles, including Impressionism, Cubism, academic studies and realist works in the style of the Dutch Baroque. Learn more about this period by clicking any of the images below.
— Some works from the Early Period: View of Cadaques with the Shadow of Mount Pani (1917)
— Self Portrait (Figueres) (1921) — Still Life: Fish with Red Bowl (1924)
— Still Life: Sandía (1924) — The Basket of Bread (1926)

— 2. Transitional (1927-1928)
      Beginning in mid 1927 and continuing throughout 1928, Dalí entered a "Transitional period" characterized by furious experimentation. The canvases from this period often include different textures created with various paint resins and a collage of coarse sand and gravel from nearby beaches. Dalí also incorporated rocks, cork and other materials into his canvases.
      Though Dalí's friendship with Federico García Lorca was waning, his friendship with another school friend --Luis Buñuel, soon to be one of Spain's most celebrated film makers -- led him to a more passionate exploration of taboo subject matter. Dalí was aware of the Surrealists in Paris and their development of dreamlike images, but he had not yet been introduced to the group and he still had reservations about the quality of their artwork.
      Dalí's imagery became more abstract and often grotesque during this period, indicating that he was under the influence of his fellow Catalan Joan Miró. Miró was eleven years older than Dalí and one of the stars of the surrealist group. Miró's unconventional, childlike imagery had a liberating effect on Dalí. Other artists who influenced Dalí during this period include the cubists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, and the surrealists Max Ernst and Yves Tanguy.
— Two works from the Transitional Period:
— Apparatus and Hand (1927) — Big Thumb, Beach, Moon and Decaying Bird (1928)

— 3. Surrealism (1929-1940)
      Surrealism, a movement in literature and the visual arts, was founded in 1924 in Paris by André Breton [19 Feb 1896 – 28 Sep 1966]. The surrealists believed that logic had failed humankind, so they turned to the unconscious and dreams in an attempt to transcend the boundaries of reason. Heavily influenced by the writings of Sigmund Freud, they dedicated their movement to the expression of the imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason. Breton once said that Salvador Dalí “incarnated the surrealist spirit,” and, indeed, some of Dalí’s paintings -- most famously The Persistence of Memory -- have become virtually synonymous with the movement in the wider culture. Dalí’s interest in Freud’s psychological theories led him to explore his own fears and fantasies through symbolic images captured on canvas in an ultra-realistic, photographic style. He referred to these paintings as “hand-painted dream photographs.” Dalí's relationship with the other surrealists became troubled and they attempted to expell him from the surrealist group at a "trial" held in Paris in 1934. Dalí sums up his relationship with the group as follows: “The difference between me and the Surrealists is that I am Surrealism.”
— Some works from the Surrealism Period:
The First Days of Spring (1929; 453x600pix, 79kb) — The Average Bureaucrat (1930) — Oeufs au Plat Sans Plat (1932)
Ghost of VermeerThe Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used as A Table (1934) _ This is one of Dalí's most precise "miniatures." The artist described such work from the mid 1930s as "hand-painted photographs in color," and indeed the precision of detail and luminosity of this painting give it the appearance of a photograph. Such detailing shows the influence of the Dutch painter Jan Vermeer [1632-1675], whom Dalí greatly admired. Vermeer's work is often described as "photographic," as it is renowned for its inner luminosity and rich detail. These are qualities that Dalí brought to this work as well. Dalí's painting alludes to Vermeer's most popular painting,
      _ The Artist in His Studio, by borrowing Vermeer's self-portrait from that work. Yet Dalí uses the Dutch artist's photographic precision to produce a different effect. Instead of creating a record of the everyday as Vermeer did, Dalí created a record of the impossible. He turned the animate into the inanimate by making Vermeer into a piece of furniture--a table. A bottle and glass emphasize this transformation, which renders this figure an apparitional image. In order to heighten the unsettling effect of this work, Dalí placed the Specter of Vermeer in an actual landscape, the setting of a narrow lane found in Dalí's Port Lligat. The extreme contrast causes one's respect for the paranoiac-critical method to soar, for it transforms the usual into the unique and revitalizes the mundane.
The Weaning of Furniture-Nutrition (1934; 418x600pix, 84kb) — Meditation on the Harp (1932-34)
— Old Age, Adolescence, Infancy (The Three Ages) (1940)
— Daddy Longlegs of the Evening-Hope! (1940)
— Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire (1940)

— 4. Classic (1941 - 89)  
      In 1941, Dalí moved beyond his esoteric, surrealist style in order to make a more universal artistic statement. His interest shifted from personal obsessions to universal themes, and he became fascinated by religion and modern science . Dalí summarized this shift by saying that he intended "to become classic," for, "to be a Surealist forever is like spending your life painting nothing but eyes and noses." Dalí looked back to Classical and Renaissance art for inspiration, while looking forward to the scientific discoveries emerging around him in the 1950s. He desired to be the spokesman for the atomic age, to unite the discoveries of modern science with religion and mysticism.
      Among the works produced during the Classic Period are eighteen large oil paintings, made between 1948 and 1970, which have been called the "Masterworks". These works represented a different category of creativity from his other work. Each of these paintings occupied Dalí intellectually for at least one year and measures at least 150 cm in one or both dimensions.
— Some works from Classic Period:
click for full imageGeopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man (1943; 881x1000pix, 167kb) _ During Dali's 1940-1948 stay in the US he initiates his classic period with this painting. The ideas for Dalí's classic works were derived from a variety of sources, including contemporary events, his Spanish heritage, and Catholic symbolism, replacing much of the personal symbolism of his surrealist period. While working on this painting in 1943, the artist jotted down some notes. They read: "Parachute, paranaissance (sic), protection, cupola, placenta, Catholicism, egg, earthly distortion, biological ellipse. Geography changes its skin in historic germination."
      Unlike the meanings of his surrealist paintings of the 1930s, this work's meaning is accessible because the surrealistic contradictions are absent. The Geopoliticus Child reflects the newfound importance the US held for the expatriate Catalan artist. The man emerging from the egg is rising out of the "new" nation, the US, which was in the process of becoming a new world power. Africa and South America are both enlarged, representing the growing importance of the Third World, while Europe is being crushed by the man's hand, indicating its diminishing importance as an international power. The draped cloth below [above?] the egg represents the placenta of the new nation. An androgynous figure points to the emerging man, acknowledging the importance of this new world power. The cowering child at her feet represents the spirit of this new age, and the child casts the longer shadow indicating that he will replace the older age.
DisintegrationThe Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory (1954) _ In this Dalí disintegrated the scene from his popular 1931 painting The Persistence of Memory. This disintegration is an acknowledgment of the developments of modern science. The disquieting landscape of his earlier work has here been shattered by the effects of the atomic bomb. All of the elements in the painting are separating from each other. The rectangular blocks in the foreground and the rhinoceros horns floating through space metaphorically suggest that the world is formed of atomic particles that are constantly in motion.
      Forms disintegrating as a result of the bomb populate the barren landscape. The soft skin of the face to the right is fluid, and the soft watch from the 1931 canvas is not just draped over a branch in the dead olive tree, it is ripping apart. By locating this work in the barren region of the Bay of Cullero, Dalí revealed that the atomic bomb has disturbed even the serenity of the artist's isolated Port Lligat. Yet in spite of this painting's bleak implications, Dalí presents the atomic disintegration in a harmonious pattern, indicating the persistence of an underlying order in nature.
— Nature Morte Vivante (1956) — The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (1959)
— Velazquez Painting the Infanta Margarita with the Lights and Shadows of His Own Glory (1958)
The Ecumenical Council (1960)
The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1970; 917x668pix, 137kb)
Crutches
      In his earlier, much more famous works, Dali frequently employed crutches in his paintings. He, himself, says he finds the crutch to be "the significance of life and death...a support for inadequacy." It is well known that Dali, for a long time, had a fetish about crutches, which stemmed from his youthful desire to place a crutch under the breast of a woman whom he saw working in the fields. The orange/red spirit, shown escaping from the pierced body in Vision of Hell, has two crutches, one under or on each breast. They seem claw-like, clutching. These crutches are more easily seen when the painting is lighted by high intensity artificial light. (Recall that Dali sometimes painted with artificial light and a jewelers eye piece.)
Hidden Self Portrait Salvador
Dali often hides images and faces within his paintings, and many of his works are self-portraits. There are three places in this painting where it seems Dali is portraying himself. First, in the polymorphic body. Second, in a whimsical face which appears in a puff of smoke in the lower left center part of the painting. However, there is another face, hidden face, composed of an eye and a nose, that dominates the painting.
      Before studying this last hidden face in Vision of Hell, remember that eyes and noses are among the dominant symbols in Dali's art. (Refer to The Enigma of Desire, Illuminated Pleasures and The Persistence of Memory). One might do well to look at a photographic portrait of Dali which was done in 1955. In it Dali holds a magnifying glass over his eye and nose.
      The dominant face in Vision of Hell can be found by focusing on the black drops that appear in the middle left side of the painting. These black drops (which echo the red drops on the lighter side) if seen as tears falling from a closed eye, anchor us into position to see a bushy black eyebrow above the crying eye, the inside edge of which is being pierced by two carving forks. If one perceives the eye, then the large white nose, which too is being pierced by carving forks, appears. the hidden face is composed of an eye crying black tears, a bushy eyebrow and a large nose, all of which closely resemble Dali's own features. When viewed in this way, the hell of Hieronymus Bosch appears to be flushing from the mind, (to the left of the eye).
      This dominant and tormented face, floating in the air, recalls the lines which Dali used to inspire the painting, “plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form...raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves...” (from St. Lucia's Description of hell). The "flames that issued from within" could well be the Hieronymus Bosch flames that are issuing from the mind of this tormented face.
      Why did Dali choose to sign his name so prominently in the middle of the painting? Could it be that Vision of Hell is not only a portrayal of the vision of hell seen by the three shepherd children of Fatima (which he was commissioned for $15'000 to portray here) but also a portrayal of Dali himself, tormented and crying. Is a serious portrayal of death, such as this, a minor work?
The Lower Half of the Painting
      The lower half of the painting has yet to be explored. But, one must note that a solitary female figure who stand on the cracked earth is holding a cross in her right hand, just as St. John of the Cross held a cross in Dali's painting The Temptation of St. Anthony (1946). She also had another form in her left hand which may be a shepherd staff. The painting must be examined with a magnifying glass in order to determine this. If it is a shepherd's crook, this figure could very well represent Lucia, the sole survivor and one of the three shepherd children who saw Our Lady of Fatima. and hell. It was Lucia's account of the vision of hell that Salvador Dali studied before he painted Vision of Hell. The White Circle
      The white circle on Our Lady's stomach could very well symbolize Jesus. An extremely thick glob of paint, this circle seems to be molded, like clay, into a shape that still needs to be explored with a magnifying glass. It does recall, in corporal placement, the square tabernacle forms found in Dali's representation of the
      _ Madonna of Port Lligat (1949).
—(090518)

Died on an 11 May:


^ 1953 Bradley Walker Tomlin, US painter born on 19 August 1899. He studied sculpture modeling in the studio of Hugo Gari Wagner from 1913 and painting from 1917 to 1921 at Syracuse University. After graduation he moved to New York and began to work as a commercial illustrator, with many commissions from Condé Nast publications. Tomlin visited France for the first time in 1923 and spent a few months studying in Paris at both the Académie Colarossi and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. He remained a freelance illustrator until 1929. In 1925 he spent the first of many summers in the emerging colony of Woodstock NY. Early paintings, such as Young Girl (1925) or the slightly later Self-portrait (1932), emotionally evocative yet sentimental, soon gave way to a more stylized format. Although Tomlin was one of the eldest members of the New York School of Abstract Expressionism and had been painting in realist and surrealist styles since the 1920s, his reputation is founded on his work from 1950 to 1953. Joining the Betty Parsons Gallery in the late 1940s, Tomlin was transformed by his encounter with the combination of order and spontaneity in the work of Pollock and others. From 1950 to his death in 1953, Tomlin painted approximately 25 oil paintings in his mature style, of which at least 18 are in museum collections. In these works, Tomlin's meticulous use of the painterly mark and rhythmic structure achieved the subtle alchemy of both freedom and control that mark his greatest paintings.
Horse (321x400pix, 97kb)
–- Number 15 (1953, 117x193cm; 792x1321pix, 101kb) _ This oil on canvas was on the artist's easel when he died in 1953. With its thin, delicate tracery of black threading throughout the strokes of whites and filaments of shifting color forms, Number 15 is a fitting culmination of Tomlin's career.By inclination a superb colorist, Tomlin reduced his palette from 1945 to 1947, and focused first on the painterly mark, adapting a calligraphic technique within a vaguely Cubist structure of horizontals and verticals. While Tomlin's subtle use of a grid format is not as literal as that of his friend Adolph Gottlieb, Tomlin's meticulous nature required some sense of order in his art, revealing the contradictions that persisted in his art between order and spontaneity. His gestures now relied more upon the subconscious, but they were more akin to the linear `white writing' of Mark Tobey than the drips and flings of Jackson Pollock, incorporating symbols such as crosses and arrows. At the same time, the gestures were lyrical, and while they were inspired by automatism, it is perhaps more appropriate to say his gesture was revealing of his temperament and not his hidden psyche. Rather than the raw, naked anguish of Pollock, Gorky or even de Kooning, Tomlin's gesture conveys a more ethereal, musical and elegant content. This painting was sold for $904'000 at the Sotheby's auction of 13 May 2003.
     _ This picture has been numerically far surpassed by the colorful
      _ Fifteen Times Fifteen Fifteens (2006; screen filling, 6kb) of the pseudonymous Thomas Rider Lynn-Nilmot. {“What does Thomas Rider ride?” you ask. – A Bradley, of course!} _ One year later Lynn-Nilmot produced the artistically incomparable and maximalist picture descriptively titled
      _ True 15 (2007; 792x1321pix, 380kb)
–- Number 13 (1130x870pix, 126kb) in this case, Lynn-Nilmot has made twin metamorphosed pictures, designated by the Roman numerals for the two odd numbers immediately preceding XIII:
      _ IX (2007; 775x1096pix, 320kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 645kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1555kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 2378kb) and
      _ XI (2007; 775x1096pix, 320kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 645kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1555kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 2378kb)
–- Untitled (1150x818pix, 139kb) distorted cello and drums?
–- Still Life With Watermelon (1156x868pix, 104kb) —(070510)

^ >1930 Julio Romero de Torres, Córdoba Spanish painter born on 09 November 1874 (or in 1880?). Hijo y discípulo del pintor Rafael Romero de Torres, inicia a los diez años el aprendizaje artístico bajo la dirección paterna, asistiendo a la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Córdoba. Conocía los nacientes movimientos artísticos desde muy joven, cuando practica el realismo sorollista de finales de siglo. Participa en la Nacional de 1895, recibiendo una mención honorífica, y en las ediciones de 1899 y 1904, premiado con una tercera medalla. Inicia su experiencia docente en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Córdoba, en una época en la que pinta temas de matiz costumbrista y "atmósfera luminista". En 1906, el Jurado de la Nacional rechazó su cuadro "Vividoras del Amor", lo que provocó que el Salón de Rechazados fuera más visitado que las salas de la Exposición Nacional. Ese mismo año marchó a Madrid, para documentarse y satisfacer su inquietud renovadora. Realiza viajes por toda Italia, Francia, Inglaterra y los países Bajos, en un momento en que su obra va adquiriendo un acento simbolista, que definirá su estilo. En la Exposición Nacional de 1908 es galardonado con la primera medalla, repitiendo galardón en la Internacional de Barcelona, donde cosecha grandes éxitos. En la Exposición Nacional de 1912 cuando Romero de Torres aspiraba a la medalla de Honor, su obra no es reconocida, lo que provoca que sus admiradores le entregaran una medalla de oro cincelada por el escultor Julio Antonio. Cuando sus cuadros tampoco son premiados en la Exposición de 1915 con la medalla de Honor decide retirarse de las Exposiciones Nacionales. En 1913, le concedieron la primera medalla en la Exposición de Munich. En 1916 es catedrático de Ropaje en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Madrid, instalándose definitivamente en la capital. A partir de aquí, su obra comienza a representar el pabellón español en diversos certámenes internacionales, convocados en París, Londres, etc. Sin embargo, el gran momento de éxito se produce en Buenos Aires, el año 1922, donde su obra es acogida con gran entusiasmo por el público. Fue miembro de la Real Academia de Córdoba y de la de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Exhibe su obra en la Exposición Iberoamericana de Sevilla en 1929, y en múltiples exposiciones individuales en España y en el extranjero. El grueso de su obra se encuentra en Córdoba en el Museo que lleva su nombre, donde se puede admirar el amplio repertorio de cuadros que fueron donados por su familia. — Julio Romero de Torres nació en Córdoba el 9 de noviembre de 1874, en el edificio del Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes. Su padre, Rafael Romero Barros, pintor romántico y director de la pinacoteca, fue su maestro desde la juventud. A finales del siglo XIX, Córdoba se hallaba inmersa en una gran actividad cultural, y Julio Romero de Torres era un asiduo de los certámenes artísticos y literarios que se convocaban. En 1895 recibió uno de sus primeros premios: una mención honorífica en la Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes por su cuadro Mira qué bonita era, que representaba el velatorio de una muchacha. En 1907 realizó uno de los viajes que más le marcaron: recorrió Francia, Inglaterra e Italia, donde consolidó su estilo pictórico. Más tarde visitaría también Argentina. Fue nombrado profesor en la Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de Madrid, donde se empapó de todas las tendencias. En 1930, comenzó a sufrir dolencias hepáticas, y volvió a su Córdoba natal a recuperarse. A pesar de esa mala salud, pintó por entonces uno de sus cuadros más célebres: La chiquita piconera. Murió el 10 de mayo de 1930 en la misma habitación en la que nació. Sus influencias: el Realismo, la fotografía y el Impresionismo. Romero de Torres se inició en la pintura partiendo de muy diversas influencias: el Realismo tipo Courbet y Fortuny, el retratismo fotográfico de Federico de Madrazo y el Impresionismo, introducido en España por Aureliano de Beruete y Darío de Regoyos y perfeccionado por Joaquín Sorolla. Su primera obra conocida es La huerta de Morales (1890). En 1892 realiza el retrato del periodista Francisco Borja Pavón para la portada del semanario cordobés Revista Meridional. En 1895 pinta su famoso Mira qué bonita era, que presenta en la Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes. En 1907 participa en la Exposición del Círculo de Bellas Artes de Madrid junto a los bautizados como pintores independientes: José Gutiérrez Solana, Ricardo Baroja, Darío de Regoyos y Anselmo Miguel Nieto. Presenta los cuadros Bendición, Carmen y Fuensanta. Por esas fechas también frecuenta la tertulia nocturna que mantenía Ramón del Valle-Inclán en el café de la calle Arenal, a la que asistían, entre otros, los pintores Ignacio Zuloaga, Ricardo Baroja, José Gutiérrez Solana, Rafael de Penagos, Anselmo Miguel Nieto y Ángel Vivanco. En 1928 pinta La Virgen de los Faroles. — LINKS
Woman with a Guitar
Encendiendo la mecha (1923, 63x40cm; 640x401pix, 19kb)
Mujer con pistola (1924, 52x34cm)
La escopeta de caza (1928, 63x38cm)
El cohete (1930, 63x37cm)
–- La Niña de Córdoba (63x43cm; 900x610pix, 27kb) Sold at auction at Sotheby's for £31'200 on 16 November 2004.
–- Carmen Otero (84x100cm; 1131x1350pix, 82kb) Sold at auction at Sotheby's for £66'000 on 16 November 2004.
Boceto de mira que bonita era (1895; 398x565pix, 75kb)
Ángeles y Fuensanta (1909)
Diana (1924)
Magdalena (1920)
Viernes Santo (67x47cm; 480x306pix, 16kb) —(070510)

1927 “Juan Gris”, Spanish painter born (full coverage) on 23 March 1887. —(070322)

^ 1829 Scott-Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant, French artist born on 29 March 1758.
Apotheosis of Nelson (63x53cm; 834x700pix, 132kb)_ Although the victory at Trafalgar, on 21 October 1805, was a cause for celebration in Britain, it resulted in the loss of admiral Horatio Nelson [29 Sep 1758 – 21 Oct 1805]. His death at the height of his fame inspired a cult of hero-worship.
     Legrand's interpretation hovers between the romantic and heroic and adapts a classical reading of an apotheosis, depicting a deified Nelson received into immortality among the gods on Olympus. This is witnessed by grieving men on the deck of a boat, while to the right the Battle of Trafalgar continues to rage. These mortals consist of a sergeant of Marines to the right in a red jacket, a Naval lieutenant on the left in a blue jacket and a central figure of a common seaman with a bare chest gesturing towards the action above them. Nelson's hat and sword remain in the center of the deck. Nelson is making his sinuous ascent towards Olympus and the court of the gods amidst a blaze of light that provides a contrast with the dark smoke of battle. On the right Neptune, the god of the sea, holds his attribute of a trident as he leans down to support Nelson. Below him to the right a female figure holds long straight trumpets, attributes of Fame, in each hand, together with a proclamation in her right announcing Nelson's victories and commending him to the gods. Above Neptune, Fame is personified as a female figure holding a crown of stars as a symbol of immortality over Nelson's head. She is traditionally found in the company of the illustrious dead and is associated with historical figures, such as Nelson.
      Britannia kneels on the left, wearing a helmet, red mantle and a white tunic. With arms outstretched towards Nelson, she personifies a grieving Britain. Her shield rests by her knees and her trident on her left shoulder. Above her, a female figure holds a laurel branch, another attribute of Fame, in her right hand, and places a crown of laurels on Nelson's head to represent victory. Above and leaning forward and places a crown of laurels on Nelson's head to represent victory. Above and leaning forward is Mars, the god of war, with his helmet and his left arm outstretched as he prepares to receive Nelson. Behind him on the left is Hercules, who personifies physical strength and courage, and triumphs over evil against great odds. He is associated with Minerva on the extreme upper left, representing the complementary virtue of moral strength or wisdom. She is wearing a helmet and armour, and carries spear and shield.
      Presiding above them, Jupiter, the supreme ruler of the gods and mortals, sits on his throne. His attribute of an eagle, a symbol of power and victory, hovers behind him. At Nelson's feet an old woman wearing a white headdress represents the three Fates, the determiners of man's destiny. The attributes and figures in the narrative unite to symbolize Nelson's earthly virtues. Later versions of this painting were made, since in this interpretation the artist has mistakenly concealed Nelson's left arm while depicting his right arm broadly gesturing, although this was the arm he had lost in 1797. A later version dated 1818 rectifies this mistake. This earlier work, signed 'Le Grand faciebat', may have been influenced by Benjamin West's interpretation of the same subject, The Immortality of Nelson (1908, 91x76cm; 826x700pix, 162kb)
— Entrée de Louis XVIII à Paris, le 3 mai 1814
Venus Kisses Cupid (18x25cm; 257x400pix, 26kb)
Ariadne Asleep (18x25cm; 261x400pix, 27kb)

1782 Richard Wilson, Welsh painter whose death date is more probably 15 May 1782 and who was born (main coverage) on 01 August 1713.

1769 Carlo Francesco Rusca (or Ruschi), Swiss artist born in 1696 (1701?). — {What are the odds he was from the Ticino?}


Born on an 11 May:

1912 George Sugarman, US sculptor and painter who died (main coverage) on 25 August 1999. —(071227)

^1896 Antonio Marasco, Italian artist who died in 1975. Born in Nicastro, Calabria, Marasco was trained at the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence and became interested in Futurism in 1913 as a result of reading Lacerba. His painting was particularly influenced by the work of Boccioni. In 1914 he accompanied Marinetti on his trip to Germany and Russia. 
     During the war he joined the Arditi (Stormtroopers) and was one of the founders of the Futurist-Fascist group in Florence. He clashed with Ottone Rosai because of his Leftist politics, consequently forming his own Futurist group with an anarchist Arditi policy. He also founded the short-lived journal Firenze Futurista  (a follow-on from L'Italia Futurista and Roma Futurista) with a similar political vein. Marasco's Futurist group ran the theatre group Gli Sciacalli.
     About 1918-1919 he created landscapes with remnants of the figurative among an overall fragmentation of form then veered towards abstraction before approaching 'mechanical' art during the mid-1920's.
     In 1923 he founded a Gruppo di Studenti Universitari Futuristi. He also had contacts with the Weimar Bauhaus. In 1927 he exhibited with those Futurists of a constructivist tendancy (Prampolini, Pannaggi and Fillia) at the Galleria Pesaro, Milan. He founded the constructivist group Der Schritt Weiter in Berne.
     He designed a number of abstract stage sets for Bragaglia's Teatro degli Indipendenti and formed a Futurist Theatre Company with the musician Silvio Mix and in 1924 helped with the organisation of the "Company of Synthetic, Surprise, Anti-psychological, Sensory, Amazing, A-logical, etc Theatre".
     In the early 1930's he founded the Futurist Groups of Initiative in Florence whose work developed independently of Marinetti and in 1933 published their own manifesto and a single issue of the journal Supremazia Futurista. Marasco's Independent Futurist Groups were a serious threat to Marinetti's control and leadership of the Futurist movement - considered by Marasco as outdated and non-representative of the modern Futurism movement - and hinted at the general revolution within Futurist ranks during the early 1930's. His proclamation of an independent Futurist movement claimed to represent over sixty groups and over two thousand individuals.
Stars in the Garden (1934, 80x60cm; 349x257pix, 21kb)
Under the Traffic Lights (1932, 80x60cm; 350x257pix)
Subtlety (1932, 13x18cm; 247x350pix, 14kb)
Untitled (1929, 28x21cm; 350x248pix, 12kb)

1896 Luigi Filippo Tibertelli “Filippo de Pisis”, Italian painter who died (main coverage) on 02 April 1956. —(070510)

^ 1838 Adolphe Weisz, Hungarian French portraitist and genre painter born in Budapest. He was educated at the School of Fine Arts in Vienna, and in 1860 went to Paris to complete his studies under Charles Jalabert [1819-1901]. He became a member of Salon des Artistes Français in 1885 and was awarded a third class medal the following year, a second class in 1884 and a bronze in 1900 at the Exposition Universelle. His style is academic and often times his subject matters are orientalist.
Othello And Desdemona (135x201cm) Bedroom interior scene shows a fancily dressed Black man wearing knife at waist leaning over a nude reclining young White woman with head propped up on pillows.
L'Odalisque aka La Favorite (66x86cm; 860x1127pix, 203kb) _ An orientalist painting of a beautiful young woman seated next to a stately lion. She smiles and seems to be grasping the lion's mane lightly. _ detail 1 (960x1280pix, 506kb) the woman's head and shoulders _ detail 2 (960x1280pix, 469kb) the woman's face with all the cracks in the paint painfully visible _ detail 3 (952x1255pix, 254kb) the lion's face, as crackled as the woman's. _ detail 4 (952x1236pix, 221kb). She sits in a silken floral dressing gown on two satin cushions with a spray of pink flowers at her feet _ detail 5 (930x1280pix, 501kb). The young woman is accented with stronger lighting from a door or window while the lion rests demurely out of the light. —(080510)

1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter who died (full coverage) on 10 January 1904. —(060122)

1823 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter who died (full coverage) on 24 August 1906.

1660 Johann-Rudolf Byss, Swiss painter who died (main coverage) on 11 December 1738. — {What are the odds he was not from the Ticino, or even Vaud?} —(100511)


click click
<<< ART 10 May
ANY DAY ...IN ART ...IN HISTORY ||| HISTORY “4” MAY 11 ||| ALTERNATE SITES
ART 12 May >>>
Thoughts for the day:
“The only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad.” — Salvador Dali — {Oh yeah? They all say that.}
“Dali was a self mad man.”
TO THE TOP
PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO ART “4” MAY
http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/art/art4may/art0511.html
http://www.intergate.com/~canu/art/art4may/art0511.html
http://www.geocities.com/history4may/art/art4may/art0511.html
updated Tuesday 11-May-2010 20:50 UT
Principal updates:
v.9.41 Monday 18-May-2009 23:30 UT
v.8.40 Sunday 11-May-2008 3:10 UT
v.7.50 Sunday 10-Jun-2007 19:01 UT
v.6.00 Thursday 11-May-2006 0:28 UT
Sunday 31-Jul-2005 14:58 UT
Tuesday 11-May-2004 9:51 UT

safe site site safe for children safe site