ART 4 2-DAY 05 May v.10.40
Died on 05 May 1883: Eva
Gonzalès, Mme Henri Guérard, French Impressionist
painter born on 19 April 1849.
— Her first introduction to art was through her parents. Her father, Emmanuel Gonzalès (of Spanish origin but naturalized French), was a well-known writer; her mother, a Belgian, was an accomplished musician. The family salon was a meeting place for critics and writers including Théodore de Banville and Philippe Jourde, the director of the newspaper Siècle. At 16 she had art lessons with the society portraitist Charles Chaplin [1825-1891], who ran a studio for women. Gonzalès rented a studio in the Rue Bréda and under Chaplin’s guidance made figure compositions and landscapes, exhibiting at the Salon of 1870 as his student.
Eva Gonzalès was born in Paris into the family of the writer Emmanuel Gonzalez. In 1865, she began her professional training and took lessons in drawing. In 1869, she met Édouard Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883] and became his student and model. She exhibited for the first time at the Salon in 1870. Thereafter she submitted work every year to the Salon. Until 1872, she was strongly influenced by Manet but later developed her own, more personal style. Her watercolors with their bright colors and soft forms achieved great success. During the Franco-Prussian War she stayed in Dieppe. In 1879, she married a brother of the graphic artist Henri Guérard. She died soon after the birth of a son, and five days after Manet.
— A Dos d'Âne (636x800pix, 121kb) _ This is one of the finest works of Gonzalès. It demonstrates the pervasive influence that her teacher, Edouard Manet, had upon her style. The brushwork is loose and often transparent and in some areas the beige ground of the canvas is left bare. In many of Manet's own paintings there is a similar, ambiguous relationship between the figures, with one person absorbed in gazing at another who is apparently oblivious to them. In 1879, Gonzalès had married one of Manet's closest friends, the engraver Henri Guérard, who is seen here leaning against the donkey. The artist's sister Jeanne, who was to become Guérard's second wife, gazes out of the picture with languid, heavy-lidded eyes. The cherries gleaming on her straw hat and the touches of red on the donkey's trappings provide the strongest color amongst the predominant dusty greens, grays and blues.
— Le Thé aka Sur la Terrace (1875)
— Jeanne Gonzalès (1/4 from back) sister of the artist.
— Woman in White (1879)
— Indolence (1872)
— La Toilette
— Secretly (1878) _ Reading a book instead of practicing the piano.
— Roses in a Glass (1882)
— La Dame à l'Éventail (1870, 43x28cm; 800x506pix, 238kb _ ZOOM to 1423x900pix, 791kb _ ZOOM+ to 2546x1608pix)
Enfant de troupe (1870)
— Une Loge aux Italiens (1874, 98x130cm)
Le Petit Lever (1876)
La Modiste (1877)
— Les Chaussons Blancs (1880, 23x32cm)
>Died on 05 May 1913: Henri
Moret, French marine and landscape painter, born on 12 December
— Moret, although from Normandy, lived and worked practically his whole life in Brittany and is regarded as the most important impressionist interpreter of the Breton landscape. After completing his formal education at the École National des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Paul Laurens and Jean-Léon Gérôme, Moret rejected his academic training in favor of the painting techniques of the Impressionists. In 1888, he moved to Pont-Aven where he worked alongside his friends, Paul Gauguin [1848-1903] and Émile Bernard [1868-1941], and was introduced to the tenets of symbolism. After Gauguin left Pont-Aven in 1891, however, Moret returned to his earlier Impressionist style. In 1896, he settled in the nearby fishing village of Doelen where his art, a combination of Impressionist handling of the paint and the subjective treatment of color, reached its maturity.
— First, Moret worked in Paris with Jean Paul Laurens [1838-1921] and debuted at the Salon in 1880. Soon thereafter he liberated himself from the academic artistic principles with which he was nurtured during his training with Jean-Léon Gérôme [1824-1904]. Not long after, he participated in the group of young artists around Gauguin at Pont-Aven and developed a free approach regarding painting technique and practice, including painting in the open air. The following years Moret was to dedicate himself exclusively to the study of various types of landscapes resulting in an enormous production of studies and sketches. Finally he settled in Douelan, where he was completely absorbed by painting marines and seascapes.
— Normand d'origine, Henry Moret devient Lorientais d'adoption. A partir du port de Lorient, il rayonne chaque année le long de la côte à Larmor, au Pouldu, à Doëlan, puis plus loin à Quimper, Douarnenez et la presqu'île de Crozon. Il s'attardent dans les îles : Groix, Belle-Ile, Houat, Ouessant. Au cours d'un séjour à Pont-Aven, en 1888, il fait la connaissance de Gauguin, Bernard, Chamaillard, Jourdan et Laval et s'intègre au petit groupe. Si au départ son art était tributaire de Corot, Courbet et de l'Ecole de Barbizon, à partir de sa rencontre avec Gauguin, Moret est influencé par le synthétisme.
— In love with Brittany where he spent all of his life, he understood the intimate feeling for beings and for things; he ignored nothing. He knew the small ports surrounded by the Breton hills; he noted the red sails on the green and blue seas, the teeming of the fishermen leaving and returning to the dock. His little figurines were excessively studied for their movements. The people and the animals that he placed in his landscapes, of rich and opulent tones were always there at the place where they should be. He examined the horizon with his eye while walking within the nature that he loved. Coasts, forests, valleys, in every season, he observed them with all of his senses and reproduced them accordingly, with all of his spirit and sincerity.
Throughout the nineteenth and into the early twentieth century, French landscape painting progressed and changed with ever increasing frequency and verve. Its early proponents such as Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot and the Barbizon painters began to change the way artists viewed and interacted with nature, but also influenced the way landscape painting was received. By the 1860s landscape painting had become popular with the public and critics alike. As this genre progressed, works took on new aesthetic dimensions that were determined largely stylistic changes which, beginning in the 1870s, were revolutionized by the Impressionist group. Oil paints in tubes now allowed artists to escape to the country and paint in plein air without hassle. Not only did Impressionism influence artists by changing their way of viewing and translating nature within a momentary reflection, but they introduced a new palette of vibrant and rich colors that allowed the artist to create their own environment within their painting. One of the major schools during this period which essentially created their own distinct style of painting and which was the heir to these traditions in French landscape painting was the school of Pont-Aven, located in Pont-Aven, France, which is now most often recognized by one of its major figures, Paul Gauguin.
Henry Moret was also a member of the Pont-Aven school, though in his somewhat reclusive nature his name is often not immediately associated with the group. Despite this, Moret was a highly active and intuitive painter. He was of medium height, of a strong stature, a handsome man with soft blue eyes and a blond beard; he was likeable, discreet, warm, and reflective. He was a hard working man, very serious, assiduous, soft-spoken. He would go into the woods or fields, with his materials, and only comes back for meals.
Moret was born in Cherbourg, in Normandy. His life up to his military service in 1875 remains somewhat of a mystery, but it was during this military period when his artistic career began. While in Lorient for his service, he served under the command of Colonel Jules La Villette who noticed his interests in the arts. He took it upon himself to introduce Moret to a local artist who ran an atelier in the town, Ernest Corroller, a drawing professor. Typical to the area and influential for the direction of Moret’s theme was the fact that Corroller himself was a marine painter and exhibited regularly at the Parisian Salon. Under Corroller, Moret was introduced to a thoroughly academic style of painting which would betray Moret’s style late in life and which relied on the past masters of the French landscape tradition such as Corot and Courbet; thus the palette he and his studies worked with were dark, muted tones atypical to the current artistic trends of the Impressionist group. Even though Corroller presented Moret with traditions of the past, he was the one who not only introduced the theme of marine painting to him, but also introduced him to plein-air painting. With Corroller’s lessons in hand, Moret soon registered at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris on March 22nd, 1876, taking up residence in the atelier of Lehmann and later, from about 1880-1883, the history painter Jean-Paul Laurens. It was in 1880 that he first exhibited at the Salon, a work entitled La Plage de Locqueltas a Marée Basse; Côte de Bretagne. It was during these early years that, under the influence of his previous training, his paintings recalled the traditions of the Barbizon school.
During his studies in Paris Moret kept in contact with Corroller and often returned to Brittany. During these years Moret maintained a presence in a small town called Pouldu and continued to send works to the Salon, those relying on imagery based around the coasts of Brittany. Moret continued this artistic lifestyle of moving between cities before more firmly establishing himself at Pont-Aven in 1888, whose small town center had become an artistic refuge based around three hotels at which each of these artists would stay while they worked. Moret stayed at the Gloanec hostel where he came into contact with Gauguin, Ernest Ponthier de Chamaillard, Émile Jourdan, and Charles Lavant, among others. By July, Moret’s atelier had become the usual meeting place for a number of painters, where, on the first floor, a man by the name of Kerluen would give art lessons. Once autumn arrived, the painters dispersed but Moret remained at Pont-Aven. The next following years saw both Moret and his fellow artists move between Pouldu and Pont-Aven, meeting regularly in each of these towns to nurture their artistic inclinations. It was Moret who had first established a presence in Pouldu, before the other artists of the group.
During his period of activity around Pont-Aven and the other artists, Moret’s work showed an interest not only in coastal and marine scenes, but also figural scenes which, in some instances, began to embrace the world of symbolism, most likely influenced by Gauguin. While his work began to rely on symbolist themes, his style was indebted somewhat to Impressionism. It wasn’t until after 1891 that Moret, now no longer under the influence of Gauguin since he had departed France, could begin to work on developing his own style outside of the Pont-Aven school.
In 1895 Moret made the acquaintance of the gallery owner Durand-Ruel [31 Oct 1831 – 05 Feb 1922] who sponsored some of the most progressive artists across Europe. He entered into an informal contract with Durand-Ruel, and throughout his association with the gallery, completed over 600 paintings. Durand-Ruel also held exhibitions of Moret’s work in both Paris and New York and found a vast clientele for his imagery across the European continent and even with American buyers in cities from across the nation, such as Minneapolis, Portland, Pittsburgh, and Saint Louis. This same year Moret also began exhibiting at the Salon des Independents, where he showed seven pieces of Breton subjects.
After 1900, Moret’s work took an even more Impressionistic approach, whereby he moved towards the application of small flecks of paint instead of the rather broad and somewhat geometric placement of colors as influenced by the Pont-Aven school. His interest in light effects began to take on new dimensions as he began focus on just landscapes, void of many or any figures and showing an interest in depicting the intangible – the sunsets, storms, and other effects of the atmosphere and nature – especially late in his career, around 1909. Between 1903 and 1911 he was also an active participant at the Salon d’Automne. He remained an active painter into the early twentieth century. He died in Paris.
It appears that judging simply from the output of Moret’s work while working under Durand-Ruel, over 600 paintings, that he should already be considered a prolific artist. But what Moret’s public during his time did not realize was the additional number of watercolors, drawings, and charcoal studies that he had completed. These were never sold to the public since Moret kept each one of them. It was not until 1983 that the public first glimpsed these important pieces, after Moret’s great grandson, in two shows, another also in 1990, distributed over 800 of these personal works to buyers across the globe. The majority of his paintings, on the other hand, have remained primarily with their owners, totaling almost 800 as well.
Henry Moret’s work characterizes the diversity of the period in which he was working. Initially influenced by his more classically oriented studies and the style of his predecessors, he quickly became engaged with other artists around Paris before moving to Pont-Aven where a unique artistic colony was established. Here, under the influence of Gauguin and others, Moret was introduced to a different style, a version that Moret would manipulate throughout the rest of his career. By the end, he had reached the definition of his own style based on Impressionism and the love of nature. His light filled palette continues to intrigue audiences today and the presence of his watercolors, drawings, and charcoals provides an important insight into the methods and style of this artist.
–- View of the Customs Cabin, Pourville (1901; 852x1064pix, 178kb)
— La Jetée du Port d'Audierne (1900, 38x55cm; 561x800pix, 130kb _ ZOOM to 1437x2048pix, 375kb)
— Cliffs at Ouessant, Brittany (1901, 65x81cm; 649x800pix, 146kb _ ZOOM to 1288x1588pix, 481kb)
— La Côte Bretonne I (54x65cm; 715x950pix, 590kb)
–- Une vallée en Sedaine, baie de Douarnenez (1912, 47x62cm; 1084x1400pix, 143kb)
–- Environs d'Audierne (1908, 61x51cm; 1131x933pix, 126kb)
–- La barque des pêcheurs en Bretagne (1904, 73x100cm; 1024x1400pix, 141kb)
— Men-Du, Finistère (74x92cm; 472x603pix, 73kb) “men du” in Breton, means “black rock”.
— The Island of Raguenez, Brittany (1895, 54x65cm; 380x459pix, 117kb) _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3 (360x470pix, 165kb)
— Paysage de Pont-Aven (1889, 40x60cm; 332x500pix, 58kb) _ Normand d'origine, Moret découvrit la Bretagne pendant son service militaire qu'il fit à Lorient. Puis il s'y établit et de là il rayonna le long de la côte. En 1888, il rencontra Gauguin à Pont-Aven et s'intègra au petit groupe. Son oeuvre a été influencée par cette rencontre. Cette peinture est très proche de différentes oeuvres de Gauguin peintes à la même époque et au même endroit.
— Paysage de Bretagne (1890, 33x46cm; 351x500pix, 53kb) _ Ce paysage n'a pu être localisé; c'est sans doute un hameau entre Pont-Aven et Le Pouldu. Il présente la particularité d'avoir été, postérieurement à sa réalisation, signé du nom de Gauguin. Cette fausse signature illustre bien la parenté à cette époque entre les oeuvres de Gauguin et celles de Moret.
— 98 images at the Athenaeum