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ART “4” “2”-DAY  03 May v.10.40
DEATHS: 1703 VAN DER NEER — 1587 ORSI — 1918 YEAMES 2006 APPEL

^ Died on 03 May 1703: Eglon Hendrick van der Neer, Dutch Baroque painter born in 1634. — {His artwork was a Neer success, just as that of his father}
— Eglon van der Neer was the son and student of Aert van der Neer [1603 – 09 Nov 1677], Dutch landscapist and wyntapper (tavern keeper) active in Amsterdam. Eglon is best known for genre pieces done {neerly} in the style of Terborch [1617 – 08 Dec 1681] and Metsu [Jan 1629 – 24 Oct 1667 bur.]. He carried on Terborch's and Metsu's tradition of showing interiors with scenes of the life of the wealthy classes, and he did so effectively. Eglon painted landscapes as well as history pictures, portraits, and genre scenes, was more peripatetic and had greater financial success than his father. About 1654, at the beginning of his career Eglon went to France where he served as painter to the Counts of Dona, Dutch governors of the principality of Orange (in Provence) {which had no resemblance to a banana republic and whose national anthem, if it even had one, was certainly not “Yes, we have no bananas today”.}. He returned to his native Amsterdam by 1659 and married Maria van Wagensvelt in Rotterdam on 20 February 1659. The couple had 16 children. From 1664 until 1679, Rotterdam was his base. Thereafter he spent a decade in Brussels. He was appointed court painter of Charles II of Spain in 1687; however, he apparently never made the trip to the king's court. In 1690 he accepted the post of court painter to the Elector Palatine, Johann Willhelm in Düsseldorf. Adriaen der Werff, Eglon's student, made contact with the Elector Palatine in 1696 and quickly became his favorite. However, Eglon continued to hold his position until his death.

Young Lady at her Breakfast (1665, 31x27cm; 660x570pix, 55kb _ ZOOM+ to 1250x1080pix, 197kb _ ZOOM++ to 2500x2160pix, 908kb) _ At a heavy oak table with turned legs sits a noble young woman dressed in a red silk dress and a white satin bodice with slitted sleeves. Her right hand is touching a tin plate with three oysters on the half-shell and a spirally partly peeled lemon on it. In her left hand, crossed under the right hand, she lightly holds an oyster fork by the wrong end. On the table also lie a knife and two rolls along with a silver tray with a wineglass and a white jug, in the deep shadows further back there seems to be another tray with food difficult to identify. The lady is distracted by something out-of-frame at which she is looking. Van der Neer painted numerous pictures of this type. In most cases the activities of the women depicted and the surrounding objects appear to have a symbolic meaning in reference to a virtue, a vice or the five senses. Genre paintings also offered the opportunity to depict the qualities of precious materials in all their finery. With a virtuosity inspired by and rivals Terborch's, Eglon van der Neer knew how to reproduce the sumptuous form and silky sheen of the woman’s clothing. The interplay of the three shades of red in the chair, the dress and the sleeves intensifies the color. In this respect the picture is representative of the last phase of 17th century genre painting, when artists concentrated more than before on the craftsmanship involved in painting.
Man and Woman in a Room (1666, 74x68cm; 872x800pix, 122kb _ ZOOM to 1493x1370pix, 287kb) _ An affluent couple is seated comfortably in their handsome room, with embossed leather covering the wall and a Persian carpet on the table. Dutch artists often depicted paintings within paintings to comment on their subjects: here the image of Venus over the mantel may allude to the couple's marital harmony.
The Betrothal: Elegant Couple in a Room (1678, 85x70cm; 1009x840pix) _ It is not known why van der Neer made the the man {!!!} look at least 8-months-pregnant; satiric comment on something or another? If it is inadvertent, it is not typical of van der Neer, who devoted a great deal of attention to the minutest details in his genre paintings — from the foreground to the most distant point in the background — though this did not always serve to heighten the natural effect of these scenes. The very precise and accurate rendering of the various materials sometimes gives his paintings a cool, distant feel. Nevertheless, Van der Neer was highly successful: the opulent interiors and the extremely costly materials he so accurately depicted must have appealed to the imagination of his clients. He was admired by many of the crowned heads of Europe and worked as court painter to the Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm. The rich, fashionably dressed burghers who shown standing in Elegant Couple in an Interior are surrounded by several servants. Van der Neer paid great attention to the costly fabrics of the clothes of the elegant couple in the foreground. He rendered the sheen and transparency of ribbons, embroidery and lace with the utmost care, and the man's beautifully coifed wig received the same meticulous attention to detail. The various elements in the painting have not been forged into a unified whole, however. Eglon van der Neer probably wanted to demonstrate his technical skill in the depiction of details. The great variety of materials is certainly no coincidence. We cannot say with any certainty whether the painting depicts anything more than two people in a stylish interior. The fact that the couple in the background are drinking and their rather too intimate behavior might indicate that this is a brothel scene. _ At one time the painting belonged to the Jewish owner of an art gallery in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), Germany, Walter Westfeld [1889–] who died at the Auschwitz death camp some time between 1942 and 1945.
Allegory of Religion (1693, 26x20cm) _ Van der Neer used a polished style in depicting this moralistic allegory, encouraging the viewer to choose the path of true faith. Depicted in the orb of faith are various scenes from the life of Christ including the Road to Calvary. They were intended as examples to follow. A painting at the Castello Sforzesco in Milan forms the companion piece to this work. In that work Van der Neer depicted wicked worldly pleasures, such as dancing and smoking.
The Reader (38x28cm)
La marchande de poissons (17x21cm; 700x549pix, 200kb)
Children with a Cage and a Cat (24x19cm; 575x448pix, 100kb) _ {Could it be titled: Where's the canary?}

^ Born on 03 May 1911: Heinrich Kiefer, German painter who died on 19 July 1980. — Husband of Eva Kiefer [née Schurmann 08 Apr 1912~] — Relative? of Anselm Kiefer [08 Mar 1945~]?
— Heinrich Kiefer wurde in Breslau geboren. Als Sohn des Lehrers Hermann Kiefer und der Schriftstellerin Margarete Kiefer-Steffe, die viele Jahre als Lektorin in einem Münchner Verlag arbeitete und mit Schriftstellern wie Gerhart Hauptmann und Stefan Zweig in Verbindung stand, entdeckte er schon bald sein Interesse an Kunst und Literatur. Die vielfältigen geistig- künstlerischen Eindrücke seiner Kindheit prägten seine Entwicklung maßgeblich und sollten auch für seinen weiteren Lebensweg relevant bleiben.
      Nach Abschluss der Schule (mit dem sogenannten "Einjährigen") absolvierte Heinrich Kiefer eine Lehre als Möbeltischler und nahm anschließend ein Abendstudium an der Kunstschule Breslau im Fach Architektur auf. Die Erkrankung an einem Hirntumor , welche durch eine Encephalitis (Kopfgrippe) während der Lehrzeit hervorgerufen wurde und mit einer Schüttellähmung der linken Extremitäten verbunden war, erschwerte ihm zwar die Studienzeit (sowie sein späteres Berufsleben) erheblich, hinderte ihn aber nicht an einem erfolgreichen Abschluss. In den folgenden Jahren arbeitete Heinrich Kiefer als Innenarchitekt und widmete sich intensiv seiner eigentlichen Leidenschaft, der Malerei und Grafik. Vor allem ab 1935 beteiligte er sich mit seinen Arbeiten an Kunstausstellungen in Breslau, Berlin, Hamburg, Nürnberg, München und Wien.
      Die Auswirkungen des zweiten Weltkrieges zwangen Heinrich Kiefer und seine Familie, die damals aus sechs Personen (einschließlich einer älteren Tante) bestand, 1945 die schlesische Heimat zu verlassen. Als Vertriebene verbrachten sie einige Zeit im Vogtländischen Mylau, lebten dann 1946-1947 in Goldisthal im Thüringer Wald und zogen danach in den Eisenhammer bei Neunhofen, bis schließlich Neustadt (Orla) zu ihrer neuen Heimatstadt wurde. Während dieser Zeit verfasste Heinrich Kiefer ein unterhaltsames Tagebuch unter dem Titel „Malergeschichten“ und pflegte auch mit großer Disziplin den regelmäßigen Schriftverkehr zu über 100 Briefpartnern.
      Die Nachkriegszeit war für die Kiefers besonders hart, denn sie hatten vier Kinder zu ernähren. So lebten sie nicht nur in Armut, sondern oft in blanker Not. Hier war es, neben Schulkameraden, Studienkollegen und Freunden der Familie, vor allem der Schriftsteller Hermann Hesse, der Heinrich Kiefer in den schweren Jahren unterstützte und ihm Päckchen und Kleiderpakete zukommen ließ. Als Dankeschön dafür konnte natürlich jeder Helfer mit einer Druckgrafik rechnen. Doch auch geistige Nahrung floss der Familie Kiefer durch viele Bücher von Schriftstellern wie Hugo Hartung, Rudolf Hagelstange, Max Frisch und Hermann Hesse aus dem Westen zu, sodass die kulturelle Entwicklung in Westdeutschland nicht gänzlich an ihnen vorbei ging.
      Auch Heinrich Kiefers Frau Eva hielt immer fest zu ihm. Obwohl auch sie künstlerisch begabt war, stellte sie ihre Ansprüche zurück und arbeitete sogar als Reinigungskraft, um ihren Mann finanziell zu stützen und die Familie zu versorgen. Mit Hilfe der örtlichen Organe der Stadt Neustadt (Orla) gelang es Heinrich Kiefer, sich ein neues Atelier in der Schillerstraße 1 einzurichten.
      Mit unermüdlichem Fleiß und großer Hingabe widmete er sich seinem künstlerisch- praktischen Schaffen und versuchte, den Menschen die Schönheit der Natur und Umwelt, aber auch, durch pädagogisches Geschick, den Unterschied zwischen Kunst und Kitsch nahezubringen.
      Als Mitglied der Künstlergruppe „Die Arnshaugker“, der auch Karl und Dorothea Herrmann, Gertrud Parusel sowie Heinrich R. Ulbricht angehörten, leistete er einen wesentlichen Beitrag zum kulturellen Aufschwung der Orlastadt. 1949 trat Heinrich Kiefer dem Bezirksverband „Bildende Künstler“ bei. Er beteiligte sich an Ausstellungen in Berlin, Leipzig, Erfurt und Weimar.
      Im Frühjahr 1963 wurden dann verschiedene Arbeiten von Laienkünstlern im Neustädter Rathaussaal präsentiert. Der Erfolg dieser Ausstellung brachte Bürgermeister Franke, in Vorbereitung auf den VI. SED- Parteitag (der unter dem Thema „Kultur“ stand) zu dem Vorschlag, einen Zirkel unter der Leitung Heinrich Kiefers zu bilden. Diese Idee wurde am 06 March 1963 in die Tat umgesetzt und am 23 March 1963 vertraglich festgehalten. Zu den Gründungsmitgliedern gehörten neben Heinrich Kiefer auch Helmut Bauer, Siegfried Reichert und Dieter Wolfram. Somit erfolgte eine „weitere Qualifizierung der Laienschaffenden auf dem Gebiet der Malerei“ sowie eine Verbesserung des Kulturlebens der Stadt Neustadt (Orla).
      Von Anfang an nahm Heinrich Kiefer seine Aufgaben als Zirkelleiter sehr ernst und kam diesen mit großem Engagement nach. Als Fachkundiger vermittelte er den Zirkelteilnehmern nicht nur verschiedene künstlerische Techniken, sondern lehrte sie auch, die Wirklichkeit mit den Augen des Künstlers zu erfassen und darzustellen. Kunstbetrachtung, selbstschöpferische Tätigkeit, Begeisterung und Anregung zu neuen Themen brachten die Zirkelarbeit voran. Dabei erwies sich Heinrich Kiefer stets als aufmerksamer Beobachter und zuverlässiger Berater der ihm anvertrauten Laienkünstler, für so manches Zirkelmitglied sogar als treuer Freund.
      Helmut Bauer erinnert sich: „Heinrich Kiefer war ein Mensch, für den das Wort „Persönlichkeit“ wirklich zutrifft. Denn Maler und Grafiker zu sein, spiegelt nur einen Teilbereich seiner Person wieder. Er war literarisch hoch gebildet, stand im Briefwechsel mit verschiedenen Schriftstellern und da er jeden Sommer für einige Wochen mit seiner Pößnecker Freundin Edith Seifert einen künstlerischen Urlaub an der Ostsee verbrachte, entdeckte Heinrich Kiefer als Fachmann in Geschiebekunde den sechsstrahligen Seeigel. Trotz seiner vielseitigen Bildung war Heinrich Kiefer sehr bescheiden und hegte keinerlei Starallüren. Meist verschenkte er seine Bilder, und wenn er sie doch verkaufte, dann viel zu billig. Seine Armut hinderte Heinrich Kiefer aber nicht daran, gastfreundlich zu sein. Denn wenn er ein Paket von Verwandten aus Westdeutschland erhielt, bedachte er seine Freunde aus dem Malzirkel des öfteren mit der einen Hälfte des Inhaltes, während seine Familie die andere bekam.
      Heinrich Kiefer nahm alle ihm gestellten Aufgaben sehr ernst, und als Zirkelleiter war er wirklich gut. Denn er verband Aufmunterung, Lob und Hilfe mit sehr deutlicher Kritik. Während in den ersten Jahren der Versuch, wie Heinrich Kiefer zu arbeiten im Zirkel vorherrschte, entwickelte jedes Zirkelmitglied später seine eigene Stilrichtung.“
      Heinrich Kiefer war ein sehr empfindsamer, sensibler und idealistischer Mensch. Diese Charaktereigenschaften sind auch in seinen Werken wiederzufinden. Wobei seine besten Arbeiten Landschaftsaquarelle sind, die als sehr ausdrucksstarke Bilder die verschiedensten Stimmungen beim Betrachter hervorrufen. Der Grund für diese enorme Wirkung liegt darin, dass Heinrich Kiefer im Morgendunst, bei hellem Sonnenschein, ja sogar bei Regen und Schneefall in die Natur ging, um zu malen.
      Während der sechziger und zu Anfang der siebziger Jahre spielte Landschaftsmalerei jedoch eher eine sekundäre Rolle, denn die Bilder sollten sozialistischen Charakter tragen. Deshalb malte Heinrich Kiefer auch Porträts von Abgeordneten sowie Aktivisten der sozialistischen Arbeiterklasse und stellte die Werktätigen beim Schaffen in Fabriken und landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben dar. Dabei sah er aber mehr die Menschen an sich, unterhielt sich mit ihnen und versuchte, ihr Wesen in seinen Bildern festzuhalten, denn er war gegen eine künstlerische Propaganda. Erst Ende der siebziger Jahre, als sich die Kunstauffassung der DDR lockerte, fanden seine Bilder zunehmend die verdiente Anerkennung. Doch als sich Heinrich Kiefer endlich auf dem Höhepunkt seiner künstlerischen Karriere befand und seine Arbeiten sehr große Nachfrage erfuhren, hatte sich sein Nervenleiden bereits stark verschlimmert, so dass er vom Äußeren her immer gebrechlicher wirkte.
     Heinrich Kiefer verstarb an Krebs. Die meisten seiner Bilder, darunter auch vieles aus dem unveröffentlichten Projekt „Samen und Früchte“, das aus kleinen Feder- und Pinselzeichnungen mit passenden Gedichten besteht, befindet sich heute leider nur zu geringer Anzahl in Ausstellung auf der Burg Ranis. Der größte Teil ist dort archiviert. Einige Werke sind im Privatbesitz seiner Kinder und seiner Freunde vom Malzirkel, während andere im Neustädter Heimatmuseum bewundert werden können. Der schriftliche Nachlass, die Autographen sowie die Originale der „Malergeschichten“ sind im Germanischen Museum in Nürnberg aufbewahrt.
      Heinrich Kiefers Wirken legte nicht nur den Grundstein für die Entstehung des Neustädter Mal- und Zeichenzirkels, sondern prägte auch dessen weitere Entwicklung maßgeblich.

Selbstbildnis II
Selbstbildnis (1976)
Eva strickt
Wiesenweg II
Winter an der Orla II
Schule in Ahrenshoop (715x988pix, 62kb)
his web site with more than 100 images.
^ Died on 03 May 1587: Lelio Orsi da Novellara, Emilian painter and draftsman, born in 1508 or 1511. — {His artwork bears consideration.}
— Orsi was influenced by Correggio as well as by the late Mannerist style of Giulio Romano. His large-scale works seem to have been mainly secular decorations, notably illusionistic façades, of which only fragments are extant. Their energy and expressiveness are apparent, however, in the surviving paintings of smaller dimensions. Orsi’s sole documented architectural work is the Collegiata di San Stefano, Novellara (1567).
— Lelio Orsi studied with his painter father, but very early on he incorporated into his polished, illusionistic style the two influences that remained primary throughout his life: Giulio Romano's exaggerated movement and excitability and Correggio's poignant passion and vibrant way of seeing.
     By 1538 Orsi had moved to a larger nearby town, Reggio Emilia, where he painted many architectural facades with illusionistic designs. Accused of involvement in a murder, he returned to his native Novellara in 1546, where he continued to create distinguished decorative works, especially as a painter of facades for the local nobility. Though he also completed a large project for the count of Novellara, providing everything from architectural drawings to decorative partitions for a villa, only fragments of any of these works survive.
     The year 1554, spent in Rome, was decisive: there he absorbed Michelangelo's Mannerism, which stayed with him for life. He began to concentrate on making easel paintings of mostly mythological and religious subjects; they indicated the energy and expressiveness of his monumental works, and their jeweled technique made them beautiful in themselves. By 1576 Orsi was probably back in Reggio Emilia.
— Raffaellino da Reggio was a student of Orsi.

San Giorgio e il drago (1550; 599x473pix, 52kb _ ZOOM to 2564x2024pix, 361kb)
The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine (1560; 599x440pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 2756x2024pix, 469kb)
Saint Cecilia and Saint Valerian (1555; 599x484pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 2506x2024pix, 398kb)
The Temptation of Saint Anthony (1576, 44x36cm) _ Lurking in the shadows, grotesque monsters slowly emerge to taunt Saint Anthony. Grinning with satanic delight, the demons take human and animal forms. Unperturbed, Saint Anthony continues to read his meditations. Divine light illuminates his figure, forming a bright halo around his head. After his parents' death, this early Christian monk retired to the Egyptian desert to contemplate God. He remained there for fifteen years; during this time he began his legendary combat against the devil, withstanding demonic apparitions and erotic visions. After resisting temptations, Saint Anthony emerged at last from the desert and organized and instructed a group of hermits who sought to imitate his example. Thus he became the father of Christian monasticism. Lelio Orsi depicted this struggle of good and evil, vividly using light and shadow, loose, painterly brushwork, and a strong diagonal composition. Included in the painting are Saint Anthony's attributes: a tau cross (T-shaped), the pig, and the crutch at his side.
Design for a Frieze (1555, 23x41cm) _ Bearing sacrificial offerings that include a sheep and a ram , worshipers approach a statue of Jupiter at the right. While he took the subject matter and composition of the frieze from classical art, Lelio Orsi departed from classicism's characteristic calm and balance by populating the frieze with vigorous, squat figures who sometimes overlap the architecture. The liberal excesses of Orsi's later style are evident in the large-headed, gross-featured youth at right who presents his knifepoint for a woman to touch.
     Imitating an antique bas-relief, the relief is set into a convincing architectural structure with telamones supporting the entablature on either side. Orsi's exaggerated chiaroscuro helps to achieve the three-dimensional effect. Such sculptural illusionism distinguishes his drawings from those of his Mannerist contemporaries.
     Orsi was well known for his painted decorations on the interiors of buildings, most of which have been destroyed. Scholars know many of his designs for friezes, similarly squared for transfer, which they have often connected with decorative projects in his hometown of Novellara.
The Walk to Emmaus (1570, 71x57cm) _ After the Crucifixion, two of Christ's disciples set out for Emmaus. They were joined by Christ himself, disguised as a pilgrim, who explained the prophecies concerning his death and resurrection. It was not until they broke bread together at an inn in Emmaus that the disciples recognised the risen Christ (Luke 24: 13-29). A goldfinch in the foreground probably symbolises Christ's Passion. The painting, which reveals the influence of Michelangelo, is datable after Orsi's trip to Rome.
Apollo Driving the Chariot of the Sun (25x38cm) _ Apollo drives the chariot of the sun led by four horses. Aurora spreads flowers in front of the quadriga. Surrounding the edge of the sun are signs of the zodiac. The are other drawing of similar subjects by Orsi, they are designs for the lost fresco on the Torre dell'Orologio in the Piazza del Duomo in Reggio Emilia, documented in 1544.
The Adoration by the Shepherds (600x424pix)
^ >Born on 03 May 1833: Philip Hermogenes Calderon, French-born English painter who died on 30 Apr 1898.
— His father, an apostate Catholic priest of Spanish origin converted to Anglicanism, was Professor of Spanish Literature at King's College, London. Calderon planned to study engineering, but he became so interested in drawing technical figures and diagrams that he changed his mind and devoted his time to art. He studied at James M. Leigh's school in London in 1850, then in Paris at the studio of François-Édouard Picot. He lived near by in Montmartre, sharing a room with fellow art student Henry Stacy Marks. He exhibited his first Royal Academy painting, By the Waters of Babylon, in 1853 and thereafter became a regular exhibitor until 1897. He first made his name with Broken Vows, exhibited in 1857. The painting does not refer to his father but shows a woman overhearing through a garden fence her lover betraying her and was painted in the detailed, clean-cut style associated with the Pre-Raphaelites. It was successful with critics and public alike and was engraved in 1859.
      Calderon was elected RA in 1867, his diploma work being Whither?. By this date he had become an established artist and one of the founder-members of the Saint John's Wood Clique, which included, among others, William Frederick Yeames [08 Dec 1835 – 03 May 1918] and Frederick Goodall [17 Sep 1822 – 28 Jul 1904]. The artists belonging to this group specialized in historical or biblical scenes depicted in a romantic or dramatic light, as in Calderon's Ruth and Naomi (1886). In 1887 Calderon was appointed Keeper at the Royal Academy. When he exhibited the Renunciation of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary in 1891, the depiction of the Saint kneeling naked in front of the altar provoked criticism from Catholic circles. In general, however, his good draftsmanship, attractive coloring and interesting choice of subjects made him popular in his day.

Whither ? (1867, 87x119cm; 596x800pix, 64kb)
French Peasants Finding Their Stolen Child (1859, 112x87cm)
By the Waters of Babylon (1852, 72x51cm)
Broken Vows (1856, 91x68cm) _ This painting shows the agony of a woman who has discovered her lover flirting with someone else. The betrayal is underlined not only by the title but by the initials carved in the fence, the discarded necklace on the floor and the dying flowers on the left. The ivy may symbolize her belief that their love was everlasting. The subject and composition is reminiscent of
      _ April Love (1856, 89x50cm) by Arthur Hughes. Given the conventions of Victorian love stories and their popular appeal, paintings such as Broken Vows would have been easily understood by a contemporary audience.
Margaret (1876, 51x46cm; 512x468pix, 13kb) _ Three quarter left side head and chest portrait of Margaret, young woman in white dress, with dark hair. Her head is turned to face front.
Half Hours with the Best Authors aka The Siesta (1866, 18x28cm)
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary's Great Act of Renunciation (1891, 153x213cm; 363x512pix, 10kb) _ Elizabeth of Hungary [1207 – 17 Nov 1231] was the wife of Lewis, Landgrave of Thuringia [–11 Sep 1227]. After his death during one of the Crusades, she entered a convent and devoted herself to good works. Before becoming a nun, she passed through a spiritual crisis, torn by the need to renounce the world, and therefore her children, in order to fulfil her desire to serve God. Pressed by a domineering ascetic, Conrad [–30 July 1233], Elizabeth finally vowed that 'naked and barefoot' she would follow her 'naked Lord'. Calderon's picture shows this moment of self-abasement. Calderon took his subject from
      _ The Saint's Tragedy  (1848) by the anti-Catholic Charles Kingsley [12 Jun 1819 – 23 Jan 1875]. There is so little light in the picture that it is about as decent as if she were fully clothed and well lit, and much less interesting.


^ Died on 03 May 1918: William Frederick Yeames, British painter born on 18 December 1835, son of a British consul in Russia.
— William Yeames was sent to school in Dresden after the death of his father in 1842. He also studied painting there. The collapse of the Yeames family fortune resulted in a move to London in 1848, where Yeames learnt anatomy and composition from George Scharf [1788–1860]. He later took lessons from F. A. Westmacott. In 1852 he continued his artistic education in Florence under Enrico Pollastrini [15 Jun 1817 – 11 Jan 1876] and Raphael Buonajuto, from whom he learnt the methods of the Old Masters. He drew from frescoes by Ghirlandaio [1449 – 11 Jan 1494], Gozzoli [1420 – 04 Oct 1497] and Andrea del Sarto [16 Jul 1486 – 28 Sep 1530], and painted in the Life School at the Grand Ducal Academy. He then went to Rome and made landscape studies and copied Old Masters, including the frescoes of Raphael [06 Apr 1483 – 06 Apr 1520] in the Vatican.
      His extensive study of Italian art gave him a precision and facility that assisted his artistic success upon his return to London in 1859. There he set up a studio in Park Place and became a leading member of the Saint John's Wood Clique, led by the flamboyant Philip Hermogenes Calderon [03 May 1833 – 30 Apr 1898]. The group often rented Hever Castle in Kent during the summer months and used it as a setting for some of their pictures. Yeames sought a fresh approach to historical subject matter. Yeames and Frederick Goodall [17 Sep 1822 – 28 Jul 1904], another member of the clique, specialized in Tudor and Stuart subjects, but often departed from the tradition of depicting a particular specific historic event by creating situations which simply captured the mood of bygone times.
      Yeames exhibited at the Royal Academy and the British Institution from 1859 and became an ARA in 1866. At first Yeames attempted large-scale decorative work, contributing the figures of Torrigiano and Holbein to the series of mosaic portraits of artists at the South Kensington Museum (1866).

And when did you last see your father? (1878, 103x143cm; 321x629pix, 24kb) _ This is Yeames' most famous picture. He wrote: “I had, at the time I painted the picture, living in my house a nephew of an innocent and truthful disposition, and it occurred to me to represent him in a situation where the child's outspokenness and unconsciousness would lead to disastrous consequences and a scene in a country house occupied by the Puritans during the Rebellion in England suited my purpose.” The people in the painting are composed like characters on a stage. This adds to the sense of drama in an already tense setting. The viewer is left guessing what the boy will answer. The painting deals cleverly with the themes of innocence and childhood. We wonder whether the boy, who will have been told that honesty is a virtue, will realize in time the gravity of the situation. The small size of the boy, his blonde hair and blue suit highlight his innocence. In order to save his father, he may have to lose some of his innocence and lie to the men questioning him. Yeames does not appear to favor one side over the other, letting the drama of the situation speak for itself. Although we are aware of the purpose of the soldiers' visit to the house, he invests the scene with a sense of their 'moral duty'. The Victorians believed that men in the English Civil War fought out of a sense of conviction and loyalty. This is shown by Yeames as, despite the situation, he depicts the men's human qualities. The soldier in the left of the scene is seen comforting the little girl, who appears aware of the significance of the question.
     This painting shows a Royalist family who have been captured by the enemy during the English Civil War (1642-1649). The boy is being questioned about the whereabouts of his father by a panel of Parliamentarians. We can tell from the boy's clothes that he is a Royalist. Possibly his father is commander of a Royalist army and the Parliamentarians are hoping to gain knowledge of its whereabouts. The young boy in the painting was based on Yeames' nephew, James Lambe Yeames [1873-1960], who was about five years old when this was painted. The girl is dressed in Royalist clothing so we can assume that she is the boy's sister. She is crying, probably because she is afraid of what the soldiers might do to her family. The young girl was modelled by the artist's niece, Mary Yeames [1868-1960]. We can tell by the clothes of the two women in the background that they are Royalists. The lady at the back is hiding behind the other and seems to be more afraid. The lady in the front does not seem so afraid and is looking directly at the interrogators. The lady hiding could be an older sister and the tall lady in the front their mother. Another possible interpretation is that the lady dressed in green is the children's mother while the one dressed in black is a maidservant. The maidservant could have informed the Parliamentarians that the family is hiding something.
      The man on the bench is a cavalry officer. We know this because of the long riding boots that he is wearing. He is watching the interrogation of the boy with interest. The officer is wearing the yellow sash of Parliament over his uniform. All Parliamentarian soldiers wore yellow sashes during battle so that they could easily spot members of their own army. The man writing is a clerk. He is writing down everything that is said. His presence also makes the scene more official as the interrogation is clearly being carried out as if it were a court case. The man in the corner is almost hidden by the shadows in the room. However, he is looking directly at the boy and seems assured that the family is guilty. He holds in his arms a number of books, probably literature that had been forbidden by the Puritans. He seems to be happy that it is he that holds the evidence of the Royalist nature of the family and he is enjoying seeing the distress of the family. The bundle of books is clearly an important piece of evidence since the man in the corner has not put them down. During the period of the Civil War the Puritans banned the reading of many books of literature believing the Bible to be the only book that should be read. It would seem that they are being offered as evidence that the boy's father is an enemy of Parliament.
      We know that the man standing at the left is a sergeant because he is carrying a halberd and they were always carried by sergeants from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. He is the man who has arrested the family and has brought them before the Parliamentarians for questioning. However, he does not seem too happy with his task. The arm around the girl seems to be comforting rather than arresting and he is not looking directly at the scene in front of him. We can guess that maybe he has a family of his own and feels that questioning of children in this way is wrong. The man dressed in black with white collar and sitting bolt upright on the bench is a typical Puritan figure. He stares at the boy with a stern expression on his face. He seems glad that another Royalist family has been discovered and probably believes that they deserve harsh punishment.
      The interrogator questioning the boy does not seem as intimidating as the other Parliamentarians in the room. He is leaning forward with his chin resting on his hands and his expression seems almost sympathetic towards the boy. Possibly he is tired of having to carry out such tasks and believes that the war against the King should be won on the battlefield and not through the interrogation of women and children. The man at the edge of the picture, like the one in the center, is sprawled on the bench. He is wearing a heavy looking brown coat of the type worn by cavalrymen. He appears to be present as an onlooker rather than a member of the interrogation team. Possibly he is hoping for some information that will help his own cavalry to be victorious over the Royalists.
Prince Arthur and Hubert (1882, 201x126cm; 828x508pix, 26kb) _ The subject is from the play King John by Shakespeare. Hubert de Burgh [–1243] has been instructed by the usurper King John to kill young Arthur, the imprisoned legitimate king, but finds he cannot hurt an innocent child. Instead, he will give the King a false report of Arthur's death (Arthur eventually dies anyhow, in an escape attempt). The painting depicts the figures of the young boy, Prince Arthur, and Hubert seated on a wooden bench against a heavy wooden table. Hubert leans against the table behind him, with one hand clasping its edge and the other pinned between his knees, his head is lowered, his brow furrowed and eyes downcast; he is depicted in a black, belted medieval robe with a separate hood pulled over his head. The boy, by contrast, wears a gleaming white robe and has fair hair and almost translucent skin; sitting to the side of Hubert, he leans towards him with one arm wrapped around his shoulders and the other pressing on his arm with an imploring expression on his face. On the wooden floor in the right foreground is a coil of rope. The bench and table, which is covered with a white cloth with a simple striped design at each end, are of a functional design in a red colored wood and are the only visible furnishings. In the right background is a large stone column.
     Historically, Arthur [29 Mar 1187 – 03 Apr 1203] duke of Brittany, a grandson of King Henry II [1133 – 06 Jul 1189] of England; was a rival of his uncle John “Lackland” [24 Dec 1167 – 18 Oct 1216] (king of England from 1199) for several French provinces, both in his own interest and in that of King Philippe II Auguste [21 Aug 1165 – 14 Jul 1223] of France. In October 1190 Arthur was recognized as heir presumptive to the English throne by another uncle, the childless King Richard I “the Lion-Heart” [08 Sep 1157 – 06 Apr 1199]. Arthur was a posthumous child of Geoffrey, fourth of Henry II's five sons, and his wardship was a point of contention between Richard and Philippe. From 1196 he was reared in the household of Philippe Auguste, causing Richard to disinherit the boy in favor of John, who, after Richard's sudden death, was accepted as king in England and Normandy. Philippe, however, recognized Arthur's right to Brittany, Anjou, Aquitaine, and Maine and betrothed his daughter Mary to the young duke. The situation was complicated by Eleanor of Aquitaine [1122 – 01 Apr 1204], widow of Henry II, who wanted Aquitaine and Anjou for John. Captured in battle by John at Mirebeau-en-Poitou on 01 August 1202, Arthur (several years older than he looks in the picture) was imprisoned and, according to tradition, was murdered either by John himself or at his order.
Amy Robsart (1877, 281x188cm; 512x336pix, 14kb) _ Yeames was clearly fascinated by the intrigue surrounding Amy Robsart's death and may have been familiar with Sir Walter Scott's version of the incident, as recounted in Kenilworth (1831). When the picture was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1877 he included a lengthy explanation of the work's historical background in the catalogue. This took the form of an extract from a History of Berkshire by John Aubrey [12 March 1626 – June 1697]:
     Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, being the great favourite of the Queen Elizabeth, it was thought she would have made him her husband; to this end, to free himself of all obstacles, he had his wife, Amy Robsart, conveyed to the solitary house of Cumnor Hall, in Berkshire, inhabited by Anthony Forster, his servant. This same Forster, in compliance with what he well knew to be the Earl's wishes, came with others in the dead of night to the lady's bedchamber and stifled her in bed, and flung her downstairs, thereby believing the world would have thought it a mischance, and so blinded their villainy; and the morning after, with the purpose that others should know of her end, did Forster, on pretence of carrying out some behest of the Countess, bring a servant to the spot where the poor lady's body lay at the foot of the stairs.
      The woman's body lies bathed in light, her cloak romantically arranged across the bottom steps of the staircase. She appears less the bruised and battered victim of a vile murder than a seductive sleeping beauty. The devious Forster leads his manservant down the back stairs from the bedroom above. The latter is clearly horrified by the sight of the dead woman, and Forster pushes him back, for fear that he might discover the actual method of her death.
La Biccolante: A Venetian water-carrier (1879 diploma work, 158x87cm; 600x328pix, 56kb)


Died on a 03 May:

2006 Karel Appel, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 25 April 1921. —(090502)

>1878 José Manuel Francisco Antonio del Pilar Groot [25 Dec 1800–], Bogotá Colombian painter, writer, and newspaperman, fiel representante del espíritu del hombre colombiano del siglo XIX, cuyo perfil denota la variedad de intereses comunes a los más notables intelectuales: pintor, escritor, educador, periodista, polemista, caricaturista y hombre público. Utilizó muchos seudónimos como Agustín Jubiletas, Castellanos, Celio, Tobías y Varela, entre otros.
Indios de la Sabana de Bogotá llevando pollo al mercado (1833, 17x27cm; 460x669pix, 91kb).—(100503)

Born on a 03 May:

1933 Domenico Gnoli II, Italian painter who died (full coverage) on 17 April 1970. —(060402)

^ >1859 (1857?) José Gallegos y Arnosa, Spanish painter who died on 21 September 1917. — Biography
–- The Yellow Shawl (1881, 36x18cm; 1130x510pix, 53kb) _ The pseudonymous Esop Gallegs-Arenoses has transformed this slim picture into the spectacular twin abstractions
      _ The Yelling Show (2007; 775x1096pix, 400kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 800kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1969kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4882kb) and
      _ The Yale Low Shoal (2007; 775x1096pix, 400kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 800kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1969kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 4882kb)
–- The Goatherders (1868, 25x38cm; 874x1396pix, 178kb)
–- El Zapatero, Sevilla (1072x1575pix, 168kb) A bride (that of the next picture?) seems happy with the shoe she is trying on, after rejecting several others.
–- El Casamiento (39x28cm; 1125x788pix, 138kb) In a church, only the bride and her party, apparently awaiting anxiously the arrival of the bridegroom, long delayed and by now most uncertain.
At Prayer (1894, 25x20cm; 1049x781pix, 256kb) A nun playing the organ, near a stained glass window.
–- El Monaguillo aka Demasiada Carga (900x542pix, 124kb)
The First Communion (466x763pix, 269kb)
Flower Market (1100x515pix, 531kb)
El Picador (868x512pix, 88kb)
Street Dealer at Tangiers, Morocco (860x450pix, 59kb)
Ladies in a Sun-dappled Courtyard (38x51cm)
The Geographers (1902, 23x31cm)
Waiting for his Eminence (1902, 23x31cm)
An Important Visitor (15x22cm)
–- Después de la Cena (510x721pix, 165kb) _ A cardinal and two bishops, seated near the fireplace, are sipping coffee from demi-tasses, while a priest, standing, is reading them the newspaper and a butler is uncorking some liquor. —(070502)

^ >1836 (30 May?) Aleksander Kotsis, Polish painter who died on 07 August 1877. — {Dans une échelle de zéro à dix, comment était-il coté, Kotsis? Cote six?}— {Was he perhaps a polished Polish police artist?}— Od 1850 studiowal w krakowskiej Szkole Sztuk Pieknych pod kierunkiem Stattlera, Luszczkiewicza, w 1860 wyjechal do Wiednia na dalsze studia w tamtejszej Akademii. Mieszkajac na stale w Krakowie podrózowal po Francji i Niemczech, oraz po Podhalu i Tatrach. Malowal pejzaze i portrety oraz sceny rodzajowe z zycia wsi.
Self-Portrait (600x453pix, 37kb)
A yard in the Jewish quarter of Cracow (1454x1270pix, 507kb)
Matula Pomarli (1868; 560x800pix, 60kb) three young children, whose dead mother is barely seen in the shadows, and two indistinct rabbits home in a hovel.
By the Sidewalk (700x527pix, 114kb) a woman doing something (what???) with a long pole and a strange wooden contraption, watched by two young children.
W_Szynku (598x800pix, 69kb) a mother, a young child, and the father collapsed on a chair in a drunken stupor.
Ostatnia Chudoba (1870; 631x800pix, 82kb) two men, a woman, a young child, a stubborn goat,
Ostatnia Chudoba + (631x800pix, 151kb) same picture plus, added by another hand, a war map.
Wycieczka w Tatry + (482x800pix, 110kb) with, added by another hand, a Macdonald's M. The pseudonymous Alex Sableur-Cotesix is NOT responsible for these two humorously modified pictures, but wishes he were. —(060502)

^ 1827 Robert Zünd, Lucerne, Switzerland, painter who died on 15 January 1909. He was trained by Jakob Schwegler [1793–1866] and Joseph Zelger [1812–1885], whom he accompanied on a study visit to the Engadine. Zelger encouraged him to go to Geneva in 1848. There he was a student first of François Diday and then of Alexandre Calame, who influenced his early work. However, while Calame painted dramatic mountain scenes, Zünd preferred the idyllic, tranquil region of the Alpine foothills. In 1851 he moved to Munich, where he met the Swiss painter Rudolf Koller, who remained a close friend. From 1852 he often stayed in Paris. He studied paintings by 17th-century Dutch and French artists in the Louvre and became acquainted with Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, Louis Français, Louis Cabat, Frank Buchser, and Albert Anker.
Zwei Kinder im Eichenwald (77x53cm; 709x489pix, 96kb)
The Harvest
Road to Emmaus

>1716 Franz Anton Zeiller, Austrian painter (mostly of frescoes) who died on 04 March 1794. — Relative? of Paul Zeiller [1658-1738] and his son Johann Jakob Zeiller [08 Jul 1708 – 08 Jul 1783]?
–- 1000 Jahre Ottobeuren - Jubiläumsfresko über der Empore (F48), Basilika Ottobeuren (1760; 2382x2096pix, 619kb) _ Oben der Ottobeurer Kreuzpartikel, darunter auf den Wolken Hl. Benedikt mit links dem hl. Petrus und dem hl. Paulus, rechts dem hl. Alexander von Rom und dem hl. Theodor von Sitten, darunter zeigen Engel den Ottobeurer „Alexandermantel“, dahinter Märtyrer, deren Reliquien in der Basilika vorhanden sind: links Binosa, Januarius, Maurus, Bonifazius, echts Benedikt, Viktoria und Pontianus. Unten ein Gemälde der barocken Basilika Ottobeuren. Von links nach rechts: Äbte Neodegar und Witgar, dann Tagebert, Sohn der Stifter Erminswint und Silach, deren weitere Söhne Bischof Gauzibert und Abt Toto. Auf der rechten Seite von links nach rechts: Äbte Konrad I., Rupert I., Papst Eugenius III, Kaiser Karl der Große, seine Ehefrau Hildegard, Kaiser Otto I., und die hl. Bischöfe Ulrich von Augsburg und Konrad von Konstanz. Vorne rechts eine Allegorie des Herzogtums Schwaben (Mann mit Rüstung, Schild und Herzoghut). Ganz unten mitte Abt Rupert II. Ness, Bauherr der barocken Klosteranlage und Klosterkirche. —(090502)

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