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DEATHS: 1809 VIEN — 1770 TIEPOLO — 1972 ESCHER  — 1920 COLMAN 
BIRTHS: 1875 MARQUET — 1832 ORCHARDSON
^ Born on 27 March 1875: Albert Marquet, French Fauvist painter who died on 13 June 1947.
— {Il y avait un peintre du nom de Marquet / qu'à Paris on voyait par rues et par quais. / Il était souvent recherché par le Parquet. / Mais alors pour outremer il s'embarquait, / et personne ne le remarquait.}
— Albert Marquet's father worked on the railroads and his mother encouraged and supported his early artistic endeavors. He joined Gustave Moreau's studio like the other Fauves at the École des Beaux-Arts. He painted the French urban landscapes extensively. He used color to enhance or mute the effects of sunlight in his work. One such painting is Quai du Louvre et Le Pont-Neuf a Paris in which he used contrasting light and dark shapes to depict sunlight. Marquet preferred to live a secluded life with his wife, Marcelle Matinet whom he married in 1923. He loved to travel throughout Europe and Northern Africa. Marquet painted with Dufy along beaches in Normandy and Le Havre. Despite Marquet's penchant for painting landscapes, his talent for portraiture was sometimes compared {unfavorably?} to that of Van Gogh and of Toulouse-Lautrec.
— Marquet nació en Burdeos. En 1890, con el apoyo de su madre, va a París a estudiar a la Escuela Nacional de Artes Decorativas, donde conoce a Matisse, con quien entabla una gran amistad. En 1894 ambos entran en la Escuela de Bellas Artes y estudian bajo la dirección de Moreau. Entre 1894 y 1904 va al Museo del Louvre y hace copias de los grandes maestros (Chardin, Poussin, Veronés y Claude Lorraine). En estos años su círculo de amigos son Matisse, Mangin y Camoin.
      En 1898, de nuevo con Matisse, entran en la escuela de Eugène Carrière, donde conocen a Derain. En 1901 participa con diez cuadros en el Salón de los Independientes; son paisajes de Arcueil y Luxemburgo. En 1905 participa en el Salón de Otoño en la primera exposición del grupo fauvista y al año siguiente empieza a trabajar con la galería Berheim Jeune. En 1912 va por primera vez a Tánger con Matisse y Camoin, y luego viajará al norte de África, sobre todo a Argelia, repetidamente a lo largo de su vida.
      En 1925 hace una importante exposición en la galería Berheim Jeune con paisajes pintados en Marsella. Durante toda su vida viajó constantemente por Europa y el Norte de Africa y abandonó el estilo fauvista. Sus cuadros más conocidos tienen por tema los puentes de París. Muere el 13 de junio de 1947 en La Frette.

LINKS
Fête populaire au Hâvre (1906; 600x757pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1767pix)
Le Hâvre (1906; 600x483pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1127pix)
Istanboul (1933; 600x483pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1127pix)
Vue d'un balcon (1945; 700x535pix, 241kb)
Vue de la Seine et du Monument à Henri IV (1906, 65x81cm; 575x719pix, 218kb)
Le Port de Hambourg (1909, 66x80cm)
Jour de Pluie à Paris (Nôtre-Dame) (1910)
Quai des Grands Augustins, Paris (1905)
Le Quai Conté, Paris (1947)
Landscape with a Bridge (1919, 24x33cm; 575x790pix, 233kb) _ In 1914, Albert Marquet went to the south, working in Collioure (1914), Marseilles and Nice (1915), and L'Estaque (1916-1918). However, Landscape with a Bridge was not painted in the south, but in the Île de France. In this picture, the light particular to that region is conveyed with rare simplicity and expressiveness. The subject of this painting and the treatment of the trees and the sky link it to several landscapes painted in Samois (1917) and Herblay (1919).
Harbor at Menton (1905, 65x82cm)
Place de la Trinité, Paris (1911, 81x65cm)
View of Saint-Jean-de-Luz (1907, 60x81cm)
Milliners (1901, 50x61cm)
Avenue in the Luxembourg Gardens (1901, 25x35cm) _ Albert Marquet painted in the Luxembourg Gardens as early as 1898. In all the pictures painted there, his love of open space is manifest. The artist shows a wide square before the palace, a path running off. Marquet focuses his attention on details: it is remarkable how he discriminates among various shades of green in the foliage while the sun is only just rising over the horizon.
 
^ Died on 27 March 1809: Joseph Marie Vien, French Neoclassical painter, draftsman, and engraver, specialized in Historical Painting, born on 18 June 1716. — {Pintaba Vien bien, pero no pintaba Vien Vien}
— Vien was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably David, Peyron, Suvée, and Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul [1738–1805], and Joseph-Marie Vien fils [1762–1848] were artists.
— His students included Jacques-Louis David, Jacques Gamelin, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, Etienne Aubry, Pierre Cacault, Louis-François Cassas, Henri-Pierre Danloux, Philibert-Louis Debucourt, Balthazar Anton Dunker, Per Gustaf Floding, Étienne-Barthélemy Garnier, Philipp Friedrich von Hetsch, Aleksander Kucharski, Anton Pavlovich Losenko, Jan Piotr Norblin de la Gourdaine, Marie-Suzanne Roslin, François Sablet, Jacques Sablet, Jean-Pierre Saint-Ours, Jean-Joseph Taillasson, François-André Vincent, Johann Friedrich Maximilian graf von Waldeck, Adolf Ulric Wertmüller, Pierre-Alexandre Wille.
— Portrait of Vien (1784, 133x100cm; 700x525pix, 178kb) by Joseph Siffred Duplessis. _ Les portraitistes devaient peindre deux de leurs confrères pour être admis à l'Académie. Duplessis, qui fut admis sur son seul Allegrain (1774, 130x97cm; 700x535pix, 180kb) fit celui de Vien lorsque ce dernier revint d'Italie.

LINKS
Construction de l'Arche de Noé (1765; 600x732pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1708pix)
Marc-Aurèle fait distribuer au peuple des aliments et des médicaments dans un temps de peste et de famine (1765; 600x596pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1391pix)
Les adieux d'Hector et d'Andromaque (1786, 320x420cm; 580x700pix, 208kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1820pix
) _ Andromaque, fille d'Eetion, roi de Thèbe-sous-Placos, dans le Sud de la Troade, épousera Hector et lui donnera son fils unique, Astyanax. Son père sera tué, en compagnie de ses sept frères, par Achille lors du sac de Thèbes. Sa mère fera l'objet d'une forte rançon. L'lliade évoque le moment ou Hector, revenant du champ de bataille, demandera aux femmes de sacrifier à Athéna et d'arracher Pâris à Hélène. Astyanax, encore enfant, sera jeté du haut des murailles après la mort son père, Hector. Andromaque, sera emmenée par Néoptolème, le fils d'Achille, à qui elle donnera trois fils, Molossos, Piélos et Bergamos. Néoptolème épousera ensuite Hermione, la fille de Ménélas et d'Hélène, qui s'avèrera stérile et cherchera à faire disparaître les enfants nés de l'union de son mari avec Andromaque. Neptolème trouvera la mort à Delphes et Andromaque épousera Hélénos, le devin troyen à qui Néoptolème avait donné en royaume une partie de l'Epire. Virgile nous indique, dans L'Enéide, qu'Andromaque aurait épousé Hélénos au moment où Néoptolème convolait avec Hermione. Hélénos et Andromaque s'installeront dans une nouvelle ville appelée Pergame en souvenir de Troie et donneront naissance à un fils, Cestrinos. Pergamos emmènera Andromaque en Mysie, au Nord-ouest de l'Asie Mineure, lorsque Hélénos disparaîtra, et fondera une nouvelle Pergame.
Jeunes Grecques parant de fleurs l'Amour endormi (1773, 335x194cm; 1040x760pix, 135kb) _ Ce tableau et son pendant, Amant couronnant sa maîtresse, appartiennent à une série de quatre oeuvres commandées par Madame du Barry pour son pavillon de Louveciennes. L'ensemble, qui illustrait “les progrès de l'amour dans le coeur des jeunes filles”, devait remplacer quatre compositions de Fragonard. Le tableau a été exposé au Salon des artistes français de Paris en 1773.
      The Comtesse du Barry [19 Aug 1743 – 08 Dec 1793 guillotined], the mistress of Louis XV [15 Feb 1710 – 10 May 1774], received from him in 1769 a property at Louveciennes, a village near Versailles. After making certain changes to the old château that stood there, Madame Du Barry commissioned Claude-Nicolas Ledoux [1736-1806] to design for the estate a pavilion that could be used for entertaining. This building, instantly acclaimed for its neoclassical modernity, was inaugurated on 02 September 1771. For its apse-shaped gaming room Fragonard [05 Apr 1732 – 22 Aug 1806] was commissioned, probably early in that same year, to paint four large canvases that would be described in an inventory of 1772 as depicting “the four ages of love.” These are the panels now known as The Pursuit (600x404pix _ ZOOM to 1400x943pix), The Meeting (318x244cm; 1016x760pix, 99kb), The Lover Crowned (600x452pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1055pix), and Love Letters (600x404pix _ ZOOM to 1400x943pix). It is known that Fragonard was working on these canvases during 1771. By July of 1772, Bachaumont, a chronicler of current events, was writing of the paintings as being in place at Louveciennes. But an inventory of Louveciennes in 1774 described Fragonard’s canvases as “having been returned to the painter” and replaced by works of Joseph-Marie Vien, two of which had been exhibited at the Salon the previous year. Ironically, the title Les progrès de l'amour dans le coeur des jeunes filles now assigned to Fragonard’s series was that originally given to the paintings by Vien that came to supplant them. What happened? In addition to possible temperamental difficulties between artist and patron that might have led to this rejection of the paintings, two other causes seem likely. Bachaumont’s sly remark in 1772 that Fragonard’s paintings “seem to be allegorical references to the adventures of the mistress of the house,” joined to the undeniable resemblance between contemporary portraits of Louis XV and the red-coated lover scaling the wall in The Meeting, could justifiably have alerted Madame Du Barry that her decorations might be a source of embarrassment to the monarch, whom she was trying to lure into marriage at this time. On the other hand, as one obsessed with fashion Madame Du Barry may have come to see Fragonard's exuberant work as outmoded within the context of Ledoux’s avant-garde pavilion, for which Vien’s deliberately classicizing work, albeit insipid, appeared more obviously in harmony.
Amant couronnant sa maîtresse (1773, 335x202cm; 1040x760pix, 119kb)
The Cupid Seller
Académie
.
 
^ Born on 27 March 1832: William Quiller Orchardson, Scottish painter who died on 13 April 1910.
— Orchardson entered the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh in 1845, where his student contemporaries included Thomas Faed [08 Jun 1826 – 17 Aug 1900], James Archer [1823–1904] and Robert Herdman [17 Sep 1829 – 10 Jan 1888]. His earliest exhibited painting, Sketching from Nature, was shown at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1848. After his early training Orchardson returned as a senior student to the Trustees’ Academy between 1850 and 1855 to benefit from the teaching of Robert Scott Lauder [25 Jun 1803 – 21 Apr 1869]. During this period he established friendships with a group of slightly younger artists, including John Pettie [1839-1893], Thomas Graham [1840–1906], John MacWhirter [27 March 1839 – 28 Jan 1911], and Peter Graham [1836–1921], who together were later to form an artistic and social circle in London.
     While Orchardson was still in Edinburgh, his early work included literary subjects from Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, and Charles Dickens, such as Little Nell and her Grandfather (1863), and themes from Scottish history such as Wishart's Last Exhortation (1853), which shows a well-researched historicism reminiscent of the work of Sir William Allan and James Drummond [1816–1877]. More significantly, in terms of style and composition, Orchardson's early historical works reveal the influence of Sir David Wilkie. This influence remains apparent in the composition of Orchardson's later works, such as Queen of the Swords (1877), which is based on Wilkie's Penny Wedding.
      In 1862 Orchardson moved to London, where he shared a studio in Fitzroy Square with john Pettie, and together these two artists were quickly recognized by critics as members of the new ‘Scottish school', sharing characteristics of subject-matter, style, technique and composition. Orchardson first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863 with An Old English Song (sold at Sotheby's, 10 Nov 1981). He visited Venice in 1870, and again in 1873 on his honeymoon, when he completed some Venetian genre subjects. Throughout his career Orchardson shared technical and compositional devices and exchanged ideas about subject-matter with Pettie. Both artists chose scenes of Regency lovers and gamblers, Orchardson's Hard Hit (1879) and Pettie's The Gambler's Victim (1869). They also had a similar compositional approach, using the drama of empty spaces and light-colored backgrounds, evident in Orchardson's Casus Belli: A Scene from ‘Peveril of the Peak' (1872) and Pettie's Clash of Steel (1888). Orchardson produced cavalier and Regency costume pieces, such as The Challenge (1864), A Social Eddy—Left by the Tide (1878) and Her First Dance (1884). He became famous for subjects from the Napoleonic era, in particular Napoleon on Board HMS Bellerophon, 23 July 1815 (1880), and for contemporary upper-class psychological drama, such as the paired moral narrative of Mariage de convenance (1883) and Mariage de convenance—After! (1886). He also painted portraits in a similar technique. His thinly applied paint was often considered sketchy or unfinished by contemporary critics more attuned to the solid finish of the English Pre-Raphaelite manner, but Whistler admired Orchardson's tonally subdued palette. His preparatory method involved delicate, full-scale charcoal studies.

LINKS
On Board HMS Bellerophon (1880, 165x249cm _ ZOOMable) _ This painting shows Napoleon on board HMS Bellerophon bound for Saint-Helena, where he remained in exile until his death in 1821. The deposed Emperor stands on the deck, isolated from the group of naval officers on the left, who watch him with curiosity as he looks out to sea, contemplating his fate.
Escaped! (1874, 91x203cm) two bloodhounds look at a discarded cap.
Jessica (117x91cm)
Her First Dance (1884, 101x138cm) _ By the 1880s, Orchardson was regarded as one of the greatest modern painters. He specialized in depicting failures of communication between people on social occasions. Here, this failure is between an experienced young man and a novice who are asked to open the dancing at a ball. The setting recreates a scene of about 1820, so Orchardson imagined actors of about the generation of his parents, a time which the people who first saw this painting could just remember. The wide format and empty space of his pictures emphasises the distances between people. He was much praised for his delicate coloring, often near monochrome.
The First Cloud (1887, 83x121cm) _ Orchardson is best known for his inventive modern-dress subjects which exploit a moment of dramatic and psychological tension. This painting shows a couple experiencing their first quarrel. When exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887, it was accompanied in the catalogue by lines from Tennyson: “It is the little rift within the lute / That by and by will make the music mute.” This quote suggests that the first dispute represented by Orchardson would lead to more serious marital problems.
Her Mother's Voice (1888, 102x149cm) _ The widower in the foreground looks up as he thinks for a moment that he hears his late wife’s voice as his daughter, whom he cannot see, begins to sing. The picture was exhibited with lines from Tennyson’s poem Break, break, break: “But O for the touch of a vanish’d hand / And the sound of a voice that is still.” The poetic quote underscores the deeply sentimental nature of this painting. It is not known whether the painting or the poem influenced Thomas Edison.
 
^ Died on 27 March 1770: Giovanni-Battista Tiepolo, Italian painter born on 05 March 1696. — He was the father of Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo [30 August 172703 March 1804] and of Lorenzo Baldissera Tiepolo [08 August 1736 – 1776]. His students included Charles Flipart and Francesco Zugno.
— Giambattista Tiepolo was the last of the great Venetian decorators, the purest exponent of the Italian Rococo, and arguably the greatest painter of the 18th century. He was trained under academic painter Gregorio Lazzarini [1655 – 10 Nov 1730] but was really formed by the study of Sebastiano Ricci and Piazzetta among living painter and Veronese among the older masters. He was received into the Fraglia (Guild) in 1717 but had already painted the Sacrifice of Abraham (1716), a dark picture very much in the manner of Piazzetta and the 17th century generally. In 1719 he married the sister of Guardi and at about this time his own lighter and loose style began to form.
      Tiepolo's first great commission for fresco decorations came in 1725, when he began the work in the Archbishop's Palace at Udine (completed 1728). These already show the virtuosity of his handling, the light tone and pale colors necessitated by fresco obviously helping him to break free from the dark Piazettesque models he had previously followed. The Udine frescoes also show him developing as the creator of a world in steep perspective beyond the picture plane, with the architecture receding into dizzy distances. The highly specialized work of painting these architectural perspectives was done by Mengozzi-Colonna, who did this work for Tiepolo for most of his life.
      After the Udine frescoes, Tiepolo traveled widely in Northern Italy, painting many more frescoes in palaces and churches, as well as altarpieces in oil which culminate in the gigantic Gathering of the Manna and Sacrifice of Melchidezek (1740), each of which is about 10 m high. The frescoes of this period culminate in the Antony and Cleopatra series in the Palazzo Labia, Venice, which were probably finished just before 1750, when he left Venice for Würzburg.
      Tiepolo was invited to decorate the ceiling of the Kaisersaal in the Residenz at Würzburg by the Prince-Bishop, Karl Phillip von Greiffenklau, and Tiepolo and his sons Giandomenico and Lorenzo arrived in Würzburg at the end of 1750 and remained there until 1753, replacing Johann Zick, a German student of Piazzetta. He painted the staircase with frescoes, some overdoors, and some altarpieces as well as the Kaisersaal, helped in the gigantic task by both his sons as well as several assistants. The Palace itself is a superb example of German Rococo architecture and the combination of architecture and painting into one vast and airy allegory - apparently referring to the Prince-Bishop as a patron, but including Barbarossa and German history - is perhaps the most successful even in Tiepolo's career.
      In 1755, after his return to Venice, he was elected first President of the Venetian Academy and in 1761 he was invited to Spain to decorate the Royal Palace in Madrid by Charles III. Tiepolo and his sons arrived in Madrid on 04 June 1762. In spite of his advanced age, he was extremely productive in the remaining eight years of his life, creating an impressive number of large frescos and altarpieces in Madrid. He appears to have been very well aware of the fact that the time for his art, in which he portrayed triumphal apotheoses and the glorification of the virtues of his clients by means of illusionistic settings, was well and truly over. Tiepolo was one of the few European painters still working on a monumental scale and able to realize extensive interior decorations. King Charles III of Spain had thus made the right choice in commissioning this artist to decorate the Throne Room of the Royal Palace in Madrid, only recently built to designs by Filippo Juvarra [1676-1736] by his student Sacchetti [died 1764].
      Tiepolo had already completed the oil sketch for the ceiling fresco in the Throne Room, The Glory of Spain, in Venice (detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3). The subject portrayed is the glorification of the Spanish nation, which in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries had developed into one of the leading European powers, politically, geographically and culturally. The compositional scheme of the ceiling fresco in the Throne Room is a brilliant synthesis of decorative elements from Tiepolo's earlier works, such as those in the Residence in Würzburg and the Villa Pisani in Stra. Tiepolo reproduces his previous work in a new setting without compromising the original character of the fresco or giving the impression of its being a copy. In spite of the complex structure of the numerous figural elements and the intricate meaning of its content, and thanks to the largely empty expanse of sky, the fresco appears to be one of the airiest Tiepolo ever created.
      Work on the Throne Room was completed in 1764. The King was pleased with the result and asked Tiepolo to carry out further decorative work within the palace. The painting of a ceiling fresco in the Guard Room followed. In the Queen's antechamber, a small room adjoining the Throne Room, Tiepolo created the ceiling fresco The Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy (1766, 1500x900cm).
     In 1767 Charles commissioned seven altarpieces for Aranjuez, but Tiepolo's last years in Spain were embittered by intrigues on behalf of Mengs, the representative of that Neoclassicism which was soon to condemn his kind of splendid and carefree painting as frivolous. He died suddenly in Madrid.
      Tiepolo's enormous output of frescoes and altarpieces was partly due to his practice (like Rubens before him) of painting small 'modelli' which, when approved by the client, could be carried out by his skilled assistants under his own supervision. Scores of these modelli and sketches survive, together with hundreds of drawings. He painted very few portraits. He also etched many plates, and, with Marco Ricci, was one of the founders of the great school of 18-century Venetian etchers.

LINKS
The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew (1722, 167x139cm) _ Tiepolo was the most exuberant and influential, and arguably the greatest, painter in eighteenth-century Europe before the rise of Neo-Classicism. He revived the full glories of the Venetian Renaissance enriched with references to Rubens, Rembrandt, and the Roman Baroque. Tiepolo helped create the style of large-scale decorative programs embarked on by courts across the continent. His fame rests chiefly on his huge frescos but he should also be remembered as an extremely versatile painter, able to move freely from one art form to another and to adapt to the most disparate subjects. He was a student of Gregorio Lazzarini but soon surpassed him, being just 21 when he became a member of the Venetian Painters' Guild. In 1719 he married Cecilia Guardi, sister of the two painters Francesco and Gianantonio. He was attracted by the experimental work being done by Piazzetta and Sebastiano Ricci (working alongside them on the paintings in S. Stae in 1722).
      The subject of the painting is the martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, whose tormentors are on the point of flaying him alive. The awfulness of the scene is matched by the extremely powerful composition which places the writhing body of the saint along the diagonal between the two henchmen. The eerie contrast between light and shade makes the scene all the more vivid. The expressive gesture with which the despairing saint stretches his arm heavenward transforms the picture into a wonderful depiction of divine grace, the existence of which is already signaled by the bright light emanating from above.
The Abduction of Europa (1725, 99x134cm; _ ZOOM to 1508x2024pix, 218kb) _ Giambattista Tiepolo very early withdrew from the lessons he was receiving from Gregorio Lazzarini, an academic of mediocre talents, and developed rather towards the vigorous chiaroscuro of Federico Bencovich and Piazzetta, renderíng their solutions still more refined and precious by using colors which have an absolutely unmistakable, densely fused luminous vibration to them. At the end of this fundamental experience come the canvas of The Abduction of Europa in which the mythological subject is depicted in an airy, disenchanted transcription which at times becomes almost caricature. The severity of the pattern of chiaroscuro loses intensity in favor of refinement of chromatic notes in an interpretation of space open and articulated in depth which is as far from Bencovich and Piazzetta as it is consonant with the taste of Sebastiano Ricci. And the very lively spacial and luministic framework in which the figures take their places with such easy confidence offers a foretaste of the supreme gifts of Tiepolo as an 'organizer' of paintings.
Education of the Virgin (1732) _ The figures in this altarpiece are portrayed more as the heroines of noble dramas than as saints. They combine true pathos with elegant sensuality, as if they were creatures of some higher human species. At the same time, however, they are firmly linked to our sense of everyday life through the descriptive details which are so naturalistic as to border on trompe-l'oeil.
      In the center of the representation, in front of a magnificent architectural backdrop, stands Mary as a young girl, reading from an open book, and instructed by her mother, who sits next to her. Her father, standing to her right, is deep in prayer and has his eyes raised towards Heaven. What is striking about the composition, is the diagonal line which runs from the three angels' heads beneath the book to the three large angels above Mary, and which symbolizes the way to the Kingdom of Heaven.
John the Baptist Preaching (1733, 350x300cm) _ The impressive figure of John the Baptist, delivering his sermon with raised forefinger from the top of a rock in the landscape, dominates the right-hand side of the picture. His cross staff and the lamb at his feet refer to the fate of Christ. The left-hand side of the picture is almost completely taken up by men, women and children, who listen spellbound to the sermon. The young woman placed in the very centre of the picture breast-feeding her child, who thus conforms to the standardized portrayal of the Madonna and Child, can be understood as an allusion to the birth of Christ, which is the subject of John's sermon.
The Beheading of John the Baptist (1733, 350x300cm; _ ZOOM to 1535x2024pix, 207kb) _ Tiepolo presents us with a particularly graphic depiction of the beheading of John the Baptist, which takes place in a stone dungeon. The torso of the beheaded man lies on a raised stone podium, the blood dripping down the few steps which lead to it, while the executioner, who stands over him, holds up the severed head. To the left, a female servant approaches with a salver. Behind her, a young woman turns from the scene in horror. On the right-hand side, Salome, who has ordered the murder, stands in elegant robes, surrounded by Herod and members of the royal court.
The Scourge of the Serpents (detail) (1735, 164x1356cm complete frieze) _ During the 1720s Giambattista Tiepolo developed a new coloristic style of painting derived in principle from the dazzling palette of Veronese and the no less brilliant one of Sebastiano Ricci. Rejecting the tenebrous color of Piazzetta, we witness in Tiepolo the triumph of color with a richness of resonance and counterpoint elaborated within the ordered and monumental composition. This great frieze is a fine example of Tiepolo's work of the 1730s. The painting in its ornate stucco frame decorated with fruit, flowers and leaves is over 13 meters long. Three episodes are depicted with a decorative illusionism contrasting with the declared realist-narrative intent, making the painting's effect somewhat melodramatic.
The Triumph of Zephyr and Flora (1735, 395x225cm) _ As an allegory of Spring, this picture brings together the god of the spring winds, Zephyr, and the goddess of all that blooms, Flora. Accompanied by several putti, they hover on a cloud in the sky, while on the lower edge of the picture, the god of love, Amor, seems to be showing them the way. The brilliant coloring of the robes, the successful modelling of the bodies and the dynamic depiction of the multicolored cloud formations, full of contrasts, make the picture one of Tiepolo's masterpieces.
Pope Saint Clement Adoring the Trinity (1738, 488x256cm) _ The painting shows Pope Clement I at prayer, in an ecclesiastical architectural setting which cannot be identified more closely, before a vision of the Holy Trinity. The lively facial expressions suggest a conversation between Clement and God the Father, which is further dramatized by the strong chiaroscuro contrasts. In an allusion to the particular connection between the donor and his famous patron saint, Tiepolo lends the portrait of the Pope a private character: the tiara and crosier, symbols of his power, have been laid aside and placed in the keeping of a putto.
The Institution of the Rosary (1739, 1200x450cm) _ The fresco is the largest version of this subject in European art, and it combines two different iconographic traditions: in the upper part of the picture, the Rosenkranzbild, in which Mary gives the Rosary to mankind, and, in the lower part, a depiction of the beneficence of the Rosary on earth, represented by Saint Dominic. As well as the Madonna of the Rosary, the fresco also extols Saint Dominic, the founder of the Dominican order, to whom the dog is a reference (lat. domini canes, God's hounds). All manner of people are portrayed - represented among others by the Doge, a Turk, a nun, and a mother and child, a symbol of Christian charity - so that the viewer, whether rich or poor, could identify with them.
Christ Carrying the Cross (1738, 450x517cm; ZOOM to 1787x2024pix, 273kb) _ The subject of the painting is Christ's carrying of the cross to the hill of Golgotha, which rises up in the center of the picture as a tall rock, the crosses already erected upon it. Directly beneath it in the foreground we see Christ in a flame red robe. He has collapsed under the heavy weight of the cross. To the right, Veronica, holding the sudarium, turns away from the dramatic scene, visibly moved. To the left, the two thieves likewise condemned to crucifixion are being led forward. In the exact centre of the picture, between Christ's cross and the hill of Golgotha, and directly facing the viewer, are the figures of Jesus' disciples, together with Mary and Mary Magdalene. Brightly illuminated, they stand out symbolically from the other figures.
The Virgin with Six Saints (1740, 73x56cm) _ In Venetian Cinquecento paintings of the Madonna, the Virgin and Child are usually represented in a terrestrial environment, with a landscape background, in the company of saints. This type of "santa conversazione" was subsequently altered to suit the taste of the baroque era: in most instances the Virgin Mary, floating among clouds, appears to the saints situated in earthly regions. As in the Budapest canvas and in a number of other pictures by Tiepolo, the painter conveys a vision, an apparition, seeking to establish a connection between celestial and earthly elements. Most likely the Budapest picture was painted for some pious brotherhood. Its airily receding architecture, the marvellous purity of its resplendent colors, the harmony of construction are similar to Tiepolo's works of the years 1737 to 1740, The Virgin with Six Saints was probably produced simultaneously with pictures in the church of Gesuati, and the lost Saint Augustine altarpiece of San Salvatore.
The Virgin Appearing to Saint Philip Neri (1740, 360x182cm) _ The saint stands in profile at the steps of an altar in front of a highly-developed architectural background. His gaze diverted upward in astonishment, he experiences the manifestation of the Mother of God and her Child, who appear to float in the interior of the church on a cloud, accompanied by angels. The rendering of the material of the robes is particularly impressive, as is the mist-like quality of the cloud, which almost turns the vision into an actual happening.
The Gathering of Manna (1742, 1000x525cm) _ The altarpiece shows Moses standing on a rocky outcrop, with outspread arms, his gaze raised towards Heaven, which has already heard his prayers. An angel pours bread from a large vase down to earth, where the hungry Israelites scurry around on the ground to collect it. The strict division of the composition into two different areas - the spheres of heaven and earth - is broken by the figure of Moses, who is placed dead centre, and so is characterized as a mediator between the two spheres.
The Sacrifice of Melchizedek (1742, 1000x525cm) _ The Sacrifice of Melchizedek is shown here as a pendant to the Gathering of Manna. The Priest-King of Salem brings Abraham bread and wine on the evening following the Battle of the Kings, and blesses him. Abraham, who kneels before him in armor, and the army to the right are a reminder of the battle which went before. To the left, we see the civilian population, including women, children and the elderly, while a triumphal procession is already approaching from behind the altar.
The Banquet of Cleopatra (1744, 249x346cm; _ ZOOM to 1427x2048pix, 264kb) _ Magnificent, brightly lit palace architecture is the setting for Cleopatra's banquet. However, the historical event of the meeting between the Queen of Egypt and the Roman Anthony takes second place to the creation of an opulent banqueting scene in the manner of Veronese. It is therefore the sumptuous costumes, the magnificent receptacles and the rich variety of foods which draw most attention as they are proffered by the servants of the court, who include moors, a dwarf and a dog - a collection of elements typical of the work of Veronese.
Worshippers (1745, 410x198cm) _ Giambattista Tiepolo collaborated with the Venetian quadratura painter Girolamo Mengozzi Colonna on the ceiling fresco of the nave of the church of Saint Mary of Nazareth called the 'Scalzi', completing the work in 1743-45 following the careful preparation of studies and models. The grandiose fresco depicting the 'transportation of the holy house of Loreto' was almost completely destroyed during World War I. The few remaining fragments, such as this 'Worshippers', are enough to evoke the richness of color and conception of this major decorative achievement. The silver-white tones of the visionary shrine are illuminated by the dazzling hues of the garments of the nobleman who looks up towards the saintly apparition while his servant glances curiously downward towards the crowded nave.
Apollo and Daphne (1745, 96x79cm) _ The dramatic episode of Apollo and Daphne, as narrated by Ovid in the "Metamorphoses", is staged in front of an almost Alpine backdrop. Daphne escapes the attentions of Apollo, who has fallen madly in love with her, by turning herself into a tree. The moment in which the transformation begins is represented: Apollo is hard on her heels and Amor, too, is attempting to hold her, but her hands have already turned into foliage. The backward-facing figure of a river god in the foreground marks the end of her desperate flight. The strong contrast between the brilliant yellow and red robes and the dark blue shades of the background brings to mind works of French art.
Discovery of the True Cross (1745, diameter 490 cm) _ According to legend, Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, discovered the True Cross on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Tiepolo portrays the saint, in daring foreshortening from below, making a triumphal gesture in front of the Cross, which towers up into the sky. She is surrounded by the usual retinue of soldiers, holy men, the old and the young, women and children, commonly used by Tiepolo as extras in his paintings. A number of angels hover over the scene, carrying a thurible and a tablet bearing the name of Christ, looking down on the miracle of the discovery of the cross.
      This grandiose tondo, originally the centrepiece of the ceiling decorated by Girolamo Mengozzi Colonna in the Capuchin church in Castello, is a typical example of Tiepolo's ability to translate any theme, sacred or profane into a stupendous Baroque magniloquence. Within the monumental order the areas of color are arranged in patterns of polychromatic splendor, suffused with a pure light which highlights every carefully observed detail. In this remarkable example of illusionistic perspective, with which Tiepolo never tired of amazing his contemporaries, the images are characterized by distinct notes of colors and emotion with a fascinating musical decorative freshness.
The Virgin Appearing to Dominican Saints (1748, 340x168cm) _ The Virgin Mary hovers on a throne-like golden yellow cloud beneath a baldachin in front of Renaissance architecture, dressed in brilliant reds and blues and accompanied by angels. In the foreground are the three saints, all members of the Dominican order. Agnes of Montepulciano (1274-1317) sits at the front and meditates over a small crucifix. Her robes illusionistically jut out into the viewer's space. To her left stands Saint Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) with a crown of thorns and a crucifix, and Saint Rose of Lima (1586-1617), holding the Christ Child in her arms. The figures in this altarpiece are portrayed more as the heroines of noble dramas than as saints. They combine true pathos with elegant sensuality, as if they were creatures of some higher human species. At the same time, however, they are firmly linked to our sense of everyday life through the descriptive details which are so naturalistic as to border on trompe-l'oeil.
Last Communion of Saint Lucy (1748, 222x101cm) _ Still further proof of Tiepolo's extraordinarily eclectic talents comes from the fact that at the same period that he was working on the breathtakingly secular spectacle of the frescos in Palazzo Labia, he also painted his most religiously intense Venetian altarpiece. In no sense did he compromise the clear sobriety of the architecture nor the brilliance of his palette. Indeed they seem to underline the sadness of the scene.
      With arms crossed, Saint Lucy kneels before a priest to receive the last communion. Her half closed eyes and the elegiac expression on her face hint at her later fate. The priests and secular dignitaries who surround her wear magnificent robes, whose beautifully rendered material and brilliant colors are of particular intensity. The scene takes place in front of an imposing palace, upon whose balustrade Tiepolo has again placed spectators. While the bloody knife and the platter with the gouged-out eyes in the foreground are a drastic reminder of the impending martyrdom, the heads of angels which hover over the saint announce her entry into the Kingdom of Heaven.
Adoration by the Magi (1753, 408x210cm) _ Tiepolo painted this altarpiece during his stay in Germany. Because if the damp climate, he could only work on the frescoes in the Würzburg Residenz in the spring and summer. So in the fall and winter he had to concentrate on painting in oil on canvas. He produced some fantastic and exotically beautiful works in which the religious subject seems merely a pretext for eye-catching, showy images, but he himself was genuinely religious. The style of the age, however, meant that even religious topics often became theatrical.
Allegory of the Planets and Continents (1752, 185x139cm) _ Tiepolo was the most famous Italian painter of the 18th century. His greatest achievement was the decoration of two rooms in the palace, or Residenz, of Carl Philipp von Greiffenklau, prince-bishop of Würzburg, carried out between 1751 and 1753. This painting is the oil sketch presented by Tiepolo on April 20, 1752, for the vast fresco over the staircase of the palace. It shows Apollo about to embark on his daily course across the sky; the deities around him symbolize the planets, and the allegorical figures on the cornice represent the four continents of the world. Numerous changes were made between the oil sketch and the fresco, but this painting shares with the completed ceiling the feeling for airy space, sun-washed colors, and the prodigious inventiveness for which Tiepolo is admired.
The Death of Hyacinth (1753, 287x235cm) _ In the foreground, accompanied by a putto, and with a sweeping gesture, Apollo laments Hyacinth, who he accidentally killed during a ball game, and whose body is impressively laid out on a red cloth. Behind them to the left, and somewhat distanced, is a group of onlookers included as staffage, while a grinning statue of Pan and a parrot, on the right, act as a third centre in the composition, their presence turning the tragedy of the scene to irony.
An Allegory with Venus and Time (1758, 292x190cm) _ To enter fully the radiant world of Tiepolo we must travel - to Venice, his native city, then back to the mainland to Udine and Vicenza, across the Alps to Würzburg in Bavaria, finally to Madrid in Spain where, fearing the shift of taste in his homeland, he elected to spend the last years of his life. The greatest decorative painter of his century, he was happiest working in fresco where his 'rapid and resolute' manner was a technical necessity. Under his virtuoso brush airy spaces, shimmering with light, opened on walls and ceilings to admit heroic beings - Christian, mythological, allegorical, historic or poetic - dazzling to mortal viewers. He has been called the last Renaissance painter, and borrowed much from Veronese. But Tiepolo, even more than Veronese, was never wholly serious when painting epic. He can be majestic but not solemn; poignant rather than tragic. In the century which discovered feminine sensibility, he introduced a note of tenderness into the sternest and loftiest imagery.
      Luckily for us, something of the freshness of Tiepolo's mural decorations is preserved in his oil sketches and in this canvas, painted to be inserted into the ceiling of a room in one of the many Venetian palaces of the Contarini family. It is designed to be seen from below, but at an angle, as we step through the door. From infinitely luminous skies, Venus, sumptuous in her white, gold and pink nudity, has swooped down in her chariot; her team of doves, released from harness flutter lovingly above her, and from a dawn-tinted cloud the Three Graces strew roses. Below, winged Cupid, her divine son, hovers with his quiverful of arrows. Venus has come to consign her newly born child, freshly washed with water from an earthenware amphora, to Father Time. Having set down his scythe, Time here signifies eternity rather than mortality. The child - wide-eyed, thick-lipped and with a precocious widow's peak in his hairline - resembles page boys frescoed by Tiepolo shortly before on the staircase of the prince-bishop's palace in Würzburg. He is clearly meant to be a real baby. Venus' only human child, born to a mortal father, was Aeneas the founder of Rome. The Contarini, one of the oldest families in Venice, had fabricated for themselves a lineage from ancient Rome; the reference to Aeneas thus suggests that the ceiling may have been commissioned to proclaim the birth of a son. Through august parentage and his own heroic deeds, a Contarini boy might be expected, like Aeneas, to win eternal fame.
A Seated Man and a Girl with a Pitcher (1755, 160x54cm) _ The painting belongs to a series of four paintings of identical size.
The Theological Virtues (1755, octogonal, 39x38cm) _ This is a modello for a fresco above the choir of the Santa Maria della Pietà in Venice. The final fresco closely follows the modello with only minor changes.
The Martyrdom of Saint Agatha (1756, 184x131cm) _ This canvas was painted for the high altar of the church of Saint Agatha in Lendinara. It must originally have been rounded at the top, for it appears in this form in an etching by Tiepolo's son, Giovanni Domenico. The part which is now missing showed a heart surrounded by the crown of thorns in a nimbus, at which the saint was gazing. The beautiful Agatha was a devout Christian who lived in Catania. She steadfastly refused to make sacrifice to the heathen gods. When she defied the threats of the Roman Governor of Sicily, Quintianus, he ordered her breasts to be cut off. We see her, half-naked, on a flight of steps; a maid kneels behind her, supporting her and holding her dress against the bleeding wounds. A page stands in front of a marble pillar, holding the severed breasts of the martyr on a silver platter and gazing down at her. The uncouth figure of the executioner, clad in red and holding a blood-stained sword, towers menacingly over the group.
      Tiepolo is among the last of the great Venetian painters, a master of large-scale composition, who was commissioned by princes outside (Würzburg, Madrid) as well as inside Italy. Nor did he shrink from this particularly horrifying subject; once before, twenty years earlier, he had been required to treat the same subject for the church of San Antonio in Padua. With astonishing self-assurance the painter succeeds in portraying this fearful episode in artistic terms without allowing it to degenerate into mere bloodshed and horror. At the same time, so strong is his desire for realism - and he had doubtless witnessed executions himself - that he exploits to the utmost the artistic possibilities open to him.
      In color and form the composition is extremely accomplished, almost too much so to do justice to the theme. Between the soaring pillar and the towering figure of the executioner, one glimpses the dark entrance of the dungeon and beneath it the pale face of the martyr, flanked on both sides - almost oppressively close - by the faces of the two witnesses. The compassion expressed in the attitude of the young woman on the right contrasts with the searching glance of the page on the left, in which merely the physical effect of the scene before him is reflected. The wide, pale-blue cloak of the saint serves to bind the group of three figures together and blends with the silver-white, the bright yellow and the orange to produce a color-harmony that is characteristic of Tiepolo. Two of the artist's crayon studies for the saint's face are in the Kupferstichkabinett (Copper Engravings section) in the Berlin Museum.
Allegory of Merit Accompanied by Nobility and Virtue (1758) _ The oval-shaped ceiling fresco shows the allegory of Merit on the left-hand side, personified by an elderly, bearded man wearing a laurel wreath. Accompanied by Nobility and the winged figure of Virtue, dressed in white, he rises up on a cloud populated by putti towards the temple of Glory. On the upper edge of the picture, Fame announces the glory of Merit by sounding her trumpets. The mostly empty skies in the centre of the fresco contain only clouds and several putti.
Madonna of the Goldfinch (1760) _ Eighteenth century Venetian painters tended to use high keyed, muted colors, possibly reflecting the current vogue for pastels. The goldfinch was a medieval symbol of protection against the plague.
Woman with a Parrot (1761) _ Although Tiepolo did from time to time produce excellent portraits, this luminous painting may not be a portrait at all. It is, however, almost a symbol of eighteenth-century grace. The rosy bust of the extremely pretty young girl can without disadvantage be compared to the sensual female half busts that Titian had painted two centuries earlier.
The Apotheosis of the Pisani Family (1762, irregular oval; 1238x844pix, 183kb _ ZOOM to 2464x1576pix, 336kb) _ The ceiling fresco is conceived as a trompe-l'oeil opening onto a silvery-blue sky, whose endless depths are defined by various towering cloud formations. The composition consists of two sections which exist independently of one another: the portrayal of the Pisani family and various allegorical figures in the lower portion, and the Continents in the upper portion. The figure of Fame, sounding her trumpets in either direction, connects the two. Below her, Divine Wisdom is enthroned and reigns over a harmonious empire. The Virtues Faith, Justice, Love, Hope and Strength appear at her feet. _ (detail 1; 822x1119pix, 156kb) This section shows the known continents of Asia, America, and Africa on a cloud, while Europe is portrayed above them, on a bull, to express the greater degree of civilization she was thought to possess. A battle scene appears along the lower edge of the picture and obviously refers to the subjugation of the Turks, symbolized by the two figures in long coats, who have thrown themselves down in front of the invaders. _ (detail 2; 826x1118pix, 167kb) The various members of the Pisani family are surrounded by several allegorical figures. Truth appears as a naked woman, the crowned woman atop the globe and seen from behind personifies Italy, while the various arts are represented at her feet: Astronomy with telescope and globe, Music with horn and score, Sculpture with block of marble and bust, as well as Painting with brush. The allegories of Peace with palm leaves, and of Plenty with amphora and floral crown complete the scene on the left-hand side. _ (detail 3; 1172x1000pix, 90kb) _ The crowned woman atop the globe and seen from behind, who personifies Italy.
The Immaculate Conception (1769, 279x152cm) _ In an awe-inspiring, powerful manifestation, the Virgin Mary hovers in the skies, atop a globe, and in front of a yellow background. Above her the dove appears, symbolizing the Holy Spirit. The palm tree in the foreground is a symbol of Mary's victory and superiority over evil in the world, the snake under her feet stands for original sin. The mirror, on the other hand, illustrates the belief that she is completely without blemish and that she herself is the mirror of all virtues. The crescent moon refers to the Woman of the Apocalypse in Saint John's Gospel and is also a symbol of chastity.
The Angel Succoring Hagar (1732, 140x120cm; _ ZOOM to 2452x2024pix, 339kb)
Venetian Promenade (1760 drawing)
93 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
—(060326)

Died on a 27 March:

1995 René Allio [08 Mar 1924–], French painter and decorator who turned to set design and then, starting in 1964, to film making, for which is best known. —(090326)

1972 Maurits Cornelius Escher, Dutch mathematical artist born (full coverage) on 17 June 1898. —(060616)

^ >1956 Efraim Martínez Zambrano, Popayán (Cauca) Colombian painter born on 07 (or 17?) Dec 1898. Hizo sus estudios artísticos en la Escuela de Pintura de Popayán. Gracias a sus primeras creaciones, Martínez ganó una beca para continuar sus estudios de Bellas Artes en Santafé de Bogotá donde obtuvo su primer triunfo en el concurso de la Dirección de la Instrucción Pública. En 1920, ganó nuevamente una beca para estudiar en Madrid y especializarse. Al regresar de nuevo a su país, la Universidad del Cauca le encomendó realizar varios retratos al óleo de sus rectores. Trabajó como docente de la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Popayán (1931-1933), y fundó y dirigió la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Cali (1933-1938). —(081216)
María Cogiendo Flores (618x367pix, 53kb)
Niño en la Playa (74x108cm; 412x620pix, 39kb)
Guillermo Valencia y Baldomero Sanin Cano (1932, 120x150cm; 483x546pix, 21kb)
Guillermo Valencia (596x386pix, 42kb)
20 images at Colarte —(081216)

1942 Julio González (or Gonzales), dies in Arcueil, France, Spanish sculptor born on 21 September 1876, primarily known for his works in wrought iron.

1920 Samuel Colman, US painter born (full coverage) on 04 March 1832.

^ 1899 Myles Birket Foster, English painter, illustrator, and collector, born on 04 February 1825. After a short and unsatisfactory period working in the family brewing business, he was able to convince his Quaker parents to allow him to pursue a career in art. He was apprenticed to a wood-engraver, Ebenezer Landells [1808–1860], who recognized Foster’s talent for drawing and set him to work designing blocks for engraving. Foster also provided designs for Punch and the Illustrated London News. In 1846 he set up on his own as an illustrator. The rustic vignettes of the seasons that he contributed to the Illustrated London News and its counterpart, the Illustrated London Almanack, established him as a charming interpreter of the English countryside and rural life and led to his employment illustrating similar themes in other publications. During the 1850s his designs were much in demand; he was called upon to illustrate volumes of the poetry of Longfellow, Sir Walter Scott and John Milton. His range was limited, however, and he was criticized for relying on the same rural imagery regardless of the nature of the text. — LINKS
A Highland Burn, Balmacara, Near Kyle of Lochalsh (24x17cm) water, not fire: this burn is a a small stream; a brook.
A la Bastille (14x9cm)
A Market Day on the Giudecca, Venice (61x92cm)
A View of Old Town and Waverley Bridge, From Prince's Street, Edinburgh (12x18cm)
An Eel Fisherman on the Thames (20x27cm)
Children Paddling in a Stream (23x35cm)
Eel Pots, on the Banks of a River (27x37cm)
Adults and Children Beneath a Tree in a Village (10x15cm)
Loading the Hay Barges, With a Young Woman Taking Water From the River in the Foreground (17x24cm)
Melrose Abbey From the Banks of the Tweed (15x20cm)
San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (15x20cm)
St. Mark's and the Ducal Palace From San Giorgio Maggiore (15x20cm)
Tea Time (20 x 28cm)
The Ford (99 x 152cm)
The Posy (17 x 13 cm)
The Shepherd's Rest (28 x 47cm)
Lane Scene at Hambledon (1862, 43x64cm)
Eel Bucks (1890, 10x14cm) —(060326)

^ >1882 (29 Mar?) Thomas Jones Barker, in London, British painter born on 19 April 1813 in Bath. — Son of Thomas Barker “of Bath” [May 1769 – 11 Dec 1847] who died in Bath but was not born there; and brother of Benjamin Barker [1817–1889], John Joseph Barker [1824–1904], and Octavius William Barker [1826–]; and nephew of Benjamin Barker Jr. [1776 – 28 Feb 1838] and Joseph Barker [1782–1809]; and grandson of Benjamin Barker [1720–1793]. I don't know whether Wright Barker [1863 – 10 Mar 1941] belongs to the same family which dominated the art world in Bath throughout the 19th century. — Thomas Jones Barker received his first training from his father and entered the Parisian studio of Horace Vernet in 1834. In Paris he produced a large number of history paintings, the most famous being The Bride of Death (1839), which was painted for Princess Marie, daughter of Louis-Philippe, King of France, and won Barker the Légion d’Honneur. After his return to England in 1845, Barker contributed regularly to the Royal Academy and the British Institution, exhibiting historical, literary and hunting scenes. His paintings, like those of Vernet, almost invariably included depictions of horses in action. From 1853 he began work on the large-scale military paintings for which he was best known (e.g. The Relief of Lucknow, 1859). The Duke of Wellington at Sauroren, first exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery in 1868, was probably commissioned by the Duke of Wellington. Barker was not favoured by the art critics of his day, nor was he rewarded with membership of the Royal Academy. His later work was painted with the print market in mind, and he enjoyed considerable commercial success. His principal patrons were print dealers such as the Manchester company Agnew & Sons.
Tiny, the size of nature (1870; 68x55cm; 1000x789pix, 115kb) a dog who was 34cm tall. See the dog, blurry but full-size, in this detail (2079x1489pix, 117kb)
Margaret at the Cathedral, Faust (1866, 102x76cm; 933x700pix, 126kb) _ Barker's painting depicts the heroine Margaret (also known as Gretchen) from Goethe's Faust. After her brother Valentin is slain by Faust and Mephistopheles, Margaret flees to the cathedral for refuge, consumed by fear, shame and guilt. With his dying breath Valentin cursed his sister, renouncing her as a harlot and the cause of his death, having allowed herself to be seduced by Faust. In Barker's painting the ominous shadow of evil creeps across the wall behind the trembling Margaret as she kneels prostrate in the church. He whispers into her ear, mocking her terror as the choir sings the Dies Irae:
Dies iræ, dies illa,
Solvet sæclum in favila
Judex ergo cum sedebit,
Quidquid latet adparebit, Nil inultum remanebit
Quid sum miser tunc dicturus?
Quem patronum rogaturus?
Cum vix justus sit securus
Thomas Jones Barker had painted another scene from Faust in 1846 for the British Institution exhibition, entitled Faust and Margaret, with the accompanying Margaret's lines; “Tis he! 'tis he! where now is all my pain, The anguish of the dungeon and the chain. 'Tis thou! thou com'st to rescue me!”. This picture illustrated a later incident in the story as Faust liberates Margaret from imprisonment.
     The same scene was the subject of various early drawings by Rossetti (e.g. Faust: Margaret in the Church; 1848, 18x12cm) and endured as a popular subject throughout the nineteenth century. Lawrence Alma-Tadema (outside the church: Faust and Marguerite; 1857) and Simeon Solomon also made early illustrations of the scene (e.g. drawings Faust and Marguerite, 1856 drawing, 25x20cm; and Faust and Marguerite: Revenge; 1859; 586x648pix, 93kb) and as late as 1919, the Pre-Raphaelite follower Frank Cadogan Cowper painted the same incident (The Cathedral Scene from Faust Margaret tormented by the Evil Spirit; 800x616pix, 88kb).
Giuseppe Garibaldi . (1860 hand-colored engraving by William Holl after Barker, 79x53cm; 563x372pix, 21kb) _ Giuseppe Garibaldi [1807-1882], was a legendary guerilla fighter, Italian nationalist, romantic hero and a key player in the unification of Italy. —(060326)

1875 Francisco Javier Parcerisa i Boada [1803–], Barcelona Catalan Romantic painter, draftsman, and lithographer. —(090326)

^ 1843 Jakob Gauermann, Austrian painter and etcher born on 03 September 1773, father of the landscape painter Friedrich Gauermann [20 Sep 1807 – 07 Jul 1862), ]. Jakob Gauermann studied at the Stuttgart Academy in 1788-1791, was active in Heilbronn, Germany, until 1798 and then worked in Vienna. In 1802 he was assistant to the Viennese landscape painter M.v. Molitor and a strong influence by Molitor is present in Gauermann's works. Jacob Gauermann made his first study trip to Tyrol and continued traveling in the Alps becoming a painter of Alpine subjects.
Waldstück mit Flußbiegung und einer Bäuerin (20x28cm; 285x400pix, 28kb) —(060326)

^ 1820 Franz Gerhard von Kügelgen, German painter born on 06 February 1772. He was trained from 1789 to 1790 by Januarius Zick in Koblenz and by Christoph Fesel [1737–1805] in Mainz. In 1791 he moved to Rome, where he lived with his twin brother, the landscape painter Carl Ferdinand von Kügelgen [06 Feb 1772 – 1832], and studied the works of Raphael. He went to Riga in 1795, and in 1798 to Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia) and Saint-Petersburg, where he lived until 1803 and where he became a sought-after portrait painter. In 1805 he moved to Dresden, where he lived in the house which is now the Museum der Frühromantik. In 1814 he became a professor at the Academy.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1809, 73x64cm; 691x600pix, 66kb) _ Kügelgen schuf diese erste Fassung seiner berühmten und viel reproduzierten Bildnisse Goethes, den er hoch verehrte, neben anderen Porträts berühmter Zeitgenossen in Weimar. In Goethes Tag- und Jahresheften (1809), heißt es: “Kügelgen der gute, im Umgang allen so werthe Künstler verweilte mehrere Wochen bei uns, er malte Wielands Porträt und meins nach der Person, Herders und Schillers nach der Überlieferung. Mensch und Maler waren eins in ihm, und daher werden jene Bilder einen doppelten Wert behalten.” (WA I/36, S. 50). Als Würdezeichen seines Amtes trägt Goethe den Stern des russischen Saint Annen-Ordens und das rote Band der französischen Legion d'Honneur. Durch eine kontrastreiche Licht-Schatten-Behandlung und die bewegte Draperie ist es Kügelgen gelungen, Goethe als Minister und Dramatiker gleichermaßen darzustellen. Bei den Zeitgenossen fand es großen Beifall. Über Goethes Aussehen zu dieser Zeit sind schwärmerische Berichte überliefert, die Ähnlichkeit des Bildnisses wurde oft betont. Caroline Herder schreibt, in dem Bild sei eine “fast zerschmetternde Kraft, und doch nicht übertrieben” (an Knebel, 25 Jan 1809); Knebel über eine Kopie des Porträts an Goethe (18 Oct 1810): “Dein Bild nach Kügelgen (...) scheint mir unter allen, die ich kenne, das ähnlichste und ist ungemein wohlgemacht.”
Friedrich von Schiller (418x384pix, 35kb _ ZOOM to 930x690pix, 253kb) (read: Schiller [10 Nov 1759 – 29 Apr 1805] Ein Leben für die Freiheit)
Königin Luise von Preussen (450x365pix, 123kb)
Belisar (1807) _ Der blinde Belisar sucht mit seinem Begleiter vor einem Unwetter Schutz in einer Grotte, Als ein Gleichnis für die Seelengröße des zu Unrecht Gedemütigten darf dieses Gemälde angesehen werden, das der in Bacharach am Rhein geborene Maler Kügelgen zusammen mit dem Bild David spielt Harfe vor Saul ein Jahr nach Napolens Einzug in Dresden gemalt hat. Kügelgen, ein enger Freund von Caspar David Friedrich, gehörte patriotischen Kreisen an und nahm mit seiner Kunst zu den Ereignissen der Zeit Stellung. In klarer Komposition und leuchtendem Kolorit stellt das Gemälde des in Rom und Paris geschulten, von Raffel beeindruckten Malers ein Beispiel dar für eine Kunst am Übergang vom Klassizismus zur Romantik.
Emperor Pavel Petrovich and His Family (456x673pix, 122kb) _ Pavel Petrovich [01 Oct 1754 — 23 March 1801] son of Piotr III and Catherine II the Great [02 May 1729 – 17 Nov 1796], reigned erratically over Russia from the death of his mother to his assassination by partisans of his son who succeeded him as Aleksandr I [ 23 Dec 1777 – 01 Dec 1825]
— a different Pavel Petrovich Family Portrait (400x735pix, 43kb) —(060326).

^ >1723 Constantijn Netscher, Dutch painter born on 16 December 1668, one of the twelve children of Caspar Netscher [1639 – 15 Jan 1684]. Of the twelve, only Constantijn (or Constantyn) and his brother Theodoor became painters. Constantijn specialized like his father in small-scale three-quarter length portraits, which combine the poses and the impact of portraiture on the scale of life with a delicacy and close observation that larger, broader works might lack.
–- Seated Lady, full length, wearing a blue silk dress with a pink silk shawl (811x587pix, 51kb _ ZOOM to 2433x1759pix, 486kb) in need of restauration _ The pseudonymous Inconstant C. Pascher has thoroughly transformed this, while retaining some recognizable details, into the striking symmetrical abstraction with the meaningless palindromic title
      _ Dale Lad (2006; screen filling, 206kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1621kb). —(070326)

^ 1677 Jan Meerhout (or Meerhoud), Dutch painter.
Village on a river (18x25cm; 574x800pix, 59kb) _ Meerhout produced a large number of this kind of carelessly painted landscapes. —(060326)
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Born on a 27 March:


^ 1915 Denton Welch, English painter and novelist who died on 30 November 1948. — ART LINKS
Self-Portrait (350x210pix, 93kb)
Harvest (1940, 91x122cm) —(060326)

^ 1894 Le Roy Leveson Laurent Joseph de Maistre, Australian painter and designer who died on 01 March 1968. From 1913 to about 1915 he studied art under Dattilo Rubbo [1870–1955] and music in Sydney. In 1919 he devised a color–music theory that allied the colors of the spectrum to musical scales and, with fellow artist Roland Wakelin, held an exhibition of eleven paintings and five room designs based on this theory. The paintings, such as Boat Sheds, Berry’s Bay (1919), are characterized by simplified forms, large areas of flat paint and heightened, non-representational color. De Maistre was influenced by international art, but these works are a unique Australian hybrid of Post-Impressionism. Further experiments in 1919 led de Maistre to produce Australia’s first abstract paintings: only one documented example is known: Rhythmic Composition in Yellow Green Minor (1919). From 1923 to 1925 he was in Europe on a traveling scholarship. On his return to Sydney he held two solo exhibitions at the Macquarie Galleries (1926, 1928), worked on room and furniture designs and lectured on modern art. In 1930 he returned to London where he lived until his death.
–- Studio Interior (1219x800pix, 114kb)
–- a different Studio Interior (1198x800pix, 103kb)
–- Wharfside (900x586pix, 97kb)
–- Landscape (900x1298pix, 188kb)
–- The Searchers (900x1417pix, 163kb)
–- Landscape With Church Spire (900x1326pix, 134kb)
–- Lucy Dynevor (900x692pix, 101kb)
Pietà (1950, 152x114cm; 512x378pix, 36kb)
Colour Composition Derived From Three Bars of Music in the Key of Green aka Colour Scale on a Musical Theme From Beethoven (1935; 408x562pix, 57kb). This has been compounded by the pseudonymous Lempreur Duprof into a veritable symphony of colors:
      _ Never Even (2006; screen filling, 326kb _ ZOOM to 1318x932pix, 582kb).—(070326)

1879 Edward J. Steichen, US painter turned photographer, who died on 25 March 1973.

1853 Wilhelm Gause, German artist who died in 1916.

^ 1813 Nathaniel Currier, US lithographer who died on 20 November 1888. After apprenticeships in Boston and Philadelphia, Currier set up a print publishing company in New York City in 1834. He hired James Merritt Ives [05 Mar 1824 – 03 Jan 1895] as his bookkeeper in 1852 and made him a partner in 1857, creating the firm of Currier & Ives, which lasted, eventually under the management of their sons, until 1907.
     In an era before photojournalism, Currier met the public's demand for graphic representation of recent events. In 1835 he printed a lithograph, The Ruins of the Merchants' Exchange, four days after the building burned, and in 1840, three days after the event, he issued a colored print of a steamship burning on Long Island Sound. In partnership with Ives, who had a flair for gauging popular interests, he expanded his range from depictions of disasters to political satire and other topical subjects, as well as to dramatic or slightly sentimentalized scenes such as steamboat races, boxing matches, sleigh rides in the country, and fashionable soirees. Touting itself as “Publishers of Cheap and Popular Pictures,” Currier & Ives sold prints ranging in price from 5 cents to $3, depending on the size. The firm sold retail as well as wholesale, establishing outlets in cities across the country and in London. Between 1840 and 1890 it published more than 7000 prints.
      While never purporting artistic greatness, Currier & Ives insisted on fine craftsmanship and the best lithographic materials. Most designs were created by house staff; others were commissioned from artists such as Frances F. Palmer [26 Jun 1812 – 20 Aug 1876], Louis Maurer, Thomas Worth, and Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait [05 Aug 1819 – 28 Apr 1905]. As the firm was not equipped for chromolithography, prints were hand-colored by a dozen or more women in assembly-line fashion, one color to a worker. The colors favored were clear and simple, and the drawing was bold and direct. Rendered obsolete by automation and the photograph, Currier & Ives prints became valuable records of the politics, history, and manners of the 19th-century US. — LINKS
–- January –- February –- March –- April –- May –- June
–- July –- August –- September –- October –- November –- December
–- Drunkard's Progress
–- George Washington
–- Winter in New England
–- Baseball
–- Noah's Ark
–- Great Boston Fire
Currier & Ives Cyber-Gallery —(060313)

1797 Noël-Dieudonné Finart, French artist who died in 1852. — {Finart's fine art has to be seen to be appreciated.}

1678 Karel Breydel chevalier d'Anvers, Flemish artist who died on 12 September 1733.
 
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