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ART “4” “2”-DAY  25 March v.9.80
^Died on 25 March 1635: Jacques Callot, Nancy French etcher, engraver, draftsman, and possibly painter, born between March and August 1592.
— He was one of the most accomplished printmakers in the Western tradition and one of the major exponents of the Mannerist style in the early 17th century. His often fantastic compositions combine grotesque and elegant elements in a compelling and personal manner. He greatly advanced both the technical and the aesthetic possibilities of etching through his invention of a chip-resistant ground for copperplates and his consummate skill in making repeated bitings of a single plate.
— Jacques Callot's father was Jean Callot, a noble, the herald-at-arms for Lorraine, who desired that his son should become a soldier or a priest. But the boy's inclinations for art were so intense, and he was so precocious that parental wishes were of no avail. His work even as a schoolboy showed a grasp of human character, and the bizarre and humorous, particularly in people of the lower orders, attracted him. Before he was twelve years old he had studied design, wherein he was so soon to become a master, and had received aid from Henriet Israel, son of the Lorraine court-painter, and from Dumange Crocq, the royal engraver.
      In 1604 Jacques Callot ran away to Italy in the company of a band of gypsies, hoping to reach the goal of his ambition, Rome. He stopped in Florence and studied engraving under the celebrated Remigio Gallina, and copied the work of the masters, thus tempering his love for the grotesque. The young runaway was soon sent home, to the joy of his parents, but his father finally consented to his accompanying the envoy of Duke Henry II to the Papal Court. In Rome he practiced engraving and etching and invented a hard varnish for grounding copper-plates. When he left Italy (1621 or 1622) his fame was already great, and it soon became world-wide. He engraved for the Infanta Eugenia in Brussels and for Louis XIII in Paris. It is said that when the French monarch in 1633 commanded Callot to engrave a plate commemorative of the fall of Nancy the artist cried that he "would rather cut off his right hand than use it on such a work".
      If little is known of Callot's intimate life and traits, his 1600 plates afford full information concerning the artistic side of his career. Callot was often ugly in his realism, but he was a master of the art of design, clear in drawing, fertile in invention, precise in line, and varied in his style. The freedom and naïveté in his small figures, the lifelike manner in which he treated them, and the certainty with which he arranged complicated groups made him the pioneer of methods followed by Rembrandt and his forerunners. The Macaberesque note in medieval art is dominant in his work, and there is a piquancy and newness given to the slightest details. A peculiarity in nearly all his figures is the smallness of the heads in proportion to the bodies. His landscapes are inferior to his figure-pieces and architectural plates, though the latter are of great historical and topographical interest (La Tour de Nesle with The Old Louvre).
      No authentic finished painting by Callot exists among the great collections, and it is very doubtful if he ever completed a work in oil. The master of the grotesque and humorous was the father of etching in France, and his fame comes from his etchings, which are better than his engravings. He frequently spoiled his splendid point-work with the burin, and his reputation as an aquafortist depends, therefore, more on what he did than on how he did it. Notable among his works are 18 plates entitled Grandes Misères de la Guerre,; 25 plates of Les Gueux; La Sainte Famille; Cosmo III, Grand Duc de Toscane; Charles III de Lorraine.
      Callot's last years were spent industriously in Nancy, where he died. He was buried in the church of the Franciscans (Cordeliers). He was noted for his loyalty and courage as a subject of Lorraine, and for his generosity, probity, and kindness of heart as a citizen.
— Callot went to Italy when he was in his teens and, working in Rome and then in Florence at the court of the Grand Duke Cosimo II, he learnt to combine the sophisticated techniques and exaggerations of late Mannerism with witty and acute observation into a brilliantly expressive idiom. In 1621 he returned to France, and most of the remainder of his career was spent in his native Nancy, although he worked in Paris and the Low Countries. He made a specialty of beggars, and deformities, characters from the picaresque novel and the Italian commedia dell' arte. In this respects he comes close to Bellange, also active in Nancy, but Callot's style was more realistic.
      His last great work, the series of etchings entitled Les Grandes Misères de la Guerre, followed the invasion of Lorraine by Cardinal Richelieu on 1633, and is a harrowing depiction of the atrocities of war; its themes and imagery were used as a source by Goya. Callot's output was prodigious; more than a thousand etchings and more than a thousand drawings by him are extant, and some his plates are large, featuring scores of figures. He was one of the first major creative artists to work exclusively in the graphic art.
— Callot was one of the earliest great creative artists to practice the graphic arts exclusively. His career can be divided into two periods: an Italian period, about 1609-1621, and a Lorraine period from 1621 until his death. Callot studied the technique of engraving under Philippe Thomasin in Rome. About 1612 he joined Giulio Parigi in Florence. At that time Medici patronage expended itself almost exclusively on "feste," and both Parigi and Callot were employed by Cosimo II (de Medici) to create visual records of these entertainments. Callot's compositions are organized as if they were a stage setting and reduced the figures to a tiny scale, each one being rendered by the fewest possible strokes. This required an extremely fine etching technique. Callot enjoyed a lasting popularity all over Europe. He returned to Nancy after Cosimo*s death in 1621. During the Lorraine period Callot illustrated sacred books, made a series of plates of the Apostles, and visited Paris to make animated maps of the sieges of La Rochelle and the Ile de Ré.
      Callot was one of the first etchers to used the technique of repeated biting, and sometimes combined graver work with etching.
— François Collignon was a student of Callot.

The Battle of Avigliano _ The Battle of Avigliano (after 1631, etching 35x53cm) _ Callot, adventurous from his youth, carried his daring and curiosity into his craft and is responsible for inventive brilliance in the preparation of his etched plates. He was born in Nancy, France; his family planned a life for him in the Church. However, he ran away from home on two occasions while still a youth. The first time (1604) he met a band of gypsies and traveled with them to Florence. His memory of this escapade resulted in a group of etchings done in later years. From Florence he traveled to Rome, where he was recognized by merchants from his home town, and compelled to return to Nancy. A second attempt to escape was successful only as far as Turin, where an older brother found him. About 1608, the family finally accepted defeat and permitted him to leave for Rome to study art.
      Callot studied in both Rome and Florence under various masters, and learned the craft of etching. But he soon outstripped his teachers and in the course of his lifetime produced some thousand plates, along with over fourteen hundred drawings, which have influenced and inspired many artists since his day. There were many imitators, but Callot's prodigious accomplishment remains unequaled.
      Typical of Callot's genius is this view of a battle, in which the vantage point of the artist seems far removed from the field of action. The horsemen in the left foreground are clearly depicted, and as the action recedes into the distance, mere scratches on the plate become, by some miracle of craftsmanship, footmen and cavalry engaged in fierce action. With incredible patience Callot draws a walled town at the right, delineates other small towns perched on huge rocks, and creates plains, mountains, and rivers that move into the far distance. It has been estimated that Callot crowded a thousand figures into compositions of this size. In this magic of suggestion he remains unsurpassed.
The Holy Family at Table (1628 etching, 19x17cm) (aka Le Benedicite)_ The subject matter of Callot's etchings was extremely varied; in a host of tiny compositions, he represented vagabonds and dwarfs, and characters from the commedia dell' arte. He did two series of the Miseries of War, one large and one small, as well as views of cities and representations of elaborate pageants and fêtes. His Caprices have a spirit more like that of Tiepolo, unlike the moody aquatints of Goya. In the preparation of this series of fifty plates, Callot used a hard-ground varnish in place of the softer variety. He also mastered the technique of immersing the plate in acid a second time to create more deeply bitten lines. Callot visited France, worked on a series of plates illustrating the siege of La Rochelle for Louis XIII, and in 1629 created View of the Louvre, View of the Pont-Neuf; and Tour de Nesle, memorable records of seventeenth-century Paris.
      The Holy Family at Table is not typical of Callot's general style or subject matter; rather, it indicates his desire to experiment with new effects. The composition here is circular; in another print executed the same year (The Card Players) he employs an oval format. The nocturnal scene is made dramatic by the lighting, the table illuminated by a candle and the heads of the three figures brightened by the radiant halos of the Christ Child and the Madonna. It has been suggested that the inspiration for this handling of the subject came from the impressive night scenes of Georges de La Tour. Saint Joseph makes Jesus drink, saying to him (according to the inscription at the bottom): EIA AGE CARE PVER, CALICEM BIBE, TE MANET ALTER QUI TENSIS MANIBVS NON NISI MORTE CADET.
Les Misères de la Guerre (samples)
6: La Dévastation d'un monastère (15x25cm)
Icy par un effort sacrilege et barbare
Ces Demons enragez et d'une humeur auare
Pillent et bruslent tout, abattent les Autels
Se mocquent du respect qu'on doit aux Immortels
Et tirent des saincts lieux les Vierges desolées
Qu'ils osent enleuer pour estre violées

7: Le Pillage et l'incendie d'un village <(16x25cm)
Ceux que Mars entretient de ses actes meschans
Accomodent ainsi les pauures gens des champs
Ils les font prisonniers, ils bruslent leurs villages,
Et sur le bestail mesme exercent des rauages
Sans que la peur des Loix nonplus que le devoir
Ny les pleurs et les cris les puissent esmouuoir

9: La Découverte des malfaiteurs (16x25cm)
Apres plusieurs excez indignement commis
Par ces gens de neant de la gloire ennemis
On les cherche par tout avec beaucoup de peine
Et le Preuost du camp au quartier les rameine
Affin dy recevoir comme ils l'ont merité
Un chastiment conforme a leur temerite
4: La Maraude (12x23cm)
Ces courages brutaux dans les hosteleries
Du beau nom de butin couurent leurs voleries
Ils querelent expres ennemis du repos
Pour ne paÿer leurs hoste et prennent jusqu'aux pots
Ainsi du bien d'autruÿ leur humeur s'accomode
Quand on les a soulez et seruis a leurt mode

12: L'Arquebusade
Ceux qui pour obeir a leur mauuais Genie
Manquent a leur devoir, usent de tyrannie
Ne se plaisent qu'au mal violent la raison
Et dont les actions pleines de trahison
Produisent dans le Camp mil sanglans vacarmes
Sont ainsi chastiez et passez par les armes

13: Le Bûcher (14x26cm)
Ces ennemis du Ciel qui pechent mil fois
Contre les Saincts Decrets et les divines Loix
Font gloire mechamment de piller et d'abattre
Les Temples du vray Dieu d'une main idolatre
Mais pour punition de les avoir brulez
Ils sont eux mesmes enfin aux flammes immolez

17: La Revanche des paysans (14x25cm)
Apres plusieurs degast par les soldats commis
A la fin les Paisans, quils ont pour ennemis
Les guettent à l'ecart par une surprise
Les ayant mort les mettent en chemise,
Et se vengent ainsi contre ces Malheureux
Des pertes de leurs biens, qui ne viennent que d'eux

^Born on 25 March 1614: Don Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish painter who died on 03 October 1685.
— En 1623 se traslada a Madrid donde fue discípulo de Pedro de las Cuevas. Carreño was a member of a Spanish noble family, whose studies in the royal collection in Madrid caused him to be influenced by Rubens [28 Jun 1577 – 30 May 1640] and Titian [1489 – 27 Aug 1576]. In 1669 Carreño was made a Painter to the King and in 1671 Court Painter. He produced several religious pictures, but was chiefly a portrait painter, adapting the styles of Velázquez [bap. 06 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660] and Van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641].
— Carreño was one of the most important painters in Spain in the 17th century, he painted many religious works in oils, tempera, and fresco, and was considered to be, after Velázquez, the most accomplished portrait painter of his day.
— Carreño is considered the most important Spanish court painter of the Baroque period after Velázquez. Influenced and overshadowed both by Velázquez and Van Dyck, he was nonetheless a highly original and sensitive artist in his own right. Carreño studied painting under Pedro de las Cavas and Bartolomé Román. He assisted Velázquez in the decoration of the Alcázar in Madrid and the other royal palaces and was appointed painter to King Charles II in 1669 and court painter in 1671.
      Although he is known primarily as a portraitist, he also painted many religious works in oil and fresco that reveal a unique Baroque sensibility. Such works as his masterpiece, Founding of the Trinitarian Order (1666), are marked by mastery of execution, subtle interplay of light and shadow, and inventiveness of scene. Following the tradition of Velázquez' court portraits, he painted many pictures of the queen mother, Mariana of Austria, and traced in oil the decline of Charles II from a handsome child to a decrepit old man. Even the most repellent portraits of Charles possess the aristocratic elegance that characterize Carreño's paintings.
— The students of Carreño included Juan Martín Cabezalero [1633-1673], Mateo Cerezo [bap. 19 April 1637 – 29 Jun 1666], José Jiménez Donoso, Pedro Ruíz González [1640-1706], Francisco Ignacio Ruíz de la Iglesia [–29 Feb 1704].

King Charles II of Spain (1676, 78x65cm; 215kb) _ In 1669 Carreño was made court painter to King Charles II [06 Nov 1661 – 01 Nov 1700]. He made several portraits of the king. {long hair, no trace of beard or mustache, flat chest, looks like a 12-year-old girl to me.} _ “Carlos El Hechizado” was the last Spanish Habsburg king, as he had no children and his death led to the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) and the dismembering of Spain's European possessions.
Duke of Pastrana (217x155cm) _ The artist painted in Toledo and Madrid. Charles II, successor to Philip IV [08 Apr 1605 – 17 Sep 1665], viewed him with favor, and in 1669 he was made painter to the King. Although his religious paintings are of unusual quality, his main interest was painting portraits, the finest being that of the Duke Pastrana. This mature portrait by Carreño, the impact of the dark and imposing, pyramidal figure of the Duke is counterbalanced by very delicate and melancholic coloring. Carreño's work here recalls the portraiture of Van Dyck in England. _ Gregorio María de Silva y Mendoza [1649 – 10 Sep 1693). Fue quinto Duque de Pastrana a la muerte de su padre, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar de Silva y Mendoza el Cuarto Duque de Pastrana [1614-1676] y noveno Duque del Infantado en 1686 (y VII Duque de Lerma también) a la muerte de su madre, Catalina Gómez de Sandoval y Mendoza [1616-1686], la Octava Duquesa del Infantado, uniendo en sí y su descendencia estos títulos junto con los de Príncipe de Éboli y de Mélito. Su famoso retrato fue pintado antes de morir su madre. Nacido en Pastrana, fue embajador en 1679, Sumiller de Corps de Carlos II en 1688 y Caballero del Toisón de Oro. Al contrario que su padre, era algo despilfarrador. Tuvo una participación destacada en la Corte, incluyendo el famoso Auto de Fe de Madrid de 1680. Su hermano Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval y Mendoza, Conde de Galve, fue virrey de Nueva España. Gregorio gustaba de la pintura y protegió al pintor Juan Carreño de Miranda que le inmortalizó hacia 1666. Casó con María de Haro y Guzmán [— 10 Feb 1693] en 1666. Apenas viajó a Guadalajara, aunque naciera en Pastrana, y murió en Madrid.
Portrait of Don Juan José de Austria (?) {1643, 78x61cm) _ This portrait shows the influence of both Velázquez and Van Dyck. The identification of the sitter is doubtful. Earlier the painting was attributed to Juan Bautista del Mazo [1612 – 09 Feb 1667]. {another portrait that looks like that of a girl.} _ Juan José de Austria [07 Apr 1629 – 17 Sep 1679] was the most famous of the illegitimate children of King Philip IV. He served with some success as a Spanish military commander and from 1677 until his death was chief minister to King Charles II.
Queen Mary Anne of Austria as a Widow (1669, 211x125cm) _ In this portrait Carreño follows the tradition of Velázquez.
Saint James the Great in the Battle of Clavijo (1660, 231x168cm) _ The painting represents the popular saint of Spain arisen from his grave to help the Spanish army against the Moors in the battle of Clavijo (834), he is known since as Santiago Matamoros. The painting is signed on the thong on the chest of the horse.
     Leese commo despues dela muerte del rey don Alfonso el Casto en el Reyno de Leon, don Ramiro primo [regnó en Asturias 842-850] su sobrino regnase e los moros ouiesen embiado a pedir cient donzellas en tributo segund que el rey don Muragato gelas ouiera dado. E commo desto ouiese muy grand pesar ayunto luego sus huestes e fue a correr tierra de moros e commo los moros lo sopieron ayuntaron muy grandes poderes e vinieron contra el e ouieron batalla canpal a cerca de vn logar llamado Clauijo.
     Commo los cristianos fuesen pocos a respecto delos moros ouieron de se vencer. Pero tornando sobre si traxieron a vn otero e los moros cercaron los alli. E enesto anochescio e commo los cristianos estouiesen rogando a dios de corac,on saliendo lagrimas de sus ojos quelos quisiese ayudar, adormesciose el rey don Ramiro e aparescio le en sueños el apostol Santiago, e dixole asi:
     Sepas que Nuestro Señor Ihesu Cristo partio a todos los angeles mis hermanos las prouincias dela tierra e a mi solo dio a España, e sey fuerte e firme en tus fechos, ca yo so Santiago apostol de Ihesu Cristo que vengo por te ayudar. E sepas por verdad que enla mañana venceras conel ayuda de dios todos estos moros que te tienen cercado avnque moriran munchos delos tuyos, a los quales esta aparejada la gloria de parayso. E por que desto seas cierto ver me has enla mañana encima de vn cauallo blanco con vna seña blanca e grand espada reluziente enla mano. E luego enla mañana confesar vos hedes e rescebiredes el cuerpo de Nuestro Señor Ihesu Cristo e fecho esto non dubdedes de ferir enlos moros llamando 'Dios ayuda a Santiago' que sepas cierta mente que todos los venceras e meteras a espada.
     E commo en esto el Rey recordase finco muy confortado e fizo luego llamar los prelados e altos omnes de su hueste e dixo les aquella vision que viera en sueños. dieron muchas gracias a Dios e loaron el su sancto nombre e fizieron lo asi. E como el dia fuese esclarescido, oyda misa e rescebidos los sacramentos, los cristianos fueron fuerte mente ferir enlas hazes delos moros llamando 'Dios ayuda Santiago.' E como estouiesen fuerte mente peleando vieron la vision del apostol con grand conpaña de angeles commo caualleros armados que parescia alos moros que era muy gran gente queles venia en socorro e luego comenc,aron a fuyr e arrancar. Pocos escaparon e fueron muertos delos moros setenta mil e otros muchos captiuos. E cogido el despojo que fue muy rico e grande fue el Rey don Ramiro luego sobre Calahorra e tomola alos moros por fuerça de armas. [in Diego Rodríguez de Almela Valerio de las historias eclesiásticas]

Eugenia Martínez Vallejo, called La Monstrua (165x107cm) {I don't know anything about dress sizes, but this must be at least an 80 extra short}
La Monstrua Desnuda (165x108cm) {not for weak stomachs, even with a fig leaf.} _ She was one of the dwarf attendants of the infantes, and the one that, by far, carried the most weight.
Saint Sebastian (1656; 161kb)
Peter Ivanovich Potemkin (1682; 116kb) _ Pyotr Ivanovich Potemkin [1617-1669] was a statesman and diplomat who headed a Moscovite mission sent to France and Spain in 1667-1668 by tsar Aleksey Mikhaylovich [19 Mar 1629 – 08 Feb 1676].
Born on 25 March 1867: John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum sculptor (Mt Rushmore).      ^top^
      In 1927 Borglum was engaged by the state of South Dakota to turn Mount Rushmore, in the Black Hills, into another colossal monument. That year he began sculpting the 20-meter-high heads of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt (to represent the US's founding, political philosophy, preservation, and expansion and conservation) on the northeast face of the mountain. In 1929 the US government began financing the project, which would become a national memorial. Borglum brought all his engineering prowess to bear on this project, and he invented new methods that took advantage of the capacity of dynamite and pneumatic hammers to carve large quantities of stone quickly. Washington's head was unveiled in 1930, Jefferson in 1936, Lincoln in 1937, and Roosevelt in 1939. The work was completed in 1941, the year of Borglum's death (06 March), although the last details were completed by his son, Lincoln Borglum [09 Apr 1912 – 27 Jan 1986].

Died on a 25 March:

^ >1976 Josef Albers, German-born (19 Mar 1888) US artist, teacher, and writer. painter, poet, sculptor, teacher, and theoretician of art, important as an innovator of such styles as Color Field painting and Op art.
     From 1908 to 1920 Albers studied painting and printmaking in Berlin, Essen, and Munich and taught elementary school in his native town of Bottrop. In 1920 he enrolled at the newly formed Bauhaus, which was to become the most important design school in Germany. His most important creations of that period included compositions made of colored glass, as well as examples of furniture design, metalwork, and typography. After 1925, when he became a “master” at the Bauhaus, Albers explored a style of painting characterized by the reiteration of abstract rectilinear patterns and the use of primary colors along with white and black.
     In 1933, when the Nazi government closed the Bauhaus, Albers left Germany for the United States. On the recommendation of architect Philip Johnson, Albers organized the fine-arts curriculum at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, where he taught until 1949. The next year he began a 10-year tenure as chairman of the art department of Yale University. Over the course of his time at these two schools, he counted among his students Eva Hesse, Robert Rauschenberg [22 Oct 1925~], Willem de Kooning [24 Apr 1904 – 19 Mar 1997], Robert Motherwell [24 Jan 1915 – 16 Jul 1991], and Kenneth Noland.
     After moving to the United States, Albers concentrated on several series of works that systematically explored the effects of perception. In his series of engravings on plastic Transformations of a Scheme (1948–1952) and in the series of drawings Structural Constellations (1953-1958), he created complex linear designs, each subject to many possible spatial interpretations. His best-known series of paintings, Homage to the Square (begun in 1950 and continued until his death), restricts its repertory of forms to colored squares superimposed onto each other. The arrangement of these squares is carefully calculated so that the color of each square optically alters the sizes, hues, and spatial relationships of the others. These works were exhibited worldwide and formed the basis of the first solo exhibition given to a living artist at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, in 1971.
— He was born in Bottrop, Germany. From 1905 to 1908, he studied to become a teacher in Büren and then taught in Westphalian primary schools from 1908 to 1913. After attending the Königliche Kunstschule in Berlin from 1913 to 1915, he was certified as an art teacher. Albers studied art in Essen and Munich before entering the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1920. There, he initially concentrated on glass painting and in 1929, as a journeyman, he reorganized the glass workshop. In 1923, he began to teach the Vorkurs, a basic design course. When the Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925, he became a professor. In addition to working in glass and metal, he designed furniture and typography.
     After the Bauhaus was forced to close in 1933, Albers emigrated to the United States. That same year, he became head of the art department at the newly established, experimental Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina. Albers continued to teach at Black Mountain until 1949. In 1935, he took the first of many trips to Mexico, and in 1936 was given his first solo show in New York at J. B. Neumann’s New Art Circle. He became a United States citizen in 1939. In 1949, Albers began his Homage to the Square series.
     He lectured and taught at various colleges and universities throughout the United States and from 1950 to 1958 served as head of the design department at Yale University, New Haven. In addition to painting, printmaking, and executing murals and architectural commissions, Albers published poetry, articles, and books on art. Thus, as a theoretician and teacher, he was an important influence on generations of young artists. Albers lived and worked in New Haven until his death there. — LINKS
Homage to the Square: On the Way (1959; 540x565pix)
Homage to the Square: Untitled (1965; 540x565pix)
Homage to the Square: Within a Thin Interval (1967; 540x565pix)
Homage to the Square: Opens Outwards (1967; 540x565pix, 123kb)
–- (Homage to the Square) Green Tension (800x800pix, 22kb)
–- (Homage to the Square) Soft Edge – Hard Edge (523x526pix, 13kb)
Study for Homage to the Square: Guarded (1959; 600x599pix; 93kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1397pix, 335kb)
Study for Homage to the Square (1966; 600x601pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1402pix, 426kb) _ These very simple pictures do not require so much bandwidth. So the pseudonymous Albert Josefuss has produced a similar series, Pill Pilgrimage Image of the Square, of which the images are the size of your computer window (preferably whole screen), require a minute amount of bandwidth, can be switched with the click of a mouse, and are almost as worthless as those of Albers. Josefuss has also created a similar series, almost as lightweight, but slightly different: Damage to the Square. Finally Josefuss has gone far in the opposite direction, given full scope to his creativity, doing some marvelously intricate and colorful images, which deserve the large bandwidth they require: Plumage to the Square.
      _ Pill Pilgrimage Image of the Square: Emerging 00000001000200030004000500060007000800090010  (slide show of 11 screen-filling images, 8kb total) the first few are VERY faint, but they are there.
      _ Pill Pilgrimage Image of the Square: Strengthening 0011001200130014001500160017001800190020 0021  (slide show of 11 screen-filling images, 9kb total)
      _ Pill Pilgrimage Image of the Square: Tango 002200230024002500260027002800290030 0031 0032  (slide show of 11 screen-filling images, 9kb total)
      _ Pill Pilgrimage Image of the Square: Company 00330034003500360037003800390040 0041 0042 0043  (slide show of 11 screen-filling images, 9kb total)
–- Homage to the Square (800x800pix, 28kb) mitered, monochrome grayscale.
–- Mitered Squares (793x799pix, 22kb) _ This pallid picture has been metamorphosed by Josefuss into the vigorous, colorful, and intricate
      _ Plumage to the Square: Vigilance aka Time Omit (2006; screen filling, 180kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 757kb) and
      _ Plumage Damage to the Square: Family Scrummage aka Dome Mad (2006; screen filling, 295kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1125kb)
–- The Interaction of Color (514x799pix, 21kb) _ Josefuss has made a bigger image, with more exact and even colors, and which uses much less bandwidth:
      _ Color Interaction (screen filling, 3kb).
— To cap all his innovations, Josefuss has made a stupendous combination:
      _ Square Dance (2006; screen filling, 92kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 578kb) which he has further evolved into the symmetrical and even more colorful
      _ Went New (2006; screen filling, 191kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1512kb) —(070324)

^ 1973 Edward J. Steichen, US painter turned photographer; born on 27 March 1879; a leader of the Photo-Secession Group. Steichen became interested in photography at age sixteen. Influenced by the atmosphere of moonlight that came to characterize his early Pictorialist photographs, he also painted. Upon turning twenty-one, he left for Europe by way of New York, meeting Alfred Stieglitz [01 Jan 1864 – 13 Jul 1946], who purchased three of his photographs. On returning, Steichen set up a studio specializing in portraiture at 291 Fifth Avenue, a space that later became part of "291,” Stieglitz's celebrated Photo-Secessionist gallery. Steichen became a founding member of the Photo-Secession group in 1903. In 1923 Steichen went to work for the Condé Nast publications Vanity Fair and Vogue, where he photographed celebrities and fashion. From this he received advertising commissions; he once also made photographic designs for silk fabric. Steichen closed his New York studio in 1938 and embarked upon a new, more spontaneous photographic phase. During World War II he joined the Navy to head up a unit of photographers. Steichen was the first curator of photographs at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he curated the famous "Family of Man” exhibition in 1953.
— In 1882 Steichen's parents moved from Luxembourg to the United States and settled in Hancock, Michigan. Later the family moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where, at the age of 15, Steichen was apprenticed to a commercial lithographer. He studied painting but became interested in photography, and by 1900 several of his pictures had been shown in Philadelphia and Chicago.
     Steichen's early photographs were influenced by his training as a painter. He frequently brushed on silver salts and other chemicals to eliminate or add images to negative or paper to achieve prints resembling soft, fuzzy mezzotints or loose wash drawings. These misty pictures were considered by most critics of the day to be the highest achievement of photographic art. Stieglitz, the best-known US photographer of the time, concurred, although he was a purist who did not tamper with either his negatives or his prints.
      In 1902 Stieglitz invited Steichen to join him and 11 other photographers in founding the Photo-Secession, an organization dedicated to promoting photography as a fine art. In time, the Photo-Secessionists succeeded in transforming American photography from a craft that recorded and increasingly embellished to an art that freely experimented and explored. They showed that photographs of ordinary subjects and everyday scenes printed from the negative without manipulation can exert a far greater aesthetic appeal than artificial compositions printed by arcane methods.
      In 1905 Photo-Secession opened, at 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City, its Little Galleries (called “291” for short). It was designed by Steichen, and Stieglitz was its director. Steichen, who had become a friend of the sculptor Auguste Rodin in 1910 when he was studying painting in Paris, arranged exhibitions of the work of Rodin and that of other friends at the gallery, including paintings by Henri Matisse, Gordon Craig, Max Weber, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso and sculpture by Constantin Brancusi. Many of these avant-garde artists' workswere shown for the first time in America at “291,” starting eight years before the Armory Show of 1913, at which modern European art received its first full-scale display in the United States. The Photo-Secessionist venture was successful; for the first time in the United States, photographs by Photo-Secessionists, Steichen prominently among them, ranked with paintings and drawings as artistic works.
      During World War I, Steichen was put in command of the photographic division of the US Army's air force and retired as a lieutenant colonel in 1918. During the war, realism had been the only purpose of the pictures Steichen took. The experience led to a significant change in his mode of artistic expression, in fact, he made a bonfire of his paintings. He ceased painting and renounced his impressionistic photography with its broad, simple effects. Instead, he concentrated on creating a precise, clean-cut, more realistic picture. In order to achieve maximum realism, he photographed a white cup and saucer against a black velvet background more than a thousand times in his search for the perfect rendering of the subtle gradations in white, black, and gray.
      From 1923 to 1938 Steichen operated a commercial studio in New York City that specialized inportraits and advertising illustrations and soon became a successful enterprise. What he knew of art and design as a painter, combined with his masterful photographic technique, enabled him to produce memorable portraits of the literary and artistic personalities and the socially prominent who came to pose. In addition, he was in 1923 induced by Frank Crowninshield, the editor, to become chief photographer for the fashion magazines Vogue and Vanity Fair. Steichen's photographs of the 1920s and '30s form a vital pictorial record of US culture. He created such striking images as the veiled Gloria Swanson, the hands-to-head portrait of Greta Garbo, and the smiling Charlie Chaplin.
      At the outbreak of World War II, Steichen, rejected by the army because of age, was commissioned by the US Navy to organize a department to photograph the war at sea. Soon after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, his photographic exhibition entitled “Road to Victory” was presented in New York City's Museum of Modern Art, followed three years later by a similar exhibit, “Power in the Pacific.”
      After the war, from 1947 to 1962, Steichen was director of photography at the Museum of Modern Art. In 1955 he organized one of the most popular exhibitions of photographs ever presented, “The Family of Man.” The exhibition was based on the concept of human solidarity that is the motif of the biography of Abraham Lincoln by Steichen's brother-in-law Carl Sandburg. Together with his assistant Wayne Miller, Steichen selected 503 from the more than 2'000'000 prints submitted from all over the world. Even if the two of them had spent a whole year, 40 hours a week, looking at all those photographs, they would have had an average of less than 8 seconds to examine each one and make a decision about it. After its opening at the Museum of Modern Art in 1955, the exhibition toured most of the major museums in the world and was seen by more than 9'000'000 persons, each one of whom, by devoting 8 seconds to each of the photographs in the exhibit, could see all 503 in about one hour, instead of the two years they would have had to take off from work to give the same attention to the more than 2'000'000 original prints. Thus Steichen and Wayne made a contribution to human solidarity and to productivity which can be calculated to have been worth at least 40 billion dollars of 1955 or 400 billion dollars of 2005.
      Early in his career, Steichen rejected the idea that there was one system of aesthetics in US photography. Such a notion, he felt, served only to confine and inhibit the creative photographer. As a consequence, he was always eager to serve as a promoter for US photography, arranging for exhibits, purchasing photographs, and generally acting as patron of younger photographers, regardless of the style of their work. According to Steichen, it is this variety, based on the unique vision of the individual photographer, that has made photography the vigorous art became during his lifetime.
Self-photo (1901, 21x16cm) _ Holding a painter’s palette in his left hand and a paintbrush in his right and wearing a smock that belonged to the photographer Frederick Holland Day, Edward Steichen created a boldly assertive self-portrait. Although Steichen was still active as a painter when he made the photograph, the image also implies that the photographer’s craft is equal to that of the traditional artist. Using a gum bichromate process served to heighten the supposedly painterly effect of this photograph, creating a soft-focus, grainy image that did not resemble the sharp-focus prints that were more popularly favored, and is greatly inferior to any painted or drawn portrait, however sketchily done. The overall darkness of the print contributes to the picture’s worthlessness, despite the contrasting highlight areas of shirt collar and brush tip intended to create a tonal balance within the composition. Standing in three-quarter pose, the young photographer appears poised for certain artistic ascendancy, his taut grip on the paintbrush reinforcing the sense of purpose.
In Exaltation of Flowers: Petunia, Caladium, Budleya (1913, a painting which, like the next entry, somehow escaped the bonfire)
Le Tournesol (1920; 390x349pix, 46kb) _ detail 1 (390x520pix, 75kb) _ detail 2 (390x520pix, 57kb) _ During the first half of his career, Edward Steichen practiced both painting and photography. His early paintings consist of soft, monochromatic landscapes and portraits executed in a turn-of-the-century tonalist manner that corresponded to the muted qualities of his photographic work. By contrast, during the late 1910s, Steichen developed a striking, hard-edge modernist style. This dramatic departure is exemplified by Le Tournesol. Sometime between 1920 and 1923, in a crisis of faith, Steichen abandoned painting and destroyed all the canvases still in his possession. By this time, In Exaltation of Flowers and Le Tournesol had already left his hands; they are, therefore, among the few surviving example of his paintings.
     In 1906, after four years in New York, Steichen moved to France with his wife and children, settling in a country house in the town of Voulangis in Brittany, where he was able to pursue a passion for gardening along with his work in painting and photography. Following World War I (during which he had served in the US Army) Steichen returned to Voulangis, and remained there until 1922. In his garden, Steichen raised sunflowers, photographing them in a series of intense close-up images. The iconography of the present painting is obviously related to his activities both as horticulturist and photographer. Steichen also studied the intrinsic mathematical ratios of plant growth (as explicated by mathematicians such as Jay Hambridge and Theodore Andrea Cooke), deriving formal principles that he applied to a series of small, abstract tempera paintings of triangular shapes. Conceived as illustrations for an unrealized children's book about the inhabitants of an imaginary land, these stark but fanciful images, called "Oochens," are clearly relevant to the formal vocabulary of Le Tournesol, especially the passages that surround the flower and vase.
     Given the fate of Steichen's late paintings, his stylistic development remains somewhat obscure. Clearly, Le Tournesol also reflects certain wartime and postwar developments in European and US art, notably the new emphasis on machine-made or streamlined forms in the work of French painters such as Fernand Léger [1881-1955] and Francis Picabia [1879-1953], as well as US painters such as Charles Sheeler [1883-1965], Georgia O'Keeffe [15 Nov 1887 – 06 Mar 1986], and Gerald Murphy [1888-1964]. Steichen, who was extremely active in the modernist communities of Paris and New York, would have been closely familiar with this new, post-cubist tendency. Le Tournesol stands apart, however, for its boldly simplified manner and its striking, off-key palette. Even more than other paintings of the period around World War I, Le Tournesol recalls the sculptures of Steichen's friend Constantin Brancusi [21 Feb 1876 – 16 Mar 1957] (whom he photographed during the 1920s). Indeed, Steichen's vase bears a remarkable formal kinship to Brancusi's Maiastra (1912), a swelling, streamlined figure of a bird in polished bronze that Steichen set in a dramatic installation in the garden at Voulangis. Like Brancusi's bird, Le Tournesol is a highly refined synthesis of organic and industrial form. Le Tournesol was exhibited at the Salon d'automne in Paris in 1922, an important venue for new painting.
(a fashion photo) (1935; 570x469pix, 141kb) —(060313)

1937 Georges Valmier, French painter, collagist, draftsman, and stage designer, born on 10 (04?) April 1885. A few years younger than most of the Cubists with whom he became associated, he received a traditional art education at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1906 to 1910. He did not participate in any of the manifestations of Cubism that took place before World War I. His interest in the movement appears to have developed under the influence of Albert Gleizes, who painted his portrait while both served near the front in the 167th regiment at Toul in 1914–1915. By 1916 Valmier was making small and very delicate collages markedly different from those of Picasso, Braque, or Gris, composed of minutely fragmented surfaces.

^ 1873 Wilhelm Nicolai Marstrand's strand of earthly life ends. He was a Copenhagen Danish painter and illustrator born on 24 December 1810. He was a student of C. W. Eckersberg at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1825–1833). His art reflects his constant observation of the world around him, in particular middle-class society, and the narrative element dominated his pictures of crowds in the city streets. Throughout his life he sought inspiration from literature and the theatre. In his early genre painting Moving Day Scene (1831.) it was the popular novelty of vaudeville that interested him. The October Festival (1839) reveals how Marstrand’s five-year stay (1836–1841) in Italy opened his eyes to the classical ideal of beauty. It was, however, an ideal that found little response in contemporary Denmark, and he turned towards a more anecdotal and humorous approach. In Scene of Country Life (1843), painted as a set subject for the Kunstakademi, Marstrand took as his theme a scene from Erasmus Montanus, a play by the 18th-century Danish poet and playwright Ludvig Holberg. Thereafter Holberg’s comedies provided an inexhaustible source that satisfied Marstrand’s need to pursue his investigations of human character. Family life similarly interested him throughout his career, as in his Scene of Daily Life (1857). Such group portraits as The Waagepetersen Family (1836) show an equal concern to depict the quiet details of Danish domestic life. Marstrand continued to travel abroad in search of inspiration. His stay in Venice in 1853–1854 was particularly important; his studies there of the great Venetian painters improved his understanding of the handling of color, as seen clearly in the many historical and religious paintings of his last years. Of particular interest is his mural decoration of Christian IV’s chapel in Roskilde Cathedral (1864–1866) with scenes from the life of the Danish monarch. Marstrand’s paintings have a certain facetiousness which often obscures a much deeper philosophical content. For this reason, it is his drawings that arouse more admiration; they capture the spirit of his time with sharp satire. — The students of Marstrand included Michael Ancher, Carl Bloch, P. S. Krøyer, Kristian Zahrtmann.

1874 Hermania Sigvardine Neegard, Danish artist born on 12 August 1799.

Born on a 25 March:

^ 1888 Gerald Clery Murphy, US painter, stage designer, and businessman, who died on 17 October 1964. The son of the founder of the Mark Cross Company, a New York leather-goods and specialty store, Gerald graduated from Yale University (1912) and attended the Harvard School of Landscape Design (1918–1920). On 30 December 1915 he married Sara Sherman Wiborg [07 Nov 1883 – 10 Oct 1975], from a well-to-do Cincinnati family. In 1921 they moved to Europe, taking an apartment in Paris and three years later settling also into Villa America, their home in Antibes, where they received guests and gave parties. Gerald became a creditable painter and stage designer, painting sets for Serge Diaghilev's ballets and a Cole Porter ballet, Within the Quota (1923). Both Gerald and Sara had a passionate interest in the currents of art, literature, and music of the period, and their home became something of a salon. During the 1920s and early '30s they befriended and hosted such artists and writers as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, Archibald MacLeish, Dorothy Parker, Pablo Picasso, Fernand Léger, Igor Stravinsky, and Cole Porter. Fitzgerald's novel Tender Is the Night (1934) was dedicated to the couple (who intensely disliked it), and its main characters, Dick and Nicole Diver, were patterned on the Murphys. Sara Murphy sat for several paintings by Picasso, including Woman in White (1922). In 1933 Gerald and Sara returned permanently to the US (their eldest son having contracted tuberculosis, from which he died in 1937; another son died suddenly in 1935 of meningitis). Gerald took over his family's Mark Cross business, which had been nearly bankrupted by the Great Depression, and restored it, expanding its specialty and import items. He retired in 1956.
— Gerald Murphy was part of the so-called Lost Generation, a group of expatriate artists and writers who flourished between the World Wars in Paris. For Gerald and Sarah Murphy, Paris afforded distance from Gerald’s wealthy family and the opportunity for him to pursue his chosen career as a painter. The Murphys arrived in Paris in 1921, where they quickly became fixtures in a cosmopolitan group that included poet Archibald MacLeish, writers Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald, composer Cole Porter, and painters Fernand Léger and Pablo Picasso.
     Paris energized Murphy as the US could not. Inspired by the cubists and Russian constructivists, Murphy created paintings in which patterns of line, color, and form dominate the depiction of familiar objects. His background in mechanical and architectural drawing lent itself to this tendency toward abstraction. His subject matter reflected his outlook, as in his own words life in Paris was “fresh, new and invented.”
      Murphy is better remembered as a model for the character of Dick Diver in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Tender is the Night. He ceased painting in 1929, his attention increasingly taken up with the illnesses and eventual deaths of both of his sons. In all, he may have produced fewer than twenty paintings.
— Despite his small oeuvre, Murphy is very highly regarded as a superb Precisionist painter. Murphy and his wife, Sara Wiborg Murphy, moved to Paris in 1921 and very quickly became important figures in the US expatriate community there and their friends included Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald and John Dos Passos. Born in Boston, he moved to New York when his father relocated his company, Mark Cross & Co. He was educated at Hotchkiss and Andover and graduated from Yale University in 1912. As a student Murphy had no interest in art and was discouraged from pursuing the arts by his dislike of Emanuel Leutze's Washington Crossing the Delaware, which he viewed on numerous childhood trips to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Murphy became his brief and shining career as a painter when he saw a group of paintings by Picasso, Matisse, Braque, and Gris in the Paul Rosenberg Gallery of the Rue La Boétie shortly after arriving in Paris. 'My reaction to the color and form was immediate. To me three was something in these painting was instantly sympathetic and comprehensible.' He remembers telling his wife, Sara, 'If that's painting, that's what I want to do.' Exhilarated by his discovery, Murphy and Sara immediately enrolled in painting lessons from Natalia Goncharova, a peripheral member of the Russian Constructivist movement who had come to Paris with the Diaghilev Ballet. Up to that point, Murphy's only experience in the arts was derived from mechanical drawing courses that he completed during two years that he spent studying landscape architecture. His previous disinterest in the arts put Murphy in a unique situation; unlike other US painters who began formal training in the US before setting sail for Paris, Murphy's knowledge of modernism came directly from Europe and his limited formal training contributed to the singular purity of his style. Deeply committed to his art, Murphy worked diligently to develop his own modern style Murphy's relationship with Goncharova was equally significant in that it put him in contact with the leading members of the Parisian avant-garde. His rare works were favored by painters, dancers, actors, and writers alike, and were exhibited annually at the Salons des Indépendents from 1923 to 1926. He generally produced two painting per year, as his methodical technique was slow and exacting. It was not unusual for him to work for months on a single painting, and he is known to have gone so far as to paint some details with a single-hair brush. Murphy played a pivotal role that he played in the history of modern painting. Léger was widely quoted as stating that 'Gerald Murphy is the only American painter in Paris.' Murphy's distinct painting style reflected the influence of Constructivism in its clarity and simplicity, Cubism in its incorporation of collage an schematic representation of space, and Futurism in its linearity and incorporation of text. In 1928 Murphy's career was cut short when his youngest son, Patrick, contracted tuberculosis. The artist dropped everything, including his painting, to move the family to the Swiss Alps and devote himself to restoring his son's health.
Watch (1925, 199x200cm; 490x491pix, 87kb) _ In March of 1925, Murphy exhibited Watch at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris. His largest surviving canvas, Watch may be viewed as a synthetic cubist interpretation of a watchmaker’s trade sign. In a letter, Murphy wrote that he was “always struck by the mystery and depth of the interiors of a watch — its multiplicity, variety, and feeling of movement, and man’s grasp at perpetuity.” Beginning with a carefully limned drawing on graph paper, Murphy exploded and pieced together two specific timepieces: a railroad watch, designed for the Mark Cross Company (run by Murphy’s father, and eventually by Murphy himself), and a gold pocket watch, which his daughter Honoria recalled was often left propped open to reveal its inner workings. Murphy’s composition retains the outline of a pocket watch; however, the artist has fractured, rotated, and overlapped its individual components. Even the palette contributes to the resulting visual tension, as vibrant shades of orange and yellow share boundaries with a range of cooler blues and grays. Compressing simultaneous glimpses of face, back, springs, and gears, Watch examines the dichotomy between the resolute predictability of time and the fragility of the mechanism for measuring it.
Razor (1924, 81x93cm; 400x400pix, 60kb) _ Often Murphy recorded his ideas in a notebook, waiting for his thoughts to crystallize before beginning the painting. His entry for Razor reads: “Picture: razor, fountain pen; etc. in large scale nature morte big match box.” In the painting, Murphy has paired a fountain pen and a safety razor (both recent American inventions), crossed in heraldic fashion, in front of a matchbook cover. Although Murphy declared his lack of interest in modern advertising art, Razor's dependence on graphic design principles is clear. His vision instead may stem from his passion for folk art, notably trade signs that employed pictures of the items for sale. Murphy appreciated their bold designs and strong color. Razor is, in this sense, a thoroughly modern update of an earlier US advertising idiom.
Cocktail (1927, 74x76cm; 483x500pix, 49kb) _ This painting displays the elements of Gerald Murphy's own cocktail tray in his home in France. He was famous for his cocktails. In fact, one of his US friends, Phillip Berry, said that he mixed drinks like a priest preparing for Mass. The style of the picture is very characteristic of Murphy. It is a Cubist painting, but with certain characteristics that are very definitely Murphy's own individual style. Murphy was very proud that Picasso was said to have said once, "He paints in a very Amurrican style."
Library (425x297pix, 23kb)

^ 1876 Alson Skinner Clark, US artist who died in 1949. — LINKS
The Court of Montazuma (1922)
Autumn Blaze

1849 Alexander Pope, US artist who died in 1924.

1840 (26 Mar?) Gustave-Achille Guillaumet, French painter and writer who died on 14 March 1887. He was a student of François-Edouard Picot, Alexandre Abel de Pujol, and Félix Barrias. After failing to win the Prix de Rome in historical landscape in 1861, he impulsively visited Algeria the following year; this journey, which he repeated ten times, determined his development as an Orientalist painter. He was a regular exhibitor at the Salon from 1861 where his combination of picturesque realism and academic composition was positively received by the State as illustrative of its Algerian policies (e.g. Evening Prayer in the Sahara, 1863).

Celebrated on 25 March (but on 04 April 2005, because 25 April 2005 is Good Friday; and on 26 March in years when 25 March is a Sunday):
^ 0001 The Annunciation, first day of Christian Era, according to Dionysius.
      Roman Church historian Dionysius Exiguus (ca.500–550), in calculating his history of the Christian Church, took this day as the supposed date of the Annunciation. March 25th afterward became the first day of the calendar year, until the Gregorian Calendar Reform of 1582 changed the day to January first.
      In chronology Dionysius has left his mark conspicuously, for it was he who introduced the use of the Christian Era (see Chronology) according to which dates are reckoned from the Incarnation, which he assigned to 25 March, in the year 754 from the foundation of Rome (A. U. C.). By this method of computation he intended to supersede the "Era of Diocletian" previously employed, being unwilling, as he tells us, that the name of an impious persecutor should be thus kept in memory. The Era of the Incarnation, often called the Dionysian Era, was soon much used in Italy and, to some extent, a little later in Spain; during the eighth and ninth centuries it was adopted in England. Charlemagne is said to have been the first Christian ruler to employ it officially. It was not until the tenth century that it was employed in the papal chancery (Lersch, Chronologie, Freiburg, 1899, p. 233). Dionysius also gave attention to the calculation of Easter, which so greatly occupied the early Church. To this end he advocated the adoption of the Alexandrian Cycle of nineteen years, extending that of St. Cyril for a period of ninety-five years in advance. It was in this work that he adopted the Era of the Incarnation.

The angel's visit to Mary inspires great paintings over a thousand years later, and here are links to some of the best, created by:
.Berruguete /.Botticelli / .Bougeron / .Campin / .Caravaggio / .Crivelli / .Fra Angelico / .El Greco / .Andrea del Sarto / .Gurschner / .Gentileschi / .Grünewald / .Hacker (that's his name, and he died long before computers) / .Lippi / .Murillo / .Núñez / .Van Eyck / .Rossetti / .Snyder / .Lastman / .and many others (MORE LINKS)

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