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ART “4” “2”-DAY  24 March v.7.20
^ Died on 24 March 1888: Charles-Théodore Frère “ frère Bey”, French painter specialized in Orientalism, born on 21 June 1814. He was the brother of Pierre Édouard Frère [10 Jan 1819 – 20 May 1886]. — {Ce dernier aurait dû devenir moine: il aurait été le Frère Frère frère de Frère ...}
— Frère began his career painting the French countryside, but during a stay in Algeria in 1837 he was attracted to the Islamic world and from that time on he exhibited only oriental scenes and landscapes, and views of Eastern cities and interiors. In 1861 he made his final visit to the eastern Mediterranean, traveling in the party of the Empress Eugénie [05 May 1826 – 11 Jul 1920].

A View of Beni Souef, Egypt (46x38cm)
Interior of a Moorish Café (21x39cm)
Jerusalem from the Environs (1881, 75x111cm) _ This may be a work that Frère exhibited at the Salon of 1881, View of Jerusalem from the Valley of the Jehoshaphat. It was undoubtedly painted from an earlier study or a photograph. The meticulous style, like that of Gérôme [11 May 1824 – 10 Jan 1904], was based on the technique and paint handling of Ingres [29 Aug 1780 – 14 Jan 1867] and his students.
Les Chameliers Buvant le Thé (1855, 65x55cm)
A Market Place, Cairo (62x40cm)
Along The Nile (97x130cm)
An Arab Encampment (74x92cm)
Halte à L'Oasis (44x72cm)
The Souk (46x31cm)
A Street In Damascus (35x26cm)
A Street In Cairo
Sunset On The Nile (46x65cm)
^ Born on 24 March 1767: Jacques~Laurent Agasse, in London, Swiss English painter specialized in animals, who died on 27 December 1849. — {Agasse a dû se rendre compte qu'un animal qu'on agace ne fait pas un bon sujet pour un tableau}
— Born into a wealthy and politically influential Huguenot family, Agasse spent his early childhood at the country estate of Crévin, where he may have developed the interest in animals and natural history that was to guide his later career as an artist in England. Agasse was trained first at the École du Colibri in his native Geneva and subsequently in Paris under Jacques-Louis David (beginning in 1787) and possibly under Horace Vernet. His early artistic output consisted chiefly of unpretentious silhouette ‘cut-outs’ in the style of Jean-Daniel Huber. At this time he also undertook a serious study of dissection and veterinary science.

The Nubian Giraffe (1827)
White Horse in Pasture (1807)
The Last Stage on the Portsmouth Road (1815; _ ZOOM to 1400x1745pix, 464kb)
Landing at Westminster Bridge (1818)
The Flower Seller (1822)
The Playground (1830, 54x45cm; 750x607pix, 82kb _ ZOOM to 2469x2024pix, 277kb)
Stallinneres (23x28cm)
Lord Rivers's Groom Leading a Chestnut Hunter towards a Coursing Party in Hampshire (1807, 66x62cm; 512x471pix, 26kb)
Starting out to the Hunt (600x711pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1660pix, 454kb)
Two Goats ( 600x1307pix _ ZOOM to 1400x3050pix, 581kb)
Rolla and Portia (1805; 600x480pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1119pix, 315kb) two dogs
–- Daniel Beale at his Farm in Edmonton With His Favourite Horse (746x900pix, 70kb _ .ZOOM to 1305x1575pix, 158kb) the horse is the main subject; two men are far into the background.
–- The Chalon Family in London (558x800pix, 57kb) the four women are busy working at their sewing or knitting, while the man is idle, chatting with a neighbor over the fence. No animal (!!!)
–- A Horse (631x799pix, 35kb) just the horse, on a blank white background.
–- Fox Lying Down (415x900pix, 62kb)
–- The Thames at Westminster Looking Towards Lambeth (892x1333pix, 83kb) view framed by an arch of a bridge, with people in the foreground. No animal (!!!)
–- Pointer in a Landscape (670x800pix, 54kb) it is pointing at something on the ground outside the frame, probably a rabbit's burrow.
^ Died on 24 March 1476 (at the earliest): Antonio Vivarini da Murano, Italian painter born in 1415. His date of death is uncertain and may have been any between 24 March 1476 and 24 April 1484. Antonio Vivarini became prominent in Venetian painting about 1440, producing many joint works with his brother-in-law Giovanni d’Alemagna [–1450]. Antonio also often collaborated with his younger brother Bartolomeo Vivarini [–>1500], and the family dynasty remained important until the death of Antonio’s son, Alvise Luigi Vivarini [1450-1505].
— Vivarini, family of Venetian painters of the mid- and late 15th century, descended from a family of glassworkers active in Murano. Their work represents a transition from the traditional stylized Gothic- and Byzantine-inspired school to the more realistic Renaissance-influenced manner of the 1500s. The brothers Antonio Vivarini and Bartolomeo Vivarini (birth date 1432 is fake) collaborated on religious polyptychs with linear, often stiff figures and vertical architectural backgrounds, all enclosed in ornate gilded frames. Alvise Vivarini was the son of Antonio. Because of the collective nature of much Vivarini workshop activity, connoisseurs have remained unusually confused about Antonio’s work, and attributions, particularly as regards his late work, are often misleading. After Giovanni d’Alemagna’s death, Antonio probably continued to produce independent works but also collaborated with Bartolomeo; from about 1460 he ran the workshop alone.
— Antonio Vivarini's students included Carlo Crivelli.

The Miracle of the Fire of Saint Peter Martyr Before the Sultan (1445, 52x34cm; 599x392pix, 42kb _ ZOOM to 1920x1256pix, 207kb)
Marriage of Saint Monica (1441, 46x31cm) _ This small panel, together with others which have recently been identified, made up an altar-piece dedicated to Saint Monica in the Church of San Stefano in Venice. The domestic scene is set in the courtyard of a bourgeois household and embodies Antonio Vivarini's timid attempts at rendering spacial perspective. It demonstrates too the extent to which his world, suspended between the new and the old, acknowledged the importance of Renaissance rules. In contrast with the uncertain definition of the architecture in terms of perspective, the details of costume and the physical and spiritual gestures of the characters are carefully recorded.
Triptych (1446, 339x200cm central, 339x138cm each side) _ In this grandiose triptych Antonio Vivarini, helped by his brother-in-law Giovanni d'Alemagna (active 1441-1450), achieved a highpoint of balance between the International Gothic tradition now in decline, and the rising Renaissance. A natural light lends tenderness to the holy figures. The Virgin, however, sits rigid like a Byzantine empress on a Gothic throne, surrounded by Masolinoesque angels who are holding the poles of the high canopy almost as if it were a game. The saints Gregory and Jerome on the left and Ambrose and Augustine on the right, stand immobile in their heavy ecclesiastical garments shining with gold and color. The holy scene appears constrained by the marble walls with their Gothic fretwork, set in a perspective as improbable as it is ostentatious. The sumptuous static scene is a final dazzling reminder of a fairy-tale world. _ detail _ The picture representing Saints Gregory and Jerome is the left canvas of the triptych _ detail 2 _ The picture representing the Enthroned Virgin and Child is the central canvas of the triptych. _ detail 3 _ The picture representing Saints Ambrose and Augustine is the right canvas the triptych.
Virgin and Child (1441, 56x41cm) _ While at Padua and even in Venice itself some of the main figures of the new art of Tuscany were working to the laws of perspective and in the conviction of the conscious dignity of man as an individual, Venetian painting reacted to the promptings of the new culture almost with reluctance, filtering them through a vision which in substance was still Gothic. This is the context of the work of Antonio Vivarini and Jacopo Bellini [1400-1470], both founders of dynasties of artists, and both crucial figures in the period of transition in Venice from the first to the second half of the fifteenth century. This Madonna and Child belongs to Antonio Vivarini's earliest period and is characterized by a certain plasticity of shape and form arising out of the gentle throbbing of the chiaroscuro and the luminous timbre of the color.

Died on a 24 March:

1977 Conrad Felixmuller (or Felix Muller), German printmaker, born (main coverage) on 21 May 1897. —(060213)

1948 Sigrid Maria Hjerten, Swedish painter born on 27 October 1885.
— (black woman) (484x370pix, 174kb) —(060213)

^ 1921 Marcus C. Stone, London English painter born on 04 July 1840. He was trained by his father Frank Stone [22 Aug 1800 – 18 Nov 1859] and inherited from him the patronage and friendship of Charles Dickens [07 Feb 1812 – 09 Jun 1870], who invited him to illustrate Our Mutual Friend (1865). Stone’s naturalistic style transferred awkwardly to engraving, and he did not have the impact of his distinguished predecessors. He also illustrated for Cornhill Magazine, but found working on a small scale restrictive, so, disillusioned by the tepid response of Anthony Trollope [24 Apr 1815 – 06 Dec 1882] to his designs for He Knew He Was Right (1869), he gradually abandoned illustration for a successful career as a painter. His early paintings include such subjects from military history as On the Road from Waterloo (1863). He later specialized in themes of romantic tribulation; such pictures as In Love (1888) and Il y en a toujours un autre were widely known through engravings. He was among the first of several Victorian artists to commission a house from Richard Norman Shaw [07 May 1831 – 17 Nov 1912] in Melbury Road (no. 8; 1875–1876), London.— LINKS
Two's Company, Three's None _ Two's Company, Three's None

1877 Léon-Adolphe-Auguste Belly, French academic orientalist painter born on 10 March 1827. He studied briefly under the history painter François-Edouard Picot, then was trained by the landscape specialist Constant Troyon. Early in Belly's career Belly showed a dual interest in Orientalist exoticism (but where are the Belly belly dancers?} and naturalistic views of the French landscape. He first traveled to the Near East in 1850 as part of an archeological expedition; he had the job of making pictures of the ruins and landscapes they encountered. He would make his own journeys beginning in 1855 in which he spent a year in old Cairo before traveling to the Sinai desert. Later with artists such as Gérôme he would explore the Nile valley. On these trips his personal style would evolve that emphasized the vastness of the landscape. He was influenced by the Near Eastern scenes of Alexandre Decamps and Prosper Marilhat but in 1849 visited Barbizon, where he admired the works of Théodore Rousseau, Millet, and Corot. — LINKS
View of Shubra (1862; _ ZOOMable)
Pélerins allant à La Mecque (1861; 661x1000pix, 316kb, _ ZOOMable to 1833x2774pix, 1311kb) In this his most famous work, Belly ludicrously includes in the half-distance Joseph, Mary, the infant Jesus, and a donkey “to illustrate the universality of religion”. Buddha does not seem to have come along, presumably because he prefers to just sit on his crossed legs._ related article: Jesus and Mary in Islam.
Palmiers, Ile de Rodah (1857, 45x38cm; (500x392pix, 32kb)
Fellah halant une dahbieh (32x22cm; 550x353pix, 27kb)
Campement près de la Mer Morte (20x35cm; 418x735pix, 36kb)
Rives du Nil (35x55cm; 496x749pix, 46kb)
(old man being helped off a camel?) (20x23cm; 595x700pix, 53kb)
Buffaloes bathing in the Nile (1861; 396x581pix, 41kb) —(060212)

^ 1859 James Stark, English painter born on 19 November 1794. His father, Michael Stark, was a Scottish dyer who had settled in Norwich. James Stark first exhibited in Norwich in 1809 and in London in 1811. In 1811 he became articled to John Crome before moving to London in 1814; there he met William Collins, who became a friend and influenced his work. His first success came when the Dean of Windsor, the Hon. Edward Legge, bought his picture The Bathing Place, Morning (1815). Later patrons included the Marquess of Stafford, George Granville Leveson-Gower [1758–1833] and Sir George Beaumont and the Academicians Thomas Phillips and Sir Francis Chantrey. Stark enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1817 but returned to Norwich due to ill-health in 1819. In 1821 he married Elizabeth Younge Dinmore of King’s Lynn, and they moved to London in 1830. His wife died three years after the birth of their son, Arthur James Stark [1831–1902], who also became a painter, assisting his father during the 1850s.
Woody Landscape (52x81cm)
A Hillside Covered with Gorse-Scrub (41x50cm)

^ >1825 Jean Frédéric Schall (or Challe), French painter born on 14 March 1752. — {When shall Schall have the recognition he deserves?}— He studied at the École Publique de Dessin in Strasbourg about 1768 and in 1772 was admitted to the Académie Royale in Paris, where he was a pupil of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié between 1776 and 1779. He did not become a member of the Académie and so could not exhibit at the Salon until the French Revolution. He worked for private patrons, producing erotic and pastoral subjects in a style influenced by François Boucher, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Pierre-Antoine Baudouin; many of these pictures achieved popularity in the form of engravings. His most distinctive paintings are single figures of dancers and young ladies in soft, picturesque landscape settings (e.g. A Dancer). In 1794 he painted the Heroism of William Tell but this politically engaged subject was exceptional in his output. Although he continued to paint erotic scenes such as the Peeping Toms, his later paintings have a delicate, evocative character that suggests the influence of Pierre-Paul Prud’hon. The moralizing theme and detailed finish of the False Appearance, which was awarded a prize in the Salon of 1798, demonstrate Schall’s ability to adapt both style and content to changing tastes. He also illustrated narrative scenes from historical and literary sources, from which series of prints were made, notably by Charles-Melchior Descourtis. Despite the variety of styles in which he worked, Schall is chiefly of interest as a belated exponent of the Rococo whose work became a major source for the Rococo Revival at the time of his death.
La Sultana Valida (18x15cm oval; 954x800pix, 153kb _ ZOOM to 1549x1297pix, kb)
–- Jolie Jardinière au Chapeau de Paille (799x601pix, 69kb)
–- Marchande de Fleurs au Tablier Rouge (799x600pix, 60kb)
Le billet doux (33x27cm; 512x405pix, 132kb). _ A partly dressed woman is leaning on a table, looking languidly at a love letter resting on some flowers. —(070323)

1759 Chong Son (or Wonbaek; Kyomjae, Kyomno, Nankok) Seoul Korean artist born on 03 January 1676. —(060213)

1753 Johann Joachim Dietrich, German artist born in 1690. —(060213)

^ >1717 (burial) Marmaduke Luke Cradock, English painter, specialized in fowl pictures, born in 1660.
–- A Peacock, two Pigeons, a Pheasant, and two Partridges (483x900pix, 49kb) they are before the steps of a mansion.
–- A Silver Houdon Hen With Chicks (785x900pix, 65kb) in need of restauration _ grainy image. —(070324)

1493 Francesco di Simone Ferrucci Fiesolano (or da Fiesole, Italian artist born in Fiesole in 1437. —(060213)

Born on a 24 March:

1929 Angela Gurria, Mexican sculptor. — (060213)

1911 Jane Beverley Drew, English architect who died on 27 July 1996. — (060323)

^ 1908 Jorge González Camarena, Mexican painter who died on 24 May 1980. He was born in Guadalajara. He studied under Mateo Herrera and Francisco Díaz de León at the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts and in 1925 was chosen by Dr. Atl to illustrate his book Las iglesias de México. From 1932 to 1933 he lived in Huejotzingo, where, commissioned by the Director of Colonial Monuments, he restored the frescoes of the XVI Century convent. He painted several murals: México (Seguro Social Building); Germination, Coatlicue, The Presence of Latin America (Santiago de Chile), Life and Industry, The Conquest. He also created monumental sculptures in diverse cities of Mexico. His easel paintings are mostly illustrative of scenes indigenous to Mexico.
Perro de circo (1932, 37x29cm; 850x692pix, 122kb)
El abrazo (1980; 590x838pix, 84kb)
Diablillo Filarmónico (1980; 936x752pix, 98kb)
Teocallis (619x800pix, 50kb)
El Casco (637x800pix, 48kb)
La humanidad se libera de la miseria (1963, 450x993cm) —(060212)

1895 Bohuslav Fuchs, Czech architect who died on 18 September 1972. —(060213)

^ >1891Annie Caroline Pontifex “Charley” Toorop, Dutch painter who died on 06 November 1955; daughter of Jan Toorop [20 Dec 1858 – 03 Mar 1928]. — 1897 portrait of Charley Toorop (26x22cm; 400x337pix, 27kb) by her father.
Zelfportret met bontkraag (1940, 40x30cm; 1370x1013pix, 379kb) _ Toorop heeft in totaal 17 zelfportretten geschilderd. Het laatste schilderde zij in 1955: het jaar van haar overlijden. In het Zelfportret met bontkraag heeft zij zichzelf op 49-jarige leeftijd afgebeeld. Een licht grijze verkleuring bij haar haargrens en de scherpe lijnen in voorhoofd en bij de ogen doen haar leeftijd vermoeden. De bontkraag plaatst het portret terug in de tijd, maar verder heeft zij weinig ruimte gelaten voor detaillering van de omgeving waardoor het geheel iets tijdloos krijgt. De kleuren in de linkerbovenhoek stellen de onderkant van een schilderpalet voor. Deze had Toorop in haar atelier in Bergen aan de muur hangen. Het frontale gezicht heeft zij iets uit het midden geplaatst, waardoor de rechterzijde van het hoofd een fractie afgesneden wordt door het kader. Door de frontaliteit van het gezicht valt het verschil in beide ogen nog eens extra op. Haar linker oog is beduidend groter en in tint iets donkerder. De intense blik lijkt de beschouwer op het eerste gezicht te willen doorboren, maar hoe langer er naar de ogen gekeken wordt, hoe meer zij zich naar binnen keren. Charley maakt in juli 1940 melding van dit zelfportret in een brief aan haar goede vrienden, de familie Schorer: “Ik ben geregeld bezig aan luchtige dingen, bloemen in de tuin omdat ik die op het ogenblik verkopen kan, maar ook aan een klein zelfportretje.” _ This painting, with its bright side and its dark side, has inspired the pseudonymous Charlie “Horse” Threeropes to make the nightmarish double portraits (or masks?)
      _ Shelf Portrait Met Bonfire aka Poor Root (2006; screen filling, 154kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 561kb) and the even scarier
      _ Zeal Port Rate aka Par Rat (2006; screen filling, 372kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 1811kb) _ Then, one year later, Threerope has further modified this into the twin portraits
      _ Sell Poor Trait (2007; 724x1024pix, 446kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 867kb _ ZOOM+ to 1448x2048pix, 1630kb) and
      _ Sole Pork Rat (2007; 724x1024pix, 446kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 867kb _ ZOOM+ to 1448x2048pix, 1630kb)
–- Leidsegracht, Amsterdam (624x841pix, 74kb)
–- Klein Stillleven (1261x1200pix, 169kb) in this image you can examine minutely the texture of the canvas.
–- Beemster, Bloeiende Boom (1940, 76x105cm; 600x838pix, 129kb) _ Charley Toorop was a great admirer of Vincent van Gogh. She was deeply moved by the way van Gogh saw and painted reality. Through van Gogh’s work she could break free, artistically, from her father, Jan Toorop. For her, it meant a breakthrough to a new world. Like van Gogh, Charley took the real world as a starting point. She never reproduced the real world photographically, but formed reality into her own image, her own reality. She tried to paint the essence of things. Charley knew all the important art movements and in her early work influences of luminism and cubism can be seen. In the thirties she worked tirelessly on her own style. Eventually, after a long search, she came to a very personal, powerful form of expressionism which is best classified with the term neo-realism, but Charley was never part of a specific movement or school. A very personal characteristic is the monumental way in which she approached her work. In 1934 Charley started painting outdoors. Since then, she painted the blossoms in the spring and the fruit on the trees in the autumn every year, like a returning cycle. Charley was very close to nature and studied it thoroughly. She was always conscious though, that she was the observer, the translator of the world around her. She had to leave the studio/house "de Vlerken", which had been a meeting place for friends of her, like Eva Besnyo, Pyke Koch, Gerrit Rietveld and many others, because of the evacuation of Bergen in 1943. From the 1st of March 1943 Charley stayed at several addresses. For lack of a studio, she painted outdoors a lot. During her stay in de Beemster in 1943 she worked on Bloeiende Boom. This work clearly and convincingly shows her conflict between expressionism and realism. A canvas filling cutdown of a tree, full of blossom, through which we can see the shimmering blue of the spring sky. Through an expressive style of painting with clear and bold brushstrokes, she has captured spring: powerful and tender at the same time. — (060212)

1878 René Baudichon, French medallist who died in 1963 —(060212)

^ 1931 José María Casado del Alisal, Spanish painter who died on 09 October 1886.
–- Odalisque (510x745pix, 70kb)
La rendición de Bailen (474x731pix, 39kb) —(060212)

1885 Vladimir Georgiyevich Gel'freykh, Russian architect who died on 07 August 1967. —(060213)

1862 Frank Weston Benson, US painter who died on (full coverage) on 15 November 1951. —(061026)

^ 1783 Paulin-Jean-Baptiste Guérin, French artist who died on 16 January 1855. — Relative? of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin [1774-1833]? of Jean-Urbain Guérin [1760-1836]?
Hugues-Félicité-Robert de Lamennais (1827; xpix, kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1141pix, 176kb) _ Félicité Robert de La Mennais fut une des personnalités intellectuelles les plus marquantes de la Restauration et de la monarchie de Juillet. Né en 1782, ordonné prêtre en 1815, il s’affirme très vite comme l’un des défenseurs les plus actifs de la contre-révolution. Le premier volume de son Essai sur l’indifférence en matière de religion, ouvrage publié en 1817 dont on disait qu’il « réveillerait un mort »., est un immense succès de librairie. Sa défense des prérogatives de l’Eglise romaine ne l’empêche cependant pas d’être favorable à la liberté de la presse malgré les errements qu’elle peut favoriser (voir à ce sujet : De la religion considérée dans ses rapports avec l’ordre politique et civil, 1826 et Des progrès de la révolution et de la guerre contre l’Eglise, 1829). Lorsque ce tableau est peint, en 1827, La Mennais n’en est qu’au début d’un changement profond qui va s’accentuer après la révolution de 1830. Il fonde alors avec Montalembert et Lacordaire L’Avenir, quotidien dans lequel il prône un catholicisme libéral fondé sur la séparation de l’Eglise et de l’Etat. Cet engagement très marqué vaut au journal une condamnation par le pape Grégoire XVI (encyclique Mirari vos, 1832). Lamennais, qui a volontairement supprimé sa particule nobiliaire, rompt alors avec Rome et s’oriente vers un véritable socialisme. Le tableau conservé à Versailles est une réplique de l’original exposé au Salon de 1827 aujourd’hui conservé au musée des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Il fut lithographié par Z. Belliard en 1828, et l’estampe (480x427pix, 22kb) obtint un très grand succès. Elle était en vente aux bureaux du Mémorial catholique, publication que dirigea La Mennais sous la Restauration et dont naquit ensuite L’Avenir. La gravure tient alors une place essentielle dans une population encore largement illettrée. Tout autant que ses écrits, le portrait de Paulin-Guérin contribua ainsi à forger l’image d’un La Mennais austère, vivant avant tout d’une flamme intérieure inextinguible, tout entier dévoué à la propagation de ses idées et, en définitive, au bien commun et universel.
      La Mennais est représenté ici très simplement, de face, à mi-corps, assis dans un fauteuil rouge, écrivant à sa table. Tout l’intérêt du tableau se concentre ainsi sur sa physionomie, qui frappa tous ses contemporains. George Sand (Histoire de ma vie)en a laissé un portrait très vivant, qui semble parfaitement s’appliquer à l’œuvre de Paulin-Guérin : « M. Lamennais, petit, maigre et souffreteux, n’avait qu’un faible souffle de vie dans la poitrine. Mais quel rayon dans sa tête ! Son nez était trop proéminent pour sa petite taille et pour sa figure étroite. Sans ce nez disproportionné, son visage eût été beau. L’œil clair lançait des flammes; le front droit et sillonné de grands plis verticaux, indices d’ardeur dans la volonté, la bouche souriante et le masque mobile sous une apparence de contraction austère, c’était une tête fortement caractérisée pour une vie de renoncement, de contemplation et de prédication. Toute sa personne, ses manières simples, ses mouvements brusques, ses attitudes gauches, sa gaieté franche, ses obstinations emportées, ses soudaines bonhomies, tout en lui, jusqu’à ses gros habits propres, mais pauvres, et à ses bas bleus, sentait le cloarek [clerc] breton » .
François-Annibal d'Estrées (512x387pix, 52kb) _ D'Estrées [1573 – 05 May 1670] was a French diplomat and Field Marshal. —(060213)

^ 1775 Pauline Desmarquets (Desmarquet? Desmarquest??) Auzou, Parisian painter who died on 15 May 1835. After studying in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, at the age of 18 Auzou exhibited a Bacchante and a Study of a Head in the Salon of 1793. She exhibited regularly at the Salon until 1817. She was awarded a Prix d’Encouragement for Departure for a Duel in 1806 and a medal for Agnès de Méranie in 1808. In 1810 Vivant Denon drew the Emperor Napoleon’s attention to the ‘genre anecdotique’, which he maintained was unique to the French school. Denon cited Auzou as well as Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret, Jean-Antoine Laurent, Fleury-François Richard, and Adolphe-Eugène-Gabriel Roehn [1780-1867] among the practitioners of this distinctive genre.
— Born Jeanne Marie Catherine Desmarquest in Paris on March 24, 1775, she was adopted by a cousin, added La Chapelle to her last name, and used Pauline as her first. Under the tutelage of Jean-Baptiste Regnault, Auzou's early education included academic studies of male as well as female nude or semi-nude figures. Thus trained, she produced history paintings illustrating classical, mythological, medieval, and contemporary themes, as well as portraits and genre subjects. She began exhibiting at the Paris Salons in 1793 with a Bacchante, depicting a partially naked young girl, who encircles the bust of Bacchus with grapes and leaves. Later that year, she married the paper merchant Charles Marie Auzou and subsequently produced five children, four surviving infancy: two sons, one born in 1794, and two daughters. She continued exhibiting regularly at the Salons through 1817.
     Her numerous mythological subjects of the 1790s, apparently indebted to Regnault's style and themes, include Alcibiade et Timandra (Salon 1796) and Hébé (Salon 1799). In the 1800s, these were succeeded by works illustrating medieval and Renaissance themes, that is, troubadour paintings, including the well-received Agnès de Méranie (Salon 1808); Diane de France et Montmorency (Salon 1812); Noves et Alix de Provence and Boucicault et Mlle de Beaufort (both Salon 1817). With an expanding bourgeois clientele, she also produced genre scenes, many focusing on women and children, such as Deux jeunes femmes fesant [sic] de la musique (Salon 1796); Deux jeune filles lisant une lettre (Salon 1802); and Le Premier sentiment de la coquetterie (Salon 1804). In another genre painting, Départ pour le duel (Salon 1806), Auzou represented the life-size figure of a father tenderly looking at his sleeping family before departing to resolve a matter of honor. The subject, scale, colors, and sure paint strokes won her critical acclaim and a medal of honor in the following year.
     Her portraits concentrated on the individual sitter and detailed rendering of physiognomy, clothing, and accessories, as in Portrait of a Musician. Occasionally, she combined her interests in genre scenes and portraiture, as in M. Picard et sa famille (Salon 1808), where family members and friends offer a portrait to the invalid, Louis-Benoit Picard. This talent for amalgamating genres, along with her medal of honor, attracted the attention of the Bonaparte establishment, which called upon Auzou to create two works dealing with Napoleon's second wife. Both L'Arrivée de S.M. l'Impératrice, dans la galerie du château de Compiègne (Salon 1810) and S.M. l'Impératrice, avant son mariage... (Salon 1812) glorify Marie-Louise of Austria, at moments just prior to and following her marriage with the French emperor.
After 1800, Auzou maintained a studio for female students for over 20 years and for their benefit published Têtes d'études. She died in Paris.
     An attention to details, smooth paint surfaces, careful modeling of facial and bodily features, and an interest in light, both natural and artificial, cast on models and objects, are all features of Auzou's style. Her portraits, natural and truthful, have an immediacy and real presence. She was particularly good at rendering the facial expressions and bodily gestures of children, as in Le Premier sentiment de la coquetterie and L'Arrivée de S.M. l'Impératrice, dans la galerie du château de Compiègne. While her early work attracted little attention, in the 1800s critics took greater notice of her paintings. The significant commission of two Napoleonic history paintings of Marie-Louise make her particularly important.
L'Arrivée de S.M. l'Impératrice, dans la galerie du château de Compiégne (1810*; 555x469pix, 37kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1183pix, 225kb) _ Autant les tableaux témoignant des grands événements du règne de Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] sont nombreux, autant les tableaux contemporains le représentant dans l’intimité sont rares. C’est sans doute qu’un homme sacré, un homme providentiel comme lui, le Grand Homme qu’il était, ne pouvait s’abaisser à avoir une vie privée. Pourtant, si dans la réalité Napoléon n’eut en effet guère de loisirs à consacrer à sa vie privée, un élément demeurait en suspens: l'avenir de la dynastie. L’impératrice Joséphine devenue stérile, il fallait pourtant un héritier à l’Empereur. Le tableau de Pauline Auzou intervient donc dans une sorte de propagande montrant tous les espoirs placés par les Français dans l’avenir de Napoléon. En ce sens, ils sont plus que de simples scènes d’intimité. C'est bien l’attente d’une descendance assurée de Napoléon qui est peinte: c’est l'enthousiasme d’une descendance assurée par la belle mine de cette jeune fille blonde vêtue de rouge qu’était alors la nouvelle impératrice Marie-Louise [12 Dec 1791 – 17 Dec 1847].
     (*) Napoléon and Marie-Louise were married by proxy on 11 March 1810 in Vienna, which she left on 13 March 1810. Napoléon first met her on her way to Compiègne on 27 March 1810. The civil and religious contracts were done in Paris on 01 and 02 April 1810. The reception at Compiègne never took place as pictured by Isabey in a drawing, much less as in this painting of Auzou. The only child of Napoléon I and Marie-Louise, Napoléon “l'Aiglon” [20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832] was not yet born in 1810. So, if the picture was painted in 1810 or depicts an 1810 event, who is that baby in her arms? a forecast?
S.M. l'Impératrice, avant son mariage, et au moment de quitter sa famille, distribue les diamants de sa mère aux Archiducs et Archiduchesses ses frères et soeurs (1812; 336x453pix, 24kb) _ Marie-Louise of Austria is bidding farewell to her family in Vienna on 13 March 1810. —(060212)

1756 Thomas Gaugain, French painter and engraver, active in England, who died in 1812. He was born in France, but attended the Royal Academy in London and pursued an artistic career in England. He began by publishing engravings of his own paintings but gradually built up a successful business buying pictures and drawings by artists such as George Morland to engrave as decorative stipple engravings and sell to the export market.—(060313)

^ >1682 Mark Catesby, English naturalist, painter and graphic artist active in the American colonies, who died on 23 December 1749. His scientific expeditions to the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean (1712-1719 and 1722-1726) resulted in the first fully illustrated survey of the flora and fauna of the British Colonies in the Americas. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1731-1747) contains 220 hand-colored etchings. Catesby received lessons in etching from Joseph Goupy and made most of the plates after his own drawings in graphite, gouache and watercolor. He also produced several plates after drawings by John White, Georg Dionysius Ehret, Everhard Kick, and Claude Aubriet.— LINKS
The Great Booby (An Thymelaea foliis obtusis) (373x508pix, 56kb) it is NOT a self-portrait.
The red Wing'd Starling. The broad leaved candle-berry Myrtle
The Sole (Solea lunata) it is NOT from a shoe.
–- Spotted snake entwined around a leafy green plant with yellow flowers (hand-colored print, 35x52cm; 582x819pix, 44kb). —(060323)

1622 Osias Beert II (or Beet II), Antwerp Flemish painter who became a master in 1645 and died in 1678. He was the son of Osias Beert the Elder [1575-1624]

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