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ART “4” “2”-DAY  23 March v.9.20
^ Born on 23 March 1874: Henri-Charles Manguin, French Fauvist painter who died on 25 September 1949.
— He studied under Gustave Moreau at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from late 1894, making friends with his fellow students Albert Marquet, Henri Matisse, Jean Puy, and Georges Rouault, who were among those later to be labeled the Fauves when they exhibited together at the Salon d’Automne in 1905. Manguin’s Nude in the Studio (1903), in its rejection of local color, conspicuously broken brushstroke and subversion of traditional perspective, is an early example of his Fauvist style, which was considerably less revolutionary than that of Matisse or Maurice de Vlaminck. The picture is, however, given a personal twist by Manguin’s unusual framing devices and ambiguous space, for example in his use of a theoretically impossible reflection in a mirror to produce a picture within a picture. The disjunction that was noted at the time by Guillaume Apollinaire between Manguin’s use of heightened, unnaturalistic color and straightforward, almost academic drawing style is evident in a Self-portrait (1905), in which broadly brushed areas and patches of color break down traditional illusionism by drawing attention to the canvas surface.

Walk in Saint-Tropez (1905)
Fleurs (1915)
Paysage à Saint-Tropez (1905)
Matin à Cavaliere (1906)
^ Born on 23 March 1651: Jean-Baptiste Santerre, French painter who died on 21 November 1717. — {descendant de Jean Sans Terre? John Lackland [24 Dec 1167 – 18 Oct 1216]} {Etait-il sans terre Santerre?} {Un Santerre qui s'enterre sent la terre.}
— The 12th child of a merchant, he was apprenticed to the portrait painter Jean Lemaire before entering the busy studio of the history painter Bon Boullogne [bap. 22 Feb 1649 – 17 May 1717]. Although Santerre made some history paintings, he began to specialize in portraiture early in his career. The Portrait of Two Actresses (1699), clearly influenced by François de Troy, shows Santerre’s interest in the well-known portrait painters of his time. Nevertheless, he was among the first painters in France to absorb the influence of Rembrandt, as in Young Girl at a Window. In such portraits as Girl with a Veil (1699) he made an original contribution to French painting by successfully combining the fantasy portrait of northern tradition with the allegorical portrait currently fashionable in France.

Self~Portrait (90x80cm)
Suzanne au Bain (1704, 205x145cm; 1080x771pix, 103kb) _ Santerre was mainly a religious painter but his paintings lacked true inspiration. However, his Susanna at the Bath reveals an almost disturbing eroticism and something of that peculiarly chilly Rococo quality which is to be found in Falconet's nude statuettes. Few comparable pictures were to be produced at Venice, whereas Santerre initiates a whole troop of 'baigneuses' who go on dabbling with the erotic possibilities of water as late as Fragonard, all seeming ultimately to derive from Correggio's Leda. And out of this revolution was to come the achievement of Boucher as well as Fragonard.
Deux Actrices (1699, 146x114cm)
Marie Adélaïde de Savoie, Duchesse de Bourgogne (1709, 275x184cm)
Sainte Thérèse en Extase (1710, 267x171cm)
^ Born on 23 March 1857: Alphonse Osbert, French Symbolist painter who died on 11 August 1939.
— A student of Lehmann, Cormon and Bonnat at the Paris Beaux-Arts, his first love was Spanish art and the works of José Ribera. Subsequent encounters with Puvis de Chavannes, Séon, and Seurat led him to brighten his palette. At this time he also the adopted the themes characteristic of Symbolism and became a specialist in the subject of lyre-bearing classical Muses contemplating landscapes bathed in the setting sun. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and in the studios of Henri Lehmann, Fernand Cormon and Léon Bonnat. His Salon entry in 1880, Portrait of M. O., reflected his early attraction to the realist tradition of Spanish 17th-century painting. The impact of Impressionism encouraged him to lighten his palette and paint landscapes en plein air, such as In the Fields of Eragny (1888). By the end of the 1880s he had cultivated the friendship of several Symbolist poets and the painter Puvis de Chavannes, which caused him to forsake his naturalistic approach and to adopt the aesthetic idealism of poetic painting. Abandoning subjects drawn from daily life, Osbert aimed to convey inner visions and developed a set of pictorial symbols. Inspired by Puvis, he simplified landscape forms, which served as backgrounds for static, isolated figures dissolved in mysterious light. A pointillist technique, borrowed from Seurat, a friend from Lehmann’s studio, dematerialized forms and added luminosity. However, Osbert eschewed the Divisionists’ full range of hues in his choice of blues, violets, yellows and silvery green. Osbert’s mysticism is seen in his large painting Vision (1892). The Rosicrucian ideal of ‘art as the evocation of mystery, like prayer’ finds no better expression than the virginal figure of Faith, often interpreted as either Saint Geneviève or Saint Joan, set in a meadow with a lamb and enmeshed in an unearthly radiance. Such works were praised by Symbolist writers who considered them visual counterparts of the poetry of Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé and Maurice Maeterlinck. Osbert was called a ‘painter of evenings’, an ‘artist of the soul’ and a ‘poet of silence’ for his evocation of a mood of mystery and reverie.

Vision (1892; 137kb)
Evening in Antiquity (1908; 63kb)
The Muse at Sunrise (1918; 143kb)
Femme à la cruche (37x56cm; 408x635pix, 34kb)
^ Died on 23 March 1953: Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, born on 03 June 1877.
— From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing, at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre in evening classes given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier [1824–1898]. Dufy discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin, and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840) was a revelation to him. In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947. His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as Beach at Sainte-Adresse (1904)
— Georges Braque was a student of Dufy.

Regatta at Cowes (1935; 600x1420pix _ ZOOM to 1400x3313pix)
Regatta at Cowes (1934) _ very similar to the right half of the above.
Nice Open Window *_ Nice Window (1928) *
The Nice Casino (1927) * (Nice, the nice city on the French Riviera)
Deauville Basin (1935)
Three Umbrellas (1906)
La Place d'Hyères
^ >Born on 23 March 1887: “Juan Gris”, Spanish Cubist painter and sculptor born José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González Pérez. He died on 11 May 1927.
— Juan Gris was the Third Musketeer of Cubism, and actually pushed Cubism further to its logical conclusion until his ultimely death at the age of 39. With Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, he was one of the first and greatest exponents of the cubist idiom in painting.
         He adopted the pseudonym by which he is known after moving (1906) to Paris, where he lived as Picasso's friend and neighbor. Between 1907 and 1912 he watched closely the development of the cubist style and in 1912 exhibited his Homage to Picasso, which established his reputation as a painter of the first rank. He worked closely with Picasso and Braque until the outbreak of World War I, adapting what had been their intuitively generated innovations to his own methodical temperament.
      In the 1920s, Gris designed costumes and scenery for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. He also completed some of the boldest and most mature statements of his cubist style, with landscape-still lifes that compress interiors and exteriors into synthetic cubist compositions, such as Le Canigou (1921), and figure paintings, especially the fine series of clowns that includes Two Pierrots
—      Gris was born in Madrid. He studied mechanical drawing at the Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas in Madrid from 1902 to 1904, during which time he contributed drawings to local periodicals. From 1904 to 1905 he studied painting with the academic artist José Maria Carbonero. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he lived for most of the remainder of his life. His friends in Paris included Georges Braque, Fernand Léger, and Pablo Picasso and the writers Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, and Maurice Raynal. Although he continued to submit humorous illustrations to journals such as L’Assiette au beurre, Le Charivari, and Le Cri de Paris, Gris began to paint seriously in 1910. By 1912 he had developed a personal Cubist style.
      He exhibited for the first time in 1912: at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, Der Sturm gallery in Berlin, the Salon de la Société Normande de Peinture Moderne in Rouen, and the Salon de la Section d’Or in Paris. That same year D.-H. Kahnweiler signed Gris to a contract that gave Kahnweiler exclusive rights to the artist’s work. Gris became a good friend of Henri Matisse in 1914 and over the next several years formed close relationships with Jacques Lipchitz and Jean Metzinger. After Kahnweiler fled Paris at the outbreak of World War I, Gris signed a contract with Léonce Rosenberg in 1916. His first major solo show was held at Rosenberg’s Galerie l’Effort Moderne in Paris in 1919. The following year Kahnweiler returned and once again became Gris’s dealer.
      In 1922 Gris first designed ballet sets and costumes for Sergei Diaghilev. Gris articulated most of his aesthetic theories during 1924 and 1925. He delivered his definitive lecture, “Des possibilités de la peinture,” at the Sorbonne in 1924. Major Gris exhibitions took place at the Galerie Simon in Paris and the Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin in 1923 and at the Galerie Flechtheim in Düsseldorf in 1925. As his health declined, Gris made frequent visits to the south of France. He died in Boulogne-sur-Seine.

Still Life with whatchamacallit, thingamajig, and stuff (1917, 73x92cm; 600x764pix, 375kb _ you could zoom all the way to 1794x2283pix, 3054kb, but what for?) _ without any recognizable book (unusual for the artist) or any other clearly recognizable object except a crooked table with on it probably a bottle, and possibly a small scale model of a toilet commode, and what might be a wide transparent ruler. _ This being so, the pseudonymous Jean Noir has transformed this picture into the frankly abstract, colorful and finely detailed twin pictures
      _ Alembic d'Eau-de-Vie (2007; 724x1024pix, 204kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 446kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3730kb) and
      _ Steel Leaf (2007; 724x1024pix, 204kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 446kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3730kb) not to be confused with the more appropriately titled
      _ Steel Leaf (478x600pix, 90kb) photograph by Anon {ânon? ah non!}.
Still Life (1925; 600x739pix, 103kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x1769pix, 437kb) with defecating (?) violin.
Seated Harlequin (91x74cm; 1200x940pix, 774kb _ ZOOM not necessary to 2286x1791pix, 2416kb)
Picasso (1912, 93x74cm; 1107x912pix, 265kb)
Maurice Raynal (1912, 55x46cm; 1234x1016pix) _ Raynal [1884–1954] was an art critic.
Landscape with Houses in Céret (1913, 100x65cm; 1247x789pix, 230kb)
Landscape at Céret (1913, 92x60cm)
Open Window With Hills (1923, 73x92cm)
The Mountain "Le Canigou" (1921, 65x100cm) _ Gris continued to elaborate the theme of the open window in 1921, concluding with The Mountain Le Canigou painted at Céret in December. In it he returned to the juxtaposition of interior and exterior as separate and distinct. Whereas a sail became a triangle in The View Across The Bay, the mountain now assumes that form, much as it had for Kandinsky and Klee starting about 1910. Although there is no reason to believe that Gris knew of the works and writings from Munich, it is a remarkable coincidence to find him manipulating his favorite form of the Blaue Reiter artists in a similar manner. Perhaps Cézanne lies at the heart of those usages. At any rate, by making the mountain triangular and regularizing the form of the guitar, he was rendering the poetic juxtaposition in terms of object-emblems. Diagrammatic, too, is nature, as a blue triangle contains the triangular mountain and the white swatch of cloud. Opposed are the curved lines of the guitar. It and an open book epitomize art. As usual, the door is present both as a barrier and a means of entry.
Guitar and Fruit Dish (1918; 60x73cm)
Guitar and Fruit Dish (1919; 92x72cm)
Guitar and Fruit Dish (1921; 61x95cm)
163 images at the Athenaeum
^Buried on 23 March 1661: Pieter de Molyn, Dutch landscape painter, draftsman, and etcher of Flemish descent, born in London, and baptized there as an infant on 06 April 1595.
— His father, Pieter de Molijn, came from Ghent and his mother, Lynken van den Bossche, from Brussels. It is not known why they went to England, perhaps for employment rather than to avoid religious persecution. Pieter the younger apparently remained proud of his birthplace throughout his life, as can be inferred from his designation as ‘The Londoner’ in archival documents.
— He was active mainly in Haarlem. With Jan van Goyen and Salomon van Ruysdael, also active in Haarlem, he ranks as one of the pioneers of naturalistic landscape painting in Holland. It is not known if these three painters worked together, if they arrived at similar solutions independently, or if one of them began experiments with monochromatic pictures of dunes and cottages and the others followed his lead. Molyn's later career was less distinguished, and he seems then to have worked more as a draftsman then a painter. He also etched.
— His students included Gerard Terborch, Allart van Everdingen, Victor Honoré Janssens.

Dunes (1626, 26x36cm) _ Pieter Molyn was born of Flemish parents in London. Neither the date of his emigration to Holland nor the name of his teacher are known. There is no documentary evidence for the assertion found in the early literature that he studied with Frans Hals, however, he did provide landscapes for a few of Hals's portraits. In 1616 he joined the guild at Haarlem, where he spent most of his life. His earliest works show the influence of Mannerists, such as Bloemaert and Savery, but much more important for him was the impact of Esaias van de Velde's art. Van de Velde (1587-1630) was active in Haarlem when Molyn joined the guild there. Not much later, Molyn probably met Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), who was sent to Haarlem around 1617 to study with van de Velde. Molyn's innovations are first seen in his modest Dunes, which abandons the device of breaking up a landscape into many layers. Scattered details seen from a low point of view have been subordinated to large areas of light and shadow, and the scene has been unified by prominent diagonals which lead the eye over the dunes past the small figures into the distance.
Landscape with Conversing Peasants (90x98cm) _ Peasants returning from the fields have stopped for a moment by an old man sitting by the side of the road. The juxtaposition of young and old, which is a frequent motif in Dutch art, is in this case quite fortuitous. In fact the picture records a brief instant and is so generalized that it lacks all narrative quality. The painter expresses neither scorn, pity nor tenderness for his figures; his attitude is completely objective. Nevertheless the people portrayed are in one respect different from the tillers of the land usually seen in Dutch peasant genre : they are drawn on a larger scale. Here the landscape is less important than the figures and there is more attempt at characterization.
^Born on 23 March 1809: Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin, French Neoclassical painter and lithographer who died on 21 March 1864; son of amateur painter of portraits Jean-Baptiste-Jacques Flandrin [1773–1838].
— Hippolyte was initially discouraged from fulfilling his early wish to become an artist by the lack of success of his brother René-Auguste Flandrin [06 May 1801 – 30 Aug 1842], but in 1821 the sculptor Denys Foyatier, an old family friend, persuaded both Hippolyte and his brother Jean-Paul Flandrin [28 May 1811 – 08 March 1902] to get trained as artists. He introduced them to the sculptor Jean-François Legendre-Héral [1796–1851] and the painter André Magnin [1794–1823], with whom they worked copying engravings and plaster casts. After Magnin’s death, Legendre-Héral took the brothers to the animal and landscape painter Jean-Antoine Duclaux [1783–1868]. Hippolyte and Paul had both learnt the techniques of lithography from Auguste at an early age, and between the ages of 14 and 19 Hippolyte produced a number of lithographs, which he sold to supplement the family income. Many reflected his passion for military subjects (e.g. Cossacks in a Bivouac, 1825). In 1826 the two brothers entered the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, where Hippolyte studied under Pierre Révoil. Showing a precocious talent, he was soon advised to move to Paris, and having left the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyon in 1829, he walked to the capital with his brother Paul; together they enrolled in the studio of Ingres. After several unsuccessful attempts, Hippolyte won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1832 with Theseus Recognized by his Father (1832), despite having suffered from cholera during the competition. His success was all the more spectacular given the general hostility to Ingres; Hippolyte was the first of his students to be awarded this prestigious prize. Hippolyte arrived in Rome in 1833; Paul joined him there in 1834 as his assistant. After first working on such subjects as Virgil and Dante in Hell (1836), Hippolyte developed a taste for religious works during this stay. From 1836 to 1837 he worked on Saint Clare Healing the Blind for the cathedral in Nantes, winning a first-class medal at the 1837 Salon, and in 1838 he painted Christ Blessing the Children, which was exhibited at the 1839 Salon. In 1837, fleeing a cholera epidemic in Rome, Hippolyte and Paul visited Padua, Venice, Verona, Mantua, and other places. Joined by Auguste in 1838, the three brothers visited Livorno, Milan, Pisa, and Florence.
— Flandrin was born in Lyon and died in Rome. He came of a family of poor artisans and was a student of the sculptor Legendre and of Revoil. In his education, however, two elements must above all be taken into account. The first is the Lyonnais genius. Various causes, physical and historical, have combined to give the city of Lyon a character all its own. This is twofold, religious and democratic, and the laboring classes have always been an active centre of idealism. This is especially noticeable in its poets, from Maurice Scève to Lamartine. Lyon has also always been the great entrepôt for Italy, and the province was a permanent center of Roman culture.
      The second factor in Flandrin's development was the influence of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres [1780-1867], without which it is doubtful whether Flandrin would have achieved any fame. In 1829 Flandrin, with his brother Jean-Paul (the landscape painter), went to Paris, where he became a student of Ingres, who conceived a paternal affection for him. In Paris the young man experienced the bitterest trials. He was often without a fire, sometimes without bread, but he was sustained by a quiet but unshakable faith, and finally (1832) carried off the Grand Prix de Rome for The Recognition of Theseus by his Father. At Rome, where, after 1834, Ingres was director of the French Academy, his talents expanded and blossomed under the influence of natural beauty, a mild climate, and the noble spectacle of the works of classic and Christian antiquities. He sent thence to the French salons: Dante and Virgil (1835); Euripide (1835); Saint Clare Healing the Blind (1836); Christ Blessing the Children (1837). The serenity of his nature, his chaste sense of form and beauty, his taste for effective disposition of details, his moral elevation, and profound piety, found expression in these early efforts. On his return to Paris, in 1838, he was all intent upon producing great religious works.
      At this time there sprang up throughout the French School a powerful reaction against "useless pictures", against the conventional canvases exhibited since the end of the eighteenth century. There was a return to an art more expressive of life, less arbitrary, more mural and decorative. Delacroix, Chassériau, and the aged Ingres were engaged on mural paintings. It was above all, however, the walls of the churches which offered an infinite field to the decorators, to Chassériau, Victor Mottez, Couture, and Amaury Duval [1808-1885]. Within fifteen or twenty years this great pictorial movement, all too obscure, left on the walls of the public buildings and churches of Paris pictorial treasures such as had not been seen since the age of Giotto. It is possible, and even probable that the first impulse towards this movement (especially so far as religious paintings are concerned) was due to the Nazarene School. Ingres had known Overbeck [1789-1869] and Steinle at Rome; Flandrin may well have known them. In any case it is these artists whom he resembles above all in purity of sentiment and profound conviction, though he possessed a better artistic education. From 1840 his work is scarcely more than a painstaking revival of religious painting. The artist made it his mission in France to serve art more brilliantly than ever, for the glory of God, and to make beauty, as of old, a source of instruction and an instrument of edification to the great body of the faithful. He found a sort of apostolate before him. He was one of the petits prédicateurs de l'Évangile. Artistic productions in the mid-nineteenth century, as in the Middle Ages, became the Biblia Pauperum.
      Henceforth Flandrin's life was passed almost entirely in churches, hovering between heaven and earth on his ladders and scaffolds. His first work in Paris was in the chapel of St-Jean in the church of St-Séverin. He next decorated the sanctuary and choir of the church of St-Germain-des-Prés (1842-1848). On either side of the sanctuary he painted Christ's Entry into Jerusalem and The Journey to Calvary, besides the figures of the Apostles and the symbols of the Evangelists. All these are on a gold background with beautiful arabesques which recall the mosaic of Torriti at Santa Maria Maggiore. At St-Paul, Nîmes (1847-1849), he painted a lovely garland of virgin martyrs, a prelude to his masterpiece, the frieze in the nave of the church of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul in Paris. The last is a double procession, developing symmetrically between the two superimposed arches, without any exaggeration, a Christian Panathenæa, as it was called by Théophile Gautier. It might be shown how the ancient Greek theme is subjected, in the work of the modern painter, to a more flexible, less uniform, and more complex rhythm, how the melodic procession, without losing any of its grandeur or its continuity, is strengthened by silences, pauses, cadences.
      But it is more important to note the originality in the return to the most authentic sources of Christian iconography. Hitherto painters of this class hardly went back beyond the fourteenth or fifteenth century. But Flandrin turned to the first centuries of the Church, and drew his inspiration from the very fathers of religious thought. In the frieze of St-Vincent-de-Paul fifteen centuries of Christian tradition are unrolled. In 1855 the artist executed a new work in the apse of the church of Ainay near Lyons. On his return he undertook his crowning work, the decoration of the nave of St-Germain-des-Prés. He determined to illustrate the life of Christ, not from an historical, but from a theological, point of view, the point of view of eternity. He dealt less with facts than with ideas. His tendency to parallelism, to symmetry, found its element in the symbolism of the Middle Ages. He took pleasure in considering, according to this system of harmony and relations, the Old Testament as the prototype of the New, the burning bush as representing the Annunciation, and the baptism of Christ as prefiguring the crossing of the Red Sea.
      It was, perhaps, the first time since the frescoes of Perugino and Botticelli in the Sistine Chapel, that Christian art returned to its ancient genius. The interrupted tradition was renewed after three centuries of the Renaissance. Unhappily the form, despite its sustained beauty, possesses little originality. It is lacking in personality. The whole series, though exhibiting a high degree of learning and poise, of grace, and even of strength, lacks charm and life. The coloring is flat, crude, and dull, the design neutral, unaccented, and commonplace. It is a miracle of spiritual power that the seriousness of thought, the truth of sentiment, more harsh in the Old Testament, and more tender in the Christian, scenes, glow through this pedantic and poor style. Certain scenes, such as The Nativity, which strongly recalls the Nativity of Giotto at Padua, possess a sweetness which is quite human in their conventional reserve. Others, such as Adam and Eve after the Fall, and The Confusion of Tongues, are marked by real grandeur. This was Flandrin's last work. He was preparing a Last Judgment for the cathedral of Strasbourg, when he went to Rome, where he died.
      Apart from his religious work, Flandrin is the author of some very charming portraits. In this branch of painting he is far from possessing the acute and powerful sense of life of which Ingres possessed the secret. Nevertheless, pictures such as the Young Girl with a Pink, and the Young Girl Reading, of the Louvre, will always be admired. Nothing could be more maidenly and yet profound. His portraits of men are at times magnificent. Thus in the Napoléon III of the Versailles Museum the pale massive countenance of Caesar and his dream-troubled eyes reveal the impress of destiny. An admirable Study of a Man in the Museum of the Louvre, is quite "Ingresque" in its perfection, being almost equal to that master's Oedipus. What was lacking to the student in order that the artistic side of his work should equal its merits from the religious and philosophic side was the power of always painting in the style displayed in this portrait.
— Flandrin's students included Jules-Élie Delaunay, Blaise Desgoffe, James Tissot.

Madame Hippolyte Flandrin (1846, 83x66cm; 700x540pix, 125kb) épouse de l'artiste [1822-1882]
Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer (1836, 98x115cm; 650x700pix, 195kb) _ Ce nu fut expédié comme "envoi" de quatrième année de Pensionnaire à l'Académie de France à Rome. Les leçons d'Ingres trouvent ici toute leur expression. Le corps s'inscrit dans un quasi cercle. La toile fut exposée à l'Exposition universelle de Paris en 1855.
Jésus-Christ et les petits enfants (1838, 326x440cm; 512x745pix, 65kb) _ Le Christ, debout, vêtu d'une robe violacée et d'un manteau blanc, a les mains sur les têtes de deux enfants, nus et debout. A ses pieds, deux mères agenouillées, vues de dos, dont l'une a un manteau gris et l'autre un manteau jaune. Derrière elles, une petite fille en robe bleue, et une jeune mère debout, portant sur son bras un enfant emmailloté. Derrière le Christ, un des Apôtres. Au fond, Jérusalem et la montagne de Sion
René-Charles Dassy and His Brother Jean-Baptiste-Claude-Amédé Dassy (1850, 133x93cm) _ René-Charles and Jean-Baptiste Dassy were the last direct descendants of an old, wealthy family. Their parents' deaths when the brothers were children helped forge their close relationship. Flandrin knew the brothers well — as both were his students — and brilliantly captured their special bond in this double portrait. The sitters' clothing asserts their social status. Jean-Baptiste, the younger brother, wears a short redingote, white trousers, and gloves, and holds a riding crop or a thin walking stick. René-Charles dresses in the fashion à la grècque: embroidered black velvet jacket, loose shirt, and somewhat Oriental trousers. Their clothing, melancholy faces, and subdued elegance foreshadow the emergence of the dandy, a lifestyle unique to young 19th-century men. Although Flandrin emulated his teacher Ingres's style, Flandrin subtly introduced a greater sense of realism to his portraits.

Died on a 23 March:

^ >1998 Alberto Dutary O., Panama City painter and printmaker born on 03 July 1932. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Panama City (1950-1952) and at the Real Academia San Fernando (1953-1855) and the Escuela Nacional de Artes Gráficas in Madrid (1956-1958), where he held his first one-man show in 1957 before returning to Panama. Although he was always a figurative painter, in paintings such as Figures at Twilight (1960) and in his series of over 50 works, Saints, in the early 1960s (e.g. Mocking Saint, 1962), he combined the rich surface textures of Spanish informal abstraction with mysterious ghost figures expressing an Existentialist point of view. In spite of their apparent simplicity, such pictures as Objects for a Ceremony (1973) and the Consumer as Clay (1968) are full of symbolic and mythic associations as well as social criticism. In Dutary’s later works his iconography became less varied, with a preference for tall, ascetic women and female mannequins as virtually interchangeable figures. He also helped promote the arts in Panama as one of the founders in 1962 of the Instituto Panameño de Arte and through his teaching in schools and at the Universidad de Panamá where he established the Artes Plásticas course in the Facultad de Arquitectura. — Antonio Alvarado [19 Oct 1938~] and Haydeé Victoria Suescum [1961~] were among the students of Dutary. — Portrait of Dutary (1998; 536x398pix, 87kb) by Stephen Bennett _ face, strangely multicolored.
–- Objetos para una Ceremonia (1976, 28x42cm; 565x852pix, 28kb)
–- Personajes al Crepúsculo (1960; 875x1048pix, 65kb) —(070321)

1995 Jozsef Fischer, Budapest Hungarian architect, city planner, and theorist, born on 12 April 1901. —(060219)

^ 1993 Fernando Lanhas, Portuguese architect, astronomer, and geometrical abstractionist painter born in 1923.
— (part of the character c?) (271x400pix, 17kb)
— (part of the digit 5?) (85x85pixels, 6kb gif) _ Having found nothing by by Lanhas on the Internet besides these two tiny images, the pseudonymous Aciernando Algodoñez has made the best of them by combining them and transforming them into the palindromic-named because symmetrical
      _ Lana Canal (2006; screen filling, 203kb _ ZOOM to 990x1400pix, 434kb),
      _ Duct Cud (2006; screen filling, 335kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1191kb), and
      _ Dock Cod (2006; screen filling, 261kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1141kb). —(060224)

^ 1993 Sabri Berkel, Turkish painter born in Scopje, Macedonia, on 23 March 1909.
Otoportre (1931, 54x39cm; 1280x930pix, 291kb)
Siseli Naturmort (46x55cm; 700x823pix, 112kb)
Soyut Kompozisyon (1950, 100x70cm; 181x124pix, 14kb) _ This postage-stamp-sized image is quite adequate to appreciate the painting, which, even in its full size, seems to lack any significant detail. However the pseudonymous Irbasse Lecrabe has taken up the challenge of transforming the tiny image into a good sized picture with plenty of intricate detail and a much greater range of colors:
      _ Tract Ice (2006: screen filling, 269kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1097kb), which, placed facing its mirror image, becomes the symmetrical
      _ Tract Cart (2006: screen filling, 257kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1035kb) —(060222)

^ 1932 (22 Mar?) Shlomo Zalman Dov “Boris Schatz”, Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine, born on 23 December 1867. Born into a poor, orthodox Jewish family, he attended rabbinical school in Vilna (now Vilnius; 1882–1887). During this period he studied art at the local academy and, affected by the anti-Semitism of the period, developed left-wing political interests and the connections to an emancipated Jewish art form. His personal history generated three distinct artistic periods: the early activities in Paris (until 1895), the Bulgarian period (until 1903) and the later Jewish period in Palestine. His first known oil painting, the Dying Will (1886), was typical of late 19th-century romanticism. In 1888 he moved to Warsaw, working intensely on sculptures, reliefs, and lithographs. His concept of art for a Jewish national agenda and propaganda was published that year as an article ‘Craftsmanship’ in the Hebrew newspaper Hazfira, forming the basis for his later works. After his marriage (1889) he went to Paris, working in odd-jobs, studying under the sculptor Mark Antokol’sky and later at the Atelier Cormon. Developing a theme on the life of Moses he sculpted Moses on Mount Nebo (1890) and Jochebed, Mother of Moses (1892; both lost). — Yehezkel Streichman was a student of Schatz.

1927 Paul César Helleu, French painter born (main coverage) on 17 December 1859. —(090322)

1874 Diodore Charles Rahoult, French painter born (main coverage) on 02 December 1819. —(060322)

^ 1770 Martin van Mytens (or Meytens; Mijtens) II, Austrian painter born in Sweden on 24 July 1695. — {Mytens: nice to have during the Austrian winter.}— Cousin of Dutch painter Jan Mytens [1614-1670] and great-nephew of Daniel Mytens the Elder [1590-1647].— He was a member of a family of painters of Flemish origin. He was first taught art by his father, the painter Martin van Meytens the Elder, who had moved from The Hague to Sweden. He went rather early on a study trip. He visited London, Paris and Vienna, then he lived and worked for a long time in Italy (Rome, Turin). At the beginning he painted little enamel miniature portraits, and he changed to oil painting only around 1730, having settled in Vienna. Here he became very popular as a portrait painter in the circles of the court and the aristocracy. In 1732 be became a court painter, and in 1759 the director of the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts. Meytens was one of the most significant Austrian painters of representative Baroque courtly portrait, and through his students and followers his influence remained alive and widespread for a long time throughout the whole Empire. His personal virtues, varied interests, erudition and pleasant manners were highly appreciated by his contemporaries. — LINKS
Self-portrait (1745, 65x50cm; 758x582pix, 77kb) _ Mytens's earliest self-portrait, a young painter's portrait with a turban, was made during his Italian residence in 1727. This was followed in 1735 by a half-figure self-portrait, in two versions. The 1745 self-portrait belongs to a later period, and shows a slightly changed, somewhat more corpulent man. His face is still youthfully smooth, but already fattish, and he wears an Allonge-wig. His pose refers to his courtly position and special honors. A gold chain on his breast holds the medal he got in 1730 from Frederic, King of Sweden during his activity in Stockholm, and he ostentatiously shows with his right hand the medallion portrait of Empress Maria Theresia. Two later self-portrait show Mytens some years older and of even more authority. There is also a self-portrait engraved by Johann Gottfried Haid in 1756.
— different Self-portrait (127x95cm; 800x586pix, 129kb) half-length, seated, right hand holding a book, left hand pointing to a paper.
Queen Maria Theresa (1755, 930x742pix, 107kb) _ Maria Theresa [13 May 1717 – 29 Nov 1780] was archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–1780), wife and empress of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I [08 Dec 1708 – 18 Aug 1765] (reigned 1745–1765), and mother of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II (reigned 1765–1790). Upon her accession, the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) erupted, challenging her inheritance of the Habsburg lands. This contest with Prussia was followed by two more, the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) and the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–1779), which further checked Austrian power.
— different Queen Maria Theresa (1755, 95x76cm; 726x580pix, 95kb) _ Meytens as a court painter had the permanent task of painting the portraits of the Emperor and the Queen, as well as of the various members of the imperial family. Since the decoration of various residences and institutes, gifts to foreign sovereigns, aristocrats and diplomats and various festive occasions made necessary several copies of the imperial portraits, these courtly representations were made in series by the workshop, and Meytens himself played only a minor or greater part in their execution. He had no occasion to make more than a study of a head after the model the Queen had neither the time nor patience to sit for the artist for a long time. This original head or bust sketch was copied with different poses, clothes and accessories for the different imperial portraits. The portrait of Maria Theresia exhibited here is very similar to her figure in the great family portrait made in 1754 (Vienna, Schönbrunn). Her pose, hairstyle, neckline, the piece of jewelry worn at the collar and the gesture of her right hand are all identical. The study which served for both pictures as a model, was copied several more times by Meytens and his workshop.
Empress Maria Theresa (1098x801pix, 162kb) _ The dress of Flemish lace that she is wearing was a gift to her from the states of Flanders. The dress was made by Ghent orphans. Out of gratitude for this expensive present, Maria Theresa allowed her portrait to be painted by her court painter, Martin van Meytens, after which the completed work was handed over to the members of the states.
Emperor Francis I (1755, 95x77cm, 718x584pix, 98kb)
Dénes Bánffy (1750, 207x116cm) _ Dénes Bánffy (1723-80) was a Master of the Horse and Lord Lieutenant of Kolozs County in Hungary.
The Empress of Austria and Her Family (203x179cm; 800x715pix, 155kb). —(060322)

^ 1678 Cornelis Gerritszoon Decker (or Dekker), Dutch landscape painter born in 1625. He was a student of Salomon van Ruysdael [1600 – Oct 1670].
–- A Farm Near a Stream (934x1200pix, 147kb) There are a fisherman in a rowing boat, a couple crossing a bridge, and people near a farm. The figures may have been painted in by Adriaen van Ostade [10 Dec 1610 – 02 May 1685] or van den Velde, who frequently cooperated with Decker in that way.
–- A Weaver's Workshop (1062x1440pix, 199kb) A couple is eating at a table next to a loom.
–- River Landscape (705x600pix, 40kb) badly yellowed _ Fishermen are in a boat before a house.
Landscape with Houses and Windmills on the Water (1650, 72x99cm; 362x500pix, 43kb) _ For the most part the landscapes of Decker exhibit a characteristically taut structure, with a diagonal dividing the composition in two. In this picture the small river serves to create this diagonal with the buildings on one side and a flatter piece of land on the other. Several peasants are on the sandy track which runs alongside the little river, possibly wending their way home. A woman urges a man seated on the ground to pull his shoes on more quickly. Between the two windmills, and along the tops of the trees, a straight line can also be drawn that gives a somewhat different direction to the diagonal. A similar composition also characterizes the work of Emmanuel Murant [1622-1700]. The paintings of Decker are further characterized by the depiction of picturesque wooden houses. The bleached planks light up brightly in the sunlight. In the reflection of the houses and trees in the small river the painter strove to create an effect of clarity, rendering the appearance of the reflection with great precision. Decker had a distinctly more colorful palette in his early works, such as this one, than later when he would come to favor a more monochromatic coloring. —(070321)

1640 Symon Jordaens, Flemish artist born in 1590. — Relative? of Jacob Jordaens [bap. 20 May 1593 – 18 Oct 1678]?

Born on a 23 March:

^ 1952 Francesco Clemente, Italian abstract painter influenced by surrealism and expressionism. He was born in Naples. After early academic training in classical languages and literature, he briefly studied architecture in 1970 at the University of Rome. Throughout the 1970s he made drawings based on childhood memories and dreams. In 1972 Clemente met Alighiero e Boetti, whom he considered a mentor. In 1973 Clemente first visited India, a country to which he would visit many times. In 1974 he met actress Alba Primiceri and later married her. She would become a frequent subject of his art. In 1981 Clemente moved to New York City. He has often engaged in collaborations. In Madras, India, he has worked with sign painters, miniaturists, and local papermakers. In New York in 1984 he collaborated on a number of works with Jean-Michel Basquiat and Andy Warhol. He has published illustrated books in conjunction with poets Allen Ginsberg, Robert Creeley, and René Ricard. He made his first prints in 1981. In 2003 Clemente started his Tandoori Satori series of midsized alla prima paintings (with tarotlike emblems), many of which were done in a single day. He said that “they are a return to the source, to drawings I made in the ’70s. I hold them fast, they are like a charm. They are amulets to protect myself with.” In 2004 Clemente began a fresco project in Naples. In 2005 he exhibited self-portraits in London. They reincarnated his perpetual themes of birth, death, and rebirth. Clemente has said, “A self-portrait is a way to register the constant appearing and disappearing of the self.” — LINKS
–- In Anxious Hall (1988, 66x48cm; 1387x1002pix, 131kb _ .ZOOM to 1955x1414pix, 254kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2628x1901pix, 448kb) abstract
281 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(080321)

>1949 Roland Loren Lee, US tranparent-watercolor landscapist.
Duck Creek (2007, 20x30cm; 1076x1600pix, 360kb) The subject is a pastoral fishing lake on Cedar Mountain.
West Temple Autumn (2007; 793x1200pix, 833kb) It is a mountain in Zion National Park, Utah, near which Lee lives.
Lake Powell Morning (2007; 542x1200pix, 606kb)
Reading – A Window to the Past, and a Doorway to the Future (2006; 678x1024pix, 151kb) _ Lee's comment: Southern Utah is a unique and wonderful place. The power of nature has sculpted the land into a complex labyrinth of towers and canyons, where prehistoric creatures and ancient peoples have carved their own marks as they struggled to survive in a harsh, but beautiful environment. 1. The towering walls and deep canyons of Zion National Park are evidence of the geologic upheavals that shaped our land. Today millions of people from all over the world travel to Utah to see Zion’s wonders. 2. Even before man stepped foot on this land, prehistoric creatures left their large footprints. The Allosaurus, a fierce carnivore, was so prevalent in Utah that it is now the official fossil of the State of Utah. Hundreds of tracks of other dinosaurs have been discovered and preserved near St. George. 3. Although other white explorers had visited southern Utah, the Mormon pioneers were the first to colonize the area. Travelling by covered wagon, they brought little with them as they struggled to farm the desert and tame the Rio Virgin. 4. Ancient peoples inhabited this land long before the white man came. The Anasazi left symbols of their life on rock walls, pottery shards, and dwellings. But the southern Paiutes, who came in 1200 AD and live here still, provide our strongest cultural link to human history in this land. 5. As a child I was fascinated by space flight and watched in awe when man stepped on the moon’s surface in 1969. Today, people of many nations work together in space stations and travel freely back and forth into space on vehicles such as the Discovery Space Shuttle. Who knows what changes technology will bring to the lives of tomorrow’s children?
–- Story Time at the Library (2006, 122x244cm; 753x1536pix, 130kb) _ One of the photos (2006; 727x1024pix, 243kb) on which this painting is based.
Lake Powell (2006; 708x1000pix, 151kb) _ The pseudonymous Louis Alzass Ramterre has transformed this landscape into a series of colorful and elaborate abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
      _ Lacks Power (2009; 928x1312pix, 519kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 4060kb) or the symmetrical
      _ Make Poor Well (2009; 928x1312pix, 498kb _ ZOOM UP M to 2624x3712pix, 3688kb)
Lake Powell (2009; 585x800pix, 114kb)
Old Red Barn (2007; 680x1024pix, 403kb)
Desert Study (2007; 590x898pix, 344kb)
Red Desert Wonder (523x800pix, 81kb)
Virgin Beauty in Zion (2009; 497x800pix, 107kb) _ Virgin is the name of a river.
Solace at Sinawawa (2008; 800x493pix, 92kb)
St. George Mormon Temple (800x554pix, 69kb) This painting appeared on the front cover of Pioneer Magazine (Winter 2007-08) and cover 3 of the Mormon Ensign Magazine (conference issue October 2003). The St. George Mormon Temple was completed by early Mormon pioneers over a 5 1/2 year period and was dedicated on 06 April 1877. Over a million feet of lumber was used in constructing the building. Much of it was hand-hewn, then hauled from Mt. Trumbull, 80 miles away, or from Pine Valley Mountains, a distance of 37 miles north of St. George. The walls were laid up of hand-hewn sandstone blocks, and plastered a bright white, contrasting with the rich reds of the cliffs surrounding the town. —(090323)

^ 1887 Josef Capek, Czech painter, printmaker, illustrator of children's book, and writer, who died in early April 1945 in the Nazis' Bergen-Belsen death camp. He was the son of a country doctor and the brother of the inventor of the word “robot”, author Karel Capek [09 Jan 1890 – 25 Dec 1938], several of whose books he illustrated. Josef Capek studied weaving (1901–1903) in Vrchlabí and then from 1904 to 1910 decorative painting at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, where he was influenced by the highly decorative art of the Secession. During this period he wrote stories with his brother, the novelist Karel Capek (1890–1938). In 1910 they went to Paris for nearly a year, where Josef Capek studied painting at the Académie Colarossi and became a friend of Apollinaire. In 1911 he and his brother co-founded the Cubist-orientated Group of Plastic Artists. Capek attempted to modify Cubism by introducing elements of Expressionism and Symbolism. His efforts dumbfounded some members of the group, and in 1912 he and various of his friends parted company with it. From 1915 he began to achieve a synthesis of Cubism, Neo-classicism and a personal symbolism (e.g. The Man in the Hat, 1915), and in 1917 he participated in the first and subsequent exhibitions of the group Tvrdosíjní (The Stubborn Ones) and began to produce a number of prints for the magazine Cerven, including the poster design for Arnost Dvorák’s Mrtvá at the Cervná Sedma theater in Prague (color lithograph, 1920). In the 1920s his paintings and prints became more densely woven, more expressive and more concerned with issues of civilian and suburban life. He also undertook theatre design, journalism and book illustration as well as publishing his own theoretical essays. In the late 1920s he became greatly influenced by folk art, painting simplified images of houses and countryside in bold strokes of bright color. In 1933 he became a member of the editorial board of the magazine Zivot; by then his expressionistic painting had become somewhat oppressive, as in Cloud (1933). In 1938 he painted the first pictures of his cycle Fire, whose large, gesturing figures played out a warning against war (e.g. Fire (1), 1938). His last cycle of paintings, Longing, dating from 1939, is symbolic of a despair with contemporary events. On 01 September 1939 he was arrested by the Gestapo and taken to Dachau, then to Buchenwald and to Sachsenhausen, and finally to Bergen-Belsen, where he died of typhus a few days (exact date unknown) before the 15 April 1945 liberation of that concentration camp by the British army. It is at Bergen-Belsen that Anne Frank [12 Jun 1929 – Mar 1945] died, also of typhus.
Mr. Myself (1920, 102x69cm; 355x234pix, 9kb)
Kurák (1914, 80x50cm; 355x216pix, 10kb)
Detektiv (1916, 45x32cm; 355x253pix, 10kb)
Hlava (1915; 379x300pix, 9kb)
Fairytales (400x301pix, 44kb) cover picture of children's book written by Karel Capek and illustrated by Josef Capek.

^ 1874 Joseph Christian Leyendecker, US Golden Age illustrator who died in 1951. — LINKS
Patriot and Liberty Bell (136x95cm)
Three Kings (Success magazine cover, 1900)
Order Coal Now (1918 poster; 600x408pix _ ZOOM to 1400x952pix)
The SS Leviathan (House of Kuppenheimer Advertisement, 1918)
Couple Descending Stairs (Arrow Collar Advertisement) —(060313)

^ >1839 Otto Eerelman, Dutch painter who died in 1926. He started his artistic education at the Academy Minerva in his native town Groningen. He received his training from J.H. Egenberger [1822-1897] who taught him to make quick and simple sketches after life models. In the course of his career, this proved to be very helpful in portraying such lively animals as horses and dogs. Eerelman continued his education at the Royal Academy of Antwerp under Professor Nicaise de Keyser [1813-1887]. Partly due to the influence of his teacher Sir Laurence Alma Tadema, Eerelman painted mainly portraits and historical subjects in the early part of his career. At the Royal Academy, he was the best student of his class and was rewarded with the 'prix d'excellence'. In 1865 Eerelman returned to Groningen to hold a teaching position at the Academy Minerva, a job which he combined with painting portraits and historical pictures for Groningen principals. In 1874 the number of commissions increased so much that he decided to leave his job at the Academy and concentrate fully on his own work. His fame grew steadily and he decided to move to Brussels, where he painted Dutch interior and genre scenes that were very popular at that time. Because Eerelman and his wife didn't feel at home in Brussels they soon moved back to Holland. In 1875 they settled in The Hague. About the same time Eerelman exhibited a market scene with horses that was applauded for the magnificent way in which the horses were rendered. From that moment, he dedicated himself fully to the portrayal of horses. In order to practice his skills, Eerelman spent many hours in the company of horses. He visited horse markets, trotting-matches and other hippic events where he was a welcome guest and sat first row to sketch the animals in their different poses and movements. In his paintings he depicted horses in various situations: pulling carriages in folk games, with sledges in the snow, ridden by Indians or portrayed with their proud owners. These paintings earned him great popularity and resulted in many commissions (a.o. from queen Wilhelmina). One of Eerelman's favorite subjects was back-stage circus scenes with jugglers, clowns, circus girls, horses and dogs and their trainers practicing acts.
Arrival of Queen Wilhelmina at Frederiksplein in Amsterdam, 5 September 1898 (1899, 139x195cm) _ On 5 September 1898 a train carrying Queen Wilhelmina [1880-1962] and her mother, Queen Regent Emma [1858-1934], arrived at Amsterdam's Weesperpoort Station. Emma was to abdicate the following day, prior to the investiture of her eighteen-year-old daughter in the New Church. Wilhelmina succeeded to the throne after the death of her father, William III, in 1890. Since she was only ten at the time, her mother assumed her responsibilities, ruling as Queen Regent and preparing her daughter for the throne. The royal procession was given a festive reception, a sign that the monarchy was regaining its status, which had diminished considerably during the reign of William III. By 1898, Wilhelmina's popularity had swelled to such an extent that she became a symbol of national unity. Protestants, Catholics and Liberals all rallied to the throne. Only the Socialists kept their distance.
     Eerelman depicted the procession as it passed Frederiksplein, on its way to the Palace on Dam Square. The Palace of National Industry is visible in the background. The cream-colored barouche carrying Emma and Wilhelmina was a gift from Emma to her daughter. Eerelman probably made the painting without a commission.
Circus Woman and Horses in Stable (43x66cm; 693x1080pix, 95kb _ ZOOM to 1200x1870pix, 283kb _ ZOOM+ to 2080x3240pix, 880kb) _ Presumably she was also somewhat instable when on the the horse galloping around the ring during a performance of the sort painted by Toulouse-Lautrec [24 Nov 1864 – 09 Sep 1901] in
      _ Au cirque Fernando, l'écuyère (1888; _ ZOOM to 2027x3200pix, 880kb) and in
      _ Au cirque Fernando, écuyère sur un cheval blanc (1888; 753x1030pix, 201kb); and very instable if she stood on the back of the horse like the performer pictured by Seurat [02 Dec 1859 – 29 March 1891] in
      _ .Le Cirque (1890; 800x646pix, 135kb _ .ZOOM to 1600x1292pix, 428kb).
–- Nest of Puppy Pugs (892x1239pix, 95kb)
–- Saint Bernard Puppy (382x500pix, 51kb _ .ZOOM not recommended to 1558x2037pix, 361kb, unless you want to examine, thread by thread, the texture of the canvas) monochrome brown.
–- Four Roses and a Bud in a Vase (32x26cm; 900x705pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 1800x1410pix, 158kb, if you want to examine close-up each thread of the canvas)
–- At the Circus (851x1080pix, 134kb)
–- Watchful Dog (1200x927pix, 167kb)
–- In the Stables of the Circus (62x92cm; 668x1020pix, 84kb) _ This circus is probably that of Barnum and Bailey. Eerelman had special permission to work inside the circus' stables on the Heereweg in Groningen and succeeded very well in depicting the back stage ambience. —(070321)

^ 1816 (22 Mar?) John Frederick Kensett, US Hudson River School painter and engraver, specialized in landscapes, who died on 16 (14?) December 1872. Born into a family of skilled engravers, he learnt engraving first from his father, Thomas Kensett [1786–1829], and then from his uncle Alfred Daggett [1799–1872]. From this training he acquired the consummate skill that made him an exceptional draftsman. The engraver’s attention to tonal modulation of the grey scale also contributed to Kensett’s extraordinary exploration of color values and saturation in his paintings— LINKS —(060313)

1763 Andries Meulen (or Vermeulen), Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 05 July 1814. —(060322)

1746 Gérard van Spaendonck, French painter who died (full coverage) on 18 May 1822. —(060322)

Happened on a 23 March:

1775 Patrick Henry says: “Give me liberty or give me death!” Peter Frederick Rothermel would paint the scene in Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses of Virginia, Delivering his Celebrated Speech Against the Stamp Act after making a study of it.

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