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DEATHS: 1746 DE LARGILLIÈRE — 1865 TROYON — 1840 VAN DAEL
BIRTHS: 1811 MARILHAT — 1836 POYNTER
^ Died on 20 March 1746: Nicolas de Largillière, French Rococo painter born on 10 October 1656.
— Nicolas de Largillière was born in Paris but passed his youth in Antwerp and, from about 1674, spent some years in England as Lely's assistant. He was thus almost a Flemish painter when he returned to Paris in 1682. He became one of the most successful portrait painters of the second half of Louis XIV’s reign. His principal rival was Rigaud (who had beet his assistant) but, although Largillièrre was patronized by the Court, most of his sitters came from the wealthy middle classes, leaving the aristocrats to Rigaud. By the end of Largillière's career he had produced some 1500 portraits. The Sainte Geneviève is the only survivor of the large ex-voto type of picture that he painted for the Corporations. He also painted a few pictures of still-life. In 1734–1735 and again from 1738 to 1742 he was Directeur of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, of which he had been a member since 1686.
— Nicolas de Largillière once told a friend that he never wanted official commissions; private clients were less troublesome, and payment was quicker. Unlike his friend court painter Hyacinthe Rigaud, Largillière worked for Paris's wealthy middle class. He grew up in Antwerp, then worked in England as Sir Peter Lely's assistant, painting draperies and still lifes and developing a lustrous version of Anthony van Dyck's style. This Flemish training imparted the warm hues, broad, thick brushstrokes, and sinuous curves that gave Largillière's paintings their dynamism. He returned to Paris in 1682, gained Académie Royale membership in 1686, and ultimately became its director. By the late 1680s, Largillière had established his reputation among the bourgeoisie. He produced 1200 to 1500 portraits in his lifetime, gradually becoming less formal and more relaxed in describing pose and costume. He also painted group portraits to commemorate solemn occasions, landscapes, still lifes, and religious works. When Largillière ordered his student Jean-Baptiste Oudry to depict a bouquet of all-white flowers, Oudry reported learning a basic lesson in color. By carefully observing their subtle variations and then trying to paint them, Oudry came to understand how to express highlights, shades of gray, and shadows as his teacher Largillière did.
— Although born in Paris, Largillierre spent his youth in Antwerp, becoming a student of the still life and genre painter Antoine Goubau in 1668. Soon after his acceptance as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke (1672), the artist went to England. There he studied portraiture, perhaps in the studio of Peter Lely. He returned to Paris in 1679 and became a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1686, advancing rapidly to important posts in the hierarchy of that institution. The major part of his work is devoted to portraiture, but Largillierre also produced history paintings, landscapes, and still lifes. His rival for court commissions was Hyacinthe Rigaud, while his own clientele was primarily the wealthy bourgeoisie who found his taste for warm color tones, sumptuous fabrics, and a regal manner of presentation very much to their liking. Extremely successful during his long life, the artist produced a huge ceuvre. Anthony van Dyck's influence on English portraiture as well as the seventeenth century French portrait tradition are both critical to his stylistic development. Largillierre is pivotal in the transition from the baroque to the rococo portrait style during the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV.
— De Largillière's students included Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Jean-Baptiste Descamps, Robert Gardelle, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne II, Gustaf Lundberg, Pierre Mosnier, Jean Restout II.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1725, 889x700pix, 60kb)
The Artist and his Family (1710, 149x200cm; 800x1095pix, 116kb)
–- Catherine Coustard, Marquise de Castelnau, Femme de Charles-Léonor Aubry, avec son Fils Léonor (1700, 138x106cm; 1/3 size, 255kb — .ZOOM to 1/2 size, 343kb) _ Catherine Coustard came from a family of well-to-do cloth merchants in Paris and married into the Aubrys, wealthy, middle-class civil servants and statesmen from Tours. At the time of this portrait, her father-in-law had just been ennobled after serving twenty years as secretary to the king, thus precipitating the great step upward in family prestige that this picture commemorates.
–- A Boy in Fancy Dress (1710, 115x146cm; 960x752pix, 70kb) _ Dressed in a fanciful Roman costume, a young boy with blond hair and blue eyes poses before an enigmatic landscape. Facing frontally, he twists his torso in order to hold and stroke his dog. Both the boy and the animal watch a goldfinch with outspread wings perched on a thornbush. Although the young sitter's identity is unknown, he is presumed to be a member of the French royal family. Nicolas de Largillière positioned his figure before an atmospheric landscape and used fluent brushwork, rich autumnal colors, and exquisite treatment of draperies. All these characteristics betray his training in a Flemish late Baroque style heavily indebted to Anthony van Dyck. The inclusion of elaborate symbolism also reflects a Baroque sensibility. The child's costume refers to nobility, his pet dog to fidelity, and the thornbush to the Crown of Thorns. Through an extended series of connections, the goldfinch functions as a symbol of the Passion: goldfinches eat seeds from the thorny thistle, another reminder of the Crown of Thorns, and the red spot on their breast is a further reminder of Christ’s bloody death.
Charles Le Brun (1686, 232x182cm, 953x750pix, 120kb)
Princess Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart (1700, 127kb)
The Countess of Montsoreau, her Sister as Diana, and an Attendant (1714, 122kb)
Gentleman C (1720, 126kb)
Paysage Boisé (136kb)
Nature Morte avec Gibier, Fleurs, Fruits, et un Épagneul (1680, 1097x1448pix, 589kb)
—(060311)
^ Born on 20 (26?) March 1811: Prosper-Georges-Antoine Marilhat, French painter specialized in portraits and orientalism, who died on 13 September 1847.
— He painted his first landscapes and family portraits at Thiers and in the Auvergne before moving to Paris in 1829. After working as the student of Camille Roqueplan he was engaged by Baron Karl von Hügel for an expedition to the Near East (1831–1833), from which he brought back numerous studies. He visited Greece, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, stayed in Egypt from October 1831 to May 1833 and returned by way of Rhodes and Corfu. Cairo, the villages of the Delta and Upper Egypt proved to be sources of inspiration for later works. At Alexandria he painted theater sets and more than 80 court portraits.
      Despite further trips to Italy (1835), the Midi, the Pyrenees (1836) and Normandy (1843), the Near East and the Auvergne remained his major themes. Ezbekiyah Square (1834), the Recollection of the Countryside near Rosetta (1835) and the illustration of the Countryside near Luxor published (1835) by the engraver Léon de Joannis (fl 1808–1850) brought him to the attention of the public. Although Twilight (1836) was refused by the Salon in 1836, his pastel drawing of the Villa Pamphili was engraved by Eugène Ciceri.
— Before moving to Paris and becoming a student of Roqueplan about 1829 he had already painted his earliest landscapes in his native region and the Auvergne. In 1831-1833 he visited the Middle East, at first accompaning the naturalist Baron Karl von Hügel. He brought back many studies and established a considerable reputation for himself as an Orientalist painter as well as a portraitist. In his last years he became insane and he died in an asylum.

LINKS
Au bord du Nil (31x45cm)
Ruines de la Mosquee du Calife Hakem au Caire (1840, 76x128cm) _ À la suite d'un voyage en Orient en 1831 - 1832, l'artiste peignit de nombreux sujets orientalisants. Il ne céda pas cependant aux facilités du pittoresque exotique comme le prouve ce tableau où la monumentalité du site s'allie aux couleurs éclatantes.
Palm Trees
The Erechtheum, Athens
Beni Suef on the Nile
Ezbekiah Street in Cairo (1833, 54x42cm; 575x442pix, 119kb)
 
^ Died on 20 March 1865: Constant Troyon, French Barbizon School painter, specialized in Landscapes and Animals, born on 28 August 1810. — {Nous croyons Troyon trouillon? Non!}
— He was brought up among the Sèvres ceramics workers and received his first lessons in drawing and painting from Denis-Désiré Riocreux [1791–1872], a porcelain painter who was one of the founders of the Musée National de Céramique. Troyon began his career as a painter at the Sèvres factory while also studying landscape painting in his spare time. He became a friend of Camille Roqueplan, who introduced him to a number of young landscape painters, especially Théodore Rousseau, Paul Huet and Jules Dupré, who were later to become members and associates of the Barbizon School. After an unremarkable début at the Salon of 1833, where he exhibited three landscapes depicting the area around Sèvres (e.g. View of the Park at Saint-Cloud), he took up his career in earnest and made several study trips to the French provinces. Following the example of contemporary collectors, he began to take a great interest in 17th-century Dutch painting, particularly the work of Jacob van Ruisdael, whose influence is seen in such early paintings as The Woodcutters (1839). At the Salon of 1841 he exhibited Tobias and the Angel , a biblical landscape that attracted the attention of Théophile Gautier. The subject was intended to satisfy the critics, but the painting served as a pretext for portraying a realistic and sincere representation of nature, even though its ordered and classically inspired composition perfectly fitted the requirements of a genre, the origins of which were the 17th-century paintings of Claude and Poussin and their followers.
— The son of an employee at the Sèvres porcelain factory, he received lessons from the flower painter Denis-Désiré Riocreux (1791-1872) and the landscapist Antoine-Achille Poupart (born 1788), both fellow employees of the factory. Through Roqueplan he met Diaz, Jules Dupré and Rousseau who were later to become, like Troyon, members of the Barbizon school of landscape painters. He first painted in the forest of Fontainebleau in the 1840s, but he also visited other parts of France including Brittany, the Dauphiné and Normandy. He greatly admired seventeenth-century Dutch painting and visited Holland in 1847. Partly influenced by the paintings of Cuyp and Potter, he turned in his later career principally to animal subjects which won him considerable financial success.
— Eugène Boudin was an assistant of Troyon. His students included Evariste-Vital Luminais and Léon Belly.

LINKS
–- Un Paysan dans sa Charrette (main detail 877x1171pix, 148kb — .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 2066x2548pix, 1340kb — or, for more fun than watching paint dry, but not a better picture, try this 2066x2548pix, 9794kb)
–- Retour du Travail (main detail 882x1185pix, 148kb — .ZOOM TO FULL PICTURE 1997x2630pix, 919kb — or, for more fun than watching grass grow, try this 1997x2630pix, 8630kb)
–- Paysage Pastoral en Touraine (1860; 890x1188pix, 136kb — .ZOOM to 1906x2786pix, 1376kb — or, for more fun than watching a glacier's flow, try this 1906x2786pix, 10'313kb)
–- Un Garde-Chasse Mène ses Chiens dans un Bois (1860; 810x1032pix, 114kb — ZOOM to 2024x2579pix, 796kb — or, for more fun than watching a turtle sleep, try this 2024x2579pix, 8225kb)
Le Vacher (1862; 600x802pix, 198kb _ ZOOM to 1514x2024pix, 420kb)
Scène Pastorale (1862, 1599x2024pix, 445kb)
Cascade dans un Bois (1862; 1816x2560pix, 870kb)
Menace d'Orage (69x96cm)
Retour du Pâturage (90x138cm)
La Plage à Trouville (72x118cm)
La Vallée (73x93cm)
Labourage (54x65cm)
—(060311)
Poynter^ Born on 20 March 1836: Sir Edward John James Poynter, English Classicist painter who died on 26 July 1919, brother-in-law of Edward Burne-Jones and Georgina Macdonald. {Did he give them a few pointers by giving them a few Poynters?}
— For much of his artistic life, Sir Edward Poynter, the neo-classical painter, lived under the shadow of Lord Leighton, and as a result his work was unjustly neglected. Furthermore, his talents never quite matched those of Leighton and Alma-Tadema, even though at times he could be a superb artist, as with his Cave of the Storm Nymphs, which is one of his finest academic paintings. It was bought in 1891 for £203'500, one of the most expensive Victorian pictures ever sold at that time.
      Unlike Leighton, whose flamboyant lifestyle matched his outgoing personality, Poynter was a reserved, cantankerous man who was unable to change with the times, with the result that his work was dismissed as prententious and uninteresting. When Leighton died, Poynter took over the role of President of the Royal Academy, where he remained for over twenty-two years, until many people began to wonder if he would ever retire. He resigned finally when he was over 80, but only because he was almost blind.
      Edward Poynter was born in Paris, the son of an architect, and after being educated at Westminster and Ipswich Grammar School, he went to Rome, where he met Leighton. Having decided to take up art as a career, as a direct result of meeting Leighton, he studied in Paris under Charles Gleyre, who had been a penniless artist before he opened an atelier, when he rapidly became a famous teacher.
      In 1859 Poynter returned to London, and for the next few years struggled to make a living from his painting with indifferent results. He desperately needed the RA to take one of his pictures in order to establish his name. Eventually Faithful Until Death was accepted by the RA in 1865. This picture, which shows a Roman soldier doggedly remaining at his post during the destruction of Pompeii, was a great success, and still remains Poynter's most famous work. This was followed by The Catapult and Atlanta's Race. [nothing to do with African-Americans in Georgia]. Among his famous paintings are The Fortune Teller and The Meeting between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
      Although by 1894 his powers were beginning to decline, he was still made the Director of the National Gallery and an RA in 1896. By 1900, however, his paintings began to be repetitious and uninteresting. When the end finally came there were some deeply felt sighs of relief from a large number of people who felt that he had already long overstayed his welcome.
— Early in his career Poynter studied in Rome, where he met Frederic Leighton, his greatest single artistic influence. He then moved to Paris in 1855. On returning to London, he became involved on book illustration. In 1865 he produced his first really successful picture, Faithful Unto Death, a Roman sentry staying at his post in Pompeii as Vesuvius overwhelmed the city. This dramatic painting was probably never bettered by Poynter throughout his whole long career. Poynter became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1869, at an unusually early age. Much of the rest of his life was devoted to the Academy, he was hardworking, conscientious, and a competent administrator.
      Poynter married Agnes MacDonald, the sister of Burne-Jones' wife Georgiana. Burne-Jones disliked Poynter, who was an unsympathetic, brusque character. When Leighton died in 1896, he was succeeded as President of the Royal Academy by Millais, who was suffering from cancer of the throat. On the death of Millais a few months later, Poynter succeeded him, narrowly defeating Briton Riviere in the vote. He was PRA for the next two decades.
      From the turn of the century Poynter's paintings declined both in numbers and quality, his main priority being the running of the Academy. He lived to see the death of classicism, & the total eclipse of his own artistic standards, & those of his contemporaries. He adopted the approach of ignoring new developments of which he did not approve. Unhappily Poynter outstayed his welcome. One of the last duties of the eighty one year old PRA, was to attend the funeral of J. W. Waterhouse. There was, though, something splendid about the way he remained consistent to the last, resisting what he saw as the corruption, and denigration of all that was beautiful in art. He may even have been right.
Obituary in The Times
Portrait of Poynter by Cope

LINKS
Israel in Egypt (1867 _ ZOOMable)
The Cave of the Storm Nymphs (1903, 145x109cm _ ZOOMable)
Andromeda (_ ZOOMable)
The Catapult (1868, 155x184cm)
Cressida (1888, 123x133cm)
Lesbia and her Sparrow
A Roman boat race (1889; 700x494pix, 103kb)
Psyche in the temple of love (1882)
At low tide (1913)
A visit to Aesculapius (1883, 151x229cm)
Reading (1871)
— On the Terrace
The fortune Teller (1877, 62x75cm)
The vision of Endymion
On the Temple Steps (1889; 700x468pix, 82kb)
A Corner of the Villa _ This painting provides us with a sense of space as we observe a private moment shared in an atrium among two women and a child. The artist's willingness to attempt a scene so full of different marbles, mosaics and stone reliefs is commendable and speaks well of his technical prowess. Not only was Poynter an accomplished painter, but as president of the Royal Academy for 23 year (1896-1919), he was responsible for the education of hundreds of other artists.
 
^ Died on 20 March 1840: Jan Frans van Dael, Flemish painter and lithographer, Specializes in Still Life and Flowers, born on 25 May 1764.
— He first studied architecture at the Antwerp Academie from 1776, despite his early preference for painting, and in 1786 he settled in Paris as a decorator. In 1793 he acquired lodgings in the Louvre next to fellow countrymen Pierre-Joseph Redouté, Piat-Joseph Sauvage [1744–1818] and Gerard van Spaendonck; under the influence of Spaendonck he turned to flower painting, in which he specialized for the rest of his life. He was prolific in his output and successful in securing commissions from such wealthy and influential patrons as the Empresses Joséphine and Marie-Louise Bonaparte [1791–1847], and both Louis XVIII and Charles X.
      From 1793 until 1833 he exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon and, after 1807, occasionally in the Low Countries. Van Dael remained faithful to the Flemish tradition of flower painting exemplified by Roelandt Savery, with sober composition and attention to detail (e.g. Roses and Butterflies, 1802). But he also brought to many of his flower arrangements a French-inspired decorative monumentality. In some of his ornamental fruit and flower arrangements a landscape background is sketched in, and a few pure landscapes have survived, including The Painter’s House (1822). He painted a small number of religious and allegorical pictures; one of his most celebrated, Julie’s Tomb (1804), can be read as a reflection on life and death. He also painted occasional portraits, usually of other artists (e.g. Robert Lefèvre, 1804), and made lithographs (e.g. portrait of Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse, 1829).
— Flemish by origin, Van Dael spent most of his life in France. He first studied architecture in his native Antwerp before going to Paris in 1786. There he was commissioned to assist in the trompe l'oeil decorations for the chateaux of Saint Cloud, Bellevue, and Chantilly. The influence of his master, Gerard van Spaendonck, was instrumental in Van Dael's decision to specialize in still life paintings of fruits and flowers, thereafter relegating interior decoration, portraits, religious subjects, and landscapes to raritiesin his ceuvre. He exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1793, the same year he was given quarters at the Louvre. From 1806 to 1817 he lived at the Sorbonne as an artist protected by the State. Patronized by Louis XVIII and Charles X, as well as the empresses Josephine and Marie-Louise, Van Dael was decorated as a Knight of the Legion of Honor in 1825. He was interred in the cemetery of Pere Lachaise, next to his former teacher, Van Spaendonck. A highly successful painter who commanded high prices for his work, Van Dael taught a number of students who continued the northern tradition of flower painting.

LINKS
–- Flowers Before a Window (1789, 92x79cm; 1138x966pix, 198kb — zoomable to 2276x1932pix, 666kb)
Fleurs dans un vase d'agate sur une table de marbre (rose, tulipe, iris, jacinthe, narcisse, oeillet) (1816, 84x66cm)
Fleurs sur une console de marbre avec un ananas (rose, tulipe, iris, jacinthe, narcisse, oeillet) (1823, 114x85cm)
Vase de Fleurs, Raisins, et Pêches (rose, pivoine, pavot) (1810, 99x79cm)
Flowerpiece (1811)
 

Died on a 20 March:

^ 1999 Patrick Heron, English abstract painter and critic born on 30 January 1920. In the 1950s he became identified with the Saint- Ives group of painters, although the roots of his aesthetic date back to earlier experiences, which included working as a designer for Cresta Silks (1935–1939, 1944–1950) the firm of his father, T.M. Heron, and assisting at Bernard Leach’s pottery (1944–1945). Insights gained through friendships with Herbert Read, T. S. Eliot, Henry Moore, Ben Nicholson, and Ivon Hitchens were also important. Influenced by Braque and Matisse, he evolved a flat, linear style in a series of still-lifes and interiors such as the ambitious Christmas Eve (1951), in which the lightly filled-in colors create an airy, luminous effect. In his writings as a critic for the New English Weekly, New Statesman and Nation and Arts (New York) between 1945 and 1958, Heron was unconvinced of the necessity for pure abstraction. His early paintings are in an Art Informel style, but he then began to produce paintings composed of horizontal bands of color, such as Horizontal Stripe Painting (1958). These simple bars of thinned oil paint, softly brushed on in one movement so the colors intermingle, still seem to refer to coastal landscape in their form and color, bringing them as close to Hitchens’s abstractions from nature as to the Post-painterly Abstraction of Morris Louis, whose work Heron claimed to have foreshadowed. From the 1960s he concentrated on simple forms such as rectangles and a repertory of distinctive shapes that emphasized decorative values and contrasts of saturated color. In the 1970s he favored large surfaces of color painted with small Japanese brushes (e.g. Long Cadmium with Ceruleum in Violet (Boycott), 1977), relaxing these self-imposed restrictions in the 1980s in more informal abstractions that hinted once again at landscape associations (e.g. Pale Garden Painting, 1984).— LINKS
–- Yellow Painting with Orange and Brown-Ochre Squares: June – October 1959 (152x122cm; 774x618pix, 67kb) _ Heron’s painting from the early 1950s onwards shows a development of ideas that transmute almost constantly throughout the decade, and within each series of canvases, aided by his frequent habit of precisely dating the period of creation, the changes can almost be tracked from canvas to canvas. Although Heron had experimented with pure abstraction as early as 1952, rather under the influence of Nicholas de Stael, he maintained a figurative base to his painting until at least January 1956 when he began to develop a language of strokes of pure color which moved away from a definite subject. Perhaps in response to the environment of the artist’s new home at Eagle’s Nest at Zennor in Cornwall and known as the ‘garden’ paintings, the broad subject was often only made clear by the descriptive titles given them, and the idea of an actual physical depiction was clearly subordinate to the artist’s exploration of the possibilities of color itself as the subject. As these works developed, the vertical strokes ‘…became longer and longer, until in one painting in early 1957 they became so long that the strokes touched top and bottom. Suddenly there were actually seven vertical stripes in one painting, which at the time I actually called Scarlet Verticals: March 1957.’
     Heron’s ‘stripe’ paintings are one of the most contentious groups of paintings produced by a British artist in the post-war period. Relatively few in number, they span just over a year, developing in March and April of 1957 and reaching their zenith with Lux Eterna: May-June 1958. However, the poor contemporary critical reaction to the 1958 Redfern Gallery exhibition at which they were first shown (the gallery’s poor support of the show precipitated Heron’s move to the then newly-opened Waddington Gallery) belies their importance. By reducing the work to a bare minimum, the use of color and the amazingly free and painterly handling produce images in which spontaneity is at its apex, a fact attested to by Heron’s own recollection that many of these pieces were the result of less than an hour of carefully controlled involvement and are ‘unlike anything else being painted in England at that time’.
     Although the ‘stripe’ paintings were later to achieve iconic status within Heron’s oeuvre, especially after it became clear that they predated the American ‘stripe’ images of Gene Davis, Morris Louis and David Simpson by at least two years, Heron felt that they were very much a stage in his own painting’s growth. The works which sprang from the immediate post-‘stripe’ period show a much greater complexity and involvement of the artist and, like the contemporary pieces of his friend William Scott, clearly involve repainting and reworking of the image building up an almost historical and organic sense of construction.
     From the early part of 1958, and thus before the creation of the last of the ‘stripe’ paintings, Heron had again begun to move forward. Often using one predominating color, the horizontal emphasis of the canvases begins to be lessened by the introduction of panels of color, as in Cadmium Scarlet: January 1958 and Yellow and Violet Squares in Red: February 1958. Stung by the suggestion of contemporaries that his horizontal ‘stripe’ paintings contained landscape references, the simplification of the palette and the introduction of a wider vocabulary of forms allowed the artist to concentrate on the use of color to form pictorial space. In a way that was comparable to the introduction of what amounted to apertures in the work of Terry Frost, and which Heron had himself praised in a review of Frost’s work in 1957, these floating areas of color allowed Heron to establish a three-dimensional quality in his paintings, using the weight and balance of the color relationships to engender a sense of depth and spatial recession. Indeed, Heron also seems to have found this quality in the work of Rothko, who he singled out in a review of the 1958 ICA exhibition of works from the collection of E.J.Power for the American magazine Arts, noting that he was the sole member of the group shown (Pollock, de Kooning, Kline, Rothko and Still) to not incorporate suggestive image notation, which he contends as always retaining a figurative element. By removing any external references, and thus ‘meaning’, Rothko had moved towards a manner of painting ‘that was pure of intent, that freed the imagination of the spectator as music does, and like that of Matisse, offered a profound delight to the senses’
     It was perhaps natural that having found a method by which the balance of color could be used to create depth and recession within a canvas, Heron would then begin to rebuild the range of colors used within each painting, and thus this re-complication of the image begins to be seen in works such as Yellow Painting: October 1958 – May/June 1959 and
      _ /S#*>.Blue Painting (Squares and Disc): August 58- February 59 (1075x850pix, 113kb) (sold at Sotheby's on 28 June 2006 for £327'200, a world auction record for Heron). Introducing new forms and colors allowed Heron to build up the surface of the paintings, reworking, overpainting and moving the elements until the required effect had been achieved. As the titles of the paintings of this phase make clear, this would often take place over a prolonged period, with several months elapsing between the start and finish.
     Yellow Painting with Orange and Brown-Ochre Squares: June – October 1959 is an extremely complex image, with a far wider palette and variety of textures than most of his contemporary works. Painted on an unusually coarse canvas, which may have allowed Heron a stronger support for the numerous re-workings and developments of the layers of color, it also includes an extremely intricate range of handling with some areas showing an almost calligraphic use of the paint, presaging the new style of mark-making that would begin to appear in his painting of the 1960s, such as Squares Floating in Brown
–- Muted Red, Brown and Orange with Lemon (510x696pix, 14kb) _ This has inspired the pseudonymous Hattrick Stork to create the historically and geographically (not to mention visually) much more interesting collage
      _ Muted Red, Brown, Orange, and Lemmon (2006; 708x1000pix, 105kb).
Horizontal Stripe Painting (1958, 274x155cm) _ Heron's work progressed through several experimental phases that separated it from figuration and linked it firmly to principles of color. In 1957 he began a series of horizontal stripe paintings. The bands of color could still be seen to resemble a landscape at sunset, with sky above and sea below. However, Heron explained: “The reason why the stripes sufficed..was precisely that they were so very uncomplicated as shapes..the emptier the general format was, the more exclusive the concentration upon the experiences of color itself.” The stripe paintings presented a significant challenge to US abstraction, preceding the first stripe paintings of Morris Louis by several years.
–- The Shapes of Colour 1943-1978 (45kb)
–- Two Yellows and White in Orange (677x900pix, 50kb) _ Compare the very different and much more appetizing
      _ One WHITE and Two YELLOWs on Orange (2006; 659x932pix, 99kb) and
      _ One WHITE, one BLUE, and Two YELLOWs on Four Oranges (2006; 659x932pix, 99kb) by Stork.
–- Five Shapes in Brown: March 3:62 (145kb)
–- Dividing Emerald and Brown: Nov 71 (73kb)
–- Still Life With Flowers (1207x900pix, 284kb)
–- Marigold, Crimson and Ultramarine: September 1968 (68kb)
–- Three Discs: Scarlet in Blues: December 66 (83kb)
–- Three Violets With Green and Brown: Nov 71 (81kb) _ If you prefer colorful people to mere dabs of color, you will enjoy Stork's collage
      _ Green, Brown, and Three Violets (2006; 738x1000pix, 120kb) _ One year later Stork has surpassed himself by transforming a combination of Heron's pictures into the complex twin abstractions
      _ Grin, Frown, and Free Discussions (2007; 724x1024pix, 123kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 232kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 1489kb) and
      _ Grain Grown, and Three Violas (2007; 724x1024pix, 123kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 232kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 1489kb)
–- Blue Painting (Squares and Disc): August 58 - February 59 (1075x850pix, 113kb). _ This was sold for £327'200 at auction at Sotheby's in London on 28 June 2006.
–- Purple, Olive and Black on White (630x880pix, 115kb)
–- Untitled (617x860pix, 29kb) three shades of red with blue and yellow, 4 jigsaw-puzzle-like shapes.
–- Dark Violet With Orange Panel (746x900pix, 84kb)
–- Flowers in a Vase (890x452pix, 97kb)
–- Dull Brown With Green and White (890x1182pix, 88kb) a dull picture, 90% dull brown, flat except for scratches.
–- June 28: 1988 (676x880pix, 111kb) —(070319)

1925 Percy Thomas Marquoid, British artist born in 1852. — {Can you guess why they didn't give him “Marco” as a first name?}

1859 Jozef T.L. Geirnaert, Belgian artist born on 27 August 1791 {after the midwife had told his mother: Be brave, because this is Geirnaert?}.

^ 1830 (11 Feb?) Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (or Tonnay), French painter born on 10 (11?) February 1755. He was the son of Pierre-Henri Taunay [1728–1781], a painter–enameller at the Sèvres factory, and entered the studio of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié at the age of 13. Later he worked in the studios of Nicolas-Guy Brenet and Francesco Casanova. With a group of friends that included Jean-Louis Demarne, Lazare Bruandet, and Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidauld, he made trips to the forests of Saint-Germain, Fontainebleau, and Compiègne to learn to draw directly from nature. He visited the Dauphiné and Switzerland in 1776 with Demarne. That same year he made vignette illustrations for an erotic book, Journée de l’amour by Charles-Simon Favart [1710–1792] and others. Taunay exhibited landscape paintings at the Salon de la Jeunesse in 1777 and 1779 and at the Salon de la Correspondance in 1782. — LINKS
L'extérieur d'un hôpital militaire (1803, 46x65cm) _ Ce tableau est une réduction avec variantes de l'oeuvre présentée au Salon des artistes français à Paris, en 1798. Un charettes de blessés de l'armée de Bonaparte arrive devant un couvent transformé en hôpital.

^ 1771 Louis-Michel van Loo, French painter born on 02 March 1707, who worked in Rome and Paris but is chiefly distinguished for the powerful influence that he exerted on the development of Spanish painting while working as portrait painter to the Spanish court. He was a first cousin of César van Loo [20 May 1743 – 01 July 1821]. — {Is the reason that he did not visit England, that he objected to what they call “the loo”}{His paintings ought to be shown at the Loovre.} — As after him his brother Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo [25 Aug 1719 – 15 Nov 1795], he was trained by his father Jean-Baptiste van Loo [11 Jan 1684 – 19 Sep 1745] in Turin and Rome. Later he attended the courses of the Académie Royale in Paris. He received the institution’s first prize for painting in 1726, and in 1728, accompanied by his brother, François van Loo [1708–1732], and his uncle, Carle Van Loo [15 Feb 1705 – 15 July 1765], returned to Rome where he was associated with François Boucher. On his way back to France, he stayed for a time in Turin, painting portraits of the royal family of Sardinia, the Duke and Duchess of Savoy. In Paris he was admitted (reçu) to membership of the Académie Royale and in 1735 was appointed assistant teacher at the Académie, becoming renowned as a specialist in portrait painting. Most of his portraits from this period are half-length, combining ideas from Hyacinthe Rigaud’s later work with other more natural and innovative ones. On the death of Jean Ranc, Philip V of Spain asked Rigaud to suggest a substitute, and van Loo was proposed. He arrived in Madrid in 1737 and remained there as Pintor de la Corte until 1752, responding with modern aesthetic ideas to the demands of the Spanish monarchs for pomp and splendor. He carried out court commissions but devoted part of his time to teaching, his students often becoming studio assistants. He also took an active part in meetings held over a number of years to establish the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, for which he produced The Education of Cupid by Venus and Mercury (1748), in which the three figures appear in a garden set in an architectural background. In 1752 he was appointed director of painting, a post he barely enjoyed, since he returned to Paris that year. There he made many versions of the state portraits of Louis XV for presentation to the Courts of Europe. In 1765 he succeeded his uncle Carle as Director of the special school of the French academy known as the École Royale des Élèves Protégés. — Luis Meléndez and Alonso Miguel de Tovar were assistants of van Loo. His students included Per Gustaf Floding, Jan Piotr Norblin de la Gourdaine. — LINKS
Denis Diderot (1767; 155kb) _ compare Denis Diderot (1769, 82x65cm) by Fragonard
Catherina Golitsyna (91x81cm; 884x707pix, 102kb)
Le marquis de Marigny et de sa femme (1769, 98x130cm; 700x520pix) —(060311)

1681 Gaspar de Witte, Flemish artist born in 1624. — {The internet seems to be out of its Wittes.} — Relative? of Peter De Witte [1548-1628] ?

^ 1668 Nicolas Mignard d'Avignon, French painter born on 07 February 1606. — He was the elder brother of the much better-known Pierre Mignard. He did much of his work in Provence. His style was colder and drier than that of his brother, but showed the same attention to drawing. His compositions tended to be based on Italian models. — LINKS
Venus and Adonis (1650, 373x226cm; 960x627pix, 342kb _ ZOOM to 2504x1635pix) _ The myth of Venus and Adonis was told by the ancient Roman poet Ovid in his Metamorphoses. Venus, the goddess of love, adored the handsome mortal Adonis. She cautioned him against the dangers of the hunt, but he ignored her warning and was killed by a wild boar. Venus granted Adonis a form of immortality by transforming his blood into anemones--fragile springtime flowers (seen here behind Venus) with a beauty as fleeting as his own. In choosing to illustrate the fateful moment when Adonis departs for the chase with his hounds, Mignard followed the Italian painter Titian. Avoiding the emotive poses some Baroque painters would have used, Mignard carefully balanced and contained the interconnected gestures of the two poised figures. He represented the classicizing pole of 17th-century art: like the Renaissance painters he admired, he sought serenity even in tales of poignant feeling like this one.
Virgin and Child (112x93cm) {Ce Mignard est mignon, non?}
Ganymede and Eagle (etching 1667, 14x20cm) after etching Ganymede and Eagle by Annibale Carracci [1560-1609] _ The Iliad (Book XX, 232-235) of Homer mentions "...Ganymede, handsomest of mortals, whom the gods caught up to pour out drink for Zeus and live amid immortals for his beauty's sake." and says that Tros, king of Troy and Ganymede's father, received in compensation for the loss of his son"under the Dawn and under Helios the finest horses in the world". According to the version favored by artists through the centuries, either Zeus sent an eagle, or else assumed the form of an eagle himself, to carry the young man off to Olympus. Zeus immortalized Ganymede by making him into the constellation Aquarius, next to the constellation Aquila.
 _ See instead the pictures:
— by Rubens The Abduction of Ganymede (1000x453pix, 106kb)
— by Correggio [1490-1534] Ganymede (1531, 163x70cm; 800x331pix, 73kb)
— by Campagnola [1482->1514] Jupiter and Ganymede above an Extensive Landscape (1500 drawing, 15x12cm; 390x306pix, 53kb)
— by Mazza The Abduction of Ganymede (1575; octagonal 800x798pix, 173kb)
— by Michelangelo [1475-1564] The Abduction of Ganymede (1533 drawing, 19x33cm; 529x800pix, 50kb)
— by Rembrandt The Abduction of Ganymede (1635, 171x130cm; 1090x780ydb. 127kb) _ A mirror-image of most of this picture appears on a postage stamp of Gambia (722x497pix, 98kb)
— by Corinth [1858-1925] Legends of Mythology: Ganymede and the Eagle (1920 color lithograph; 615x728pix, 97kb) from the series The Loves of Zeus.
— by Benoît Louis Henriquez Enlèvement de Ganymède (engraving; 1246x1058pix, 775kb) _ Ganymede is shown as Zeus' cup bearer, holding the cup, and awaiting two winged figures to fill it in. Zeus is shown as the eagle, and one can see the gods' banquet in the background opening of the clouds.
— by Aimee Francesca Cummings Ganymede and the Eagle (2002; 618x514pix, 85kb)
Punch 06 Oct 1915 cartoon Ganymede and the German Eagle (etching; 827x600pix, 411kb gif) _ The eagle, wearing a German WWI spiked helmet, is carrying a terrified old mustachioed Turk; the legend reads: Sultan: “Of course I know it's a great honour being ‘taken up’ like this: still, I'm beginning almost to wish the bird had left me alone.” Turkey was allied with Germany in World War I.
— Mosaic in Bignor Roman Villa, Sussex, England: [Ganymede and the Eagle] (227x350pix, 81kb)
Links to mostly ancient images of Ganymede


Born on a 20 March:


1927 Josep Guinovart i Bertran [20 Mar 1927–], Barcelona Catalan painter who died (main coverage) on 12 December 2007. —(090320)

^ 1877 (20 May?) Jean Dunand, Swiss-born French Art Deco sculptor, metalworker, painter, and designer who died on 07 June 1942 (1947?). Not to be confused with the founder of the Red Cross, Jean-Henri Dunant [08 May 1828 – 30 Oct 1910]. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris, while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. Wisteria vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, 1912) reflect Art Nouveau forms, but he quickly adopted the geometric forms of Art Deco in his work. In 1912 the Japanese artist Seizo Sugawara asked him to solve a problem concerning dinanderie, and in exchange he was given instruction in lacquering. From then on he produced vases, folding screens, doors and other furniture (e.g. Geometric Decor, black and red lacquered screen). About 1925 he started to use egg shell on lacquer. Different effects were produced by varying the size of the pieces and by using the inside or the outside of the shell. He used this technique for both portraits and Cubist compositions (e.g. tray). He worked closely with contemporary artists and designers, especially the furniture designer Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann and the couturiers Madeleine Vionnet and Paul Poiret. His jewelry designs demonstrate a preference for pure, geometric forms, with regular black and red lacquer dots on the metal surface. — LINKS

^ 1872 (21 Jan?) Robert Brough, Scottish painter who died on 22 (21?) January 1905. He studied in the early 1890s at Aberdeen School of Art, at the Royal Scottish Academy of Art and in Paris under Benjamin Constant. He returned in 1894 to Aberdeen, where he produced numerous portraits before moving to London in 1897, the year in which he exhibited Fantaisie en folie. Thereafter he exhibited with the Royal Society of Arts and with the Royal Academy from 1901. In 1900 he won the Silver Medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and in 1904 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
Fantaisie en Folie (1897, 102x126cm)

1809 Johannes (or Jan) Tavenraat (or Tavenraet ), Rotterdam Dutch painter who died on 02 April 1881. — {Was Tavenraat a tavern rat?} — He was intended to succeed his father in the family cloth-dyeing business. In the evenings he attended classes of the genre painter Cornelis Bakker [1771–1849] at the Rotterdam Hierdoor tot Hoger society (‘The way to higher things’). In 1839 he decided to paint full time and continued his training under Willem Hendrik Schmidt [1809–1849]. Throughout his life Tavenraat traveled in order to paint, visiting Belgium, Germany (following the Rhine), Bohemia, and the Tyrol. From 1842 to 1846 he lived in Antwerp working with Felix de Bovie [1812–1880], a student of Barend Cornelis Koekkoek. He also continued his training under Eugène de Block [1812–1893].

^ 1781 Joseph Paelinck, Flemish painter who died on 19 June 1839. The son of a farmer, he studied at the Academie in Ghent. He exhibited for the first time in 1802 at the Ghent Salon, then left for Paris where he was admitted into Jacques-Louis David’s studio. In 1804 his Judgement of Paris obtained a prize at the Ghent Salon. The first of numerous commissions that followed was for St Colette (1806), which was in keeping with the contemporary Historicist vogue. In 1808 he was commissioned to paint a portrait of the Empress Josephine, and in the same year the town of Ghent granted him an allowance for four years of study in Rome where, with other former pupils of David, he took part in the decoration of the Palazzo del Quirinale; his contribution, Augustus Ordering the Adornment of Rome, is untraced. While in Italy he also painted a Neo-classical Invention of the Cross (1812), inspired by Raphael. In 1812 he returned to Ghent and in 1815 moved to Brussels to paint the portrait of William, Prince of Orange (1818). He painted several religious subjects, including a Crucifixion (1817) and the Disciples at Emmaus, which have links with the 17th-century French tradition. Among the portraits he executed in this period is the Snoy Family (1818), a painting that attempts to create a new iconography in its reversal of traditional postures: it is the wife who stands, denoting authority, while the husband sits in a relaxed pose. In 1820 he began working on lighter mythological subjects, such as Eros and Beautiful Anthea. In a similar vein, his Toilet of Psyche (1823) was highly influenced by David. He later returned to religious subjects (e.g. Flight into Egypt, 1829), emphasizing emotional expression, even sentimentality, and in doing so he joined a populist tendency in religious art. In such late works as the Abdication of Charles V (1832) Paelinck attempted to satisfy current Romantic taste, but the painting was badly received, and his reputation continued to decline until his death. — LINKS
Self-Portrait (1812; 380x299pix, 14kb) _ Born in a small village in Belgium, Paelinck attended a local drawing academy as a youth. His skill earned him a scholarship to study in Paris where he worked with Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), the leading French neoclassical master and official court painter of Napoleon I. Paelinck later moved to Rome to study ancient art firsthand and to participate in the city's lively international art scene. Paelinck's attire shows him as a dandy, wearing fashionable, subtly colored clothes. Over his black suit, he wears a box-coat-a garment having a wide, velvet collar originally associated with coachmen but popular among artists in Rome during the early 19th century. The coat demonstrates Paelinck's skill at depicting textures. Likewise, the simplicity of his desk and chair-based on ancient Greek and Roman models-reflects the highest fashion of the time.
William I, King of the Netherlands (1819; 1600x1084pix, 175kb)

1780 Joseph Moessmer, Austrian artist who died on 22 June 1845.

1608 Jean Tassel, French artist who died on 06 April 1667. — {There once was a painter named Tassel / Who lived high up in a castle. / Some say the art was facile / Of that French artist named Tassel.}{Well... it didn't get onto the internet, did it?} — He was trained by his father Richard Tassel [1582 – 1660]. By 1634 Jean Tassel was recorded in Rome, where he came into contact with his fellow Frenchmen Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, and Sébastien Bourdon. Like the last he was influenced by the Bamboccianti, and he painted a number of low-life genre scenes at this period; these include Singers in a Tavern and Travellers Attacked. He had returned to Langres by 1647, the date of his marriage, and continued to paint genre pictures after this, such as The Sawyers and The Marauders. Other influences from Rome include Caravaggio, strong in a picture such as the Fortune-teller (sold Paris, Drouot, 01 April 1987, lot 20) The Presentation of the Infant Jesus and Tobias and the Angel. However, the most lasting influence was that of the Romano-Bolognese school, seen in later pictures such as the Annunciation (1653), the Virgin and Child and the Adoration by the Magi and the Stoning of Saint Stephen.

^ 1577 Alessandro Tiarini, Bologna Italian painter and draftsman who died on 08 February 1668. He was the godson of the painter Lavinia Fontana [bap. 24 Aug 1552 – 11 Aug 1614], under whose father, Prospero Fontana [1512-1597], he received his first training in Bologna, until the latter’s death. After an unsuccessful attempt to enter the Carracci Academy, Tiarini studied for a brief period under Bartolommeo Cesi. Forced to leave Bologna because of a lawsuit, Tiarini then went to Florence, where he is documented between 1599 and 1606. There he attracted the attention of Domenico Passignano, who introduced him to the circle of Florentine proto-Baroque painters then advocating a return to a more naturalistic style of figure painting. In 1602 Tiarini took part in the fresco decoration of the cloister of San Antonio in the monastery of San Marco, under the supervision of Bernardino Poccetti and Jacopo da Empoli. Shortly afterwards he is documented as receiving several commissions throughout provincial Tuscany, including Pescia, which he visited between 1602 and 1604. These pictures, such as The Adoration by the Shepherds (1605), reveal a wide range of stylistic influences, not only from Tuscany but also from Venice and Bologna, where he may have returned for brief visits and where he died. — Luca Ferrari was an assistant of Tiarini. — LINKS
The Repentance of Saint Joseph (320x212cm; 700x460pix, 157kb) _ Après avoir appris par un ange l'origine de la grossesse de la Vierge Marie, Joseph lui demande pardon d'avoir mis en doute sa chasteté et souhaité la quitter. La figure de Joseph est proche d'un saint Jérome peint par Tiarini.
 
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