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ART “4” “2”-DAY  16 March v.8.10
BIRTHS: 1822 BONHEUR — 1771 GROS — 1665 CRESPI — 1667 RIVALZ — 1750 OUWATER
^ Born on 16 (22?) March 1822: Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, nicknamed “Rosa Mazeltov” (because she was Jewish), French Realist painter and sculptor, specialized in Animals, who died on 25 May 1899. She made a large number of pictures, studies, drawings, and etchings.
— She received her training from her father, Raymond Bonheur [–1849], an artist and ardent Saint-Simonian who encouraged her artistic career and independence. Precocious and talented, she began making copies in the Louvre at the age of 14 and first exhibited at the Salon in 1841. Her sympathetic portrayal of animals was influenced by prevailing trends in natural history (e.g. Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and her deep affinity for animals, especially horses.
      Bonheur’s art, as part of the Realist current that emerged in the 1840s, was grounded in direct observation of nature and meticulous draftsmanship. She kept a small menagerie, frequented slaughterhouses and dissected animals to gain anatomical knowledge. Although painting was her primary medium, she also sculpted, or modeled, studies of animals, several of which were exhibited at the Salons, including a bronze Study for a Bull (1843) and Sheep (bronze).
      In 1845 she attracted favorable notice at the Salon from Théophile Doré. In 1848 she received a lucrative commission from the State for Ploughing in the Nivernais (1849), which, when exhibited the next year, brought her further critical and popular acclaim. Typical of the Realist interest in rural society manifested in the contemporary works of Gustave Courbet [10 Jun 1819 – 31 Dec 1877] and Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], Ploughing was inspired by the rustic novel La Mare au diable (1846) of George Sand. Bonheur exhibited regularly at the Salon until 1855. Her paintings sold well and were especially popular in Great Britain and the US.
— Rosa Bonheur was born in Bordeaux. She was the eldest of four children, all of whom were artists: Auguste Bonheur [1824-1884] painted animals and landscape; Juliette Bonheur [1830-1891] was honorably mentioned at the exhibition of 1855; Isidore Bonheur [1827–] was a sculptor of animals. At an early age Rosa was taught to draw by her father, and he, perceiving her very remarkable talent, permitted her to abandon the business of dressmaking, to which, much against her will, she had been put, in order to devote herself wholly to art.
      From 1840 to 1845 she exhibited at the salon, and five times received a prize; in 1848 a medal was awarded to her. Her fame dates more especially from the exhibition of 1855; from that time Rosa Bonheur's works were much sought after in England, where collectors and public galleries competed eagerly for them. What is chiefly remarkable and admirable in her work is that, like her contemporary, Jacques Raymond Brascassat [1804-1867], she represents animals as they really are, as she saw them in the countryside. Her gift of accurate observation was, however, allied to a certain dryness of style in painting; she often failed to give a perfect sense of atmosphere. On the other hand, the anatomy of her animals is always faultlessly true. There is nothing feminine in her handling; her treatment is always manly and firm.
      Of her many works we may note the following: Ploughing in the Nivernais (1848), The Horse Fair (1853), of which she made a copy; and Hay Harvest in Auvergne (1855). After 1867 Rosa Bonheur exhibited but once in the salon, in 1899, a few weeks before her death. She lived quietly at her country house at By, near Fontainebleau, where for some years she had held tuition-free drawing classes.
— Her students included Anna Elizabeth Klumpke and Marie Cazin.

— {Par bonheur j'ai trouvé des images par Bonheur.}
Royalty at Home (1885, 39x56cm; 755x1100pix, 622kb _ ZOOM to 1676x2429pix, 2805kb) _ A lion and lioness lying down in a desert landscape.
Palette (1885, mostly oval, palette-shaped, placed diagonally in a rectangle 48x44cm; 879x918pix, 613kb _ ZOOM to 1850x1939pix, 2599kb) _ the original is painted on an actual painter's palette, with the various colors of paint dried up on it, and, to show that it is not just an abandoned palette, a small sketch of a lying deer in the middle. {Have lazy painters ever imitated this, minus the deer?}
Lion (dans les Montagnes de l'Atlas?) (1880, 39x48cm)
Retour de la Moisson (25x70cm)
Muletiers Traversant les Pyrénées
Un Couple de Chevreuils dans la Forêt de Fontainebleau (1893, 37x46cm)
Doe And Fawn in a Thicket (1868, 65x58cm)
A Horse and Donkey in a Hilly Landscape (55x65cm)
Le Labourage Nivernais: le Sombrage (76x150cm)
(A woman in oriental or ancient Roman Dress?) image was formerly labeled Madame René Canuel
Le Sevrage des Veaux (1879, 65x81cm; 398x500pix, 74kb)
La Foire aux Chevaux (1855, 245x507cm, 237x500pix, 45kb)
Two Horses at a Door (19x10cm; 475x800pix, 54kb)
^ Born on 16 March 1771: baron Antoine-Jean Gros, French Neoclassical / Romantic painter, who commited suicide on 26 June 1835. — He studied under Jacques-Louis David.
— Gros was trained by his father, a miniaturist and then by Jacques-Louis David. Although he revered David and became one of his favorite students, Gros had a passionate nature and he was drawn more to the color and vibrancy of Rubens and the great Venetian painters than to the Neoclassical purity of his master. In 1793 Gros went to Italy, where he met Napoléon and was appointed his official battle painter. He followed Napoléon on his campaigns, and his huge paintings such as The Battle of Eylau (1808) are among the most stirring images of the Napoléonic era. Compared to the contemporary war scenes of Goya, they are glamorous lies, but they are painted with such dramatic skill and panache that they cannot but be admired on their own terms. When David went into exile after the fall of Napoléon, Gros took over his studio, and tried to work in a more consciously Neoclassical style. He never again approached the quality of his Napoléonic pictures, however (although he painted excellent portraits), and haunted by a sense of failure he drowned himself in the Seine at Meudon. Gros is regarded as one of the leading figures in the development of Romanticism; the color and drama of his work influenced Géricault, Delacroix, and his student Richard Parkes Bonington [1802-1828] among others. His other students included George Peter Alexander Healy, Charles Muller, Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Joseph-Louis-Hippolyte Bellangé, Thomas Couture, Paul Hippolyte Delaroche, George P.A. Healy, Antoine-Louis Barye, Carl Joseph Begas [1794-1854], Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet, Jean-Désiré-Gustave Courbet [1819-1877], Joseph-Désiré Court, François Diday, Jean-François-Théodore Gechter, Jean-Antoine-Théodore Gudin, Nicolas-Auguste Hesse, Paul Huet, Pierre-Jules Jollivet, Eugène-Louis Lami, Jean-Charles Langlois, Charles Martinet, Louis Martinet, Louis Mazer, Carl Peter Mazer, Antonin-Marie Moine, Henry Bonaventure Monnier, Johann David Passavant, Charles Philipon, Denis-Auguste-Marie Raffet, Louis Léopold Robert, Camille-Joseph-Etienne Roqueplan, Philippe Rousseau, Philippe Schnetz, Jean Victor Schnetz, Émile Signol, François Simonau.
Antoine-Jean Gros à l'Âge de Vingt Ans (1891, 59x48cm; 465x380pix, 16kb), attributed to François Gérard.

Napoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge on 17 November 1796 (1797;_ ZOOMable) _ Napoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge (Gros' copy of the 1797 painting) _ Generals Bonaparte and Augereau took the bridge at Arcola, a town in Italy, on 15 November 1796 and defeated the Austrian army two days later.
Napoléon on the Battlefield of Eylau on 09 February 1807 (1808; _ ZOOMable) _ detail
Bonaparte Visiting the Pesthouse in Jaffa, 11 March 1799 (1804, 714x1000pix, 420kb _ ZOOMable to 1972x2763pix, 1721kb)
Madame Bruyère (1000x834pix, 315kb _ ZOOMable)
Mademoiselle Récamier (1000x834pix, 315kb _ ZOOMable)
Madame Récamier _ Juliette Récamier [1777-1849] was one of the foremost society beauties of the period. She was the daughter of a banker from Lyon. In 1793 she had married a 43-year-old banker, a business acquaintance of her father.
      _ compare Jacques-Louis David's Madame Récamier (ZOOMable)
      François Gérard's Juliette Récamier, (1805, 225x148cm; 722x483pix, 20kb)
      René Magritte's Perspective I: David's Madame Recamier (1951, 60x80cm; 483x640pix, 49kb)]
The Battle of Abukir (1806, 578x968cm)
Christine Boyer (1800, 214x134cm)
Madame Pasteur (1796, 86x67cm)
^ Born on 16 (14?) March 1665: Giuseppe-Maria Crespi “lo Spagnuolo”, Bolognese painter, draftsman, and printmaker who died on 16 July 1747. — Not to be confused with his relative Daniele Crespi [1597 – 19 Jul 1630], nor with Giovanni Battista Crespi “il Cerano” [1557 – 23 Oct 1632]
— Giuseppe Maria Crespi was the most original Bolognese artist of his time, producing religious, mythological and genre works, these last being particularly innovative. Of his four sons, Antonio Crespi [1712–1781] and Luigi Crespi assisted their father in his later years and adopted his style. Luigi was also a writer, producing, among other works, a collection of biographies of his father and various contemporary Bolognese artists.
      Giuseppe Maria Crespi's religious and mythological works are distinguished by a free brushstroke and a painterly manner. He also painted spirited genre scenes, which by their quality, content and quantity distinguish him as one of the first Italian painters of high standing to devote serious attention to the depiction of contemporary life. Such paintings as Woman Laundering (1705) or Woman Washing Dishes (1725) offer straightforward glimpses of domestic chores in images that are startlingly novel for the period and look forward to the art of Jean-Siméon Chardin, Jean-François Millet, and Honoré Daumier.
— Crespi reacted against the high-Baroque academic tradition on which he was trained by Carlo Cignani and Domenico Maria Canuti, specializing in genre subjects, with violent chiaroscuro effects of brilliant color against dark backgrounds. They are in the tradition of the everyday-life paintings of the Carracci, but go far beyond them in their sense of unvarnished reality (The Hamlet). He also painted religious paintings in his naturalistic style, such as the Saint Giovanni Nepomuceno Confessing to the Queen of Bohemia (1743). He was an outstanding teacher, numbering Giovanni Battista Piazzetta and Pietro Longhi among his students, and he exercised a great influence on Venetian 18th century painting. He can be considered the only real genius of the late Bolognese school.
— The students of Crespi included Pietro Maria Guarienti, Pietro Longhi III, Lodovico Mattioli.

Self-Portrait (1700, 60x50cm) _ Formerly the painting was believed to be the self-portrait of Domenico Feti. X-ray investigations revealed a female head on the left side of the painting.
Cardinal Prospero Lambertini (1740, 80 x 58 cm) _ Prospero Lambertini (1675-1758), was pope from 1740 to 1758 as Benedict XIV. He became cardinal in 1728, and archbishop of Bologna between 1731 and 1740.
The Flea (1709, 28x24cm) _ This is one of Crespi's best-know paintings. Through the oiled paper in the window frame, a milky light falls into the humble servant's room. Clothing is scattered untidily on the floor and thrown over a roughly made bench. A few household objects and some washing on a bar hang against the bare brick wall, whose only remaining decoration consists of a few personal items. The pretty woman who lives in this room, a maid or servant girl, is sitting on the edge of the bed, dressed only in a shift. As she concentrates on her search for a flea that has probably hidden on her breast, she reveals her round knees, her plump arms and her well formed shoulder. The complete intimacy of this scene and the still-life of the utensils anticipates a theme that was to become typical of late 18th century taste: innocence glimpsed unawares. AIthough there are a number of allegorical reflections — the little dog at the end of the bed, the roses in the vase next to the cosmetic jar they nevertheless do not seriously mean to identify this girl with Venus. The "keyhole perspective" also leaves it up to the spectator to choose his or her own interpretation of the scene.
Hecuba Blinding Polymnestor (173x184cm) _ Giuseppe Maria Crespi, also surnamed lo Spagnolo, was heir to various artistic traditions. Trained in his youth in the rich Bolognese heritage of the Carracci as well as the Venetian school, he later drew artistic inspiration from north of the Alps, in particular in his commissions in Florence for Prince Ferdinand of Tuscany. Crespi's oeuvre plays on several registers. He is known on the one hand for his folk-style genre scenes, the intimacy of which frequently carries over into his religious works, full of tenderness and domestic details. At the same time, when depicting religious, antique or mythological themes, he is not afraid to produce works of a much more monumental and dramatic character, at times even with a decidedly tragic slant, as is the case here.
      The theme is probably taken from Hecuba, a tragedy by the antique Greek author Euripides. During the Trojan war Hecuba had sent her youngest son, together with a large fortune, to safety with Polymnestor, her son-in-law and King of Thrace. Polymnestor, however, abused Hecuba's trust in a dreadful manner, murdering and bespoiling the defenceless child he was supposed to protect. Crespi's painting depicts Hecuba's revenge for this foul deed.
      To the left Polymnestor is held fast by a Trojan woman. To the right Hecuba rushes up to him and puts out her son-in-law's eyes. The painter has masterfully succeeded in converting the dramatic release of the mother's wrath on the murderer of her descendant into a powerful picture that leaves a lasting impression. The pictures rise up out of the dark background in a very mellow and nervous style of painting, a combination that had earlier proven its expressive accuracy in the late works of Titian and Caravaggio. Polymnestor, flailing helplessly in the air, has no recourse against Hecuba, who in her fluttering garments wreaks out just punishment with the elegance and precision of an angel of wrath, whilst her companion resolutely turns her head away from the dreadful judgement. By depicting Hecuba entirely from behind, in foreground, the painter also enables the viewer to identify to a certain degree with the mother as the executor of a just punishment.
^ Born on 16 March 1667: Antoine Rivalz, French painter who died on 07 September 1735. — [Did Rivalz have rivals?]
— En 1726, Antoine Rivalz fonde une véritable école de dessin, indépendante de celle de Paris, qui deviendra en 1750 l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture de Toulouse, la seule en province à bénéficier du soutien royal. Jean-François Lassave, Jacques Gamelin, Jean-Baptiste Despax, Pierre Subleyras, artistes toulousains de renom, fréquentent l'Académie et prolongent l'inclination classicisante de leur maître.

Autoportrait devant l'esquisse de la chute des anges rebelles (1726, 83x64cm)
Jean-Pierre Rivalz (124x99cm) Après avoir suscité de multiples interrogations sur l'identité de l'artiste qui l'a réalisé, ce portrait a finalement été attribué par en 1956 à Antoine, qui l'a vraisemblablement peint sur une ébauche de son père. Jean-Pierre Rivalz, peintre et architecte de la ville de Toulouse, est ici représenté dans cette double fonction, à mi-corps devant une table de travail encombrée de livres et de pinceaux, consultant le traité de Vitruve, et tournant le dos à son tableau figurant l'Annonciation. Antoine, de retour d'Italie, aurait recomposé le trop paisible portrait de son père, réalisé dans sa jeunesse, sur un mode plus tumultueux et passionné : l'habit comporte des plis nombreux, la pile de livres s'écroule, la main froisse avec nervosité des pages où se reflète abondamment la lumière. Dans cette toile, toute droite est bannie, alors que les courbes sont soulignées, donnant une touche baroque à ce portrait, qui a amené à considérer pendant longtemps cette toile comme un autoportrait de Jean-Pierre Rivalz.
La Présidente de Riquet en Diane Chasseresse (123x101cm) _ L'iconographie de cette oeuvre, qui paraît décalée par rapport aux thèmes habituellement traités par Rivalz, se justifie par la personnalité de son commanditaire. Agé de 65 ans, Jean- Matthias de Riquet, l'époux du modèle, semble avoir imposé le caractère mythologique de ce portrait. Le nu héroïque sert de prétexte, à travers le genou et le sein découverts, à un érotisme tout à fait exceptionnel dans le climat social de Toulouse. Par un style vigoureux, Rivalz rompt avec l'élégante mièvrerie des portraits mythologiques qui caractérisaient le siècle précédent, et exclut notamment tout sourire de ce visage.
Enlèvement des Sabines (120x171cm) _ After a stay in Rome, Rivalz became the painter of the city of Toulouse.
_ Iam res Romana adeo erat ualida ut cuilibet finitimarum civitatum bello par esset; sed penuria mulierum hominis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit qui societatem conubiumque novo populo peterent: urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci; dein, quas sua virtus ac di iuvent, magnas opes sibi magnumque nomen facere; satis scire, origini Romanae et deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem; proinde ne gravarentur homines cum hominibus sanguinem ac genus miscere. Nusquam benigne legatio audita est: adeo simul spernebant, simul tantam in medio crescentem molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant. Ac plerisque rogitantibus dimissi ecquod feminis quoque asylum aperuissent; id enim demum compar conubium fore. Aegre id Romana pubes passa et haud dubie ad vim spectare res coepit. Cui tempus locumque aptum ut daret Romulus aegritudinem animi dissimulans ludos ex industria parat Neptuno equestri sollemnes; Consualia vocat. Indici deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet; quantoque apparatu tum sciebant aut poterant, concelebrant ut rem claram exspectatamque facerent.
      Multi mortales conuenere, studio etiam videndae novae urbis, maxime proximi quique, Caeninenses, Crustumini, Antemnates; iam Sabinorum omnis multitudo cum liberis ac coniugibus venit. Inuitati hospitaliter per domos cum situm moeniaque et frequentem tectis urbem vidissent, mirantur tam breui rem Romanam crevisse. Vbi spectaculi tempus venit deditaeque eo mentes cum oculis erant, tum ex composito orta vis signoque dato iuventus Romana ad rapiendas virgines discurrit. Magna pars forte in quem quaeque inciderat raptae: quasdam forma excellentes, primoribus patrum destinatas, ex plebe homines quibus datum negotium erat domos deferebant. Vnam longe ante alias specie ac pulchritudine insignem a globo Thalassi cuiusdam raptam ferunt multisque sciscitantibus cuinam eam ferrent, identidem ne quis violaret Thalassio ferri clamitatum; inde nuptialem hanc vocem factam.
      Turbato per metum ludicro maesti parentes virginum profugiunt, incusantes violati hospitii foedus deumque invocantes cuius ad sollemne ludosque per fas ac fidem decepti venissent. Nec raptis aut spes de se melior aut indignatio est minor. Sed ipse Romulus circumibat docebatque patrum id superbia factum qui conubium finitimis negassent; illas tamen in matrimonio, in societate fortunarum omnium civitatisque et quo nihil carius humano generi sit liberum fore; mollirent modo iras et, quibus fors corpora dedisset, darent animos; saepe ex iniuria postmodum gratiam ortam; eoque melioribus usuras viris quod adnisurus pro se quisque sit ut, cum suam vicem functus officio sit, parentium etiam patriaeque expleat desiderium. Accedebant blanditiae virorum, factum purgantium cupiditate atque amore, quae maxime ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces sunt. TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA LIBER I, IX (English translation at Livy's The History of Rome)

L'Annonciation (70x57cm)
^ >Born on 16 March 1748 (1750?): Isaak Ouwater, Amsterdam Dutch painter who was buried on 04 March 1793.
— He worked in the tradition of the topographical town portrait, which originated in the northern Netherlands in the late 17th century, and he was greatly inspired by the work of Jan van der Heyden. Although he lived in Amsterdam for the greater part of his life, Ouwater travelled all over the country, making sketches that he used as a basis for his oil paintings. His itinerary can be traced from his dated works. In 1782 he stayed in Haarlem, where his paintings included the Grote Markt; that same year he painted the Buitenhof in The Hague, and in 1784 he apparently worked in Hoorn, where he produced sketches for two topographical pictures. He also made sketches of street scenes for later paintings, in Utrecht, Edam, and Delft. Among the scenes he painted in his native Amsterdam are the View of the Mint Tower (1778; sold London, Sotheby’s, 11 June 1975) and the Westerkerk (1788). His townscapes are characterized by his fresh colors and the meticulous and lucid rendering of his subject, drenched in bright daylight and seen from the viewpoint of the small figures that animate his compositions.
—      Isaak Ouwater Jr. was baptized at the Amstelkerk in Amsterdam on 31 July 1748 (1750?). From 1852 till 1854 he lived in The Hague. Isaak's father, Isaak Sr., was a painter of landscapes and still lifes. Isaak Jr. lived and worked mainly in Amsterdam. In 1772 he married Anna Louisa Charlotte Dorensia and they had six children. Isaak was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam.
     Isaak Ouwater Jr. probably was taught initially by his father. Soon, he specialized in topographically accurate cityscapes. The only likely teacher of this genre was Jan Ekels I [1724-1781], but there is no evidence that Ouwater studied under him. The genre of topographical cityscapes began to flourish in the second half of the seventeenth century, with artists such as Job and Gerrit Berkheyde. Jan van der Heyden [1627-1712] took the genre to great heights. In the eighteenth century topographical drawing, such as the watercolors of Jan de Beyer, ousted topographical painting. While most of Ouwater's contemporaries, like Reinier Vinkeles, Jacob Cats and H.P. Schouten imitated De Beyer, Jan Ekels I and Ouwater continued to a high standard the tradition of the painted cityscape.
     The genre came to fruition at the moment when wealthy town-dwellers became proud of the cities they had created in the seventeenth century. Following the 1648 Peace of Munster, Holland was at the zenith of her power, able to look back on what she had achieved after years of struggle against the Habsburg hegemony. By the time Ouwater had started to paint his views of Amsterdam, Holland's position in Europe had been reduced to a modest one, but pride in the past remained.
— De 18de-eeuwse schilder Isaak Ouwater maakte vooral stadsgezichten. Dit topografische genre vond zijn oorsprong in Nederlandse schilderkunst uit de 17de eeuw. Vooral het werk van de laat-17de-eeuwse schilder Jan van der Heyden vormde voor Ouwater een belangrijke inspiratiebron. Zijn hele leven woonde en werkte Ouwater in Amsterdam, maar hij maakte verschillende reizen door Holland. De schetsen, die hij tijdens deze tochten maakte, vormden de basis voor stadsportretten van Haarlem, Den Haag, Hoorn en andere steden. De meestal klein afgebeelde figuren verlevendigen het werk van Ouwater.

The Lottery Office (1779, 39x34cm; 970x859pix, 185kb _ ZOOM to 1600x1403pix, 402kb) _ detail (1100x786pix, 195kb) _ Ouwater was the best follower of Jan van der Heyden. He concentrated on cityscapes. Although Ouwater's paintings can be a little dry and airless, and, when compared to to van der Heyden's, appear timid, he always displays a fine sense of design as is evident in his Lottery Office. Here his debt to van der Heyden's manner also is unmistakable; in it his minute handling is best enjoyed with a magnifying glass. But his close, frontal view of the street scene is original. The painting is an exact rendering of the façades of three houses in the Kalverstraat in Amsterdam which have an antiquarian interest that enhances the painting's historical value. The lottery office that the crowd is trying to enter was first inhabited by Clement de Jonghe, who posed for Rembrandt and was a publisher of Rembrandt's etchings. The house on the right was once occupied by Jacob van Ruisdael, the one on the left by Aert van der Neer.
— A crowd has gathered outside a bookshop and lottery agency in Amsterdam's Kalverstraat. It is 25 October 1779, and the sale of lottery tickets for the 66th General Lottery has begun. Men, bent on obtaining a ticket, push and shove around the entrance. The eighteenth-century architectural painter, Isaak Ouwater, has depicted the event in great detail. However, Ouwater has filled in much of the picture with windows and the red bricks of the houses - a highly unusual composition. Ouwater was commissioned to paint this work by Jan de Groot, the owner of the bookshop and lottery agency.
      A large crowd has gathered at the entrance. Everyone is pushing and shoving, trying to get in first. Above the doorway is a sign announcing the sale of tickets: 'Collection here for the General Lottery'. The General Lottery was the forerunner of Holland's later National Lottery. People are beginning to gather. They watch, amused by the excited, clamoring punters.
     On either side of the bookshop is a boarding house. On the left De Graaf van Holland and on the right 'T Hof van Holland. The guests have opened the windows to watch the commotion. On the left, two men have even come out of their boarding house. A green crown as been placed on a stick, with a fish suspended in the crown. This means that there is herring on sale in the town. On the right of the foreground, behind the dog, an orphan boy, recognisable by his red and black coat, rushes towards the scene.
     Ouwater painted precisely what he saw. Even the pediment over of the bookshop door. The Latin text reads: 'As long as grindstone continues to be turned for writers, it is good for literature'. The red letters in the text can also be read as Roman numerals: '1728'. This was the year in which a bookshop was established in this building. Indeed, the façade was probably also renovated at this time. On a wooden relief above the door is a portrait of Hugo de Groot. This woodcarving has also been preserved and hangs in the same gallery as this painting by Ouwater.
      In 1779, the book dealer and art collector Jan de Groot commissioned Ouwater to paint a picture of his house, because Ouwater was a master at painting buildings. Apart from this picture, Ouwater also made a number of drawings of the house on paper. These may have been preliminary studies for the painting. One example, a watercolor shows some of the persons who are also in the painting. The excited crowd, which enlivens this painting, is missing from that piece.
De Nieuwe Kerk en de achterkant van het stadhuis te Amsterdam (1782, 59x73pix; 1299x1600pix, 260kb) _ Isaak Ouwater has here painted a well-known part of Amsterdam which remains largely the same today. It on Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal just behind Dam Square. On the right is the back of the stately town hall, now the Royal Palace. On the left is the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church). In the distance is the tower of the Oude Kerk (Old Church). Ouwater has painted the scene with great precision, depicting every stone and groove in the buildings. You can even count the cobbled stones in the street.
     Only a third of the back of the town hall has been depicted. This part lies in shadow, making it a single large, dark surface. This is an unusual view of the town hall which was usually presented in all its glory from the front. It was built in the middle of the seventeenth century. The size of the building and the large number of expensive decorations were intended to emphasise Amsterdam's position as the most powerful city in the world. In the eighteenth century this was no longer the case.
     To the right of the New Church is a glimpse of Old Church. This was given a beautiful new spire with a new set of bells in 1565. Plans were made to give the New Church an even larger spire than the Old Church, although this never happened. Financial problems called a halt to building work in 1652. In 1785, part of the foundation for the spire was demolished. A painting by Hendrik van der Burgh reveals the effect the spire would have had on Amsterdam's skyline. The Royal Palace, formerly the town hall, still dominates Amsterdam's Dam Square [photo; 740x469pix, 77kb].
A View in Amsterdam (1778, 53x63cm; 337x400pix, 26kb) _ Dutch topographical painting of the latter half of the eighteenth century is characterized by its scrupulous attention to detail and precise observation of nature and does not strictly imitate earlier painting. A striking feature of these eighteenth-century views is a predominant lack of activity: the light falls clearly on open squares and canals, a few people are about who seem to stand still and have nothing to do. The effect is rather that of the intimate Dutch interior, but here the well-ordered lives of the citizens move out into the street. In front of the pleasant Dutch houses there seems to hover an endless, almost unreal, quiet. These characteristics are perfectly exemplified in the work of Isaak Ouwater. This painting depicts the Westerkerk which is the largest and perhaps the most monumental of the Renaissance churches in that city. The church was built around 1620 from plans by Hendrick de Keyser, who died in 1621, and the steeple was completed in 1638 based on an altered design. In this painting the West Church is seen across the Keizersgracht and the houses beyond the church are on the Prinsengracht. The house to the right of the church was a merchant's house constructed in 1618. The impressive building on the left was a guard-house built in 1619 and was called the West-Hall. The view in Ouwater's painting is almost identical to that painted by Jan van der Heyden [1637 – 28 Mar 1712] during the previous century, View of the Westerkerk, Amsterdam (1671, 41x59cm; 768x1117pix, 108kb), with figures by Adriaen van de Velde [1635-1672].
–- Ouderkerk, near Amsterdam (1779, 56x77cm; 900x1233pix, 72kb _ .ZOOM to 1575x2158pix, 170kb) _ This is a view from the west bank of the river Amstel looking upstream towards the village. Ouderkerk is a small village a short distance south of Amsterdam, which has so far firmly resisted being absorbed into the encroaching suburbs. The bridge known as De Lange Brug lasted with alterations until 1938 (the lifting section survives in the Openluchtmuseum in Arnhem), but the inn facing it, De Oude Prins, still stands. The church beyond is seen after its rebuilding in 1774-5. The gentleman greeted by a couple in the foreground has just alighted from a horse-drawn passenger ferry, still then the principal means of transport in a land rather more water-logged than it is today; the fodder on the quay beyond is for the horse. Ouderkerk was the first stage on the busy trekvaart route from Amsterdam to Utrecht and Gouda. A drawing by Johannes or Hermanus Petrus Schouten of the same view from the same point, excluding the tea-house at the extreme left of the picture
–- View of the Westerkerk (1779, 52x66cm; 908x1190pix, 97kb) seen across from the Keizersgracht, Amsterdam. The Westerkerk was the largest newly built Protestant church in Europe, the burial place of Rembrandt and Nicolaes Berchem. The tower was 85-meters tall, the highest of the city. The church was built from 1620 to 1638, to designs of Hendrick de Keyser [1565-1621]. His son Peter de Keyser finished the work, modifying the design from his father's mannerist octagonal tower to a square more in keeping with the current classical taste.
     To the left of the church is the Westerhal, another building in the transitional style between mannerism and classicism. Built in 1618-1619 to the designs of Hendrick Staets and Cornelis Danckertsz., it housed a meat hall on the ground floor and a civic guardhouse on the top. The building was demolished in 1857. The large double-gabled house on the right of the painting was built in 1618 in the style of Hendrick de Keyser, and demolished in 1918.
     In his delightful, sunny atmosphere and meticulous rendering of the brick architecture, Ouwater proves himself a worthy follower of Jan van der Heyden [05 Mar 1637– 28 Mar 1712]. In this case he was directly influenced by Jan van der Heyden, who had painted this facade of the Westerkerk twice. Both these views are now in London, one in the Wallace Collection:
     _ View of the Westerkerk, Amsterdam (1671, 41x59cm; 768x1117pix, 108kb), the other in the National Gallery:
     _ View of the Westerkerk, Amsterdam (1660, 91x114cm; 840x1070pix, 161kb), this last painting was owned by the churchmasters of the Westerkerk until 1864 and must have been seen there by Ouwater.
     Ouwater painted his version of the Westerkerk from the same spot as Van der Heyden. In it the church is seen more to the left, placed off-center. because it was originally the left-hand painting of a pendant pair.

Died on a 16 March:

^ 1957 Constantin Brancusi, Romanian abstract sculptor, draftsman, painter, and photographer, a French citizen since 13 June 1952.. He was born on 19 (21?) February 1876. He was one of the most influential 20th-century sculptors, but he left a relatively small body of work centred on 215 sculptures, of which about 50 are thought to have been lost or destroyed. — Ettore Colla, and Isamu Noguchi were assistants of Brancusi. Marta Colvin was a student of his. — LINKS

1989 Raymond Affleck, Canadian architect born on 20 November 1922. — Relative? of William Affleck? of Andrew F. Affleck [1869-1935]?—(060225)

^ 1955 (17 March?) Nicolas de Staël, French painter born on 05 January 1914 in Russia into an aristocratic family forced into exile in 1919 as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution. In 1922, orphaned, he and his two sisters were sent to Brussels to live with wealthy Russian expatriates. Between 1933 and 1936 he studied in Brussels, attending courses on architecture at the Académie de Saint-Gilles and on decoration and design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Trips to the Netherlands and France during this period aroused a lasting admiration for 17th-century Dutch painting and for the work of Matisse and Braque. In 1936 he held his first exhibition, showing works in a Byzantine style that reflected his cultural heritage and also a series of watercolors resulting from his bicycle tour of Spain in the previous year. In the summer of 1936 he departed for Morocco; few paintings survive from this period, but his letters reveal his self-searching and the developing consciousness of his creative way of life. In August 1937 he met the painter Jeannine Guillou, who became his mate until her death (1946). Together they visited Algeria and Italy, where de Staël applied himself to studies of Italian art, returning to Paris in 1938. There he made copies after Old Master paintings in the Musée du Louvre, especially Chardin and Delacroix; in the summer months he painted landscapes in Brittany. — LINKS
Landscape (755x600pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1761pix)
Figure by the Sea (1952, 162x130cm; 815x656pix, 64kb)
Red Can (800x590pix, 88pix)
Harmonie Rouge, Bleue, et Noire (1951, 60x81cm; 582x800pix, 107pix)
Personages au Bord de la Mer (800x640pix, 67pix)
The Shelf (1955, 88x116cm; 358x463pix, 13kb)
98 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(060315)

^ 1922 Robert Russ, Austrian painter born on 07 July 1847. — {Shouldn't there be also a Russian artist named Auster?}
Motiv aus Klosterneuburg (29x20cm; 800x544pix, 48kb)
Straße in Arco (107x153cm; 492x700pix, 135kb _ ZOOM to 940x1340pix, 185kb)
Landscape In Northern Italy (1894, 164x111cm)
Zur Zeit der Hochblüte (1895, 17x28cm; 380x631pix, 130kb)
Limone am Gardasee (31x40cm; 480x608pix, 46kb)
Toscolano am Gardasee (137x181cm; 430x573pix, 69kb)
Blumenfenster in Weißenkirchen (1885, 35x25cm; 400x294pix, 80kb) —(060315)

^ 1908 Marceli G. Suchorowski, Russian painter mainly of portraits and women, born in 1840 in Galicia (SW Poland). Entered the Imperial Art Academy of St. Petersburg in 1858. Recipient of a five Silver Medals from the Imperial Art Academy in St. Petersburg. Two in 1863, two in 1865, and one in 1866. One of the medals in 1865 was for drawing. He received the rank of Painter First Class in 1872 for his portrait of Madame Rapoporte. He was given the rank of Academist in 1874 for his portrait of Princess Galitzen, and upon presentation of NANA to the Soviet of Professors gained status as Professor. He started giving courses in painting for men and women in St. Petersburg in 1902. The Forward to the St. Louis Exhibition lists Suchorowski among the well known of the Imperial Academy of Arts. Probably the most famous of the St. Petersburg salon painters in the 1880's. After his financial success with Nana he produced only the occasional work of art. The Year's Art 1909 reports he made 60'000 pounds sterling of his exhibitions of Nana, which would translate to over 5 million in 1999 dollars. Part of his success was his early use of artificial lighting and unusual display techniques such as surrounding the painting in red satin drapery instead of a frame and setting the room with salon furniture. His large works were displayed in such a way that when entering a darkened room with artificial lighting the women appeared lifelike and part of the room. His paintings were done with great technical skill but the installations were the key to his financial success. He was criticized from conservative critics because his works were considered very risqué for the times. His financial success inspired a whole generation of young salon painters in St. Petersburg. He was a leading member of the St. Petersburg Society of Artists formed about 1890 until his death. He suffered from fire and ill health in his later years.
Maritza (1886, 305x427cm; 618x801pix framed, 1451kb bmp) _ this painting, valued at $80'000, was stolen in August 2003 from from the Lemeitour Gallery in Portland, Oregon, where it was stored for its private owner pending sale.

1881 Hugues Merle, French painter born (main coverage) on 01 March 1823.

^ 1837 François-Xavier Fabre, French Neoclassical painter, printmaker, and collector, specialized in Portraits, born on 01 April 1766 {no fooling!}. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou [1719–1791] in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children. This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790.) at the Salon of 1791. — LINKS
Oedipus and the Sphinx (50x66cm _ ZOOMable to 1511x2000pix, 634kb) _ detail (664x1000pix, 206kb _ ZOOMable to 1327x2000pix) the Sphinx.
Lucien Bonaparte (1810; 755x600pix _ ZOOM to 1761x1400pix _ ZOOM+ to 2638x2024pix, 493kb)
Rosario Persico or possibly another man (1812, 99x79cm; 961x776pix, 78kb _ ZOOM to 1555x1244pix, 163kb _ ZOOM+ to picture cropped of superfluous empty space; 2465x2027pix, 193kb)
Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert (1787, oval 78x61cm)
Madame de Joubert (1787, oval 31x24cm) —(060315)

^ 1670 Jean Michelin, French Protestant painter born before 1616. Not to be confused with the other French Protestant painter Jean Michelin [1623 – 03 Mar 1695] — {He was indefatigable: at the time no one had yet discovered how to make a Michelin tire.}— The first of two Protestant painters in Paris with this name, whose careers overlap, he was active around 1650 and was a painter of bambocciate, which he sold at fairs, passing them off as pictures by the Le Nain brothers. His oeuvre (some known 20 compositions) is centered around The Baker’s Cart (1656). The artist, apparently inspired by the steady, still quality of the work of the Le Nain brothers, set out to transfer this atmosphere to an urban universe, in low-life figures of street traders. The compositions, setting accessories such as staffs or hoops against emphatic vertical divisions, display a frieze of characters without having any anecdotal content. The modeling is fluid and the coloring subdued. Religious paintings, such as the Adoration by the Shepherds (1659), include similar contemporary figures.— LINKS
Adoration par les Bergers (100x139cm; 434x600pix, 89kb)
Le Marchand de Pain (1650, 77x97cm; 476x600pix, 98kb) —(060314)

^ >1639 Pieter Deneyn (or de Neyn), Dutch painter born on 16 December 1597.
–- Dune Landscape With a Traveler and His Dog, Persons and a Church Beyond (567x900pix, 58kb _ to 992x1575pix, 127kb)
–- Landscape With a Traveler and a Dog on a Path Near a Village and Shepherds With Their Flock in the Foreground (558x961pix, 67kb)
–- Dune Landscape With Travelers on a Path and Peasants Resting Near Farms (726x1201pix, 81kb)
–- People Resting in a Field by Haystacks (527x800pix, 48kb) monochrome brown
–- Landscape With a Horseman and People Conversing Before a Farmhouse (1628, 30x55cm; 346x650pix, 44kb) —(070314)

Born on a 16 March:

^ 1912 Giulio Turcato, Italian abstract painter who died on 22 January 1995.
–- Contrasto (638x1115pix, 42kb) cropped to from a needless 1124x1575pix where, on a uniform dark background which takes up most of the picture area, a red loop is aggressively facing a small pale-green ring. _ For those who insist on minimalism, the pseudonymous Agosto Grecato has removed the loop and the ring, resulting in the full and utterly blah background
      _ Con Trascuràto (2007; 1124x1575pix, 59kb); but Grecato, who is really a maximalist, has made better use of the picture space by populating it with a larger number of loops and rings in the amazing
      _ Contrassalto aka Turk Rut (2006; screen filling, 71kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 161kb) and its version with a more colorful and interesting background,
      _ Con Trastulio aka Truck Curt (2006; screen filling, 253kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 596kb)
–- Senza Titolo (648x900pix, 40kb) on a flat dull tan background, 5 blue, 2 red, and one orange thick fabric loops, each enclosing what looks somewhat like marbles.
–- Senza Titolo (635x860pix, 25kb) three flat colors: dark red background, 12 small angular orange area, 6 small rounded off-white areas.
–- Reticolo (624x800pix, 48kb) four flat colors: a dark blue-green background, a gray network under an almost-white network, and in some of the gaps of which are rounded dark brown globs _ Grecato has taken this as the starting point for a much more complex picture bright with almost as many hues as globs:
      _ Ridículo (2006; screen filling, 188kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 684kb)
–- Paesaggio (900x598pix, 63kb) really a sort of landscape: some houses before a hillside, but painted with a few huge hasty brushstrokes that make it close to a rough abstraction. An elaborate one is what you may have expected from Grecato, and better than that, he came up with two:
      _ Pas Sage aka Sage Gas (2006; screen filling; 234kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 571kb), and
      _ Paese Saggio aka Sags Gas (2006; screen filling; 255kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 692kb).
–- Superficie Lunare (840x321pix, 19kb) monochrome light greenish gray with a scattering of faint shapes in a slightly darker greenish gray.
–- Senza Titolo (628x900pix, 28kb) monochrome light gray with a few faint slightly lighter gray tracing that look done with fingers.
–- Senza Titolo (640x900pix, 35kb) monochrome red with some faint slightly lighter red areas and tracings.
–- Senza Titolo (644x900pix, 34kb) monochrome dark blue with a few faint slightly lighter blue tracings _ Starting from these four extremely faint monochrome pictures, Grecato has created the colorful and contrasting
      _ Senza Titubanza (2006; screen filling, 175kb _ ZOOM to 1414x2000pix, 727kb)
–- Composizione (597x900pix, 113kb) a few purple scribbles on a background of bunches of grayish green lines. _ Grecato has transformed this into
      _ Composta Verde aka Rêve Ver (2006; screen filling; 141kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 303kb), and, in deference to the alternate title, has then added a surprise to create
      _ Contrapposizione del Verme Verde aka Rêva Ver (2006; screen filling; 340kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 1031kb).
–- Senza Titolo (547x818pix, 139kb) on a mottled background of white and grayish green, a few pale orange scribbles and green dots (small circles) including a division sign and the letter t. _ The Grecato beautifying treatment applied to this picture has transformed it into
      _ Senza Lettera t aka Bun Nub (2006; screen filling; 141kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 303kb), and
      _ Con Questo Titolo aka Nub Bun (2006; screen filling; 340kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 1031kb).
–- Composizione (900x435pix, 45kb) sketch of half a face. _ Grecato has attempted to reconstruct the whole face, an effort which has less scientific than artistic value, and results in a colorful face which seems like that of some unidentified animal in
      _ Con Posizione e Colore aka Pose Sop (2006; screen filling; 141kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 303kb), and, after Grecato must have drunk who-knows-what, that of a definetily mythical and weirdly colored creature in
      _ Con Pozione aka Post Sop (2006; screen filling; 340kb _ ZOOM to 1000x1414pix, 1031kb).—(070314)

1902 Lucie Gomperz Rie, Austrian-born English ceramist who died on 01 April 1995. —(060219)

^ >1881 Pierre Paulus du Châtelet, Belgian painter, engraver, and ceramic artist, who died on 17 August 1959. He was born into a family of artists. At the beginning of his career, he was influenced by the French impressionist school as well as the luminism in the works of Emile Claus [1849-1924] and his school. His first landscapes were produced under this influence, using the same the techniques, subjects and the vivid and warm colors. Constantin Meunier's [1831-1905] realistic and socially inspired paintings had a considerable influence on Paulus. From 1905 Paulus started producing his first paintings portraying the industrial landscapes of the banks of the Sambre. In 1910, Paulus befriended Jules Destrée's [1863-1936]. The following year, he painted Jeunesse (1911, 150x200cm; 277x365pix, 23kb) a significant work in his career, one of the masterpieces of the Salon d'Art Moderne at the exhibition of Charleroi in 1911. From the romantic realism in Jeunesse, Paulus evolved towards art with hints of expressionism, which are reminiscent of Permeke. He worked with a knife applying generous layers of paint, and this showed to advantage his rich palette with its infinite shades of color. He painted hieratic figures of miners, metal workers or "hiercheuses" who occupied a large part of the picture against a heavy and dark background, adopting the style of artists such as Marius Carion [1898-1949]. Paulus is best known as the designer of the rooster of the Walloon Flag (1913; 496x744pix, 22kb png).
La grève (80x100cm; 480x616pix, 31kb).
Leening der Nationale Hebstelling (1919; 63x87cm; 375x534pix, 51kb) poster.
La Sambre industrielle (65x81cm; 480x595pix, 45kb).
Remorqueurs en bord de la Sambre (65x81cm; 480x595pix, 40kb).
Buffoon Glad aka Coq et Demi (2007; 724x1024pix, 259kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 514kb _ ZOOM+ to 1864x2636pix, 2026kb) is the colorful and finely detailed picture into which the pseudonymous Paul Petrus du Chatrèlaid has transformed the Walloon Flag's two flat colors. —(070314)

1880 Paul Jouve, French artist who died in 1973.

1764 Joseph Dorffmeister, Hungarian artist who died in 1814.

1694 Christian Hilfgott Brand, Austrian painter who died on 22 July 1756. Father and teacher of Johann-Christian Brand [06 Mar 1722 – 12 Jun 1795].

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