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ART “4” “2”-DAY  11 March v.10.00
DEATHS: 1820 WEST — 1866 LEIGH
^ >Died on 11 March 1820: Benjamin West, US Neoclassical painter born on 10 October 1738.
— Benjamin West was born in Pennsylvania; and died in London, England. He specialized in historical scenes and portraits. He was a leading English artist in his time. He was largely self-taught. He painted portraits in Philadelphia from 1746 to 1759. On a trip to Italy in 1759 he acquired a classical style of painting by copying the works of Titian and Raphael.
      In 1763, West moved to England and set up shop as a portrait painter. He became friends with Sir Joshua Reynolds. King George III commissioned him to do portraits of members of the royal family. Later he became historical painter to the court. West was a founding member of the Royal Academy. In 1792, he became the second president of the Academy. He was a leader in the realistic movement. His painting The Death of Wolfe (1771) broke the usual tradition of depicting soldiers in contemporary battle scenes wearing Greco-Roman costumes. West taught many painters including: Gilbert Charles Stuart, John Singleton Copley, Charles Willson Peale, Thomas Sully, Mather Brown, John Downman, Ralph Earl, Charles Robert Leslie, John Linnell, Matthew Pratt, Henry Sargent, Edward Savage, Washington Allston, and John Trumbull.
— Benjamin West, painter of historical scenes and portraits, was one of the leading artists of his time. He was born in Pennsylvania, and was largely self-taught. He painted portraits in Philadelphia from 1746 to 1759. He went to Italy in 1759 and acquired a classical style of painting by copying the works of such Italian masters as Titian and Raphael. In 1763 West moved to England, where he soon gained the friendship of the English portraitist Sir Joshua Reynolds and the patronage of King George III, who commissioned him to execute portraits of members of the royal family and, in 1772, appointed him historical painter to the court. West was a founder, in 1768, of the Royal Academy of Arts and on Reynolds's death in 1792 succeeded him to the presidency. He became a leader of the developing realistic movement when his painting The Death of Wolfe (1771) broke the usual tradition of depicting soldiers in contemporary battle scenes wearing Greco-Roman costumes. West encouraged and influenced many young American painters who studied under him in London, among them Gilbert Charles Stuart and John Singleton Copley.
— One of the first US artists to win a wide reputation in Europe, Benjamin West exerted considerable influence on the development of art in the United States through such young American painters as Gilbert Stuart, Charles Willson Peale, and John Singleton Copley. West abandoned the tradition of painting people in Greek and Roman dress, the first major artist working in England to do so. West was born of Quaker parents in in the Pennsylvania colony. Young West was encouraged to draw, and it was said that he got his first paints from his Indian friends. When he was 16 his Quaker community approved art training for him. For a time West studied in Philadelphia and New York City. He also served as a militia captain in Indian campaigns in Pennsylvania. Then he went to Italy for three years of study. In 1763 he went to England and remained there for life.
      Known in London as "the American Raphael," he became a friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds, England's leading painter. Soon other influential Londoners, Samuel Johnson for one, took an interest in the young American. King George III commissioned him to paint several pictures, and in 1772 he appointed West historical painter to the king with an annual allowance of 1000 pounds. By another royal appointment West was made a charter member of the Royal Academy, succeeding Reynolds as president in 1792.
      West painted historical and religious subjects on huge canvases. Among his famous works are Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768); The Death of General Wolfe (1771), the controversial painting in which he broke away from classical costumes; Penn's Treaty with the Indians (1772); and Death on a Pale Horse (1796; 440x950pix, 120kb), which anticipated developments in French romantic painting. Modern critics regard West's figures as somewhat stiff, his colors harsh, and his themes uninspired, but they respect his leadership and influence on later artists. West died in London.
— US-born painter of historical, religious, and mythological subjects who had a profound influence on the development of historical painting in Britain. He was historical painter to George III (1772-1801), a founder of the Royal Academy (1768), and in 1792 he succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as its president.
      As a young man, West showed precocious artistic talent and was sent to Philadelphia in 1756 to study painting. At 20 years of age he was a successful portraitist in New York City and in 1760, through the assistance of friends, he sailed for Italy, where Neoclassicism was rapidly gaining ground. West visited most of the leading art cities of Italy and in 1763 went to London, where he set up as a portrait painter. His subsequent patronage by George III and the assurance of financial support from the crown absolved him of the necessity to continue to earn a living through portraiture.
      In London he soon became intimate with Sir Joshua Reynolds and gained widespread popularity. The Death of General Wolfe (1771; several versions exist), one of his best-known and — at the time — most controversial works, made a noteworthy concession to realism in its use of modern dress rather than antique drapery to depict a contemporary historical event within a classical composition. It was considered by many academicians to be an affront to the art of history painting, but ultimately it was a popular success and won Reynolds' approval.
      Though loyal to America, West retained the king's friendship and patronage until 1801. In 1802 he visited Paris and exhibited his final sketch for Death on the Pale Horse (1802; several versions exist), which anticipated developments in French Romantic painting. He never returned to the United States, but through such students as Washington Allston, Gilbert Stuart, Charles Willson Peale, and John Singleton Copley, he exerted considerable influence on the development of art in that country during the first decades of the 19th century.

Self-Portrait (1756)
Self-Portrait (1770)
The Death of General Wolfe (1770, 153x215cm) _ detail _ This is an episode of the conquest of Quebec in 1759. Mortally ill with tuberculosis, James Wolfe [02 Jan 1727 – 13 Sep 1759] throughout August 1759 besieged Quebec, where the French, under the marquis de Montcalm [28 Feb 1712 – 14 Sep 1759], were entrenched. At the end of August, Wolfe and his brigadiers agreed on a plan to land troops across the river a short distance upstream and to the west of Quebec. The resulting attack, which involved scaling the cliffs less than 2 km from the city, was carried out on 12 September 1759 and surprised the French on the level fields of the Plains of Abraham. On 13 September 1759, after a battle lasting less than an hour, the French fled. Wolfe, wounded twice early in the battle, died of a third wound, but not before he knew Quebec had fallen to his troops. Montcalm survived him by only a few hours. Quebec surrendered on 18 September 1759, and in 1760 Jeffrey Amherst [29 Jan 1717 – 03 Aug 1797] received the surrender of Montreal and the rest of Canada, which was ratified by the Treaty of Paris (10 Feb 1763).
Diana Mary Barker (1766, 94x84cm; 960x868pix, 445kb _ ZOOM to 2128x1924pix, 2080kb)
–- George Harry lord Grey (1765, 125x100cm; 1147x916pix, 67kb _ .ZOOM to 2304x1835pix, 456kb _ .ZOOM+ to 4628x3670pix, 2134kb)
–- Genius Calling Forth the Fine Arts to Adorn Manufactures and Commerce (1789, oval 49x62cm; 882x1125pix, 119kb _ .ZOOM to 1766x2250pix, 979kb)
–- Cupid Stung by a Bee (1802, 32x53cm; 683x1148pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM to 1376x2428pix, 607kb)
–- Christ Healing the Sick (1794; 73x115cm; 736x1176pix, 139kb _ .ZOOM to 1473x2352pix, 1044kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2946x4704pix, 3644kb) excessively brown (due to aging?).
Christ Showing a Little Child as the Emblem of Heaven (1790, 70x50cm)
The Death of Nelson (1808, 88x72cm)
Moses Shown the Promised Land (1801, 50x73cm)
Peter Beckford (1797, 145x116cm)
The Damsel and Orlando (1793, 91x71cm)
Hagar and Ishmael (1776, 193x138cm)
Helen Brought From Paris (1776, 143x198cm)
Raphael West and Benjamin West, Jr. (1775, 104x80cm)
Ann Barbara Hill Medlycott [1720-1800] (74x62cm)
A Domestic Affliction
Pharaoh and His Host Lost in the Red Sea (1792, 99x78cm)
The Treaty of Penn with the Indians (1772, 190x274cm) _ The genre in which English painters were least happy in the second half of the 18th century was history painting; the efforts of Reynolds in this direction are strangely petrified for so living a painter. Yet it was through history painting that Neo-Classicism invaded the art in England. A Scot, Gavin Hamilton [1738-1820] and a US American, Benjamin West, who enjoyed a prodigious success, were in advance of the French painter Jacques-Louis David in the conception of a painting as a scene from Classical history, based upon thorough archeological research. West was most successful when least pretentious; his illustrations of English historical events are simply illustrations, simply composed, uneffectedly direct. Neo-classicism had trained West to give value to the facts of the scene depicted, removing anything merely decorative or liable to spoil the sense of witnessing an actual event.
Edward III Crossing the Somme (1788, 137x150cm) _ Benjamin West, arrived in England in 1763, after spending three years in Italy. He quickly gained the patronage of George III, for whom he became Historical Painter in 1772 carrying out a number of projects, especially at Windsor Castle, involving classical, historical and religious subjects. West was a founding member of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1768 and succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as President in 1792.
      A series of eight paintings illustrating events from the reign of Edward III was commissioned from West by George III to decorate the Audience Chamber at Windsor Castle. The task took three years to complete from 1786 to 1789, but the arrangement was dismantled by George IV during the mid-1820s when much of Windsor Castle was redesigned by Jeffry Wyatville. However, a view of the Audience Chamber with the pictures still in place is included in W. H. Pyne's The History of the Royal Residences of 1819. The present painting was double-hung on the left of the throne balancing The Burghers of Calais on the right, positioned above the door.
      The series illustrates Edward III's campaign in northern France during the summer of 1346. Edward III crossing the Somme is the first in the sequence and shows an incident preceding the Battle of Crécy, when the king was trying to cross the River Somme at Blanche Tache, near Abbeville, in order to escape the French army. Edward III encountered and engaged a part of the French force under Godemar de Faye, the outcome of which, like the Battle of Crécy itself, was dependent upon the skill of the English archers seen in the upper right of the composition. The king is on horseback just to the right of center and the figures accompanying him can be identified with the aid of a key provided by the artist for George III.
      A subject taken from medieval history was an unusual choice for this date. According to West's earliest biographer, John Galt, it was George III who, 'recollecting that Windsor Castle had, in its present form, been created by Edward the Third, said, that he thought the achievements of his splendid reign were well calculated for pictures, and would prove very suitable ornaments to the halls and chambers of that venerable edifice.' In addition to his military prowess, Edward III had also been the founder of the Order of the Garter that is so closely associated with Windsor Castle. The paintings by West must be seen, therefore, as part of a revival of interest in the Middle Ages that was being pioneered by antiquarians such as Joseph Struttz and Francis Grose, to whose works the artist clearly referred for details of the arms, armor, and dress. For the historical narrative the primary sources in English were an early translation of the Chronicles (1325-1400) of Jean Froissart and the History of England (1754-1762) by David Hume [07 May 1711 – 25 Aug 1776]. West's work showed that ideal truth could be sought in themes unrelated to antiquity, and his lively treatment of such subject matter reveals his innovative qualities as an artist.
Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768, 163x240cm; 377x550pix, 35kb) _ Agrippina [14 BC – 18 Oct 33] (not to be confused with her daughter Agrippina the younger [15-59], mother of the emperor Nero) was the granddaughter of the emperor Augustus [23 Sep 63 BC – 19 Aug 14]. She was married to Germanicus Caesar [15 BC – 19], great-nephew of Augustus and nephew and adopted son of Tiberius [16 Nov 42 BC – 16 Mar 37], who was an adopted son of Augustus. Germanicus died in Syria. Agrippina (and many others) believed that he had been poisoned by order of Tiberius. Agrippina sailed back bound for Rome, with her children, Caligula [31 Aug 12 – 24 Jan 41] and Agrippina, and an urn containing the ashes of Germanicus:
     Agrippina, quamquam defessa luctu et corpore aegro, omnium tamen quae ultionem morarentur intolerans ascendit classem cum cineribus Germanici et liberis, miserantibus cunctis quod femina nobilitate princeps, pulcherrimo modo matrimonio inter venerantis gratantisque aspici solita, tunc feralis reliquias sinu ferret, incerta ultionis, anxia sui et infelici fecunditate fortunae totiens obnoxia. (Tacitus, Annales 2:75)
     When Agrippina landed at Brundisium, she found awaiting her thousands of ordinary Romans as well as her brother-in-law, the future emperor Claudius [01 Aug 10 BC – 13 Oct 54]. Mourners lined the road all the way from Brundisium to the public funeral at Augustus' mausoleum in Rome, from which both Tiberius and his mother, Livia, were conspicuously absent:
     Nihil intermissa navigatione hiberni maris Agrippina Corcyram insulam advehitur, litora Calabriae contra sitam. illic paucos dies componendo animo insumit, violenta luctu et nescia tolerandi. interim adventu eius audito intimus quisque amicorum et plerique militares, ut quique sub Germanico stipendia fecerant, multique etiam ignoti vicinis e municipiis, pars officium in principem rati, plures illos secuti, ruere ad oppidum Brundisium, quod naviganti celerrimum fidissimumque adpulsu erat. atque ubi primum ex alto visa classis, complentur non modo portus et proxima maris sed moenia ac tecta, quaque longissime prospectari poterat, maerentium turba et rogitantium inter se silentione an voce aliqua egredientem exciperent. neque satis constabat quid pro tempore foret, cum classis paulatim successit, non alacri, ut adsolet, remigio sed cunctis ad tristitiam compositis. postquam duobus cum liberis, feralem urnam tenens, egressa navi defixit oculos, idem omnium gemitus; neque discerneres proximos alienos, virorum feminarumve planctus, nisi quod comitatum Agrippinae longo maerore fessum obvii et recentes in dolore antibant.
      Miserat duas praetorias cohortis Caesar, addito ut magistratus Calabriae Apulique et Campani suprema erga memoriam filii sui munera fungerentur. igitur trlbunorum centurionumque umeris cineres portabantur; praecedebant incompta signa, versi fasces; atque ubi colonias transgrederentur, atrata plebes, trabeati equites pro opibus loci vestem odores aliaque funerum sollemnia cremabant. etiam quorum diversa oppida, tamen obvii et victimas atque aras dis Manibus statuentes lacrimis et conclamationibus dolorem testabantur. Drusus Tarracinam progressus est cum Claudio fratre liberisque Germanici, qui in urbe fuerant. consules M. Valerius et M. Aurelius (iam enim magistratum occeperant; et senatus ac magna pars populi viam complevere, dislecti et ut cuique libitum flentes; aberat quippe adulatio, gnaris omnibus laetam Tiberio Germanici mortem male dissimulari.
      Tiberius atque Augusta publico abstinuere, inferius maiestate sua rati si palam lamentarentur, an ne omnium oculis vultum eorum scrutantibus falsi intellegerentur. matrem Antoniam non apud auctores rerum, non diurna actorum scriptura reperio ullo insigni officio functam, cum super Agrippinam et Drusum et Claudium ceteri quoque consanguinei nominatim perscripti sint, seu valetudine praepediebatur seu victus luctu animus magnitudinem mali perferre visu non toleravit. facilius crediderim Tiberio et Augusta, qui domo non excedebant, cohibitam, ut par maeror et matris exemplo avia quoque et patruus attineri viderentur.
      Dies quo reliquiae tumulo Augusti inferebantur modo per silentium vastus, modo ploratibus inquies; plena urbis itinera, conlucentes per campum Martis faces. illic miles cum armis, sine insignibus magistratus, populus per tribus concidisse rem publicam, nihil spei reliquum clamitabant, promptius apertiusque quam ut meminisse imperitantium crederes. nihil tamen Tiberium magis penetravit quam studia hominum accensa in Agrippinam, cum decus patriae, solum Augusti sanguinem, unicum antiquitatis specimen appellarent versique ad caelum ac deos integram illi subolem ac superstitem iniquorum precarentur.
(Tacitus, Annales 3:1-4)
^ Born on 11 March 1818: Thomas LeClear, US genre and portrait painter who died on 26 November 1882.
— Born in Oswego, New York, LeClear had studios in New York City and in Buffalo, New York. Considered one of the major artists of Buffalo's first golden age in the mid 1800s, LeClear is nationally recognized for his portraits of children, which document mid nineteenth-century dress and demeanor.
      LeClear was mainly self-taught, but did receive some training in New York City. He began his career in Buffalo, London, and Canada, first painting portraits in Oswego, New York, in 1844, and then in New York City from 1845 until 1847. He settled in Buffalo, where he received a commission to paint decorative panels for a steamboat, and soon found himself part of the artistic nucleus that was forming in that city. Like so many other painters in the country at the time, he painted mostly portraits, but made his reputation with his appealing and refreshing scenes of childhood, such as his Marble Players, Young America, Itinerants, and his best known, Buffalo Newsboy (1853).
      By 1861, Le Clear had left Buffalo and was living in Brooklyn. Two years later he had a studio in Manhattans Tenth Street Studio building, where William Holbrook Beard [1825-1900], noted painter of bears, had lived a year earlier, from 1860 to 1861. Beard was later to marry LeClear's daughter. Despite living in New York City, both Beard and LeClear continued to be closely connected to Buffalo, especially through their involvement with the newly founded Buffalo Fine Arts Academy. LeClear and Beard, along with William John Wilgus and Lars Gustaf Sellstedt, were the major artists of Buffalo's first golden age in the mid-1800s. LeClear taught private students in Buffalo, as did Wilgus and Sellstedt. One of LeClear's students was Albert Samuels, who painted genre and still-life pictures. Buffalo presented its first major art exhibition in December 1861, and a fifth of the works were by Buffalo artists. The exhibition was a financial success and led to the formation in 1862 of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy under the leadership of LeClear and Henry W. Rogers, one of Buffalo's principal art patrons.

Interior with Portraits (1865, 66x103cm; 585x943pix, 129kb) _ This is virtual reality, 19th century-style. For three or four centuries, you hired a painter to capture your loved one's features for posterity. But then, after daguerreotypes were introduced in 1839, suddenly you had a choice. You could have a colorful, often life-sized painted likeness that looked more or less like your relative, or you could have a tiny, monochrome, but startlingly REAL photograph. This picture is unsigned and undated. According to family history it was painted by LeClear about 1865. Supposedly LeClear was commissioned to make the picture by an elder brother of these two children in the picture.
     The boy had just died when the picture was requested, but he was not then the young child shown here. He was a 26-year-old volunteer fireman who had just died in a hotel fire. His older sister had already died when she was an adolescent, more than fifteen years before the picture was made. The little boy in the picture looks definitely dead, even stuffed. It is likely that the painter, for lack of live models to get likenesses, used a daguerreotype of them as a substitute. If so, he was not one of the many painters who felt threatened by the new photography and vowed never to use photos as aids, claiming that very special qualities made paintings greatly superior.
     Here's the villain of this game, the photographer himself. Should we read anything into the fact that he's portrayed from the rear and conceals his face from us under his cloth? (Incidentally, his wet collodion camera was not manufactured before 1860, and this helps us date the painting). Landscape painting now becomes merely a background foil for photography. This must have been a rude jibe at all the heroic Hudson River and western landscapes that were dominating the public exhibition rooms just then. This old patriarch with altarlike frame presides disapprovingly over the scene. Could a photographer make a likeness of an ancient patriarch? Unlikely! But now he's almost obscured by the backdrop, relegated to the past. All the paraphernalia of the professional artist is arrayed in this studio, which, by the way, we know was in a famous artists' building called the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York.
     In this painting there is plenty of evidence that the inhabitant of the sky-lit studio was no mechanical hack. And yet, the artist is being asked to make way for an insolent photographer who has only learned to manipulate mechanical devices and chemicals. So, in this painting, LeClear shows a scene within a scene, and then implies yet another still larger view from outside the canvas. Through this technique, LeClear used the occasion of this commissioned portrait to make an homage to the 17th-century Spanish master, Velázquez, whose Las Meninas used the same device. By implication, LeClear could be said to be paying homage to the art of painting.
–- Ulysses S. Grant (standing, 1880, 903x586pix, 29kb) _ Grant posed for this portrait shortly after he returned from a triumphant world tour following his presidency. LeClear painted two portraits of Grant. This one was originally owned by Grant himself, while the second one (sitting, 265x169pix, 45kb gif) became part of the White House collection.
     In the spring of 1861, Ulysses Simpson Grant [27 Apr 1822 – 23 Jul 1885] hardly seemed destined for greatness. Having resigned his army captain's commission in 1854, this West Point graduate was eking out a living as a clerk in his brother's leather shop. But the Civil War marked a dramatic shift in his fortune. Reenlisting in the army, he was soon made a general. By war's end, he was commander of all Union land forces, and as the chief architect of the South's defeat, he had become one of the country's most admired heroes. Grant's popularity inevitably led to his 1868 election as the 18th President of the US. But here he proved less successful, and his weak control over his administration spawned an outbreak of federal corruption that made "Grantism" synonymous with public graft. Nevertheless, Grant's personal charisma waned but little through his two terms (1869-1877). Had he succumbed to talk of running for a third, he perhaps would have won. _ compare:
   _ Photo of Grant (1157x939pix, 347kb) _ Another photo of Grant (1720x1401pix, 1059kb) _ Lithograph of Grant (1000x680pix)
   _ Ulysses S. Grant (1868, oval 74x61cm; 735x610pix, 365kb) by William F. Cogswell [1819-1903]
Buffalo Newsboy (1853, 61x51cm)
High-Jack-Game (1861, 41x51cm)
The Truant (41x31cm)
^ Died on 11 March 1955: William Robinson Leigh, US painter specialized in the US West, born on 23 September 1866.
— Leigh was one of the most prolific painters of the US West and is well known for his dramatic images of Western landscapes, wildlife, cavalry, cowboys and Amerindian cultures. His use of European techniques in painting large-scale images of the US West eventually earned him the nickname “America’s Sagebrush Rembrandt.” As a young boy, Leigh drew portraits of farm animals and at the age of six, won first prize at the Martinsburg County Fair for a paper cutout of an elephant chasing a man on horseback. In 1880, he began his formal artistic training at the Maryland Institute in Baltimore, where he studied under Hugh Newell, a former student of British sporting artist Sir Edwin Landseer.
      In 1883, shortly before his seventeenth birthday, Leigh sailed to Germany where he studied for twelve years at the Royal Academy in Munich. After his rigorous training in draftsmanship and composition, Leigh returned to America in 1896 and worked as a magazine illustrator in New York City. In 1906, bartering a ticket for a painting with the Santa Fe Railroad, Leigh made his first trip to New Mexico. He documented the Southwest by sketching and painting studies of the Pueblo Indians, the landscape and the animals. In his unpublished memoirs, he wrote, “I saw that so far as possible, I must be a sponge, soak up everything I saw. I must know the manners and customs, the people and their deployments. In short, absorb all that was humanly possible to absorb. I started in to paint, paint, paint.”
      Throughout his life, Leigh returned to the Southwest. He also visited other parts of the West, including the Rockies of Wyoming and the Yellowstone area. In 1926, he joined an expedition to Africa led by Carl Akeley and gathered studies for the background dioramas that he painted for the African Hall of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Leigh died two weeks after being elected into the National Academy of Design. His widow, Ethel Traphagen, founder of the Traphagen School of Fashion in New York, gave his entire collection of work to the Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The New York Herald Tribune called Leigh “the last surviving member of the famous western painting trio that included Frederick Remington and Charles Russell.”

The Struggle for Existence (1947) It depicts a group of wild horses protecting themselves against a pack of hungry wolves during a blizzard. In defense, the mustangs form a tight circle with their heads in the center to fight off their attackers. On the left edge of the composition, a ravenous wolf appears to be devouring its injured companion. This type of wolf attack is unlikely since wolves tend to travel and hunt in smaller packs, but perhaps severe winter conditions forced the hungry wolves to behave this way. Although the horses appear to have the upper hand in this struggle, a horse skull in the foreground alludes to a previous defeat. Regardless of its biological accuracy, Leigh’s dramatized scene moves the viewer with its size and intensity. Wolves have often been portrayed as evil and deceitful, but are increasingly seen as symbols of the freedom and open spaces of the American West. A Struggle for Existence is similar to a painting by Frederic Remington titled Broncos and Timber Wolves, c.1888, which was reproduced in Century magazine in 1889 as a wood engraving, and in Theodore Roosevelt's Ranch Life and the Hunting-Trail (1896; 344x550pix, 74kb]
Swans (1913) It represents a dramatic departure from the artist’s usual subject matter and style. Leigh primarily painted scenes of the American West and experimented with Impressionism in the early 1900’s. Painted in 1913, Swans has an atmospheric quality and quiet beauty that suggest an Impressionist influence. With paint carefully applied using a pointillist technique, Leigh has depicted two swans bowed at the neck and reflected on a moonlit lily pond. The monochromatic color scheme and tender scene of Swans make it a unique piece in Leigh’s oeuvre.
Sophie Hunter Colston (1896, 184x104cm)
Hopi Pottery Merchant (1941, 61x46cm)
–- Sand Painter (1951, 63x76cm; 652x800pix, 87kb)
Grand Canyon of Arizona (1909, 51x41cm; 645x500pix, 51kb)
–- Hopi Water Carrier (1914, 34x28cm)
Loitering (1899)
Female of the Species (1946, 71x56cm; 543x420pix, 66kb)

Died on a 11 March:

1992 Lorenzo Goñi Suarez [25 Jan 1911–], Spanish painter born (main coverage) on 25 January 1834. —(100124)

1897 Lodewijk-Johannes Kleyn (or Kleijn), Dutch artist born on 14 August 1817.

^ 1666 (burial) Jacob Fopsen ( or Foppeus) van Es (or Essen, Esch), Flemish painter, specialized in Still Life, born in 1596. Together with Osias Beert and Clara Peeters, he was one of the leading representatives of the archaizing trend in Flemish still-lifes. His birthplace is known from the text on an engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar after a painting by Jan Meyssens [1612–1670]. Van Es became a master in Antwerp in 1617 but did not join the Guild of St Luke until 1645. Jacob Gillis and Jan van Thiene were his students in 1621 and 1623 respectively. He enjoyed a certain esteem among fellow artists, for Jacob Jordaens, Cornelis Schut the elder, and Deodaat del Monte were godfathers to his children. Numerous mentions of works by van Es in inventories of 17th-century Antwerp collectors further testify to his success; the inventory of Rubens’s collection, for instance, includes two still-lifes by van Es. — LINKS
Grapes with Walnut (22x27cm; 720x874pix, 94kb) _ One bunch of white grapes on a table with half a walnut at front center.
Grapes with a half Walnut (25x35cm; 415x600pix, 49kb) _ Two bunches of green grapes on a table with half a walnut at front left center.
Still-Life with Fruits (24x35cm; 760x1130pix, 120kb)

Born on a 11 March:

1902 Luis Gowland Moreno [–1971], Argentinian painter. —(090310)
Sprecheder, 1919
^ 1891 Max Kaus, Berliner painter and printmaker, who died on 05 August 1977. After a practical training as a decorative artist, he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin. In 1914 a stay in Paris aroused his interest in fine arts. Before he was able to develop in this field, World War I broke out; Kaus worked as an ambulance driver in Flanders. In 1917 Erich Heckel became his military superior in Ostend. The German painters Otto Herbig [1889–1971] and Anton Kerschbaumer [1885–1931] also belonged to his division. The influence of these artists, particularly Heckel, is clear in Kaus’s early work, for example Self-portrait I (1919). His paintings are marked by brooding doubt and existential loneliness. In 1920 he became a member of the Freie Sezession and met Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Otto Mueller. In the early 1920s he traveled by boat through the Brandenburg Marshes, to Mecklenburg and the Baltic, producing paintings of landscapes and bathers, such as Bathers in the Bay at Hiddensee (1922). He became a teacher in 1926 at the Meisterschule für Kunsthandwerk in Berlin, and in 1933 he moved to the Vereinigte Staatsschulen. The Nazis disapproved of his work, and in 1938 he had to give up his teaching post. In 1943 his studio was destroyed in a bombing raid, as was his graphic work in 1945. In the latter year he became a teacher at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Berlin, where he taught until 1968. His subjects were closely connected to his life and to nature, although in the years after 1945 his images were increasingly dominated by rhythmic patterns coming close to abstraction, such as Temple Ruins II, Rome (1957).
Freunde - Interieur mit vier Personen (1917; 809x990kb, 50kb)
Kanallandschaft II (1920 lithograph, 38x49cm; 809x1000pix, 86kb)

^ 1860 Rodolphe Wytsman, Belgian painter who died on 02 November 1927. Rodolphe Wytsman est originaire de Termonde, grandissant dans un milieu très cultivé. En effet, son père reçoit régulièrement des écrivains, des artistes ou des hommes politiques. On y discute de tout, des mouvements classiques comme des nouveautés qui secouent le monde artistique d'alors. S'intéressant également à la numismatique et à l'histoire, compositeur et urbaniste, il organise des concerts, des expositions ou des conférences où tout ce petit monde discute librement. Malheureusement, lors de la mort du père, la famille se trouve plongée dans des difficultés financières. Rodolphe et ses proches se déplacent à Gand, où, à onze ans il commence les cours du soir en "tête antique" de Jean Capeininck à l'Académie. Il est contraint d'abandonner ses cours car son tuteur les considérait comme une perte de temps et lui trouve un travail dans une mercerie. Il y travaille pendant trois ans. Rodolphe décide de recommencer la peinture et le dessin, et malgré les reproches que lui adresse sa mère, il se réinscrit à l'Académie où il rencontre Théo Van Rysselberghe. Sa décision de reprendre le dessin et la peinture est la bonne, mais la manière d'y parvenir ne lui convient pas. Il ne supportait plus la peinture des nus antiques ou les compositions élaborées en atelier et préférait de loin peindre des paysages le long de la Lys ou à l'ombre des vergers. En 1880 toute la famille déménage à Bruxelles où il s'inscrit à l'Académie. Avant de devenir membre fondateur du Groupe des XX, il exposera à L'Essor, le groupe précurseur des XX. Il fait donc partie de ce milieu avant-gardiste et très actif à Bruxelles. En 1882-1883, il a l'opportunité de faire le "voyage en Italie ". Là, il se ressource au contact des couleurs claires, de la luminosité particulière, et de la chaleur du pays. Rentré en 1883, il repart à Knokke où il travaille et côtoie Van Rysselberghe, Finch et d'autres artistes faisant partie de l'avant-garde belge. La première exposition du Groupe des XX a lieu cette même année. Wytsman y expose. Ne rompant pas complètement avec la tradition flamande, il se tourne néanmoins vers un art plus clair et lumineux, plus en phase avec les recherches artistiques de l'époque. Séduit par la technique de la matière apposée au couteau comme le faisait Vogels, il fait de même, mettant également l'accent sur la composition de ses œuvres.
     En 1886, il épouse Juliette Trullemans [14 July 1866 – 08 Mar 1925], une jeune artiste, peintre de fleurs et de paysages fleuris, particulièrement de bruyères. S'installant à Bruxelles, ils se rendent fréquemment à La Hulpe, près de la forêt de Soignes pour y peindre. Là, ils rencontrent Camille Lemonnier, et chez lui, Émile Claus qui est séduit par leur conception de la lumière. En effet, après l'exposition des néo-impressionnistes français en 1887, Wytsman change sa manière de travailler et passe de la peinture au couteau, à la brosse. Cette technique lui permet de représenter plus facilement l'atmosphère vibrante qu'il trouve dans ses paysages. En 1892, ils s'installent dans une petite maison de campagne à Linkebeek. Le couple se rend souvent sur les bords de la Meuse, à Profondeville, Yvoir et Dave et voyage énormément. La guerre éclate et le couple est contraint de quitter la Belgique pour trouver refuge en Hollande : dans des villages comme Overschie, Bergplaats, Oisterwyk et Mook où ils trouvèrent des paysages marécageux, faits de bruyère et de pins, ce coin de pays ressemblant étrangement à Linkebeek. Rodolphe y prend le parti de s'occuper de ses confrères belges exilés comme lui en Hollande. Il organise des expositions de leurs œuvres, leur permettant d'alléger leur situation personnelle. Après la guerre, le couple revient à Linkebeek et continue à peindre cette joie de vivre qu'ils puisent dans la nature.
Willows at the waterside (50 x 60 cm; 192x236pix, 14kb) _ A clear mixture between the post-impressionistic style and the luminism of the Belgian school. The composition is traditional and is partly influenced by the dutch style of waterlandscape painting. Wytsman visited the Netherlands in the period 1914-1918 and worked in the vincinity of the Hague.
Lac au Bourget; La dent du chat (40 x 56 cm; 222x310pix, 20kb) _ landscape in the post-impressionistic style.

1826 Aloïs Frederick Schönn, Austrian painter who died (main coverage) on 16 September 1897. —(050915)

^ 1818 George Heming Mason, English painter who died on 22 Oct 1872. He lived in Rome from 1845. When his father’s Staffordshire pottery firm failed in 1848, his allowance terminated and he turned seriously to painting. In the early 1850s he met Giovanni Costa [15 Oct 1826 – 31 Jan 1903] and Frederic Leighton [03 Dec 1830 – 25 Jan 1896]; Costa moulded Mason’s style, and Leighton provided life-long financial support. He was also influenced by the work of the French artists that he saw at the Paris Exposition Universelle (1855), particularly Ernest Hébert, Jules Breton and Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps. The best of Mason’s early works, such as Ploughing in the Campagna (1857), record picturesque scenes with an unpretentious sunlit naturalism. — Portrait of Mason (1863, 60x50cm; 225x190pix, 6kb) by Valentine Cameron Prinsep [14 Feb 1838 – 11 Nov 1904] — LINKS
Italian Landscape (1858, 40x78cm; 256x512pix, 19kb)
Wind on the Wold (1863, 29x54cm; 270x512pix, 22kb) _ Wolds are hilly or rolling regions in various parts of England.
The Cast Shoe (1865, 31x51cm; 310x512pix, 22kb) of a horse.
The Harvest Moon (1872, 86x231cm; 187x512pix, 14kb) _ As the harvest moon rises the group of field workers finish their labor, the men shouldering their scythes and the women carrying the last bundles of corn. Harvest was the busiest and hardest time of the year for farm workers, and they would often continue to gather crops into the night. Mason acknowledges this by showing the rising moon, but depicts a scene of rural labor in a very romanticized way. Fluid brushwork and rich coloring emphasise the sheer beauty of the pastoral scene, while suppressing the sense of back-breaking work that was the reality of harvest time.
Landscape - Derbyshire (46x94cm; 248x512pix, 14kb) _ Romantic Derbyshire landscape scene, depicting two children in a meadow at sunset. The children appear to have a basket of laundry with them, articles of which are scattered on the grass to the right. A shallow path on the left leads off towards the houses and trees in the background, hazy hills in the far distance beyond. In the background to right, a group of goats lie in the grass.
(Women on the beach, awaiting the return of the fishermen?) (467x687pix, 164kb) titled, seemingly in error “The Village Wedding, Wetley Abbey” (1868) by the referring web page.
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