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ART “4” “2”-DAY  08 March v.9.60
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DEATHS: 1889 ROMAKO   1872 KRIEGHOFF
BIRTHS: 1843 DUEZ — 1495 ROSSO — 1945 KIEFER
^Born on 08 March 1843: Ernest-Ange Duez, French painter who died on 05 Apr 1896.
— He studied under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils and made his début at the Salon in 1868. One of his earliest paintings, The Honeymoon (1873), caused a scandal at the Salon owing to its depiction of two lovers in modern dress walking through a sunlit forest. His triptych St Cuthbert (1879) was hailed as a masterpiece of modern art and bought by the State for the Musée du Luxembourg in Paris. The painting depicts the stages of St Cuthbert’s life, from child to hermit. Contemporary viewers were struck by the artist’s use of a real landscape setting, based on Villerville in Normandy where Duez spent much of his time. In addition to genre, religious, and history paintings, in 1876 he began to produce portraits: Alphonse de Neuville (1880) is a typical example. His brooding, suggestive portrait of Mme Duez (1877) shows the influence of Symbolism. However, he soon returned to painting works that were essentially landscapes, such as the decorative panel Virgil Seeking Inspiration in the Woods (1888) for the Sorbonne and a pair of allegorical figures, Botany and Physics (1892), for the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. He also devoted time to applied art, producing a variety of textile designs. His work was praised for its adept use of color and for bringing what were seen as modern techniques to traditional subjects.

LINKS
Honeymoon (1873; 850x489pix, 139kb)
The Rebuff (750x894pix, 491kb)
An Elegant Lady On The Beach (1885, 40x31cm)
Looking Out to Sea (1873, 125x61cm)
Au Bord de la Plage sur un Rocher (50x72cm)
Femme et Enfants sur la Plage (39x57cm; 689x1000pix, 126kb)
La Splendeur (1874; 700x299pix, 107kb) _ a lady holding a small dog. Ce tableau est la répétition d'une oeuvre qui fit, avec son pendant La Misčre, sensation au Salon de 1874.
—(060313)
^Born on 08 March 1495: Giovanni Battista di Jacopo Rosso Fiorentino, in Florence, Italian painter and decorator who died on 14 November 1540 in Paris.
— Rosso Fiorentino's real name was Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Guasparre. His early works helped define the first phase of Mannerism. A more developed Mannerist style is exhibited in his Descent from the Cross (1521); its idiosyncratic modeling and perspective, violent colors, and harsh lighting produce the disturbing effect characteristic of much 16th-century Italian art. After about 1524, however, Rosso's figures became more solid and sculptural, as in the Dead Christ with Angels (1526). From 1530 to his death Rosso worked on the decoration of the Chateau de Fontainebleau in France, where, with the Bolognese painter Francesco Primaticcio, he introduced a more subdued Mannerist style in keeping with courtly French taste.
— Rosso Fiorentino was an exponent of the expressive style that is often called early or Florentine Mannerism, and one of the founders of the Fontainebleau school.
      Rosso received his early training in the studio of Andrea del Sarto, alongside his contemporary, Pontormo. The earliest works of these two young painters combined influences from Michelangelo and from northern Gothic engravings in a novel style, which departed from the tenets of High Renaissance art and was characterized by its highly charged emotionalism. Rosso's most remarkable paintings from this period are the Assumption (1517 fresco), the Deposition (1521), and Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro (1523).
      At the end of 1523 Rosso moved to Rome, where his exposure to Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling, the late art of Raphael, and the work of Parmigianino resulted in a radical realignment of his style. His Dead Christ with Angels (1526) exemplifies this new style with its feeling for rarefied beauty and subdued emotion. Fleeing from the sack of the city in 1527, he worked briefly in several central Italian towns. In 1530, on the invitation of François I, he went to France (by way of Venice) and remained in the royal service there until his death.
      Rosso's principal surviving work is the decoration of the Galerie François I at the palace of Fontainebleau (1534–1537), where, in collaboration with Francesco Primaticcio [30 Apr 1504 – 1570], he developed an ornamental style whose influence was felt throughout northern Europe. His numerous designs for engravings also exercised a wide influence on the decorative arts both in Italy and in northern Europe.

LINKS
Assumption of the Virgin (1517, 385x395cm) _ Given the notoriety of the works of Michelangelo and Raphael recently completed in Rome, it is Rosso Fiorentino's credit that he was an artist of extreme individuality and independence. The works of these artists, along with those of Leonardo, must have appeared so perfect on their own terms that it was imperative to either break with them or totally succumb to them. In this early painting, which has suffered from weathering, Rosso already expresses his own unconventional interpretations.
Madonna and Child with Putti (1517, 111x75cm) _ This painting is an example of the early Florentine Mannerism. Due to a change in the color of the varnish, the colors of the painting changed significantly.
Madonna Enthroned with Four Saints (1518, 172x141cm) _ A neurotic, even deformed stylization that at times verges on the grotesque is the most immediate characteristic of Rosso Fiorentino's paintings, and can be glimpsed in this painting (the Ognissanti Altarpiece), executed for the Hospital of S. Maria Nuova in Florence. Most notably, the restlessness of the whole work contradicts a High Renaissance ideal: that of serene majesty. This accentuates the expressive dynamism of his compositions, whose colors and tones seem burnt or lividly overstated. The almost infernal aspect of some of his characters has given rise to a number of sometimes wild hypotheses about the painter's far-from-happy psychology. (He committed suicide.) The altarpiece portrays the Virgin and Child between Saint John the Baptist, Saint Anthony Abbot, Saint Stephen and Saint Jerome. The faces of saints, darkened by heavy shading, are utterly devoid of that serenity which characterizes the figures in traditional altarpieces. In the figure of Saint Jerome, the sunken abdomen, the prominent sternum, ribs and collarbone of the chest area, and the skeletal thinness of the neck, arms and fingers, reveal unquestionable links with the studies of decomposing or flayed bodies that began to interest a great number of Tuscan artists from the 15th century.
Madonna Enthroned between Two Saints (1521, 169x133cm) _ The painting was executed for the parish church of Villamagna near Volterra. Compared to the complexity of the contemporary Deposition the compositional solution of this painting, signed and dated in the lower left corner, at the foot of Saint John the Baptist, is regulated by a simpler scheme and a greater symmetry, an evident recall to classical tradition. Andrea del Sarto's Madonna of the Harpies is one of the most probable iconographical references for Rosso's painting as far as the general structure is concerned, and in the pose of the Virgin, who, firmly anchored to a supporting base, extends her knee forward and places her right arm around the Child clutching at her side. The figure of Saint Bartholomew with the book, who in Rosso's altarpiece looks towards the observer, recalls the Saint John the Baptist portrayed by Andrea del Sarto to the left of the Virgin and Child.
Madonna Enthroned and Ten Saints (1522, 350x259cm) _ On the commission of Ranieri, the son of Carlo Dei, the artist executed this painting for the church of Santo Spirito in Florence. Later it was transferred to Palazzo Pitti. Following the restlessness of his youthful period, this painting represents a moment of moderation, in which the references to the examples of Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto appear more evident. The painting was much admired by Vasari, especially for the "vividness of the colors", which, with the greater regularity of the composition and the poses of the single figures, reveal a more original quality and come closer to the eccentric use of color in the previous works, especially in the Saint Catherine kneeling in the foreground.
Marriage of the Virgin (1523, 325x250cm) _ This painting was executed on the commission of Carlo Ginori for the chapel dedicated to Mary and Joseph in the church of San Lorenzo in Florence. The name of the artist, "Rubeus Florentino", is included among the letters of the first line of the second paragraph of the text which the saint marks with her finger, and also clearly written, together with the date of execution, on the step beneath the figure of the priest. Like the Dei ALtarpiece, this painting is another example of moderation compared to the formal boldness of the works belonging to the earlt Florentine period and the sojourn in Volterra. The composition takes up some figurative ideas from the frescoes of Pontormo and Franciabigio in the Chiostrino dei Voti in Santissima Annunziata. _ detail 1 This detail shows the kneeling figure on the left side of the painting. _ Detail 2 This detail shows the kneeling figure of Saint Apollonia on the right side of the painting. As far as traditional representations of this theme are concerned, quite unusual is the presence among the onlookers in the foreground of Saint Apollonia who certainly could not have witnessed the event.
Musician Angel (1520, 47x39cm) _ This little painting belonging to the period of maturity of the artist, who was a student of Andrea del Sarto, together with Pontormo. In 1605 the picture was collocated in the Tribune beside the more precious masterworks Medici family had collected. Recent studies revealed the panel to be a fragment of a larger painting including - such as other altarpieces by Rosso - the angel in the lower part of the scene. A sense of vitality and tenderness emanates from this little cherub playing a lute, probably dating to the beginning of the third decade of 16th century.
Descent from the Cross (1521, 375x196cm; _ ZOOM to 2748x1576pix, 320kb) _ detail 1 (591x449pix, 42kb _ ZOOM to 2751x2024pix, 343kb) _ detail 2 (599x442pix, 44kb _ ZOOM to 2745x2024pix, 380kb)_ In this work the main character is the color, and the color is devoted to one end: a violent and emotional expressiveness which overrides everything else, and seeks only to provoke in the spectator a thrill of horror and grief comparable with that which shattered the men and women who helped to lift Christ from the Cross and bury Him. The drawing is not conceived as a means of describing forms, but as a means of stating ideas. The light is not a normal illumination nor even a poetic evocation: the scene is lit as if by lightning, and in the blinding flash the figures are frozen in their attitudes and even in their thoughts, while the great limp body of the dead Christ, livid green with reddish hair and beard, dangles perilously as his dead weight almost slips from the grasp of the men straining on the ladders. This painting shows, as the Pontormo Deposition does, some influence of Michelangelo's Roman Pietŕ, but the Christ of the Deposition is far more closely connected with a drawing for a Pietŕ which Michelangelo made in 1520, and which haunted Rosso to the end of his life. _ Detail 1 _ detail 2 Validating the theory that Rosso spent some time in Rome, presumably between 1518 and 1521, are clear references to the frescoes of the Sistine ceiling. One of the references is the use of the gesture of Eve expelled from the Paradise for the posture of the figure of Saint John. This red-haired young man, who buries his hands in an expression of intense anguish, has been interpreted as a "self-portrait denied" of Rosso, who by including this figure in the painting is thus personally involved in the event represented. Examples of this exist in more or less contemporary northern figurative art, in Dürer particularly, who has been identified as one of the most probable sources of inspiration for the painting and to whom some facial characterizations are referable. _ Detail 3 In addition to his pictorial originality, Rosso also had considerable technical skill as is demonstrated in this detail. By this time the Florentines were using oil paint effectively, but their approach depended upon a thinner, highly fluid application of the paint rather than the thick impastos used by their Venetian contemporaries.
Deposition from the Cross (1528, 270x201cm) _ This painting was commissioned in 1527 by the Confraternity of Santa Croce, and was probably finished before 01 July 1528. Compared with the preceding Deposition in Volterra, to which the painting refers in the figure of the deposer on the left descending one of the three ladders resting against the cross, and in the curly-haired young Saint John, portrayed in the background burying his face in his hands, as in the Volterra altarpiece, the Deposition of San Sepolcro places a greater emphasis on the figure of Christ, who has been taken down from the cross and is now lying in the Virgin's lap in the foreground. A reference to the molded characterization of Michelangelo's anatomies is visible in the bodies of Rosso's painting; observe, for example, the youth standing to the right of the Virgin bending slightly forward in the act of holding up Christ's back. The light which covers the foreground of the composition and contrasts with the dark background is brightest in the clothing of this figure, highlighting its refined golden-yellow floral motif, and produces the extraordinary changing color effects of the dress of the bystander seated in the foreground to the left of Mary Magdalene. More than for the reelaboration of elements associated with the art of Dürer and the great masters of classicism, the San Sepolcro Deposition is distinguished by a number of iconographical peculiarities. The most striking is the complete nudity of the body of Jesus, a clear break with tradition, emphasis being given to the ample volume of its swollen ribcage. Transferring to the Virgin, the iconography which from the 14th century in Italy was traditionally used to represent Mary Magdalene, Ross portrays the mother of Christ with her arms splayed and held up, as if she herself was reliving the moment of crucifixion; the expression of the crucified Jesus seems in fact to be impressed upon the face of Mary, who is now prostrate with grief. Behind her, the horrible animal-like figure directing his squint-eyed gaze away from the scene probably takes up the theme of the bodyguard, the symbol of the treachery and wickedness that determined the killing of Christ, and also present in the Volterra Deposition. — Detail Transferring to the Virgin, the iconography which from the 14th century in Italy was traditionally used to represent Mary Magdalene, Ross portrays the mother of Christ with her arms splayed and held up, as if she herself was reliving the moment of crucifixion; the expression of the crucified Jesus seems in fact to be impressed upon the face of Mary, who is now prostrate with grief. Behind her, the horrible animal-like figure directing his squint-eyed gaze away from the scene probably takes up the theme of the bodyguard, the symbol of the treachery and wickedness that determined the killing of Christ.
Pietŕ (1540, 125x159cm) _ Rosso addressed the theme of the dead Christ again towards the end of his artistic career when, after completing the decoration of the Gallery at Fontainebleau for François I, painted the Pietŕ. The painting once hung above the door of the chapel of the High Constable Anne de Montmorency in the castle of Ecouen. The painting, of all the works executed by Rosso during his stay in France (1530-1540), is the only surviving example that is certainly original. The painting is a "close-up" of the body of Christ, which extends across the whole width of the composition, literally filling the pictorial space. Christ's body, having taken down from the cross, of which there is no trace in the composition, and from the maternal lap, is elegantly placed on a cushion lying on the ground. Behind the body of Jesus the Virgin opens her arms and collapses into the arms of one of the pious women. Light shines in the foreground of the composition, highlighting, compared with the dark background, the various shades of red in the clothing, which contrast with the white of the scarf surrounding the upper part of Mary's dress, and the delicate lace of Mary Magdalene's dress, in which the golden yellow of the sleeve stands out.
Dead Christ with Angels (1526, 133x104cm; 1080x847pix, 119kb _ ZOOM to 1619x1263pix, 261kb) _ Rosso made this remarkable painting for Bishop Leonardo Tornabuoni, a Florentine by birth. One of the striking formal characteristics of this painting is the highly refined modeling of the bodies, which become extraordinarily soft under the effect of a warm, intense light. The artist had clearly abandoned his taste for the sharp-cornered angularities that characterize the linear structure of his Florentine and Volterran works, which are, on the other hand, recalled in the varied range of complementary colors, with their delicate changing color effects. Christ's naked body has undeniable similarities with works by Michelangelo: the Vatican Pietŕ and the Risen Christ from the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. What interested Rosso in this case, however, over and beyond the literal translation of Michelangelo's figurative ideas, was to exalt the beauty of the human body, which, following the example of the illustrious model, is accurately portrayed down to the very last detail. The total nakedness of Christ's body, not entirely free of a note of sexuality, forms part of this same tendency. The handsome young body, languidly and sensually slumped in a serene repose, and literally dominating the pictorial composition, retains little of the traditional iconography of the dead Christ, being closer to the pagan representation of the figure of Adonis. Indeed, the signs of Christ's martyrdom, which dramatically concluded the earthly existence of God's son, are barely hinted at in the painting: the small wound in his side touched by the hand of an angel, the thin crown of thorns surrounding the head of the Redeemer, and the rod with the sponge soaked in vinegar and the nails, depicted along the lower edge of the painting.
Risen Christ (1530, 348x258cm) _ This painting for the Cathedral of the provincial Umbrian town of Cittŕ di Castello depicts the risen Christ with saints below. Rosso has moved toward a more mechanistic composition on a monumental scale. Created in an irregular octagonal format, the picture retains a strong vertical emphasis. Separate figures and incidents, along with the idiosyncratic treatment of the parts, overwhelm the impact of the composition as a whole.
Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro (1524, 160x117cm; _ ZOOM to 2167x1576pix, 375kb) _ Among Rosso's paintings concerned with the representation of themes belonging to the religious iconographical tradition, this painting is a very special case, not least due to the rarity of the subject. The title of the painting refers to an episode of Moses's youth narrated in the book of Exodus (II, 16-22). The seven daughters of Jethro, priest of the land of Midian, while drawing water from a well and filling troughs to water their father's flock, are troubled by a group of Midianite shepherds who take advantage of the labors of the young women to water their own herds. Moses, sitting near the well, witnesses the scene; driving the Midianites away with threats he intervenes physically in defense of Jethro's daughters who thanks to his help can finally water their flocks. In recognition of the meritorious action performed by the young Moses, Jethro gives him the hand of one of his daughters, Zipporah. There are unequivocal references in the painting to the two cartoons made by Michelangelo and Leonardo for the decoration of the Great Council Hall in Palazzo della Signoria. Rosso's canvas reproposes the extremely articulated compositional structure of Michelangelo's Battle of Cascina, displaying a broad range of nude figure poses which reflect the artist's predilection for counterpoise. The emphasizing of gestures and clothing, and the impassioned savagery of the actions and expressions, on the other hand, are associated with Leonardo's Battle of Anghiari. _ Detail The detail shows Zipporah, one of the daughters of Jethro. This painting is one of the principal works of the maturity of the painter. The obvious inspiration from Michelangelo is surpassed by the intense compression of the various plastic planes which become shining planes of color In their brilliant chromatic polish and in the tangle of the masses in violent "contrapposto" there is an unreal smoothness which tends towards a visionary effect.
Allegory of Salvation with the Virgin and Christ Child, St. Elizabeth?, the Young Saint John the Baptist and Two Angels (1521; 640x468pix, 102kb _ ZOOM to 2758x2024pix, 389kb) The title seems conjectural. The supposed “John the Baptist” seems either fast asleep, fainted, or, more likely, dead. Considering the horrified or fearful expressions on the faces and body language (including that of one of the “angels”, winged children) could it be something like “Mary is told about the Massacre of the Innocents”?
Ignorance Banished (341x517pix for the painting, and with the surrounding sculptures and wall decorations 600x1206pix, 463kb _ ZOOM to 795x1207pix painting in a 1400x2813pix image, 1712kb, not worth the wait)
 
^ Born on 08 March 1945: Anselm Kiefer, German painter, born in Donaueschingen, Baden-Württemburg, just months before the final European battle of World War II.
— Kiefer grew up in towns in the Black Forest region near the east bank of the Rhine. That period saw the results of modern warfare and the division of his homeland. He also experienced the rebuilding of a fragmented nation and its struggle for renewal. After studying law and French at the university in Freiburg (1965), he pursued art at Karlsruhe Art Academy under Horst Antes. In the early 1970s he studied informally with Joseph Beuys on occasional visits to Düsseldorf. From 1971 to 1992 Kiefer lived in Hornbach in the Oden Forest in the Rhineland-Palatinate; since 1992 he has resided in southern France. He has traveled throughout Europe, the Middle East, the United States, Asia, and Central America.
      Kiefer devoted himself to investigating the interwoven patterns of German mythology and history and the way they contributed to the rise of Fascism. He confronted these issues by violating aesthetic taboos and resurrecting sublimated icons. For example, in his 1969 Occupations series, Kiefer photographed himself striking the “Sieg Heil” pose. Subsequent paintings, immense landscapes and architectural interiors often encrusted with sand and straw, invoke Germany’s literary and political heritage. References abound to the Nibelungen and Wagner, Albert Speer’s architecture, and Adolf Hitler.
— In 1966 he left law studies at University of Freiburg to study at art academies in Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Dusseldorf; made huge paintings using symbolic photographic images to deal ironically with 20th-century German history; developed array of visual symbols commenting on tragic aspects of German history and culture, particularly Nazi period; in 1970s painted series of landscapes that capture rutted, somber German countryside; paintings of 1980s acquired physical presence through use of perspective devices and unusual textures; broadened themes to include references to ancient Hebrew and Egyptian history.
— He studied law in 1965–1966 at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg, before starting to study art there in 1966 as a pupil of the painter Peter Dreher (b 1932). In 1969 he studied under Horst Antes at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Karlsruhe, and in 1970 he moved to the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, where he met Joseph Beuys. From this time onwards history and myth were the central themes in his work: he was not concerned with reviving the history painting; rather, he attempted by means of drawing and symbols to expose the many-layered quality of historical processes, in order ‘to approach in an unscientific way the centre from which events are controlled’ (Kiefer, Art, 1990). On a journey through Switzerland, Italy and France in 1969 Kiefer produced the photographic series Occupations (see 1991 exh. cat., pp. 93–4), in which he photographed himself saluting in a pose that imitated Hitler. In this and in later books he presented his personal way of coming to terms with German history, literature and art history. His central concern was to experience history as a prerequisite for understanding it.

LINKS
Seraphim (1984, oil, straw, emulsion, and shellac on canvas, 321x331cm; 573x551pix, 160kb) _ Seraphim is part of Kiefer’s Angel series, which treats the theme of spiritual salvation by fire, an ancient belief perverted by the Nazis in their quest for an exclusively Aryan nation. In this painting, a ladder connects a landscape to the sky. At its base, a serpent, symbolizing a fallen angel, refers to the prevalence of evil on earth. According to the Doctrine of Celestial Hierarchy, a 5th-century text, the seraphim “purify through fire and burnt offering.” Kiefer used fire to create the surface of Seraphim, and it is evident from this and many other works that he associates fire with the redemptive powers of art. This equivalence was suggested in the 1974 canvas Painting = Burning, in which the outline of a painter’s palette is superimposed on a view of the war-torn earth. The actual burning of materials used in Seraphim suggests a more specific reading: the Greek word for a sacrificial offering “wholly burnt” is “holocauston”, from which the Late Latin “holocaustum” then the French “holocauste” whence it passed to English.
Les Reines de France (1995, emulsion, acrylic, sunflower seeds, photographs, woodcut, gold leaf, and cardboard on canvas, three panels, 560x738 overall; 428x573pix, 142kb) _ .In 1991, the year of Germany’s reunification, Kiefer left his homeland to travel the world; he eventually settled in the South of France. This change had a marked effect on the artist’s style and themes, which ranged from the sunflowers of Arles to the queens of France. In a series of works devoted to French female royalty, Kiefer paid homage to the likes of Catherine de’ Medici, Marie-Antoinette, and Anne d’Autriche. In Les Reines de France, the women are rendered like Byzantine icons against a background of distressed gold-leaf mosaic. This new iconography, while still engaged with the weight of history, indicates that Kiefer now approached his subject matter with admiration, even joy, but with a complete lack of artistic talent.
Lasst Tausend Blumen Blühen (2000, 380x280cm; 512x382pix, 35kb) _ Kiefer travelled in China in 1993, and recently made a series of paintings based on photographs taken there. The title refers to a 1957 speech in which Mao pretended to encourage greater freedom of expression, declaring “Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend”. This freedom was the bait in a trap, as the intellectuals who criticized Mao were swiftly arrested. Kiefer portrays a statue of Mao partially obscured by dried roses and tangled brambles symbolizing the profusion and withering of revolutionary dreams.
     Nobody could look more imposing than the figure in Anselm Kiefer 's enormous painting, Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom. It demands at first to be appraised from a distance, just as the statue it depicts was originally a monument that dwarfed onlookers. During Mao Tse Tung's rule, such concrete effigies of the dictator were installed throughout China. They summed up the dominance of a man who became an international Communist icon, and held an immense nation enslaved.
     Mao's mendacions slogan was widely applauded by the gullible who believed Mao would relax his tyrannical policies, and on one level Kiefer's painting appears to reflect this credulity.
      The statues present a benign image of Mao, nurturing a population liberated from the constraints of the past. He shapes his ample hand into a wave, projecting himself as a kindly, wise, and avuncular figurehead who would lead his nation towards fulfilment. Kiefer pitches him against an expanse of empty sky, as if to make his power seem at once heroic and limitless. Taking his cue from Mao's poetic reference, Kiefer peppers the painting with real roses. Kiefer's mention of a thousand blooms, rather than a hundred, implies that he sees them proliferating even further than Mao promised.
Resurrexit (1973, 290x180cm; 1120x760pix)
March Heath (1974, 118x254cm)
Nero Paints (1974; 788x1081pix)
Wege: markischer Sand (1980; 602x944pix)
Margarete (1981; 777x1088pix)
Your Golden Hair, Margarete (1981; 796x1052pix) _ Kiefer quotes Romanian Jewish poet Paul Celan's poem “Death Fugue”, which is set in a concentration camp. Kiefer has sometimes depicted the German heroine's locks as straw adhered to the canvas; in this work, they appear in watercolor as sheaves of wheat in a field.
Die Meistersinger (1982; 780x1090pix)
Nuremberg (1982; 780x1076pix)
To the Unknown Painter (1983; 955x925pix)
Nigredo (1984; 701x1191pix)
The Red Sea (1985; 732x1133pix)
Jerusalem (1986; 757x1125pix)
Cherubim~Seraphim (1983; 600x743pix) _ primitive rock painting of two wild boars, made to ensure a successful hunt?
Untitled (1983; 600x436pix, 174kb) _ interior of a deserted cathedral?
Behemoth (1989; 600x1023pix, 416kb) almost monochrome. _ Abandoned library in an abandoned subway? _ The pseudonymous Keith Enselle took this very dull picture as a challenge to transform it into something frankly abstract, but colorful and intricate, and he succeeded twice: with Boo Hoo Moth aka Moth Tom (2006; screen filling, 351kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1822kb) and with Be He Moth, Be He Mosquito, Swat Him ! aka Tone Not (2006; screen filling, 381kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1980pix, 1610kb)
19 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
—(060502)

Died on a 08 March:

2009 Ernest Tino Trova Jr. [19 Feb 1927–], US painter and sculptor best known for his numerous “Falling Man” paintings and, especially, sculptures. — LINKS
Black Tongue (1199x987pix, 827kb) _ The pseudonymous Vasca Perde has transformed this. —(090319)

1987 Manuel Viola [1916–], Spanish painter.
Abstracto (1954, 54x65cm; 1834x2200pix, 3994kb) _ La pintura de Viola refleja un personal expresionismo abstracto que despliega una gran fuerza gestual, con una inconfundible luminosidad, que sólo restringe cuando aplica a la obra una intención más dramática. Dentro de la trayectoria del autor se distinguen dos etapas, la primera la que corresponde con los años previos a su incorporación al grupo El Paso, en la que su producción se mueve por distintos estilos europeos como el surrealismo y el expresionismo. La segunda, a partir de 1958, en la que su estilo se define por completo, abandonando las referencias figurativas y abordando un característico expresionismo abstracto. La obra Abstracto se enmarca dentro de la primera mitad de los años 50, a pesar de esto, ya adelanta alguna de las características de su producción posterior, donde el artista mostrará especial preocupación por la luz, la sombra, el espacio y el vacío. En ella queda patente la impronta expresionista a través de la cual ofrece datos figurativos, relacionados con el paisaje, aunque interpretados a través de un tratamiento informalista y colorista. El autor aplica brochazos de poderosa fuerza cromática sobre la tela con pincelada energética, dinámica y abundante en materia. Viola utiliza un colorido vivo, que resta dramatismo a la escena, como se aprecia en los amarillos y naranjas, que contrastará con la sobriedad cromática de su producción posterior donde emplea con mucha más frecuencia el negro. La obra se ejecuta un año después de su primera exposición individual en 1953, coincidiendo con un período de estancia en París, donde logró importantes ventas en la Galería Claude Bernard. En la capital francesa había contactado a comienzos de la década de los años 40 con importantes maestros como Picabia o Picasso, así como con Hartung, Etienne y Soulages, de los cuales aprende a valorar la abstracción expresionista hacia la que derivaría su producción, introduciendo un giro en su trayectoria. La vinculación estilística de este artista con Hartung y Mathieu se explica fundamentalmente en su interés por la aplicación directamente en el lienzo de los pigmentos desde los tubos, por los movimientos impulsivos de su gesto y por la velocidad de ejecución. Desde los inicios de su carrera, el zaragozano se distingue por los trazos gruesos y los gestos rotundos cargados de empaste. Viola explicaba así su aplicación del color: “Hago enfrentarse en mi lienzo a la luz y a la sombra. Para mí, el color nunca es color, es solamente un aspecto del conflicto entre la luz y las tinieblas”. Por su parte, su colega de El Paso, Antonio Saura, definía así su estilo: “Sus espatulazos amplios, sus pinceladas generosas, reflejaban un caos de unas estructuras destrozadas, aéreas y dinámicas, atravesadas a un tiempo por fuerzas centrífugas y centrípetas, inconclusas ...”. Manuel Viola concibió la abstracción como un medio para aproximarse al mundo de las ideas y de los valores cromáticos. Para él, pintar constituyó una forma de disfrute a través de la creación plástica y esta particularidad lo convertiría en un destacado representante del informalismo español de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. —(090307)

^ >1925 Juliette (Trulemans) Wytsman, Belgian painter born on 14 July 1866 (1860?). — Wife of Rodolphe Wytsman [11 Mar 1860 – 02 Nov 1927].
Trees along a Creek (84x96cm)
–- La Bruyère Rose (892x1232pix, 136kb)
Bruyčres en fleurs (1900, 49x60cm; 480x588pix, 47kb) —(070307)

^ 1924 Alfred William Strutt, English painter of genre, animals, and portraits, born in 1856, son of painter William Strutt [03 Jul 1825 – 03 Jan 1915] and grandson of miniaturist William Thomas Strutt [1777-1850]. — Relative? of Arthur John Strutt [1819 – Jun 1888] — Alfred William Strutt was born in 1856 in Tanaraki, New Zealand and at first studied under his father, William S. Strutt 1826-1915, the genre, animal and portrait painter. He later moved to England and studied at the South Kensington School of Art. He is recorded as living in Molynden, Kent in 1880, before moving to London in 1883 and finally settling in Wadhurst, Sussex in 1891. He specialised in painting animal, genre and portrait subjects like his father, but also was a competent etcher. He became a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1888, having shown his works there from 1977 and in 1889 he became an associate member of the Royal Society of Painters and Etchers. He also was a member of the Royal British Colonial Society of Artists and a member of the Royal Cambrian Academy. He exhibited fifty-one works at the Royal Academy, showing his first work there in 1879, titled ‘I hope I don’t intrude’, number 778. It is interesting that he accompanied King Edward VII on a hunting trip to Scandinavia and finally he died in 1924 after painting many fine works.
Children of the Hills (30 Jan 1890, 15x24cm; 324x500pix, 224kb)

^ 1920 Édouard Jean E. Ravel, Swiss artist born on 03 March 1847. — {It's a shame that I can't find more of his pictures on the internet. They would have been music to my eyes, just as Maurice's compositions are colorful to the ears.}
Scčne d'intérieur (1880, 21x15cm; 400x281pix, 34kb)

1904 (09 Mar?) Erskine Nicol, Scottish painter born on 03 July 1825. He began his career at the Trustees’ Academy, Edinburgh, where he was a student of William Allan and of Thomas Duncan [1807–1845]. In his early twenties Nicol moved to Ireland to take up a teaching post under the Department of Science and Art. He lived in Dublin from 1845 to 1850 and traveled extensively throughout the country. These first years in Ireland coincided with the great famine, and the condition of the rural poor was often reflected in his work. Nicol later resided in London but returned almost annually to Ireland.

^ 1902 Jean-Paul Flandrin, French painter and lithographer, born on 28 May 1811, son of amateur painter of portraits Jean-Baptiste-Jacques Flandrin [1773–1838]. Always very close to his brother Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin [23 Mar 1809 – 21 Mar 1864], Paul followed much the same training, studying under Legendre-Héral, Magnin, and Duclaux. Like Hippolyte, he was taught lithography by their brother René-Auguste Flandrin [06 May 1801 – 30 Aug 1842],. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyon (1826–1828) and in 1829 moved to Paris, where he enrolled in the studio of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres [1780-1867]. The two brothers soon became Ingres’s favored students, and in 1832, the year that Hippolyte won the Prix de Rome, Paul won a prize for historical landscape, though he failed in the Prix de Rome competition the following year. Finding the separation from his brother painful, in 1834 he moved to join Hippolyte. Once in Rome, he soon discovered his vocation as a landscape painter. Ingres arrived as Director of the Académie de France in 1835, and Paul, among other artists, received a commission to make copies of the works in the Vatican. Although not a prizewinner, he was closely connected with the Villa Médici and often accompanied the students on their trips to the country. In 1837, fleeing a cholera epidemic in Rome, Paul and Hippolyte visited Padua, Venice, Verona, Mantua, and other places. Joined by Auguste in 1838, the three brothers visited Livorno, Milan, Pisa, and Florence.
I penitenti nella campagna romana (1840, 98x132cm)

1889 Anton Romako, Austrian painter born (full coverage) on 20 October 1832. —(050917)

1872 Cornelius David Krieghoff, Dutch Canadian painter born (full coverage) on 19 June 1815. —(070207)

1867 Kaspar Kaltenmoser, German artist born on 25 December 1806. — {son of Kalninemoser?}

^ 1702 Jan de Baen, Dutch artist born on 20 February 1633. — LINKS
Burning of the Rat House in Amsterdam (etching 26x33cm; 953x1191pix, 220kb) _ {The Dutch have such a low opinion of their city councillors that they call the town hall the Rathaus ! It is not likely that those rats burned together with their house on 07 July 1652.:-} Other artists pictured that scene, for example:
    _ by Aert van der Neer [1603 – 09 Nov 1677]:
      _ Fire of the Old Town Hall in Amsterdam (600x687pix, 163kb) seen near by Neer; and
      _ Fire of the Old Town Hall in Amsterdam (600x759pix, 179kb) seen from across the river. _ by Jan Beerstraten
      _ The Great Fire in the Old Town Hall, Amsterdam (330x455pix, 18kb) _ By fire chief Jan van der Heyden (who invented the fire hose 20 years after the Rathaus fire)
      _ : Fire in Amsterdam's old Town Hall (1690 print) —(051108)


Born on a 08 March:


1945 Anselm Kiefer, German painter and sculptor. —(090307)

1942 Manuel “Manolo” Valdés, Spanish painter and sculptor.
Perfil III (2006, 170x130cm; 4820x3685pix, 1343kb)
Capa negra (1982, 200x200cm) — En este cuadro, Valdés emplea la imagen fragmentada y la referencia a la vanguardia, en concreto al Picasso de las Meninas. Así, en el doble ámbito en el que se divide la composición, introduce Valdés la figura picassiana de una menina y la sombra negra del hombre con capa y sombrero de los anuncios de Sandemann. El espacio se fragmenta y activa mediante el color y los planos trazados con agudas líneas negras. La referencia histórica: Velázquez-Picasso, se combina con una figura emblemática de la llamada "Espańa eterna". — LINKS
Matisse como pretexto (1987)
El Infante don Fernando (1987) —(090307)

1894 Waino (or Waldemar) Aaltonen, Finnish artist who died on 30 May 1966 —(060307)

^ 1859 Hans Zatzka “P. Ronsard” “Joseph Bernard”, Austrian genre painter who died in 1945.
— Numerous leading dealers of late 19th and early 20th century European genre paintings have come to the inevitable conclusion that the painter signing his works Joseph Bernard, J. Bernard, or Bernard Zatzka is almost certainly Hans Zatzka. The consensus seems quite plausible when comparing works known to have been done by Hans Zatzka together with similar works displaying the signature Joseph Bernard, J. Bernard or Bernard Zatzka. The size and type of support together with the absolutely identical subject matter, style and pallet can really lead to no other conclusion other than all the paintings must have been authored by the same hand, namely that of Zatzka. The use of pseudonyms in the world of art is of course quite common and well documented. It was prevalent at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century particularly for those painters working under contract with specific dealers and galleries. In lieu of being limited in the amount of works they could sell under contract using their proper name, painters would often simply sign their works with a pseudonym thereby allowing them to expand their sales base while at the same time avert breaking any contractual agreements they might have with their distributors. A number of art sales databases have apparently merged the works of the French sculptor Joseph-Antoine Bernard [18 Jan 1866 – 1928 or 07 Jan 1931] together with the genre paintings signed Joseph Bernard. A cursory comparison of the known sculptures produced by Joseph Bernard with those oil paintings signed Joseph Bernard but identical in style to Zatzka’s work, will quickly reveal that there are absolutely no stylistic similarities between the two artists. Furthermore, the German inscriptions found on the paintings done in a style identical to the German speaking Zatzka but signed J. Bernard or Joseph Bernard would provide additional proof that in reality the two are in fact the very same. — LINKS
Paradise
Der Liebesbrief
In the Night Sky (76x56cm)
Reclining Beauty
Skittles (31x47cm)
The Goddess Of Spring (185x105cm; 1000x585pix, 143kb)
Venus and her Attendants (55x69cm)
The Harem Dancer (700x414pix, 52kb)
A Water Idyll (42x53cm)
The Tambourine Player (58x37cm) —(070307)

^ 1838 Ernst Meisel (or Ernest; Meissel), German genre painter who died on 24 September 1895. He was born in Lichte and died in Munich. Meisel received his formal art training at the Berlin Academie, where he studied under Carl Theodore Piloty (1826-1886), one of the best teachers of genre at the time. In 1893, the Baden-Baden Museum two works of Meisel: Sieste et celui de Liège, and Le coup de l'étrier.
— (Oriental Dancer) (700x414pix, 52kb) —(051017)

^ 1748 Dirk Thierry (or Théodore) Langendyk, (or Langendijk), Rotterdam Dutch draftsman, painter, and etcher, who died on 15 December 1805. — Relative? of Jan Anthonie Langendijk [1780-1818]? — He was a student of Dirck Anthonie Bisschop [1709–1785], a painter of coats of arms and coaches. Langendijk was a productive draftsman, primarily of military scenes, a subject he took up early in his career, as is clear from his early etchings of horses and soldiers (1769–1977). He was also inspired by the civil war between the Patriots and Orangeists and by the invasions of the Netherlands by the French and Anglo-Russian armies in 1795 and 1799 respectively. Dated paintings by Langendijk are known only from the period 1771–1772 to 1780; these illustrate the life of the landed gentry and of soldiers, as in The Encampment (1775). — LINKS
Shipping in a storm off the coast (16x24cm; 456x670pix, 88kb) monochrome drawing. —(070307)


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