ART 4 2-DAY 03 March v.10.10
Died on 03 (02?) March 1847: Jean-Louis
Ducis, French painter born on 14 July 1775.
— About 1795 he entered the studio of Jacques-Louis David, where he was a member of the group of artists from southern France known as the ‘parti aristocratique’ (Pierre Révoil, Fleury Richard, comte Auguste de Forbin, and François-Marius Granet), who were among the first to paint small-scale pictures of French history. Ducis remained a friend of Granet throughout his life (e.g. Portrait of Mme Granet). He exhibited regularly in the Salon between 1804 and 1838, winning a medal for history painting in 1808. He rapidly acquired a considerable reputation with scenes of sentimental mythology such as Orpheus and Eurydice (1808), in part due to his links with the poet Jean-François Ducis (his uncle) and with his brother-in-law, the actor François Joseph Talma. Ducis exhibited Talma’s Débuts at the Salon of 1831. Josephine and her daughter Hortense were among his patrons; at Malmaison the Empress owned four portraits by Ducis of children, probably the two youngest sons of Hortense and the elder daughters of her son, Eugène Beauharnais. For Napoléon Ducis executed a stiff composition, halfway between a group portrait and a history painting, Napoléon et sa Famille à Saint-Cloud (1810). In 1811 he stayed in Naples, where he painted portraits of the royal family.
— L'empereur Napoléon Ier sur la terrasse du château de Saint-Cloud entouré des enfants de sa famille (1810; 433x555pix, 39kb _ ZOOM to 1092x1400pix, 248kb) _ Autant les tableaux témoignant des grands événements du règne de Napoléon sont nombreux, autant les tableaux contemporains le représentant dans l’intimité sont rares. C’est sans doute qu’un homme sacré, un homme providentiel comme lui, le Grand Homme qu’il était, ne pouvait s’abaisser à avoir une vie privée. Pourtant, si dans la réalité Napoléon n’eut en effet guère de loisirs à consacrer à sa vie privée, un élément demeurait en suspens: l’avenir de la dynastie. L’impératrice Joséphine devenue stérile, il fallait pourtant un héritier à l’Empereur. Les tableaux de Ducis et de Pauline Auzou (Arrivée de l'archiduchesse Marie-Louise à Compiègne, 1810) interviennent donc dans une sorte de propagande montrant tous les espoirs placés par les Français dans l’avenir de Napoléon. En ce sens, ils sont plus que de simples scènes d’intimité, comme celle que représente Menjaud (Napoléon, Marie-Louise et le roi de Rome, 1812). Dans les deux premiers cas, c’est bien l’attente d’une descendance assurée de Napoléon qui est peinte. Chez Ducis, elle se révèle dans l’attitude du garçon de droite et dans celle du petit prince vêtu de blanc, qui l’un et l’autre regardent fixement le spectateur de l’œuvre comme s’ils l’interrogeaient sur le futur choix impérial. Dans le cas de Pauline Auzou, c’est l’enthousiasme d’une descendance assurée par la belle mine de cette jeune fille blonde vêtue de rouge qu’était alors la nouvelle impératrice. Dans l’œuvre de Menjaud, le principe est inversé, et c’est Napoléon qui prend à témoin le spectateur.
— Louis XVIII assiste des Tuileries au retour de l'armée d'Espagne (1824; 433x555pix, 39kb _ ZOOM to 1078x1400pix, 218kb) _ Une guerre victorieuse, le baptême du feu du drapeau blanc. Le congrès de Vienne puis les traités de Paris avaient réorganisé les frontières de l’Europe et favorisé le rétablissement de régimes réactionnaires. L’un des plus rétrogrades était sans conteste la monarchie espagnole. Mais l’opposition libérale à Ferdinand VII était parvenue à prendre rapidement de l’importance, au point de déclencher en juillet 1822 un soulèvement militaire à la suite duquel la famille royale est séquestrée. Conformément aux principes de la Sainte Alliance, les grandes puissances européennes, réunies à Vérone, décident alors de rétablir la monarchie espagnole. Chateaubriand, qui représente la France, parvient à convaincre les autres représentants de confier à son pays une opération militaire commandée par le duc d’Angoulême, neveu de Louis XVIII et fils du futur Charles X. Faute de trouver un adversaire à sa taille, l’armée française réussit sans peine à rétablir Ferdinand VII sur son trône dès 1823. Le succès de cette première intervention militaire française depuis Waterloo ne pouvait que consolider la Restauration. Ducis, consciemment ou non, reprend les thèmes favoris de la propagande officielle : unité de la famille des Bourbons, qui montre l’exemple de toutes les vertus privées, mais aussi succès extérieurs de la Restauration qui effacent l’échec et les défaites finales de l’épopée impériale, le blanc et les lis de la royauté faisant oublier le tricolore de la Révolution et de l’Empire. On sait pourtant que politiquement Louis XVIII ne s’entendait pas avec son frère, ou que la duchesse de Berry n’aimait pas la duchesse d’Angoulême, sa belle-sœur. Et le duc d’Angoulême n’était pas dupe : d’après les souvenirs du maréchal de Castellane, il ne put s’empêcher de murmurer, durant la parade : « Voilà la plus grande fanfaronnade depuis Don Quichotte. » Ducis a su habilement occulter ces aspects et mêler la représentation d’une cérémonie publique à une démonstration d’unité familiale, à la manière des peintres « troubadours » dont il se rapproche par le choix de ses sujets comme par son traitement pictural, privilégiant un effet de surface lisse et porcelainé. Il donne ainsi, dans un format moyen, un tableau à la fois théâtral et intime qui devait, pour le spectateur, rendre proche la famille royale tout en lui gardant une dignité distante incitant au respect.
— Stendhal (1835; 383x300pix, 76kb gif)
on 03 Mars 1700: Charles~Joseph Natoire,
French Rococo painter, draftsman and teacher, active also in Italy, who
died on 29 (23?) August 1777.
He was a student of François Lemoyne and of Nicolas Vleughels. Natoire was a winner of the Rome Prize, academician, director of the French Academy in Rome. He made numerous decorative cycles and tapestry models for the Gobelins and Beauvais factories. An exact contemporary of François Boucher, he was a painter of cabinet pictures, decorations and tapestry cartoons and one of the most adept practitioners of Rococo art in 18th-century France. The greater part of his career was spent in Paris, where he received important commissions from Louis XV as well as from private patrons. In 1751 he accepted the post of Director of the Académie de France in Rome. From then on he devoted himself to his teaching duties at the expense of his painting.
— The students of Natoire included Aignan-Thomas Desfriches, François-Hubert Drouais, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Nicolas Guibal, Johann Christian von Mannlich, Jean-Baptiste Pierre, Allan Ramsay, Joseph-Marie Vien.
–- The Rest by a Fountain (1737; 787x1059pix, 116kb — .ZOOM to 1968x2648pix, 1411kb — or, for more fun than watching your toenails grow, but not a better picture, try this 1968x2648pix, 10'798kb)
–- Vénus demande à Vulcain une arme pour Énée (1734; 836x600pix, 54kb — .ZOOM to 2517x1809pix, 564kb — or, for more fun than watching paint dry, but not a better picture, try this 2518x1809pix, 8828kb)
–- Bacchanal (1749; 893x1189pix, 154kb — .ZOOM to 1912x2419pix, 1170kb — or, for more fun than watching the flow of a glacier, but not a better picture, try this 1912x2419pix, 9273kb)
–- La Toilette de Psychée (1737; 787x1059pix, 116kb — .ZOOM to 2375x2015pix, 1411kb — or, for more fun than watching a snail sleep, but not a better picture, try this 2375x2015pix, 10'798kb)
Le Siège de Bordeaux (Histoire de Clovis) _ An episode from the conquest of Aquitaine, at that time a Visigoth kingdom, by Clovis I, King of the Franks. This representation bore witness to a revival of interest in national history and was inspired by a passage from a heroic poem in twenty-six cantos and 11'052 alexandrin verses, Clovis ou La France chrestienne, written by academician Jean Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin [1595 28 October 1676] and published in 1657.
Clovis pourvoid à tout, actif et diligent:/ et par les escadrons brille en armes d'argent./ Car depuis son baptesme, il ne craint plus les charmes. Il peut braver l'enfer, sans les celestes armes./ La gloire et le bon-heur semblent luire en ses yeux./ Il va parmy les rangs, d'un air victorieux,/ sur un tartare blanc, à la bouche écumante./ Braves guerriers, dit-il d' une grace charmante,/ nos coeurs sont enflammez par le divin esprit:/ et nous allons vanger l'honneur de Jesus-Christ./ Il arreste ses pas. Maxent fait la priere./ Aurele à son costé tient la sainte banniere./ Tout soldat brule d'estre ou vainqueur ou martyr.
Télémaque dans l'Ile de Calypso (1745, 121x153cm)
>Died on 03 March 1804: Giovanni-Domenico
Tiepolo, Italian Rococo
Era painter born on 30 August 1727. Son of Giovanni-Battista Tiepolo
[05 Mar 1696 – 27 Mar 1770].
— Giandomenico a été apprécié par ses contemporains surtout pour ses talents d'imitateur zélé de son père, Giambattista Tiepolo. Il vivra longtemps dans son ombre. C'est par ses innombrables dessins qu'il a trouvé son moyen d'expression privilégié, le mieux accordé à sa manière intimiste. Parmi ses thèmes favoris, on retrouve, comme dans l'oeuvre de son père, de nombreux croquis de Pulcinelli et de scènes de la vie vénitienne.
— Painter and etcher, son of Venetian artist Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Worked in Venice, Würzburg, Udina, and Madrid. Master and President of the Venetian Academy in his life time. A talented genre painter, especially of scenes from contemporary life and popular theatre. Notable among early
works are the paintings of the Stations of the Cross for S. Polo, Venice (1747-49), and the chinoiserie decorations of the guest wing of the Villa Valmarana (1757) in Vicenza. Worked in Madrid from 1762 until his father died in 1770. Returned to Venice, executed several frescoes and easel paintings, and especially scenes from the commedia dell'arte. Produced innumerable drawings for collectors, and nearly 200 etchings after his and his father's designs. Brother, Lorenzo Tiepolo (1736-76), specialized in genre scenes in pastel.
— Giovanni Domenico (= Giandomenico) Tiepolo was the son of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, the greatest Italian painter of the 18th century. His mother was Cecilia Guardi, the sister of the painter Guardi brothers, Niccolo Guardi [09 Dec 1715 – 26 May 1785], Francesco Guardi [05 Oct 1712 – 01 Jan 1793], and Gian Antonio Guardi [1698 – 23 Jan 1760].
The gifted and clever son of a great artist, Giandomenico Tiepolo spent many years learning by working alongside his father. Giambattista was so convinced of his son's talent that he involved him in the major commissions he undertook at the height of his own powers, and Giandomenico went with him to Würzburg, Vicenza, Stra, and Madrid. It becomes progressively easier to pick out Giandomenico's contributions to the works completed in these years, as during this time he was gradually acquiring his own personal style. This was substantially different (at least in the choice of subject matter) from his father's.
Giandomenico's temperament emerged most effectively in the frescos he painted for the guest lodge at Villa Valmarana near Vicenza (1757). They are imbued with a strong sense of realism, if still elegant and playful. Giandomenico had a marked preference for scenes from contemporary life. He viewed life always from a somewhat ironic perspective (although this was usually quite gentle, he could on occasion become savage). This was true of him both as a painter and as an engraver. At the same time he never broke away fully from his father's style. In particular, Giandomenico worked very closely with his aged father during their stay in Spain (1762-1770). The paintings he and his father produced in Madrid were to be a fundamental influence on Goya at the start of his own career.
After his return to Italy, Giandomenico pursued important decorative programs in Venice, Brescia, and Genoa. His painting gradually became tinged with the feeling that it was the end of an epoch. This translated as a lightness of touch and a latent melancholy in the frescos he painted in his family's own villa. These were painted during the last decade of the eighteenth century. Giandomenico is noteworthy also for his etchings, especially the twenty-two variations on the theme of the Flight into Egypt (1753).
–- Self-Portrait (1775, etching 12x9cm; 252x195pix, 7kb _ .ZOOM to 503x389pix, 26kb) a very poor print, at its worst when seen zoomed to its small full-size.
–- Head of a Philosopher (1759, 62x51cm; 884x800pix, 55kb — .ZOOM to 2000x1599pix, 239kb)
— Minuet (1756) _ This is an extremely interesting early piece which borrows its compositional layout from scenes painted by his father. The difference is that Giandomenico chose not to paint mythological or allegorical scenes. The minuet is being danced by people wearing traditional masks and having a good time. Its proper classification is therefore a genre painting. It was works like this that made such a deep impression on the young Goya.
— The Swing of Pulcinella (1793, 200x170cm) _ This fresco comes from the Tiepolo villa at Zianigo, between Padua and Venice.
— The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy (1773, 39x67cm) _ The Building of the Trojan Horse (1773, 39x67cm) _ These companion-pieces are part of a series illustrating a famous passage from Virgil's Aeneid (Book 2): The Greeks build a wooden horse, fill it with armed men and leave it outside the enemy city of Troy. The two pictures are close in style to the work of the artist's father Giambattista.
— Peasants at Rest (1757) _ The prevailing style of the first half of the 18th century was set by the enormous success of often flamboyant Venetian painters: Sebastiano Ricci, Piazzetta, and above all, Giambattista Tiepolo. But there were other currents as well. The Lombard painters Ceruti and Ghislandi, the Genoese artist Magnasco, Crespi from Bologna and Traversi from Naples (in addition of course Giandomenico Tiepolo in Venice) all adopted different but equally lively approaches. These artists paid close attention to themes and people taken from everyday life, which later led to the strand of "social" painting of the second half of the nineteenth century. Giandomenico Tiepolo's frescoes in the guest house of Villa Valmarana represent examples of this approach.
— Summer Stroll (1757) _ While Giambattista was busy in the main house painting famous episodes taken from heroic poems, his son Giandomenico decorated the rooms in the guest house with enjoyable if somewhat enigmatic scenes like this. The subject of the seasons, which Giambattista would probably have portrayed in wonderful allegories, provided Giandomenico with the occasion to depict scenes set in the countryside with romantically distant vistas but utterly real people.
–- The Artist's Father, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1775, etching 12x10cm; 247x192pix, 8kb _ .ZOOM to 493x383pix, 39kb) a very poor print, at its worst when seen zoomed to its small full-size.
Born on 03 March 1814: Abram Louis
Buvelot, Swiss Australian painter, lithographer, and photographer,
active in Brazil and Australia, who died on 30 May 1888.
— Louis Buvelot arrived in Australia in 1865 at the height of the Melbourne boom. Since 1850, when the Separation Bill was passed and Victoria was governed independently from the colony of New South Wales, there had been measurable progress. The population had increased in Victoria from 80'000 to 600'000 and revenue from £750'000 to £3'000'000. In 1851, 24'000 hectares had been cultivated and by 1864 this had increased to 200'000 hectares. Five hundred kilometers of railway linked Victoria. 1200 churches had been built from an original 39. The discovery of gold in Victoria added further to an era of prosperity and economic expansion.
By the time Buvelot arrived in Melbourne at the age of fifty-one he was already an experienced and mature artist. He had trained as an artist in Switzerland and for a short time in Paris. Buvelot was not only a versatile painter but also a practised lithographer and photographer. During the 1870s his reputation as an artist rose and his vision of the landscape inspired the young artists Tom Roberts and Frederick McCubbin, who considered him the 'father of Australian landscape painting'.
Buvelot's attitude to landscape painting in some part was influenced by the art of his fellow-countryman Barthélémy Menn. Menn had lived in Paris and had been aquainted with and influenced by the French Barbizon artists Camille Corot, Théodore Rousseau [1812-1867], and Charles Daubigny. It is possible that Buvelot also had some first-hand knowledge of a landscape by Rousseau shown in Lausanne in 1855. The Barbizon artists and Menn painted naturalistic landscapes of familiar countryside as opposed to the previous romantic views of nature.
Buvelot's landscape paintings were a result of sketching trips undertaken in and around Melbourne, although he occasionally traveled further afield, and was commissioned to do a few homestead paintings in the Western District of Victoria. On his trips, he made pencil, watercolor, or oil sketches, from which he executed more elaborate charcoal drawings, watercolor and oil paintings in his Melbourne studio. His painting style was considered broad and even unfinished when his paintings were first shown in Melbourne.
Buvelot's paysages intimes were an appropriate expression of the colonists' growing acceptance of their environment as no longer alien and antagonistic but their proper home, familiarly Australian rather than discomfortingly non-European. Buvelot's Australian landscape painting acted as a catalyst in reconciling Victoria's settlers to their environment.
–- The Pool (1878, 18x25cm)
–- At Lilydale (1870, 76x102cm)
–- Man with horse and cart(1872, 28x45cm)
–- Summer afternoon, Templestowe (77x119cm) _ Summer afternoon 1866 was made after a study and completed in the studio. A glance at the preliminary sketch (38x54cm) reveals that Summer afternoon 1866 is not topographical and Buvelot took liberties as an interpreter. Unlike photography, for the painter nature is converted according to the laws of art. Actual visual experience has been modified. This depicts a rural scene on the outskirts of Melbourne. The low viewpoint makes us part of the scene as we look along the dusty road to the oncoming sheep. The horizon line is also low, and contributes to the openness of the countryside. The landscape is dotted with human activity, from the drover with his two sheep-dogs to the various people in conversation. The houses already appear to be old, and add to the feeling that the countryside is well settled, familiar and commonplace. This is not the setting for heroic deeds by pioneers, but rather the every-day routine activities by local farmers. The tall, centrally-located gum-tree, with barren branches exposed, establishes the scene as Australian. As the sun sets, the light glows rather than shines on the brown rough vegetation, although a few patches of green grass defy the sullen heat. The whole atmosphere is heavy with the lingering heat, but the long weary afternoon is drawing to a close and the build up of clouds suggests that some relief is in sight. — Compare this
_ Paysage by Théodore Rousseau.