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ART “4” “2”-DAY  02 March v.10.20
^ Died on 02 (24?) March 1751: John Smibert (or Smybert), Scottish and Colonial Baroque painter specialized in Portraits, born on 02 April 1688. — {Did people think that his first name was Bert because his mom would proudly say of his paintings: “It's Smybert”?}
— From 1702 to 1709 he was apprenticed to a house painter and plasterer in Edinburgh. He set out for London at the end of his apprenticeship, about which time he began recording in a Notebook the events of his life and in succeeding years the details of his travels and records of his painting activities. The appearance of a professionally trained British painter in the American colonies in 1729 marks a crucial point in the history of US art. Smibert not only imported the skills necessary to convey the impression of substantial, rounded forms in a picture, but his commercial success also inspired others to contemplate careers as painters. Born in Edinburgh and schooled in London and Italy, Smibert attracted numerous clients upon his arrival in Boston.
— John Smibert divided his early career between Edinburgh, his birthplace, and London, where he variously studied art, worked as a plasterer, painted houses and coaches, and eventually set up as a portrait painter and copyist. He arrived in Italy in 1717, copied master paintings in Florence and Rome for his patron Cosimo III de' Medici, and then returned to London. By 1722 he had a studio there and was considered a leading portraitist. Smibert arrived in the American colonies in 1728, attracted by climate, opportunity, and the promise of employment in a visionary utopian colony to be established in the Bermudas. It failed to materialize, but he remained, the first fully trained artist in the colonies. He established a highly successful portrait practice in Boston.
— A native of Edinburgh, Scotland, Smibert received his professional training in London at Sir Godfrey Kneller's Great Queen Street Academy. In 1716, after three years at the academy, he painted in Scotland, Italy, and London, and achieved a reputation as a painter of some note. He arrived in Boston in 1728 as part of the venture of Dean George Berkeley [12 Mar 1685 – 14 Jan 1753] to establish an academy in Bermuda, where Smibert was to be the professor of painting. The venture was commemorated with his influential group portrait The Bermuda Group (1728); the academy, however, never materialized, as Berkeley did not receive the £20'000 grant he expected from the British Parliament, and returned to England in October 1731. Smibert stayed in Boston, making his living as the portraitist of Boston's leading citizens and as the owner of a shop that sold prints and artists' supplies. He is noted as the first academically trained painter to carve out a career as a portraitist in the British colonies in America.

The Bermuda Group (Dean Berkeley and his Entourage) (1729; 594x800pix, 94kb) _ George Berkeley was an Anglo-Irish Anglican clergyman, philosopher, and scientist, best known for his Empiricist philosophy (A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge), which holds that everything except the spiritual exists only insofar as it is perceived by the senses. He became bishop of Cloyne in 1734. He is shown in Newport, Rhode Island, with his wife holding their young son, and others who accompanied him on his unsuccessful American venture.
      The frenzied speculation that preceded the September 1720 bursting of the South Sea Bubble had shaken Berkeley's faith in the Old World, and he looked in hope to the New. His Essay Towards preventing the Ruin of Great-Britain (1721) was succeeded by his prophetic verses “Westward the course of empire takes its way; The four first acts already past, A fifth shall close the drama with the day: Time’s noblest offspring is the last.” in On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America (1726). By 1722 he had resolved to build a college in Bermuda for the education of young Amerindians, publishing the plan in A Proposal For the better Supplying of Churches in our Foreign Plantations and Converting the Savage Americans to Christianity by a College to be Erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles of Bermuda. (1724).
     While Berkeley touted slavery as the best way to Christianize Blacks, he proposed a different way for Amerindians. He thought the best people to convert Amerindians to Christianity would be the Amerindians themselves. He recommended recruiting potential missionaries "by peaceable methods" if possible, but by "taking captive the children of our enemies" if necessary. For the success of his school, he suggested enrolling “only such savages as are under 10 years of age, before evil habits have taken a deep root” . Bermuda was the perfect setting for his social experiment. “Young Americans, educated in an island at some distance from their own country, will more easily be kept under discipline till they have attained a complete education." While on the continent, they (unlike Blacks) “might find opportunities of running away to their countrymen,” while, captive on the island, they would be prevented them from “returning to their brutal customs, before they were thoroughly imbued with good principles and habits.”
      The scheme caught the public imagination; the King granted a charter; the Archbishop of Canterbury acted as trustee; subscriptions poured in; and Parliament passed a contingent grant of £20,000. But there was opposition; an alternative charity for Georgia was mooted; and Sir Robert Walpole [26 Aug 1676 – 18 Mar 1745], the Prime Minister (from 1721 to 1742), hesitated.
      In 1728 Berkeley married Anne, daughter of Chief Justice Forster, a talented and well-educated woman, who defended her husband's philosophy after his death. Soon after the wedding, they sailed for America, settling at Newport, R.I., where Berkeley bought land and slaves for his Whitehall plantation, where he built a house, and waited. Berkeley preached often in Newport and its neighborhood, and a philosophical study group met at Whitehall. Eventually, word came that the grant would not be paid, and Berkeley returned to London in October 1731. Several American universities benefited by Berkeley's visit, Yale in particular, to which he donated his Whitehall plantation and its slaves upon his departure. Yale's first scholarship was funded for up to 50 years with money earned from slave labor.
     Berkeley's correspondence with Samuel Johnson, later president of King's College (now Columbia University), is of philosophical importance. Berkeley's Alciphron; or, The Minute Philosopher (1732) was written at Newport, and the setting of the dialogues reflects local scenes and scenery. It is a massive defense of theism and Christianity with attacks on deists and freethinkers and discussions of visual language and analogical knowledge and of the functions of words in religious argument.
     While at his Whitehall plantation in Newport, on 04 October 1730, Berkeley purchased "a Negro man named Philip aged Fourteen years or thereabout." A few days later he purchased "a negro man named Edward aged twenty years or thereabouts." On 11 June 11 1731, “Dean Berkeley baptized three of his negroes, 'Philip, Anthony, and Agnes Berkeley' ” . Berkeley's sermons explained to the colonists why Christianity supported slavery, and hence slaves should become baptized Christians. He said that it would be of advantage to their slave masters' affairs to have slaves who should “obey in all things their masters according to the flesh, not with eye-service as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, as fearing God;” and that gospel liberty is consistent with temporal servitude; and that their slaves would only become better slaves by being Christian.
Benjamin Colman (1740; 350x279pix, 19kb) _ A member of Boston's colonial elite, Benjamin Colman [1710-1765] was the nephew of Reverend Dr. Benjamin Colman, one of the most distinguished citizens of Boston, a founder of the Church in Brattle Square, and a voluminous writer on colonial economics. As did most young Boston men of his social station, Colman attended Harvard College. He graduated in 1727, despite being fined for "being once at a Tavern unseasonably & drinking strong drink & with Companions of ill fame as also for being with More when he cut Mr Gookins's sadle & killed his Peahen as also for Lying at first to conceal these crimes." A merchant like his father, Colman formed a partnership with Nathaniel Sparhawk of Kittery. Both were related to Lieutenant General Sir William Pepperill, a commander in the British army, through whose influence they obtained a government contract to outfit Massachusetts troops and to supply construction materials and workers for the garrison at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. They also sold legal advice in business matters and collected debts for London merchants. The firm, however, declared bankruptcy in 1758, and in 1765 Colman was identified by his obituary in The Boston Gazette as "formerly a noted Merchant in this Town." Smibert's portrayal of Colman records both his high social status and his occupation as a merchant. Dressed in a frock coat and matching waistcoat of a rich burgundy color, Colman stands beside a table and proffers a letter. Based on portraits of British nobility, the pose indicates Colman's status as a gentleman. The letter was also a well-established convention, both for indicating the sitter's trade and for recording his identity. Colman's letter is inscribed "To Mr. Benjn Colman Mercht Boston." Painted near the end of Smibert's career, the portrait of Benjamin Colman is similar to Smibert's other merchant portraits, including Peter Fanueil (1740) and Richard Bill (1733). This repetition of pose and costume was an accepted convention in colonial society, for as citizens of the British crown, the colonists above all aspired to imitate the customs of the British aristocracy and the tastes of London's fashionable society.
Judge Samuel Sewall (1729, 76x63cm; 457x379pix, 44kb) _ A judge at the 1692 Salem witch trials that convicted and executed nineteen people, Samuel Sewall [1625–1730] later publicly confessed his error. He was an eminent citizen of colonial Boston: a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, manager of Boston’s only licensed printing press, and chief justice of the Superior Court. His diaries provide a lively record of the social, political, and religious life of his time. This was among the first of almost 250 portraits that Smibert made in Boston during his seventeen-year residence. His ability to capture character as well as appearance and his deft modeling of three-dimensional form caused a sensation in Boston, and his studio in Scollay Square became a mecca for aspiring artists.

^Died on 02 March 1895: Berthe Marie-Pauline Morisot, Mme. Eugène Manet, French Impressionist painter born on 14 January 1841.
— Berthe Morisot was a French impressionist painter. Influenced by the artists Camille Corot [16 Jul 1796 – 22 Feb 1875] and Édouard Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883], she gave up her early classical training to pursue an individualistic impressionistic style that became distinctive for its delicacy and subtlety. Her technique, based on large touches of paint applied freely in every direction, give her works a transparent, iridescent quality. She worked both in oil and in watercolor, producing mainly landscapes and scenes of women and children, as in Madame Pontillon Seated on the Grass (1873).
— Born into a family of wealth and culture, Morisot received the conventional lessons in drawing and painting. She went firmly against convention, however, in choosing to take these pursuits seriously and make them her life's work. Having studied for a time under Camille Corot, she later began her long friendship with Édouard Manet, who became her brother-in-law in 1874 and was the most important single influence on the development of her style. Unlike most of the other impressionists, who were then intensely engaged in optical experiments with color, Morisot and Manet agreed on a more conservative approach, confining their use of color to a naturalistic framework. Morisot, however, did encourage Manet to adopt the impressionists' high-keyed palette and to abandon the use of black. Her own carefully composed, brightly hued canvases are often studies of women, either out-of-doors or in domestic settings. Morisot and US artist Mary Cassatt are generally considered the most important women painters of the later 19th century.
— Berthe Morisot's mother arranged drawing lessons for her three daughters with no other intention than cultivating a polite pastime. That Berthe emerged with professional aspirations must have caused some consternation in their upper-middle-class Parisian household, since it might have compromised her future responsibilities as a wife and mother. Between 1864 and 1868 Morisot exhibited at the Paris Salon. Her early contact with the plein air Barbizon painter Camille Corot and her meeting Édouard Manet, whose work was reviled by both critics and Salon officials, encouraged her to repudiate the Salon system. As a result, she began to follow a more independent path and to exhibit her work with the Impressionists. She married Eugène Manet, Édouard's younger brother in 1874, the year the Impressionists held their first controversial exhibition
her portrait by brother-in-law Manet.

Self-Portrait (1885)
Julie, la Fille de l'Artiste, avec sa Gouvernante (1884, 58x71cm; 820x976pix, 676kb _ ZOOM to 1825x2208pix, 3167kb)
Jour d'été (1879, 46x75cm; 600x964pix, _ ZOOM to 1400x2249pix, 985kb _ ZOOM+ to 2010x3290pix, 3971kb and admire the texture of the canvas showing through the paint) _ A river with two women in the foreground.
Fillette Devant une Cage (1879 600x489pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1141pix, 465kb)
Paris vu du Trocadéro (1872)
Cache-cache (1873, 45x55cm)
Nice Little Girl (Nice: the city)
La lecture (1888) _ This is at once a genre scene and a portrait of Jeanne Bonnet. It conveys Morisot's ability to integrate her art and family life by painting canvases of domestic scenes. Although out-of-doors, the space of Reading is shallow, compressed by a balcony railing and foliage. Morisot employed many compositional devices to enclose the figure: the bird cage, the railing and chair, the wall casement, and the palm frond that arches over the sitter's head. These forms, associated with the nineteenth-century feminine ideal, also picture a woman's space as a closed world turned in on itself.
20 images at wikimedia240 images at the Athenaeum


Died on a 02 March:

1994 Patrick Collins, Irish artist born on 06 November 1910. —(060220)

1991 Rosario de Velasco [1910–], pintora española. Pertenece al grupo de pintores de renovación de los años treinta y cuarenta españoles, dificilmente clasificables, que llevaron a cabo una obra donde la construcción volumétrica del cubismo era llevada a la representación clasicista de paisajes y figuras, encabezado por artistas como Togores o Vázquez Díaz. Falangista de primera hora, había teni- do un papel destacado en el mundo artístico anterior a la Guerra Civil:
Gitanos, la Siesta (1941, 95x132cm; 467x640pix, 32kb)
Maternidad (1933, 80x70cm; 480x409pix, 44kb) —(090301)

^ >1909 Henriëtte Ronner-Knip, Dutch painter born on 31 May 1821. Initially she studied under her father, the landscape artist Joseph Augustus Knip [03 Aug 1777 – 01 Oct 1847] and from the first, Henriëtte applied herself to exclusively paint animals, in particular dogs and cats. She was perhaps the first painter in the history of art to master the elusive nature of the cat, in all of its moods and to capture it on canvas. — 1893 photo of Ronner-Knip (oval 452x344pix, 11kb)
Kittens at Play (23x33cm; 418x560pix, 56kb; _ ZOOM to 935x1250pix, 259kb) closely watched by their mother, lest they hurt each other.
Teatime (27x36cm; 794x1152pix, 157kb) kittens playing with a tea set (if link doesn't work try this)
Kitten (800x526pix, 81kb; _ ZOOM to 1600x1052pix, 269kb)
— different Kitten (800x526pix; 77kb; _ ZOOM to 1600x1052pix, 269kb)
A Cosy Cushion (800x526pix; 77kb; _ ZOOM to 1600x1052pix, 269kb)
A Cat (800x526pix; 77kb; _ ZOOM to 1600x1052pix, 269kb)
Kattenkwaad (1890; 682x760pix, 34kb)
Werk, rust en spel (1896; 779x651pix, 37kb)
The Parson's Kitten (407x506pix; 15kb)
Proud Mother (422x535pix; 52kb)
Faithful Friend 1892; (550x4292pix, 32kb) —(060522)

1871 Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, French artist born on 17 January 1810.

1869 Jan van Ravensway (or Ravenszwaai), Dutch artist born on 29 November 1789.

^ 1814 (20 Mar?) reverend Matthew William Peters, English painter and clergyman born in 1741 (1742?). Brought up in Dublin, where his father was a customs officer, he studied under Robert West at the Society of Artists drawing school. By 1759 he was in London, studying under Thomas Hudson; in that year he won a prize from the Society of Artists. From about 1762 Peters traveled and studied in Italy. On his return to London in 1766, he exhibited at the Free Society of Artists two portraits of ladies in native Italian dress. He was again in Italy in 1773–1774, mostly in Venice, and he was in Paris in 1775, and again in 1783–1784. In the course of these trips abroad he studied and copied Old Master paintings, including works by Correggio and Peter Paul Rubens.
     Early in his career Peters was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists; later, he was elected ARA (1771) and RA (1778). He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and was one of the more prolific contributors to John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. In mid-life, however, he turned his attention to the Church and was ordained in 1783. He was made rector of Eaton, Leics, and afterwards chaplain to George, Prince of Wales, and to the Royal Academy, from which he resigned in 1790. This respectable and pious later career is somewhat surprising, since the pictures by which Peters made his early name were coquettish half-lengths of under-dressed young women. Highly popular and often engraved, these pictures were also considered slightly risqué. In style, Peters broke from the stodginess of his master, Hudson, and equally from the prevailing current of Neo-classicism. His surfaces were rich and painterly, his colors lush and high-keyed. Venice and Correggio meant more to him than Rome and Antiquity. Gradually, his subjects became more decorous. For his diploma work he painted a light-hearted genre scene, Children with Fruit and Flowers. His contributions to Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery drew their subjects mainly from the comedies, especially The Merry Wives of Windsor and Much Ado about Nothing. Towards the end of his career as a painter (from which he retired in 1788) he produced a few lugubrious sacred pictures, for example Angel Carrying the Spirit of a Child to Paradise (1782).
— Matthew Peters was trained in London under the portraitist Thomas Hudson. He quickly became a prominent member of the Society of Artists, exhibiting portraits in oil and pastel, and attracting a number of prominent aristocratic patrons, including the Duke of Manchester, the Marquess of Granby, and Lord Grosvenor, for whom he painted some of his most controversial pictures. Urged by his patrons Peters began to paint a series of quasi-erotic character studies of courtesans, which at that time were quite unusual in Britain. These controversial pictures were eagerly reproduced by industrious printmaker/publishers such as Smith, and caused a flurry of curious customers to the London print-shops. Following his ordination in 1781, Peters quickly denounced his early erotic pictures as immoral. Upon being appointed Honorary Chaplain to the Royal Academy, Peters expressed a profound regret "that he ever devoted his talents to such subjects".
A Study for Lydia (1777, 74x63cm; 482x400pix, 40kb)
Lydia (1777, 64x77cm)
The Gamesters (22 May 1786 mezzotint, 37x43cm; 113kb) and The Fortune Teller (22 May 1786 mezzotint, 37x43cm; 118kb) _ In these works Peters has retained his decorative style of painting and use of fancy costumes, but eliminated the erotic overtones present in his earlier works (e.g. Lydia). Instead he has chosen to depict two age-old subjects, fortune-telling and gambling, which had become an institution in western art since the Renaissance. These prints are from a turbulent period in Peters' life, when he struggled to produced images that appealed to his viewers while remaining morally true to his beliefs.

^ 1812 John Raphael Smith, English artist born in 1752. — LINKS
A Girl Reading, a Man Standing over Her (27x20cm) —(060313)

^ 1792 (02 Feb 1793?) Carl Gustav Pilo, Swedish painter born on 19 (05?) March 1711. His father, Olof Pijhlou [1668–1753], was an artist. Pilo may have visited Vienna and Germany, and it is probable that he studied at the Drawing Academy established in Stockholm in 1735. From 1737 he was engaged as a portrait painter by members of the southern Swedish aristocracy (e.g. Baron Malte Ramel). About 1740 he settled in Copenhagen, where he swiftly rose to a position of importance: following the enthusiastic reception of his portrait of Louise of England, the wife of the future Frederick V , he was appointed court painter in 1745 and drawing-master to Crown Prince Christian (later Christian VII) in 1759. Pilo was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen in 1748 and for the next two decades was recognized as the foremost portrait painter in Denmark. — Carl Gustaf Pilo was one of the 18th century Swedish artists who left Sweden to make their fortune abroad. He moved to Denmark in 1741, becoming painter to the Danish Court. He also became a professor at the Danish Academy of Fine Arts. His prolific output in Denmark consisted mainly of portraits. Gustav III's coup d'état in 1772 turned the Danes against Sweden, and Pilo had to leave Denmark. He settled in his childhood town of Nyköping — His students included Peder Als, Per Krafft, Lorens Pasch. — LINKS
Kirjailija Adam Lenkiewitz (75x61cm)

^ 1583 (24 Mar?) Hubert Goltzius (or Goltz), Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter, and numismatist, born on 30 October 1526. — Relative? of Hendrick Goltzius [1558 – 29 Dec 1617]? — Hubertus Goltzius was the son of Rutger den Meeler (Rutger van Weertsburg) and Catherina Goltzius, whose family name was taken by her husband. After studying in Venlo, Hubertus was sent to Luik (Liège) to the academy of Lambert Lombard, to whom he was apprenticed until 1546. He then moved to Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke and took on Willem Smout as his student. Before 1550 Goltzius married Elisabeth Verhulst Bessemers, a painter from Mechelen, with whom he had four sons and three daughters. Her sister Mayken Verhulst was the second wife of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, which brought Goltzius into artistic circles. Goltzius was active in Antwerp as a painter and antiques dealer, but the only painting that can be attributed to him with certainty is The Last Judgement (1557) for the town hall at Venlo. In Antwerp he was introduced by his friends to prominent numismatists, for whom he made drawings of coins and began a system of their classification. For the same purpose Goltzius undertook a study trip in 1556 through the Netherlands and the Rhine Valley. The results of his investigations appeared in Vivae omnium fere imperatorum imagines (1557), published by Gillis Coppens van Diest (fl 1543–1573). The work was subsequently published in four other languages, the frontispiece in each edition, including the original, being printed in four different stages: one for the engraved text, two woodcut tone-blocks, and one woodcut key-block for the finer lines. Goltzius was apparently one of the first printers to combine woodcut and engraving in a single frontispiece. The copies of the imperial portraits published in the books are done in a cameo technique. — Portrait of Hubertus Goltzius 1576; 498x387pix, 28kb) by Antonio Moro. //
Laatste oordeel (1557, 126x242cm; 263x500pix, 35kb)

Born on a 02 March:

1864 Victor Léon Jean Pierre Charreton, French artist who died on 26 November 1936.

^ 1822 William Louis Sonntag, US Hudson River School painter specialized in Landscapes, who died on 22 January 1900. Born the son of a merchant in a suburb of Pittsburgh, he moved to Cincinnati at an early age. Despite his father’s opposition, he began a career as an itinerant landscape painter in the mid-1840s, selling paintings and sketches throughout the Ohio Valley. An exhibition of his work, held in a store, won him a commission in 1846 from the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to paint a series of views along its route. In 1855 Sonntag travelled to Italy to study in Florence for a year, a journey that resulted in Classic Italian Landscape with Temple of Venus (1860). He lived permanently in New York after 1860, and by 1862 he was a full academician at the National Academy of Design there. — LINKS
Duck Hunters on the Ohio River (1850)
Valley Landscape aka Cincinnati (1852, 43x63cm)
Early Autumn Morning Western Virginia (1856)
Shenandoah Valley (1860, 92x143cm)
Boating on a Mountain River (1863)
River View (1864, 76x127cm)
Autumn Landscape (1864)
Fishing in the Cove (1865, 77x127cm)
Fishermen in the Adironcacks, Hudson River (1869)
Mountain Landscape, New York State (1869, 52x91cm)
White Mountain Landscape (1881, 100x140cm)
Mountain Lake in Autumn (1883, 41x61cm)
A Mountain Stream from the Foot of Mt. Carter, New Hampshire (1887, 102x140cm; 741x1020pix, 55kb)
A Wooded Mountain Landscape (1894)
Distant Vista
Fishing (51x92cm)
Gathering at Sundown (41x61cm)
Landscape (23x31cm)
Mountain Lake Inlet (93x136cm)
Shadows Rising and Sun Setting, New Hampshire (52x79cm)
The Pond (31x51cm)

^ 1733 Jean François Gilles Colson, French painter, architect, and writer, who died on 01 March 1803. He was apprenticed to his father, Jean-Baptiste Gilles, called Colson [1686–1762], who copied the work of the portrait painters Charles Parrocel and Jean-Baptiste van Loo and also painted miniatures, mainly for a provincial clientele. Jean-François got to know many studios, and worked for the portrait painters Daniel Sarrabat and Donat Nonnotte, among others. One of his liveliest early works is the informal, intimate and meditative portrait of The Artist’s Father in his Studio. Through the acting career of his brother Jean-Claude, Jean-François also came into contact with the theatrical world, as in his portrait of the actress Mme Véron de Forbonnais (1760). The manner of this painting, with its subject looking up as if disturbed from reading a letter, is attuned to contemporary developments in portraiture. Later theatrical work includes Mlle Lange in the Role of Silvie (1792.), showing the actress in costume in a scene from Claude Collet’s play L’Ile déserte.
A Lady Asleep (1759; 400x311pix, 27kb)
Samuel Foote [1720-1777] actor and dramatist (1769, 56x46cm; 225x182pix, 8kb) —(060313)

1656 Jan-Frans van Douven, German artist who died in 1727.

1603 Pietro Novelli [–27 Aug 1647], in Monreale, Italian painter.
Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Carmelite Saints (1641; 711x474pix, 66kb) —(090716).

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