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DEATHS:  1900 TROUILLEBERT — 1848 DEBRET — 1801 WHEATLEY — BURIAL: 1670 SORGH
BIRTHS: 1674 GHEZZI — 1529 PASSEROTTI — 1577 RUBENS — 1616 FRANCHOYS — 1884 HIGGINS
^ Born on 28 June 1674: Pier~Leone Ghezzi, Italian painter, draftsman, antiquarian, and musician, who died on 05 (06?) March 1755.
— Son of Giuseppe Ghezzi [1634-1721], Pier-Leone Ghezzi was the first professional caricaturist, but he also painted decorative frescoes and created a new type of anecdotal and realistic history painting. As a portrait painter, his works are distinguished by their fresh naturalism. He enjoyed a privileged relationship with Pope Clement XI and his family, and was patronized by the Roman nobility, high churchmen and French aristocrats in Rome. It is their world, and that of the British Grand Tourist, that he portrayed — with humor yet without malice — in his many caricatures.

LINKS
The Prodigal Son (1730, 98x134cm; 897x1239pix, 912kb _ .ZOOM to 1446x1956pix, 504kb _ ZOOM+ to 1656x2288pix, 3542kb)
The Martyrdom of Saint Clement (614x800pix, 135kb)
10 prints at FAMSF
—(060602)
^ Died on 28 June 1900: Paul Desiré Trouillebert, French Barbizon School painter born in 1829.
— He was a student of Ernest Hébert [1817-1908] and Charles-François Jalabert [1819-1901], and made his debut at the Salon of 1865, exhibiting a portrait. He continued to paint portraits until about 1881, when he started to concentrate on landscapes. He received some attention as a result of a court case when one of his paintings in the collection of the writer Alexandre Dumas fils was sold as a work by Corot. Indeed there is some similarity in the two painters' approach to landscapes, especially river landscapes at dawn or dusk. Trouillebert painted a wide variety of subjects, including genre scenes, portraits, nudes, and, after 1881, mainly pleasant landscapes in cool, damped colors, with a silvery glimmer in the atmosphere.

LINKS
Femme en robe bleue rêvant (25x19cm; _ ZOOMable)
Gardienne de vaches près d'un moulin (38x46cm; _ ZOOMable)
Femme Sur Un Chemin (56x46cm)
Fisherman at the River's Edge (85 x 114 cm; 742x1000pix, 190kb)
— Le Pêcheur (69x81cm) a land-and-riverscape
— different version Le Pêcheur (65x81cm)
— Village Paysan (52x81cm; 641x1000pix, 109kb)
Travaux de relèvement du chemin de fer de ceinture: le pont du Cours de Vincennes (1888, 38x56cm) _ Conceived in 1851, after Napoleon III came to power, the railway encircling Paris was intended to be used to transport merchandise and, eventually, passengers. The railway represented a new convenience, but measures were needed to ensure the safety of other traffic. The numerous railway crossings included in the initial plans turned out to be a source of fatal accidents. To remedy the problem, the platforms and retaining walls were to be raised at the most dangerous spots. The Cours de Vincennes, in the eastern part of Paris, had been one of the deadliest intersections. The work on an elevated railway bridge over this street, which is depicted here, was completed in February 1889. Trouillebert concentrated on portraits until about 1881, when he began to focus on landscapes. He also painted genre (everyday life) scenes and nudes. He was commissioned by Edmé Piot, a public works contractor, to paint this and four related views of the Paris railway construction.
13 images at the Athenaeum
 
^ Born on 28 June 1529: Bartolomeo Passerotti (or Passarotti, Passarotto), Bolognese painter who died on 03 June 1592.
— Except for some years in Rome (about 1551 to. 1565) Passerotti worked in his native Bologna. There he had a large studio, which became the focal point of the city's artistic life. He was a student of Girolamo Vignola and Taddeo Zuccaro (or Zuccari), in Rome. Here, he also came into contact with the works of Correggio and Parmigianino.
      The religious paintings that were the basis of his success were fairly conventional and undistinguished, and he is now remembered for his pioneering genre scenes of butchers' shops. They reflect the influence of northern painters such as Aertsen and in their lively observations broke free from prevailing Mannerism. Annibale Carracci (whose brother Agostino Carracci studied with Passarotti) was influenced by these genre scenes in his early career. In addition to his religious and genre works, Passarotti painted excellent portraits throughout his career. His son Tiburzio [–1612] imitated his style, and he in turn had two artist sons, Gaspare and Archangelo.

LINKS
Pope Pius IV (1600; 600x485pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1131pix, 360kb) _ Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici [31 Mar 1499 – 09 Dec 1565] was from the obscure Milan Medicis, not closely related to the prominent Medicis of Florence. He was elected Pope on 26 December 1559, and took the name Pius IV. He was the uncle of Saint Charles Borromeo [02 Oct 1538 – 03 Nov 1584], whom he made a cardinal on 31 January 1560 (together with Giovanni de' Medici Jr. [–20 Nov 1562], son of the duke of Florence). Pius brought Carlo Carafa [29 Mar 1517 – 06 Mar 1561] (made a cardinal by Paul IV on 07 June 1555) and his brother Giovanni Carafa [–06 Mar 1561], nephews of pope Paul IV [28 Jun 1476 – 18 Aug 1559] to trial, which resulted in their execution; on 26 September 1567 the sentence was declared unjust by pope Saint Pius V [17 Jan 1504 — 01 May 1572], who also made cardinal (on 24 March 1568) their brother Antonio Carafa [1538 – 13 Jan 1591], who had fled Rome in time to avoid being included in the trial. On 29 November 1560 Pius IV called on the Council of Trent (suspended since 1552) to reconvene, which it did on 18 January 1562 and concluded on 04 December 1563.
Blood of the Redeemer (34x16cm; 864x400pix, 79kb _ ZOOM to 2101x973pix, 315kb)
Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Catherine of Alexandria (111x92cm) _ The composition follows the example of Raphael, but there are some details characteristic for Passerotti, e.g. the hand of Saint Catherine and the portrait-like position of Saint Joseph.
— /S#*>Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth, the Infant Saint John the Baptist, and two angels (29x22cm; 800x574pix, 108kb) _ — This painting is comparable to The Adoration by the Magi (1572) of Passerotti, which replicates a lost fresco by Federico Zuccaro in the Church of San Eligio degli Orefici known through an engraving.
–- S*#> Adoration by the Magi (28x22cm; 800x615pix, 142kb)
The Butcher's Shop (1580, 112x152cm) _ This and The Fishmonger's Shop were originally part of a series of four, which are among the best examples of Italian genre painting. There are close stylistic connections between these canvases and the works of the Dutch masters Aertsen and Beuckelaer, as well as with The Butcher's Shop by Annibale Carracci.
      Passerotti describes the butcher's shop with a combination of realistic precision in the rendering of details and irony in the characterization of the people. In late sixteenth century art the theme of the butcher shop was moralistically interpreted as an allegorical warning about the temptations of flesh and of indulgence in erotic passions without caution. According to the counter-reformation precepts laid down by Gabriele Paleotti (1582), veiled moral messages could be transmitted through comical pictures. In both pictures the sparrow appears: as this bird's Italian name is passerotto, the artist used it as a type of pictorial signature.
The Fishmonger's Shop (1585, 112x152cm) _ This painting is rich with the most minute naturalistic description, with the woman holding up the blowfish and with various types of sea shells on display reflecting Passerotti's interest in naturalistic study. A participant in the scientific culture of Bologna, of which Ulisse Aldovrandi was a protagonist, Passerotti created his own varied collection of curiosities and monstrosities.
Gentleman with Two Dogs (94kb)
Two Women and a Boy, Selling Vegetables and Live Poultry (1580; 600x507pix, 149kb) _ The women seem to be the grandmother and the mother of the boy.
—(060602)
^ Died on 28 (11?) June 1848: Jean-Baptiste Debret, French painter and draftsman, active in Brazil, born on 18 April 1768.
— When very young he accompanied his cousin, Jacques-Louis David, on a trip to Italy from which he returned in 1785. He then enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris, initially following parallel studies in civil engineering but soon devoting himself to painting. Between 1798 and 1814 he entered several of the annual Paris Salons with historical or allegorical paintings, Neo-classical in both spirit and form, for instance Napoleon Decorating a Russian Soldier at Tilsit (1808). He also collaborated at this time with the architects Charles Percier and Pierre-François Fontaine on decorative works.
     With the fall of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte I, whom Debret greatly admired, he agreed to take part in the French artistic mission which left for Brazil in 1816. He stayed there longer than the rest of the group, returning to France only in 1831. During those years spent in Rio de Janeiro and in neighbouring provinces, he was in the vanguard of local artistic life, still in its infancy. He founded and encouraged the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes, of which he became professor of history painting. He painted many historical works such, as the Acclamation of Peter I (1822). He and two other members of the French mission, the architect Auguste-Henri Grandjean de Montigny and the sculptor Auguste-Marie Taunay [1768–1824], were responsible for preparing the decorations in Rio de Janeiro for the celebrations in 1818 acclaiming John VI as King.
—   Il conçut les insignes du pouvoir impérial. Mais très vite, il fut fasciné par toutes les facettes de la société brésilienne, que ce soit la vie privée des riches commerçants, les us et coutumes de la population Carioca, ou la condition misérable des esclaves noirs, qu’il rendit d’un trait incisif dans des aquarelles fourmillant de détails révélateurs. Elles illustrèrent son Voyage pittoresque et historique au Brésil, qu’il publia de 1834 à 1839 après son retour en France.
     No início do século XIX, os exércitos de Napoleão Bonaparte invadiram Portugal , obrigando D. João VI (rei de Portugal), sua família e sua corte (nobres, artistas, empregados, etc.) a virem para o Brasil. D. João VI, preocupado com o desenvolvimento cultural, trouxe para cá material para montar a primeira gráfica brasileira, onde foram impressos diversos livros e um jornal chamado A Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro. Nesse momento, o Brasil recebe forte influência cultural européia, intensificada ainda mais com a chegada de um grupo de artistas franceses (1816) encarregado da fundação da Academia de Belas-Artes (1826), na qual os alunos poderiam aprender as artes e os ofícios artísticos. Em Março de 1816, o Ministro Conde da Barca promoveu a vinda de uma missão artística francesa chefiada por Joaquim Le Breton, ex secretário de belas artes do Instituto de França, e dela faziam partes os irmãos Nicolas-Antoine Taunay: [11 Feb 1755 – 20 Mar 1830] pintor de paisagens e Auguste-Marie Taunay [1768–1824] escultor, Jean Baptista Debret pintor de história, Grandjean de Montigny arquiteto, Simon Pradier gravador, Ovide professor de mecânica, os irmãos Marc e Zeferin Ferrez escultores, Segismundo Neukomn músico. Esse grupo ficou conhecido como Missão Artística Francesa. Os artistas da Missão Artística Francesa pintavam, desenhavam, esculpiam e construíam à moda européia. Obedeciam ao estilo neoclássico. A essa missão foi entregue a eles a criação de uma Academia de Belas Artes que foi inaugurada em 1826, cujo edifício foi projetado por Grandjean de Montigny.
     Jean-Baptiste Debret: foi chamado de "a alma da Missão Francesa". Ele foi desenhista, aquarelista, pintor cenográfico, decorador, professor de pintura e organizador da primeira exposição de arte no Brasil (1829). Em 1818 trabalhou no projeto de ornamentação da cidade do Rio de Janeiro para os festejos da aclamação de D.João VI como rei de Portugal, Brasil e Algarve. Mas é em Viagem pitoresca ao Brasil, coleção composta de três volumes com um total de 150 ilustrações, que ele retrata e descreve a sociedade brasileira. Seus temas preferidos são a nobreza e as cenas do cotidiano brasileiro e suas obras nos dão uma excelente idéia da sociedade brasileira do século XIX.

4 images on one page: portrait of Debret (203x200pix, 49kb)
  _ Joueur d'Uruncungo (berimbau) (1834; 119x400pix, 140kb) l'Urucungo est un instrument qui se compose de la moitié d'une calebasse acroché à un arc, formé d'une branche, tendu d'un fil de laiton, sur lequel on tape rapidement. On peut en même temps étudier l'instinct musical du joueur qui appui la main sur le devant ouvert de la calebasse afin d'obtenir par la vibration un son plus grave et harmonieux. Cet effet est obtenu en battant rapidement sur la corde avec une petite baguette qui se tient entre l'index et le doigt du milieu de la main droite.”
 
_ Retour de l'esclave naturaliste (1820; 286x400pix, 111kb)
  _ Enterrement d'un noir (1839, 25x32cm; 276x400pix, 100kb)
— Négresse brésilienne tatouée vendant des fruits de cajou (1827) _ détail (284x200pix, 20kb)
Boutique du cordonnier (1827, 17x23cm; 247x349pix, 69kb)
Pharmacie (1823; 200x277pix, 50kb gif)
 
click for self-portrait ^Born on 28 June 1577: Pieter Pauwel Rubens, Flemish Baroque era painter who died on 30 May 1640. His studio assistants included Jan Fyt, and his students included Anthony Van Dyck, Lambert Jacobsz, Cornelis de Vos, and Simon de Vos.
[click for 1639 self-portrait >]
  — By completing the fusion of the realistic tradition of Flemish painting with the imaginative freedom and classical themes of Italian Renaissance painting, he fundamentally revitalized and redirected northern European painting. Masterpieces include portraits and landscapes, although he is perhaps best known for his religious and mythological compositions.
—     Born in Siegen, Nassau, Westphalia, Rubens was the greatest exponent of Baroque painting's dynamism, vitality, and sensuous exuberance. Though his masterpieces include portraits and landscapes, Rubens is perhaps best known for his religious and mythological compositions. As the impresario of vast decorative programs, he presided over the most famous painter's studio in Europe. His powers of invention were matched by extraordinary energy and versatility.
            Peter Paul Rubens was born into the family of a Calvinist who had to live in exile from Antwerp. On his father's death, Ruben’s mother returned to Antwerp in 1587, where he was brought up and educated in the Catholic faith. At the age of fourteen (1591) he entered the household of a Flemish princess as a page, and began to study painting first under Tobias Verhaecht, then under Adam van Noort, and then under Otho Venius. In 1598, he was accepted as master in the Lukas Guild, though continued to work in Venius’s  workshop until 1600.  Most of Rubens' youthful works have disappeared or remain unidentified. The Portrait of a Young Man <(1597; 728x523pix, 43kb) is his earliest dated work.
            In May 1600, Rubens went to Italy. In Venice he was introduced to Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga and accepted his offer to join his court in Mantua. Gonzaga had Rubens make copies of Renaissance paintings, mainly portraits of court beauties. Rubens accompanied the duke on his travels to Florence and Rome. In Florence, in October 1600, Rubens attended the marriage-by-proxy of Gonzaga's sister-in-law Marie de Médicis to King Henry IV of France, a scene he was to re-create a quarter-century later for the queen.
      In August 1601 Rubens arrived in Rome. His first major Roman commission was for three large paintings (1601–1602) for the crypt chapel of St. Helena in the Basilica of Santa Croce.
      In 1603, the duke of Mantua sent him on his first diplomatic assignment to Spain to present a shipment of paintings to King Philip III. For Philip's prime minister, the duke of Lerma, Rubens painted his first major equestrian portrait (1603).
      Toward the end of 1605 Rubens made his second trip to Rome. In 1606 he received his crowning commission in Rome: the painting over the high altar of the Chiesa Nuova, whose precious icon Rubens enshrined in an apotheosis borne aloft by a host of putti.
      While in Italy, Rubens studied and copied Titian, Tintoretto, and Raphael, he also admired the works of his contemporaries, including Caravaggio and Carracci. The copies Rubens made of Renaissance paintings offer a rich survey of the achievements of 16th-century Italian art. During his Italian period he also produced some of his finest portraits at various princely Italian courts: The Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma (1603), Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria (1606).
     In October 1608 Rubens returned to Antwerp. He was commissioned to paint for the Antwerp Town Hall an Adoration of the Magi (1609). In October 1609 Rubens married the 19-year-old Isabella Brant, and he painted his Double Portrait in a Honeysuckle Bower <(1610; 1400x1072pix, 106kb).
            In 1609, Rubens was appointed court painter to the Regent Albert and Isabella. He married Isabella Brant. In 1610, he built himself a large house and studio. During his Antwerp period, until 1622, he received a flood of commissions from the church, state and nobility. The Gobelin factory produced tapestries after his sketches, and engravers used his paintings, distributing the ‘Rubens style’ all over Europe. Among his best works are The Elevation of the Cross (the triptych) (1611), The Descent from the Cross (the triptych) <(1614; 1228x1468pix, 122kb), The Union of Earth and Water (1618), Castor and Pollux Abduct the Daughters of Leukyppos (1618), The Battle of the Amazons (1620), Perseus and Andromeda (1621).
            His largest commission was in 1621 for a series of 21 paintings for Marie de’Medici, the Queen Dowager of France, widow of Henry IV. The paintings, describing Marie's life, were for her palace in Paris. It was not an easy work. The queen was far from being a beauty, her life was not full of interesting events, besides she was of bad temper: she had constantly quarreled with her deceased husband, Henry IV, wasted enormous sums of money, and bothered her son, Louis XIII, with constant advice so that at last he ordered her out of Paris. Rubens’s diplomatic skills were much at hand in fulfilling the order. He successfully managed it within three years to the great satisfaction of the customer.
            Between 1623 and 1631, Rubens traveled frequently on diplomatic missions, visiting London and Madrid, where he received peerages from both Charles I of England and Philip IV of Spain. Isabella Brant died in 1626; in 1630 Rubens married the 16-year-old Helene Fourment, who sat for many portraits and other works: Bathsheba at the Fountain. (1635), The Fur Cloak (Helene Fourment) (1639), The Three Graces. (1638), Rubens, His Wife Helena Fourment, and Their Son Peter Paul. (1639). After the death of Archduchess Isabella he gradually withdrew from the court and bought castle Steen near Mecheln. His last big commission was the decoration of the Spanish King’s hunting lodge, Torre de la Parada near Madrid, which he designed but was no longer able to carry out himself.
            Rubens is often called Prince of Baroque painters. In his style he successfully united  the features of Northern and Flemish art with those of Italy. His influence on the painters of his century was enormous, as it was on sculpture and architecture. He was a versatile genius and rivaled in inventive power the great minds of the Italian Renaissance. He was a humanist and classical archaeologist, a sumptuous designer of religious, historical and allegorical canvases and a supreme master in ‘pure’ landscape. Rubens was endlessly active. There are thousands of works by his hand, scattered through collections and museums across the world. The paintings amount to more than three thousand.
— His studio assistants included Jan Fyt, and his students included Anthony Van Dyck, Lambert Jacobsz, Cornelis de Vos, Simon de Vos, Jordaens, Snyders.

LINKS
Self-portrait (1630)
Self-portrait (1639, 110x85cm)
The Artist and His First Wife, Isabella Brant, in the Honeysuckle Bower (1610, 178x136cm; 1400x1072pix, 106kb)
Rubens, his wife Helena Fourment, and their son Peter Paul (1639, 204x158cm)
Albert and Nikolaus Rubens (1627, 157x93cm; 1250x728pix, 109kb _ ZOOM to 2500x1457pix, 509kb) _ .detail 1 _ the two boys without most of the superfluous background (3216x1533pix, 260kb) _ .detail 2 (1754x1421pix, 143kb _ .ZOOM to 2482x2010pix, 272kb) _ the two boys, half-length _ Like Rubens's daughter Clara Serena, his sons Albert and Nikolaus Rubens were from his first marriage, to Isabella Brant [1591-1626], and were about 13 and 9 years old respectively at the time of this full-length double portrait. Nikolaus [1618–1655], the younger, still seems quite uninhibited. He ignores the viewer and is preoccupied with his goldfinch which he has tethered to a ribbon, a popular children’s game. In contrast to his younger brother, Albert [1614– 1657] seems serious, almost adult, and a little precocious, not least because of his distinguished clothing and the casual elegance of his pose. His father encouraged him to read and furthered his classical education. The boy published his first poem in Latin at the age of thirteen; the book in his hand definitely refers to his scholarly nature. Albert Rubens ultimately became one of the most highly respected scholars of the Graeco-Roman world of his day. The contrast between the two brothers may be due to their different ages and characters. Possibly yet another level of meaning is concealed in the picture: in his treatise on the most famous Greek painters, Pliny wrote that Parrhasius, the master of eloquent expression, painted two boys embodying the tranquillity of nature (securitas) and also the innocence (simplicitas) of that age. Perhaps Rubens was trying to imply this theme in his portrait of his sons.
The Four Philosophers (1602, 167x148cm) _ Actually there are five persons in the picture: one as a bust, Lucius Annaeus Seneca II [4 BC – 65]; and four live: Justus Lipsius [18 Oct 1547 – 23 Mar 1606] (1605 editor of the works of Seneca) seated between two of his students: at his right Philip Rubens [1574-1611] (brother of the artist) and at his left Jan van den Wouwer (or Woverius) [1576-1636]. , and the artist himself (standing behind his brother). _ Read a 2003 review of the book by Mark Morford, Stoics and Neostoics: Rubens and the Circle of Lipsius (1991). It notes as significant the fact that Peter Paul Rubens portrays himself separated from the group at the table. “So long as Philip was alive Peter Paul was directly involved with Stoicism. After Philip's death he kept up close friendships with Lipsius' contubernales, Woverius and Moretus, but his life took him further and further away from the confines of Lipsius' Stoicism.”
–- Render to Cesar the Tribute <(1612, 144x190cm; 964x1260pix, 178kb — zoom to 1928x2520pix, 675kb)
  _ .detail 1: Head of Christ <(and that of an old man) (1152x1152pix, 80kb) >
  _ .detail 2: 4 Faces at left <(1872x1872pix, 273kb)
  _ .detail 3: 2 Faces in center <(1008x1296pix, 78kb)
Cimon and Pero (1630, 155x186cm; 1318x1600pix, 224kb) _ Roman Charity (1612; 546x718pix, 107kb) _ When the aged Cimon was forced to starve in prison before his execution, his devoted daughter Pero secretly visited her father to nourish him at her own breast. In the Factorvm et Dictorvm Memorabilivm Liber V, of the ancient Roman historian Valerius Maximus, Pero's selfless devotion was presented as the highest example of honoring one's parent:
Ignoscite, vetustissimi foci, veniamque aeterni date ignes, si a vestro sacratissimo templo ad necessarium magis quam speciosum urbis locum contextus operis nostri progressus fuerit: nulla enim acerbitate fortunae, nullis sordibus pretium carae pietatis evilescit, quin etiam eo certius quo miserius experimentum habet. Sanguinis ingenui mulierem praetor apud tribunal suum capitali crimine damnatam triumviro in carcere necandam tradidit. quo receptam is, qui custodiae praeerat, misericordia motus non protinus strangulavit: aditum quoque ad eam filiae, sed diligenter excussae, ne quid cibi inferret, dedit existimans futurum ut inedia consumeretur. cum autem plures iam dies intercederent, secum ipse quaerens quidnam esset quo tam diu sustentaretur, curiosius observata filia animadvertit illam exerto ubere famem matris lactis sui subsidio lenientem. quae tam admirabilis spectaculi novitas ab ipso ad triumvirum, a triumviro ad praetorem, a praetore ad consilium iudicum perlata remissionem poenae mulieri impetravit. quo non penetrat aut quid non excogitat pietas, quae in carcere servandae genetricis novam rationem invenit? quid enim tam inusitatum, quid tam inauditum quam matrem uberibus natae alitam? putarit aliquis hoc contra rerum naturam factum, nisi diligere parentis prima naturae lex esset. Idem praedicatum de pietate Perus existimetur, quae patrem suum Mycona consili fortuna adfectum parique custodiae traditum iam ultimae senectutis velut infantem pectori suo admotum aluit. haerent ac stupent hominum oculi, cum huius facti pictam imaginem vident, casusque antiqui condicionem praesentis spectaculi admiratione renovant, in illis mutis membrorum liniamentis viva ac spirantia corpora intueri credentes. quod necesse est animo quoque evenire, aliquanto efficaciore pictura litterarum vetera pro recentibus admonito recordari.
     This subject has been pictured by others, such as
      _ Greuze Cimon and Pero (1767, 63x79cm; 513x640pix, 80kb),
      _ Sebald Beham Cimon and Pero (1540 drawing, 40x24cm; 390x239pix, 57kb),
      _ Pasinelli [1629-1700] Caritas Romana (1670, 110x93cm; 595x480pix, 33kb),
      _ Murillo [bap. 01 Jan 1618 – 03 Apr 1682] Caritas Romana (1675 sketch, 20x18cm; 960x879pix, 483kb),
      _ Charles Mellin [1597-1649] La Charité Romaine aka Cimon et Pero (96x73cm; 700x516pix, 151kb),
      _ anonymous Italian 18th century Cimon and Pero (20x15cm; 1791x2362pix, 363kb),
      _ Johann Zoffany [13 Mar 1733 – 11 Nov 1810] Caritas Romana (1769; 300x251pix, 19kb),
      _ Johannes Phokela [1966~] Roman Charity (1997, 172x63cm; 623x512pix, 356kb)
      _Gian Domenico Cerrini [24 Oct 1609 – 30 Apr 1681] Carità Romana (1666; 701x512pix, 315kb) _ detail (586x600pix, 72kb)
Entombment (1615)
The Death of Seneca (1615, 182x121cm; _ ZOOMable)
Mars and Rhea Silvia (1620, 463x645cm; _ ZOOMable) _ detail (_ ZOOMable)
Gaspard Schoppins (1605, 116x88cm; _ ZOOMable)
The Emperor Charles V (1603, 75x55cm; _ ZOOMable to 3110x2190pix, 2784kb)
Leda and the Swan (1600, 64x80cm; 820x1000pix, 389kb _ ZOOMable to 1857x2265pix, 1322kb)
Crocodile and Hippopotamus Hunt (1616)
The Union of England and Scotland (Charles I as the Prince of Wales) (1630, 84x66cm; 1019x862pix, 682kb _ ZOOM to 2200x1861pix, 2584kb) _ King Charles I of England commissioned Rubens to paint a ceiling mural for the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall Palace in London. This is an oil sketch for the portion of the mural celebrating the power of the Stuart monarchy and the reign of James I, Charles' deceased father. In this painting the child represents young Prince Charles, the embodiment of the union of England and Scotland. Three women crown him: the woman in red personifies England; the woman in yellow represents Scotland; and the third is Minerva, goddess of wisdom and war. Above them two cherubs hold the coat-of-arms of the United Kingdom.
The Adoration by the Magi (1624, 447x331cm)(447x336?) _ detail _ Rubens' close involvement with the resurgence of Catholicism and the struggle for power led to the production a numerous large altarpieces. His stirring baroque ideas come to the fore in The Lance (1619-20), with its emotionally charged, highly plastic figures, and The Adoration of the Magi (1624). This masterpiece is particularly impressive because of its animated, asymmetrical composition, its marvelously gradated coloring, the spontaneity of execution and, above all, the expressiveness of the depicted figures.
The Adoration by the Magi (1619, 245x325cm)
The Adoration by the Magi (1629, 283x219cm)
The Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek (1625)
The Landing of Marie de' Médici at Marseilles (1625, 394x295cm)
–- Massacre of the Innocents (1611, 142x182cm; 765x1097pix, 101kb) _ The swirling mixture of figures has antecedents in late 16th-Century Mannerist painting in Antwerp, and the picture is intended to be seen from left of center, an Antwerp convention. Nonetheless, the ambitious and complex composition of this group of interlocked figures, is something entirely new in Flemish art, and announces the Baroque. In the context of painting on either side of the Alps, it is highly precocious. The basic form is that of an inverted equilateral triangle, so that the base is formed by the male figure to the right. However, the heads of the central group form a flattened circle, which, reinforced by the twisting of their bodies underneath, imparts a sense of savage energy to the inherently static triangle, and holds the composition together visually. The figures are linked by tension and compression; by pushing and pulling: the arms of the soldier attempting to stab the old woman are compressed, pushing her face and the sword; the armored soldier behind her is pulling the hair of the woman before him in tension; the woman to the fore is pulling her child up towards her and pushing the face of the bearded man away; he is pulling the cloth of her child towards him. Although this is as dynamic a composition as one could imagine, in its carefully built-up and highly complex arrangement it is classical; in short it is an entirely baroque picture, not a mannerist one. This picture must have had an extraordinary impact on a Flemish public that would have been quite unprepared for it. The traditional depiction of this subject in Flanders, based on Pieter Bruegel’s prototype, known in innumerable repetitions by his son’s shop and others, shows expressionless latter-day soldiery slaughtering peasant children in the snow in a quotidian act of cruelty - sometimes adapted in later times to show soldiers heaving sacks about. This, by contrast, is a brutal, unrestrained and intensely physical depiction of an orgy of violence, and is at a vast remove from the Flemish forebears of Rubens. As a deeply religious man, Rubens would have seen no reason to tone down the horror of one of the most the most appalling incidents related in the Bible.
Massacre of the Innocents (1621, 199x302cm)
The Deposition (1602) _ Rubens painted his Deposition during his first stay in Rome. Rubens provides us with an extraordinary interpretation of the theme of the incarnation of the divine and human nature of Christ, suspended between death and potential future life. All the shades of the spectrum of light are apparent in the flesh tones, with an opalescence that develops that mother of pearl quality first introduced by Federico Barrocci. The impact made on Rubens by Roman statuary can be seen in the antique altar with sacrifice scenes, but above all in the strong sculptural high relief of the figures. The dense chromatic texture of the composition owes much Titian's later works, while the airy vibrato and gentle rhythms echo Correggio's achievements. The light unexpectedly bursting through the dark area of the painting provides evidence that Rubens competed in an original way with the chiaroscuro experiments of his contemporary Caravaggio.
Virgin and Child (1604) looking upon the donors, Antoine Goubau and his wife, Anne Anthoni.
Boy with Bird (1616, 49x40cm) _ A child of about two is shown playing with a captive bird. On the original panel, which was smaller, only the child's head was visible. Rubens made use of this study for an angel in the Madonna with a Floral Wreath in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Later the artist enlargened the picture on the left side, adding the hands with the bird. Although formerly taken to be a girl, the child portrayed is in all probability Rubens' first son Albert, who was born in 1614. The motif of the child playing with a bird goes back to antiquity. It also crops up frequently in Christian art. The bird symbolizes the soul or life, which passes all too quickly. In many pictures of the Virgin and Child, Jesus is portrayed holding a bird in his hand as an allusion to his death and resurrection. Whether Rubens had a similar allegory in mind when he introduced the bird into his child-portrait, or whether some particular incident in his own life motivated him, is not known.
The Judgement of Paris (1635, 145x194cm; 467x635pix, 142kb) _ A glance at the sky suggests that this apparently sunny carefree scene will have terrible consequences. The screeching figure, holding a snake and burning torch, pulls clouds behind her to cover the sun. Beneath, the shepherd Paris has just rewarded Venus with the Golden Apple first prize in a beauty competition held between the Goddesses. The choice is a fatal one - Venus had bribed Paris with the love of Helen of Troy, a love which will lead to the ten-year-long Trojan War.
–- The Rainbow Landscape (1637, 136x235cm; 549x952pix, 60kb _ .ZOOM to 1620x2835pix) _ This painting is bathed in an idyllic golden light typical of the landscapes Rubens painted of the area around his home in Brabant (Belgium), where this painting probably hung. We look down on the land as if floating above it and see that all is calm, ordered and bountiful. The peasants are content, the harvest plentiful, and the cattle are well fed and drinking from a newly replenished stream. Overarching the whole painting, the rainbow leads us through the different parts of the countryside and suggests God’s blessing on its inhabitants.
Landscape in Flanders (1636, 90x134cm; 427x635pix, 102kb) _ This shows the same countryside around Rubens’s country chateau of Het Steen (between Brussels and Antwerp) that he painted in his Autumn and Rainbow landscapes. Here, unusually, there are no people or animals and the picture would appear to be a preparatory study were it not for its size. Rubens focuses attention on the dramatic and changeable sky which ranges from dark clouds that threaten rain, to clear openings of blue sky, and a cloudy haze that covers the sun. The suggestion of constant change and movement is reinforced by his exuberant technique.
A View of Het Steen in the Early Morning (1636, 131x229cm; 369x635pix, 113kb) _ This expansive view shows the Flemish landscape around Rubens’s grand country house of Het Steen – visible in the trees on the left. The picture was painted as a pair with his Rainbow Landscape and both show an idealised vision of abundant nature. Here in the early morning sun we see a laden cart heading for market, a man hunting birds and, in the fields, women milking cows. Rubens beautifully captures the end of summer with leaves on the turn and berries ripening in the right foreground.
153 images at ARC
—(070429)
^ Died on 28 June 1801: Francis Wheatley (or Wheatly), British painter born in 1747.
— He was trained at William Shipley’s Academy in London. In 1762, 1763 and 1765 he won prizes for drawing from the Society of Artists, and in 1769 he enrolled in the newly established Royal Academy Schools. He studied under a Mr. Wilson in 1762; this may have been the portrait painter Benjamin Wilson or, less likely, the landscape painter Richard Wilson. Wheatley was abroad in 1763, probably in the Low Countries and France, and in 1766 he made his first trip to Ireland. He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Artists in 1770 and became a director in 1774.
— A tailor's son, Francis Wheatley first was trained at William Shipley's academy in London. At age fifteen, he began winning drawing prizes from the Society of Artists. A year later, he probably traveled in Holland, Belgium, and France. Wheatley enrolled at London's new Royal Academy Schools in 1769, but by 1770 he was established enough for election to the Society of Artists. His early work consisted mainly of some interior decorative projects, small-scale, full-length portraits, and conversation pieces in Johan Zoffany's manner.
      With a fellow artist's wife, Wheatley fled to Dublin in 1779 to escape creditors. Returning to London in 1783, he painted genre pictures, portraits, landscapes, and even some history paintings with characteristic clear, pale color and free, sensitive handling. Wheatley entered the Royal Academy in 1791, but his last years were plagued by gout and debts.
      Wheatley's reputation was built on picturesque characterizations of the lower classes. While implying the benefits of good, honest work, Wheatley suited his contemporaries' taste for sentimental and moralizing subjects. His characterizations represent the more sentimentalizing vein of depicting such themes, while artists such as Jean-Baptiste Greuze, who had led the way in the genre, and William Hogarth were more overt in their moralizing treatment of such ideas.

LINKS
–- The Industrious Cottager (1786, 184x137cm) _ A woman sits outside a cottage mending a cabbage net, while a boy looks over her shoulder as he eats. Francis Wheatley characteristically painted working-class women at their tasks, using clear, pale colors and free, sensitive handling. Such paintings suited his contemporaries' taste for moralizing subjects that sentimentalized the less fortunate.
Lord Aldeburgh Reviewing Troops (1782)
A Family Group in a Landscape (1775, 102x127cm) _ Wheatley was born and trained in London, and in 1769 was one of the first students admitted to the newly founded Royal Academy. Although he initially practised as a landscape painter, by the mid 1770s he had become a popular painter of small-scale portraits and informal ‘conversation-pieces’. His characteristic neat draughtsmanship and clear colors are evident in this handsome family group. The identity of the sitters is, as yet, unknown. From the 1780s onwards, Wheatley turned increasingly to sentimental domestic scenes that were perfectly attuned to the genteel sensibilities of the period. Many of these subjects were engraved, and the popularity of these engravings enhanced Wheatley’s reputation.
Man with a Dog (1775, 98x74cm)
Enniskerry (1783, 17x27cm)
 
^ Born on 28 June 1616: Lucas Franchoys II, Mechelen Flemish painter and etcher who died on 03 April 1681.
— Like his brother Pieter Franchoys [20 Oct 1606 – 11 Aug 1654], Lucas probably underwent further training in Antwerp after initial studies under his father Lucas Franchoys I [23 Jan 1574 – 16 Sep 1643]. Rubens was his master for many years. He is first mentioned as a painter in 1649 in connection with commissions for churches in Tournai, where he lived for some years. Works done in this period include The Adoration by the Shepherds (1650). Cornelius de Bie mentioned a six-year stay in France, perhaps a confusion arising from Tournai’s proximity to the French border. He returned to Mechelen by 1654 and painted altarpieces and other religious compositions for many of the churches, monasteries and convents there (e.g. the Saint Roch altarpiece, 1671). One of his patrons was Archbishop Alphonse de Bergues, whose portrait he painted.

–- Homme au pourpoint entrouvert (118x93cm) _ Bon exemple de portrait distingué et baroquisant, vers 1650, dans cette manière vandyckienne, si répandue chez les peintres flamands du milieu du XVIIe siècle. Catalogué comme Van Dyck jusqu'en 1979.
Saint Michael (1649)
 
^ Buried on 28 June 1670: Hendrick Maertenszoon Rokes Sorgh (or Sorch, de Sorch), Rotterdam Baroque painter born in 1611.
— His father, Maerten Claeszoon Rochusse (or Rokes), a market bargeman, was nicknamed ‘de Sorch’ (‘the Careful’) after his manner of handling cargo; Hendrick Sorgh held the official post of market barge captain for the Rotterdam–Dordrecht line from 1638 until his death. — His students included Abraham Diepraam.

–- Sailing Vessels in a Strong Wind (1660; 862x1112pix, 55kb)
A Woman playing Cards with Two Peasants (1644, oval 26x36cm; 420x551cm, 28kb) _ Sorgh worked in Rotterdam and specialized in peasant scenes. This and Two Lovers at a Table illustrate ways in which women can make fools of men. Here, the woman cheats the peasant of his hard-earned money; his basket of eggs and the duck suggest that he is on his way to market. His foolishness is mocked by the older man holding a clay pipe.
Two Lovers at Table (1644, oval 26x36cm; 420x552pix, 25kb) _ Here, the procuress behind the door on the left will make the man pay dearly for the young woman's favors. The panel was probably cut down to an oval after it was painted.
 
^ Born on 28 June 1884: William Victor Higgins, US painter who died on 23 August 1949.
— He studied under Robert Henri. An itinerant sign painter gave Victor Higgins his first paints in Shelbyville, Indiana. He studied and later taught at the Art Institute and Academy of Fine Arts, Chicago. From 1910 to 1914, he painted at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, and at the Academy in Munich. In Paris he met Walter Ufer, a rough, blunt Chicagoan. Although Higgins' opposite, he shared a mutual antagonism for the academic style. Back in Chicago, Ufer and Higgins found a patron who commissioned both to paint the New Mexico landscape.
      Higgins moved to Taos, New Mexico in 1914, joining the Taos Society of Artists in 1915. He exhibited with Jane Peterson in 1925 and with Wayman Adams and Janet Scudder in 1927. He was a guest at the Annual Meeting in 1924.
      In 1899, at age fifteen, Higgins went to Chicago, where he studied and worked until 1911. He then traveled to Europe, studying in England, Belgium, Germany, and France, returning to Chicago in the spring of 1913. While becoming established as an important figure on the Chicago cultural scene, he attracted the attention of Mayor Carter H. Harrison.
      In November of 1914, Harrison sponsored Higgins's first trip to the small town of Taos in northern New Mexico. It was a trip of great consequence, because for the remainder of Higgins's life, Taos would be the inspiration and Chicago a receptive market for his canvases. He became a member of the Taos Society of Artists along with E. Irving Couse, Joseph Henry Sharp, Oscar E. Berninghaus and others. However, Higgins was considered the "loner" in this group, as he preferred one-man shows of his nontraditional Southwest subjects over exhibiting with others of the Society.

LINKS
Fiesta Day (1918, 132x142cm.) _ This is a critical painting in the artist's career. In a 1917 Chicago Sunday Herald article, Higgins described the Taos Native Americans as "a people living in an absolutely natural state, entirely independent of all the world." He saw them as "self-supporting, self-reliant, simple and competent," and most important, as having "dignity in spite of their lack of riches, and nobility in spite of their humble mode of living." Higgins undoubtedly began work on Fiesta Day the same year. An oil sketch and photograph from the estate of the artist's daughter, Joan Higgins Reed, in the Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of New Mexico collection, supports the contention that he began the picture before 1918. It was exhibited for the first time in the Twenty-second Annual Exhibition of Works by Artists of Chicago and Vicinity (19 February to 17 March 1918). Higgins seems to describe his subjects in Fiesta Day with his Chicago Sunday Herald words, however, he rejected the usual practice of romanticizing the Native American, so often evident in his colleagues' canvases. Rather, the figures are stripped of their heroic and idealized qualities. His pictures are as much about New Mexico light, composition, and the quality of the painted surface as they are about the Pueblo people.
      The success of Fiesta Day was to affect the direction Higgins's art would take. An article in the Chicago Examiner of 16 March 1918, reveals that a controversy arose over its selection as the First Logan Prize winner. The writer, Marcus, reported heated battles over the painting's alleged flaws: "Fists used vociferously over its quality." As the critics pronounced the colors untrue and the anatomy of the horses ill-proportioned, supporters of Higgins praised the canvas as being "splendidly decorative" and creating an "exquisiteness of distance." In truth, both sides of the controversy had failed to understand Higgins's intentions with the painting. Following the completion of Fiesta Day, Higgins all but abandoned using the Native American as a subject. For the next three decades, as he explored forms of Impressionism, Cubism and Modernism, it was the townscape, still life, occasional portrait, and, in particular, the landscape that became his strength.
Winter Funeral (1931) _ This modernist work has been described by Higgins's biographer as the "culmination of all of Higgins's training, exploration, and experimentation in oil and watercolor." The somber scene is intensified by the abstracted patterns, dark, bold colors and "dry brushwork" framing the canvas. It was awarded the William M. R. French Memorial Gold Medal in 1932, given by the Art Institute of Chicago Alumni Association, as well as the $1,000 First Altman Prize in the National Academy of Design's 107th Annual Exhibition. Pictured in the New York Times, the paper's art critic credited the NAD jury with "picking well," claiming that, "This large and beautiful painting . . . is easily one of the best achievements of the academy show; powerful and original in treatment, honestly dramatic and full of intensely felt harmonies." Indeed, this "intensely felt" work was Higgins's response to the death of his mother. It is believed that a funeral he attended in Taos for a young boy killed in an automobile accident may have provided the imagery for this painting, but it was not the catalyst. In this work, death strikes both humanity and nature, yet there is still hope for life. A patch of blue sky is visible through the storm clouds. Despite its acclaim, Higgins was unable to sell the painting.
On the Quay (1912)
Taos from the Hillside (66x75cm)
Mountain Forms #2
Valley Spring
Arroyo Landscape (1933)
(Lonely squaw?)
(Taos house at sunset?)
(Mountains in Moonlight?)
(Mountains at sunset?)
 


Died on a 28 June:

1993 Olga “Costa” Kostakowsky [28 Aug 1913–], Mexican painter born in Germany of Russian parents. She lived in Mexico since 1925. She studied in the National School of Plastic Arts together with Carlos Mérida after meeting Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, and Rufino Tamayo. In 1935 she married the painter José Chávez Morado [1909-2002]. — LINKS
Corazón egoísta (1951, 67x73cm; 793x850pix, 87kb)
Naturaleza muerta (1945)
Niña con Sandalias (1950)
Nacimiento (1948)
Vendedora de frutas aka Puesto de Mercado (1951, 191x241cm; 338x420pix _ ZOOM to 1040x1333pix, 237kb)
Tehuana con sandía (Isabel Villaseñor) (1600x1200pix, 291kb) _ main detail (1200x1600pix, 376kb) —(090627)

^ 1801 Martin Johann “Kremser” Schmidt, Krems region Austrian painter born on 25 September 1718. He was apprenticed briefly to Johann Gottlieb Starmayr (fl 1720–1740), and from 1741 he worked independently. His oeuvre is informed by thorough study of examples of early Baroque painting in Austria and also of the rich collections of prints and drawings in the monasteries of Göttweig and Dürnstein. Through these works Schmidt familiarized himself with the Venetian repertory of form (which he may also have studied while traveling in northern Italy). Schmidt paid particular attention to the prints of Jacques Callot and the prints and drawings of Rembrandt; the latter encouraged Schmidt to practise drawing in ink. Figures derived from Rembrandt’s types recur in a number of variations in the staffage of Schmidt’s altarpieces. While his drawings are retardataire in character, his manner of incorporating the types he adopted into his paintings is quite inventive.
— Schmidt was the most significant Austrian painter in the second half of the 18th century beside Maulbertsch. He was a versatile and fertile master, whose frescoes, altarpieces, mythological-allegorical paintings, genre paintings, and portraits were popular throughout the Empire. He studied with modest local masters, and lived and worked in Stein and Krems until his death in 1801. In his Stein workshop he undertook the numerous mostly ecclesiastical commissions making altarpieces and religious paintings for the churches and monasteries of Lower an Upper Austria, Moravia and Hungary. His fame was attested by his admission to the Viennese Academy in 1768. In the last quarter of the century, when the increasing predominance of the Josephinist view contributed to the diminishing of church commissions, and while also the artistic trends raised new compelled to change his style and adopt new artistic approaches. From the 1790s he was increasingly engaged in secular genres and profane themes, and he made in series his small paintings with themes and figures from ancient history and everyday life. His late activity is significantly bound to engraving. His oeuvre, comprising several hundreds of paintings combines the influences of Italian and Netherlandish masters and the most varied tendencies of 18th century painting. His altarpieces and monumental paintings, show a dramatic Late Baroque animation, the sometimes exotic richness of his biblical stories evokes the models of Rembrandt, while in his genre paintings the vividness of French Rococo can be felt, in a particular and individual ensemble.
The Painter and his Family (1790, 48x64cm; 760x1010pix, 164kb) _ The master is sitting in the foreground at his easel, with a brush in his right hand, in comfortable indoor clothes. In front of him can be seen his wife and their daughter. The painter is turning right, towards his two sons. The younger son, the painter Johann Karl Martin is holding a palette and a portrait of the deceased members of the family. The elder brother, Joseph Johann, whose head is painted on a canvas inserted subsequently in the painting, is sitting at right in the foreground, with a document in his hand. In the background a large painting is represented, Venus in the Workshop of Vulcan, a lost work of Schmidt. This version of this family portrait is preparatory for a version painted on copper (1790, 72x86cm).
Oznanjenje (29 Nov 1771, 158x96cm rounded top; 1228x760pix, 121kb) Annunciation
Diana in Akteon
Kazen Danaid
The Abduction of the Sabine Women (1790, 94x117cm) _ The incident is related by Plutarch (Vitae II, 14) and Livy (Annales I, 9).
Saint Elisabeth Distributing Alms (1778, 64x192cm; 848x458pix, 102kb) _ This altarpiece from a parish church near Budapest, was only recently identified as a painting of Kremser Schmidt. The church's patron saint, the royal princess Saint Elisabeth of Hungary is shown distributing alms to the poor, in spite of her family's disapproval.

^ 1721 Isaac Sailmaker, Dutch marine painter active in England, born in 1633 in Scheveningen. He emigrated to England when young. He was an early marine painter working in England prior to 1710, although he had not benefited from the typical marine artist's apprenticeship. He was, however, among the artistic followers of the van de Velde who left Holland for England in 1672, and established a flourishing school of marine painting in London.
— Sailmaker may be a nickname referring to his earlier occupation. According to some sources, he was born in Scheveningen and came to London at an early age to work for the Dutch painter George Geldorp. He was ‘imployed to paint for Oliver Cromwell a prospect of the Fleet before Mardyke when it was taken in 1657’. A portrait of Cromwell holding a baton with a sea battle in the background, attributed to Sailmaker, was in the Haworth Sale, Christie’s, 14 December 1923, lot 11. In 1708 he was commissioned by Colonel John Lovett MP to paint the second Eddystone Lighthouse, a wooden construction designed by John Rudyerd. Sailmaker made four versions of this painting, of which three have survived. His work is of an uneven quality, generally naive but neatly executed. The merits of his paintings lie first and foremost in their documentary qualities. He portrayed ships and recorded the actions of the English fleet, adding to the historical subjects such traditional elements of imaginary seascapes as sea creatures. His painting of the Eddystone Lighthouse, destroyed by fire in 1755, is a topographical record of a structure that no longer exists.
LINKS
A Ship Flying the Royal Standard with other Vessels off Dover _ (1714, 98x152cm) _ Ships are shown in the Straits of Dover, with Dover Castle in the background to the left and the mainland beyond. This is not an accurate portrayal of the Castle but was probably included by the artist to indicate the Channel fleet, with the North Foreland understood to be on the right. In the central foreground is a starboard-quarter view of a large man-of-war which may be the Britannia, flying the Royal Standard of Queen Anne, except that the white horse of Hanover appears to have been added inaccurately and later (after 1714) in the center. It is also shown flying the fouled anchor flag of the Admiralty at the fore. Thus the viewer is invited to recognise this as an important ship, probably with a member of the royal family on board: if painted before 1708, this might indicate Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral for his wife Queen Anne. The red ensign flies from the stern and the union flag flies from the mizzen, and two royal yachts follow astern, one gaff-rigged flying the Union at the stern and the other ketch-rigged flying a red ensign. These and the other principal ships to their right mostly have their anchors aweigh and may be moving towards an anchorage. A two-decker on the far left and a hoy in the right foreground both cross the picture plane in starboard-broadside view. Any smaller sailing craft can be seen closer inshore. The overall narrative is that of showing a British fleet in home waters, with the white cliffs of England in the background.
The Battle of Malaga, 13 August 1704 (1704, 39x52cm) _ This shows the only fleet action fought at sea during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) and it was inconclusive. Each fleet included 51 ships of the line and the action was fought in strict line order. The Anglo-Dutch commander-in-chief was Sir George Rooke and his Franco-Spanish opposite number was the Comte de Toulouse, a bastard son of Louis XIV. In the left foreground the French flagship, the Foudroyant, 104 guns, in starboard-quarter view, is closely engaged to starboard with Rooke in the Royal Katherine, 90 guns. In the extreme left foreground is the port quarter of a Spanish ship and to the right of the flagships and in the background are groups of ships in action. The Spanish coast is seen in the distance. French galleys are also shown towing the French ships in and out of the action. The artist has shown the battle from a high horizon, depicting a panoramic view and colorful emphasis on flags and ensigns. Although the battle itself was indecisive and neither side lost a ship, the casualties were heavy and it put an end to the Franco-Spanish attempt to capture Gibraltar.
Two Views of an East Indiaman of the Time of King William III (127x120cm) _ A portrait of a powerfully armed East India Company vessel, identifiable by the striped ensign, jack and pendants. A further mark of identification is the cypher positioned above the taffrail. The ship is shown from two positions (as if there were two ships), on the left it is in port-broadside view, with the bow slightly turned towards the viewer. On the right it is viewed from astern, showing the ornately carved figures of the transom. Crew can be seen in the rigging in the view to the right, busy with the sails or climbing the shrouds. On the left the anchor is visible and one figure can be seen on the deck. The artist has incoprorated several sea beasts in the foreground, probably dolphins, a typical motif of Dutch 17th-century artists. The vessel mounts over sixty guns, which would however have been smaller than those in a man-of-war of equivalent size. The stepped deck aft is a feature of merchantmen, to give greater headroom in the cabins. The gunports located in the stern galleries above the transom are a very unusual feature, since the galleries were not normally sufficiently strongly built to withstand the recoil of guns. The East India Company had five vessels of 750 tons or more during the reign of William III with the most likely identification of the vessel shown possibly the Charles the Second,. Built at Deptford in 1683 this 775-ton ship was commanded by Sir Thomas Grantham and managed four voyages to the East before the end of its service in 1695. Another possible identification is that of the King William, 800 tons, which was in the service of the Company between 1690 and 1699. Other possible candidates are the Tavistock', 750 tons, and the Bedford, 800 tons, built in 1696 and 1697 respectively. Finally the 775- ton Modena, is a less likely identification, as this vessel was lost in a hurricane in 1691.
The Fairfax, Assurance, Tiger and Elizabeth (1680, 107x113cm) _ British men-of-war of the late 17th century are shown at sea. Three ships are clearly visible, although the key provided on the left-hand side indicates four. It is probably a surviving part of a much larger picture. According to the number of guns, the ship in the foreground is probably the Fairfax with the Elizabeth close by. This is not consistent with Sailmaker's key, and so the circumstances of the painting remain a mystery.
–- S*#> James, Duke of York, Boarding his Flagship, the Royal Charles, and the English Fleet Before the Battle of Lowestoft, 03 June 1665 (90x153cm; 515x900pix, kb) badly darkened and dulled by aging.
Landscape (drawing 10x28cm; 186x512pix, 17kb)


Born on a 28 June:


1932 Ana María Badell Lapetra, escritora y pintora española. On 11 January 1957 she married the architect Miguel Fisac Serna [29 Sep 1913 – 12 May 2006]. —(080627)

^ 1927 Tibor Csernus, Hungarian painter. Il a étudié aux Beaux-Arts de Budapest de 1946 à 1952, puis a décidé de s'établir définitivement à Paris en 1964. Leader du mouvement surnaturaliste à la fin des années 50, il connaît une renommée internationale grâce à son travail sur la lumière et l'ombre. Csernus studierte bei Aurél Bernáth [13 Nov 1895 – 13 Mar 1982], einem der bedeutendsten ungarischen Maler seiner Zeit. Sich zunächst an seinem Lehrer orientierend, entwickelte er schon früh einen eigenen Malstil. Da er sich dem „sozialistischen Realismus“ in der Malerei widersetzte, provozierte Csernus 1955 bei einer Kunstausstellung in Budapest einen Eklat. Daraufhin wurde ihm angedroht, er werde in Ungarn nie wieder Bilder ausstellen dürfen. 1964 floh Csernus wegen der Repressalien der staatlichen Kulturpolitik im kommunistischen Ungarn nach Frankreich. In Paris angekommen, war er zunächst als Maler weitgehend erfolglos, da er in den Augen der westlichen Kunstszene als zu konservativ, zu wenig avantgardistisch galt. Da seine Gemälde seinerzeit nahezu unverkäuflich waren, arbeitete Csernus als Buchillustrator. Dabei entwickelte er eine Vorliebe für das Science-Fiction-Genre. Durch diese Arbeit und seine Begeisterung für die Gemälde Caravaggios entwickelte er seinen Stil weiter, den er selbst magischen Realismus nennt und der seiner Kunst weltweit große Beachtung eingetragen hat. 1985 fand am Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York eine vielbeachtete Ausstellung der Bilder Caravaggios statt. Gleichzeitig wurde eine Ausstellung der Werke Csernus' gezeigt. Die Ähnlichkeit der Malstile, vor allem in Bezug auf das Licht und die Farbtöne, wurde durch die Gegenüberstellung besonders augenfällig. Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges stellt Csernus seine Bilder auch wieder in seiner Heimat Ungarn aus.
–- The Sacrifice of Isaac (1987, 230x175cm; 800x601pix, 47kb) _ Instead of angels stopping Abraham (who wears 20th century clothes and has a bloody forehead) from sacrificing his son, it looks more like Adam and Eve are doing it (filled with helium?) before they needed clothes (deep shadows and the edge of the picture keep them reasonably decent).
–- Untitled (73x122cm; 831x1400pix, 61kb) Still life of model airplanes. _ The pseudonymous Robit Sternum, who believes that representational pictures are unentitled to the title Untitled, has retaliated by transforming Csernus' picture into the mystifying and deliberately mistitled twin abstractions
      _ Model Airplanes (2007; 550x778pix, 133kb _ ZOOM to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM+ to 1100x1556pix, 530kb _ ZOOM++ to 1710x2418pix, 1317kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 3075kb) and
      _ Mode Lair Planes (2007; 550x778pix, 133kb _ ZOOM to 778x1100pix, 262kb _ ZOOM+ to 1100x1556pix, 530kb _ ZOOM++ to 1710x2418pix, 1317kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 3075kb)
Untitled (1990, 50x70cm; 467x640pix, 41kb) back view of contorted almost-nude with deep shadows.
Untitled (1984, 59x45cm; 480x367pix, 21kb) almost monochrome. Two naked men lift another one, probably dead; deep shadows make all three rather decent.
Cover of book Demain les chiens (1990; 586x644pix, 154kb) —(070625)

1891 (29 Jun?) Helmut Macke, German painter who died drowned on 08 September 1936. — cousin of August Macke [1887-1914]— {Was one of them known as “the big Macke”?}

^ 1875 Charles Constantin Joseph Hoffbauer, French US painter who died in 1957. He studied under Gustave Moreau. — LINKS
Wintry Evening in Times Square (1927; 602x800pix, 131kb) with recently fallen snow. A US flag and a flag of the Dominican Republic are flapping out of windows in the building in left foreground.
–- S*#> Times Square in Rain at Night (37x52cm; 561x799pix, 73kb) _ A Turkish flag partially obscures a US flag, both on the building at right foreground.
–- S*#> A Rainy New York Street at Night (79x64cm; 799x648pix, 77kb) _ Herald Square, at the intersection of Broadway and Sixth Avenue, looking north on Broadway from 34th Street. The two-story building with an arcade at the far right is the old New York Herald building designed by McKim, Mead and White for James Gordon Bennett. Erected in 1893, the Herald building was one of the city's architectural wonders, with its Venetian arcade and row of bronze owls around the cornice, who blinked their electric eyes at night to tell the time. On the roof above the main entrance is the famous clock with its bronze figures, nicknamed Stuff and Guff, who struck the hours (now on a pedestal at the north end of the square). The Herald building was demolished in 1921.
Untitled (397x528pix, 107kb) supposedly a war scene, but actually only random smudges.

1869 Mario Puccini, Italian artist who died on 18 June 1920.

^ 1866 Otto Pilny, Swiss painter who died in 1936. Pilny studied art in Prague then lived for a time in Viennna before settling in Zurich, Switzerland. Even though only making two trips to Egypt, in 1889 and 1892, he dedicated his life to painting Orientalist subjects for the next thirty years. These included dancers, Arabs praying in the desert beside their camels, and merchants selecting female slaves. His early paintings employed deep and warm colors, but after 1913 these were softened with shades of pink and yellow predominating.
The Slave Market (1914, 121x180cm)
–- S*#> Market Square, Cairo (51x75cm; 614x900pix, 110kb)
–- S*#> La Marchande d'Oranges (94x46cm; 900x434pix, 89kb)
–- S*#> Desert Dance (1908, 75x94cm; 332x510pix, 26kb)
–- S*#> The Carpet Seller (1903, 82x63cm; 900x688pix, 130kb) _ A modified copy of Le Marché aux Tapis (1887, 84x65cm; 1135x880pix _ ZOOM to 2270x1761pix; 3105kb) by Gérôme [11 May 1824 – 10 Jan 1904]. See them side-by-side. Compare also:
    _ by Robertson [1844-1891] Carpet Bazaar (1887)
    _ by Rosati [1858-1917] _ The Carpet Sellers (51x36) _ The Carpet Seller (53x36cm) _ The Carpet Merchant (48x35cm) _ Carpet Seller, Horse in foreground
    _ by Hermann David Solomon Corrodi [23 Jul 1844 – 30 Jan 1905]: Arab Carpet Merchants (100x65cm)

1846 Otto Piltz, German artist who died on 20 August 1910.

1759 (02 June?) Jan Ekels II, Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 04 June 1793. He was first trained by his father, Jan Ekels I [1724–1781], and from 1774 to 1781 attended the Amsterdam Tekenacademie. He won prizes in the annual competition for life drawing in 1779 and 1781. In 1776 he went to Paris for two years to further his studies before returning to Amsterdam. Possibly influenced by the revival of interest in Dutch 17th-century art, he became a painter of portraits, genre pieces and ‘moderne gezelschappen’ (modern conversation pieces). In 1783 he traveled along the Rhine in Germany with his friends Daniel Dupré [1752–1817] and Jacques Kuyper [1761–1808], visiting the collections at Düsseldorf and Mannheim. After his return in 1784 he became an active member of the Felix Meritis society.

1609 Pieter van Lint, Antwerp painter and draftsman who died on 25 September 1690. Before becoming master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1632, van Lint worked for several years with Artus Wolffort; he recorded their collaboration in his diary. During these years he frequently copied the more famous paintings in Antwerp’s churches, not only those by Peter Paul Rubens, but also works by older masters such as Marten de Vos and the Francken brothers. His earliest known painting, an Adoration by the Shepherds (1632), shows a clear indebtedness to Wolffort’s style, which was in the pre-Rubensian, academic manner of Otto van Veen. Van Lint was active also in Italy.


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