ART 4 2-DAY 26 June v.9.50
on 26 June 1829: Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein
Goethe Tischbein, German painter specialized in Portraits,
born on 15 February 1751.
He is the best known of a family which produced more than 20 artists in three generations, and was the student of his uncles in Hamburg. He went to Holland in 1771 and began to work as a portrait painter, having a great success at the court in Berlin after 1777. He became dissatisfied with portraiture and went to Munich, where he studied Dürer and the early German painters, going on to Italy in 1779. In 1783 he was in Rome for the second time and began to paint history pictures, but in 1786 he met Goethe, and in 1786/88 he painted the Goethe in the Roman Campagna on which his reputation chiefly rests. In 1789 he became director of the Naples Academy, and from 1791 supervised the engraving of the Greek vases belonging to Sir William Hamilton which were so important in the spread of Neoclassicism. In Naples he painted the famous beauty Charlotte Campbell as Erato (1790). He returned to Germany in 1799. This Tischbein is usually called “Goethe Tischbein”. The two other leading members of the family, his uncle and cousin, were nicknamed after their main place of work: his uncle Johann Heinrich the Elder “Kassel Tischbein” [14 Oct 1722 – 22 Aug 1789] and his cousin of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein “Leipzig Tischbein” [09 Mar 1750 – 21 Jun 1812]. They were principally portraitists, as also were Johann Valentin Tischbein [1715-1768], and Anton Wilhelm Tischbein [01 Mar 1730 – 01 Nov 1804]. Some of the other artists of the family were Anton Johann Tischbein [1720-1784], Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Younger, Johann Jakob Tischbein, August Anton Tischbein [09 October 1805 – >1867].
Die Malerfamilie Tischbein
Die aus Marburg/Weidenhausen stammende Familie Tischbein siedelte 1685 nach Haina, wo Konrad (Curth) Tischbein die Stelle des Hospitalbäckers übernahm. Sein Sohn Johann Heinrich Tischbein (1683-1764) und dessen Ehefrau Susanna Margaretha Hinsing aus Bingen am Rhein (1690-1772) gelten als Stammeltern der Malerfamilie.
Fast alle Kinder waren künstlerisch begabt. Der Überlieferung zufolge soll 1729 beim Besuch der landgräflich-darmstädtischen Regierungskommission ein (Amts-)Rat den zweitältesten der Brüder, Johann Valentin Tischbein, beim Zeichnen entdeckt haben. Der Junge erhielt daraufhin in Frankfurt eine Ausbildung zum Tapetenmaler und wurde zum Begründer der Malerdynastie, indem er auch für die Ausbildung seiner Brüder sorgte.
Besonders bekannt wurde Johann Heinrich Tischbein der Ältere [1722-1789], der als Hofmaler in Kassel wirkte. 1762 wurde er Professor am „Collegium Carolinum" und später an der Kunstakademie in Kassel. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tod besuchte der schon fast erblindete noch einmal Haina und schenkte der Heimatkirche das Altarbild Christus am Ölberg.
Der Sohn seines älteren Bruders, des Hospitalschreiners Johann Konrad Tischbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein [1751-1829] wurde als Maler Goethes berühmt, den er auf seiner Italienreise begleitete. Das Geburtshaus des „Goethemalers", ein kleiner Fachwerkbau, ist noch heute in Haina erhalten.
— Porträt Goethes in der Campagna, gemalt 1787 in Rom (164x206cm; 600x759pix, 149kb _ ZOOM to 870x1084pix, 124kb _ ZOOM+ to 1600x2024pix, 458kb) _ Tischbein was most important for his engravings of classical antiquities, but is now remembered solely for this famous portrait of Goethe [28 Aug 1749 22 March 1832]. Tischbein was Goethe's friend and he is usually called “Goethe Tischbein”.
Das Bildnis entstand 1787 in Rom, als Goethe auf seiner Italienischen Reise bei dem ihm bekannten Maler am Corso wohnte. Goethe erwähnte das Bild mehrfach, hat es aber nie vollendet gesehen. Der Dichter ist als Weltbürger dargestellt, umgeben von Werken der Antike, z. B. dem Relief mit einer Iphigenie-Darstellung - ein Hinweis auf Goethes gleichzeitige Fertigstellung seiner Iphigenie. Der Maler Ludwig Strack charakterisierte das Bild schon damals treffend: "Über diese Veränderung der Natur und der menschlichen Dinge staunt das Auge des philosophischen Dichters hin und der schauervolle Gedanke der Vergänglichkeit scheint auf seinem Gesicht zu schweben”. Mit dem Bild allerdings wurde eher dem Dichter als dem Maler ein Denkmal gesetzt. Künstlerische "Schwächen”, wie die besonders irritierenden "zwei linken Füße”, lassen sich möglicherweise damit erklären, daß das große Bild längere Zeit unvollendet blieb. Wann, wo und sogar von wem es schließlich fertiggestellt wurde, ist nach wie vor unklar.
_ Warhol [06 Aug 1928 – 22 Feb 1987] posterized the head-and-shoulders part of Tischbein's painting, miscoloring them in his Goethe (591x709pix, 86kb). But the pseudonymous Joker Chaingang Dishbuy Peacemound avenged Tishbein by transmogrifying Warhol's picture into the symmetrical and outrageously colorful
_ Goethe's Self-Confrontational Introspection Nightmare as he Imagined Himself Hiding in a War Hole at the Second Battle of Castiglione on 05 August 1796 During Napoleon's Italian Campaign aka Toge Got (2006; screen filling, 181kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1035kb). Peacemound went on to metamorphose this into a splendid abstraction of which half should please the fans of cubism and pointillism, while the other half is for those who prefer free-flowing forms:
_ Poor Goat in the Camp, a Gem in Alternate Read-Only Memory aka Time Mat (1864x2636pix, 2078kb); because of its wealth of fine detail it can be properly appreciated only in the full-size image; however for those want no more than a screen filling image the best choice is the full-size detail
_ Time Mad (211kb _ it can even be ZOOMed to 1864x2636pix, 1501kb), though there is also the too
_ small Time Mat (253kb)
— Elisabeth von Breitenbach (1765) _ Der »Kasseler Tischbein«, Onkel des berühmteren Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein (»Goethe-Tischbein«), malte überwiegend Porträts. Hier hat er eine junge Frau in einem sehr privaten Moment überrascht. Kokett die Füße mit den kleinen spitzen Schuhen übereinander geschlagen, hat sie sich zum Lesen eines Briefes an einen verschwiegenen Ort zurückgezogen. Nun blickt sie mit einem leicht verschmitzten, viel sagenden Lächeln den Betrachter an. Die Anmut der Gestalt entspricht ebenso dem Schönheitsideal des Rokoko wie das grausilberne Kleid in seiner schimmernden Stofflichkeit, dessen raschelnde Seide man fast zu hören vermag.
— Hectors Abschied (1776; 550x654pix _ ZOOM to 1280x1523pix)
— Konradin von Schwaben (1784; 600x424pix _ ZOOM to 1400x989pix)
— Landschaft bei Frascati (1783; 540x412pix _ ZOOM to 1260x961pix)
— Königin Elisabeth Christine von Preußen [1715-1797] (1798; 600x432pix)
— 7 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
Born on 26 June 1735: Joseph
Ducreux, French pastelist, miniaturist, First Painter to
Queen Marie-Antoinette, engraver. Ducreux died on 24 July 1802.
— Born in Nancy, he lived in Paris from 1760 and from 1762 kept a list of his works. Among the portraits he completed in his early years were those in pastel of the well-known connoisseurs Pierre-Jean Mariette, the Comte de Caylus and Ange-Laurent de la Live de July [how about other months?], which apparently were copies after Maurice-Quentin de La Tour. Ducreux has traditionally been seen as de La Tour’s favorite student, while Jean-Baptiste Greuze is supposed to have initiated him into oil painting. From his age, it can be assumed that by the time Ducreux reached Paris he had already acquired a grounding in his art. — Joseph Ducreux probably was trained by his father, a painter in Nancy, before going to Paris in 1760, where he was the only student of pastelist Maurice-Quentin de La Tour. Like his successful mentor, Ducreux specialized in portraiture and made many self-portraits. He was also influenced by Jean-Baptiste Greuze's oil technique. In 1769 Ducreux was sent to Vienna to paint a miniature of Louis XVI's future wife, Marie-Antoinette. An instant success, he was made a baron and Premier Peintre de la Reine.
In the late 1780s, the irascible Ducreux painted "character" self-portraits, using his own face to study various expressions, then a popular field for artistic exploration. While in London avoiding the French Revolution, he engraved and published three of these expressive self-portraits and drew the last portrait ever made of Louis XVI [1754-1793]. In 1793 Ducreux returned to Paris, where he became associated with Jacques-Louis David, who helped him continue an official career. Ducreux's rooms became a popular meeting place for artists and musicians, who often commissioned portraits from him; his friend composer Etienne Nicolas Méhul based the main character of an opera on him. Ducreux rarely signed his paintings, and many remain wrongly attributed to other artists.
–- Portrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur (1793, 91x72cm; 1115x885pix, 51kb) _ Dans ses nombreux autoportraits, l'artiste a exploré la vieille tradition de "l'expression des passions", se peignant surpris, silencieux, baillant, ou comme ici, ricanant. L'index tendu vers nous, Ducreux se moque à son tour d'un public trop facilement apte à critiquer la peinture.
–- Portrait de l'Artiste Sous les Traits d'un Moqueur (1782, 55x46cm; 490x422pix, 32kb) [presqu'identique aux deux tiers du haut du précédent]
–- Self-Portrait, Yawning (<1783, 114x89cm; 718x561pix, 26kb) _ Joseph Ducreux experimented with the traditional limitations of the genre of self-portraiture by creating an expressive, humorous, and rather unorthodox image of himself stretching and yawning. Dressed informally in a turban and bright red jacket, Ducreux, in the midst of a huge yawn, opens his mouth wide, contorting his face with the effort and stretching his right arm toward the viewer. Holding this exaggerated pose, his back sways and his stomach pushes forward; his entire body presses up close to the surface of the picture. Ducreux was interested in the study of physiognomy and frequently used his own features as a convenient means to observe various expressions. In fact, he executed dozens of similarly exaggerated self-portraits throughout his career. A contemporary critic admired this self-portrait for its warmth, color, and expression, but later critics complained about the repetition of the subject.
–- Le Discret (1790, oval; 751x627pix, 36kb) _ another self-portrait?
–- Louis XVI's last portrait (1793; 920x600pix, 42kb)
–- Louis XVII (monochrome photo of pastel, oval 43x35cm; 773x902pix, 44kb)
— Louis-Antoine, comte de Bougainville (1790, 88x71cm; 512x411pix, 46kb) _ Louis Antoine de Bougainville [11 Nov 1729 – 31 Aug 1811], mathématicien, avocat et navigateur, se rendit d'abord avec Montcalm au Canada. Après la signature de la paix de 1763, il partit fonder une colonie aux îles Malouines, ou Falkland, revendues trois ans plus tard par la France à L'Espagne. Entre 1766 et 1769, il dirigea une expédition scientifique autour du monde, relatée dans son ouvrage publié en 1771, Voyage autour du monde. Il participa également à la guerre d'indépendance américaine.
“Autant que j'en puis juger sur une lecture assez superficielle, j'en rapporterais l'avantage à trois points principaux: une meilleure connaissance de notre vieux domicile et de ses habitants; plus de sûreté sur des mers qu'il a parcourues la sonde à la main, et plus de correction dans nos cartes géographiques. Bougainville est parti avec les lumières nécessaires et les qualités propres à ces vues: de la philosophie, du courage, de la véracité; un coup d'oeil prompt qui saisit les choses et abrège le temps des observations; de la circonspection, de la patience ; le désir de voir, de s'éclairer et de s'instruire; la science du calcul, des mécaniques, de la géométrie, de l'astronomie; et une teinture suffisante d'histoire naturelle. (Diderot, Supplément au voyage de Bougainville, 1772).
on 26 June 1927: Jean-Baptiste-Armand Guillaumin,
landscape painter, lithographer, engraver, born on 16 February 1841.
The longest surviving Impressionist, the most loyal, and probably the least known, Guillaumin was born in Paris of a family that had recently moved there from Moulins, where as a boy he spent much of his time. At the age of 15 he started working in his uncle's shop, whilst studying drawing in the evenings. In 1860 he obtained a job on the Paris-Orleans railway, continuing to paint in his spare time. He started drawing classes and then, in 1861, he enrolled in the Académie Suisse where he met Cézanne and Pissarro, with whom he was to remain on close terms for the rest of his life. They spent some time together at Pontoise, and Cézanne was greatly impressed by a view of the Seine that Guillaumin painted in 1871. At this time all three were frequent visitors to Gachet's house at Auvers, and it was there that Cézanne did a portrait-etching of Guillaumin. Cézanne also copied a painting by him of La Seine à Bercy (1878).
Guillaumin exhibited at the Salon des Refusés (in 1863 as an avant-garde artist, with Cézanne and Pissaro) and at most of the Impressionist exhibitions. He was active in the Manet circle at the Café Guerbois, from which Impressionism developed. Degas and Monet were not particularly impressed by his works, which were marked by a passion for color that, towards the end of his life, brought him close to the Fauves. His prospects improved when he was taken up by the dealer Auguste Portier, who had commenced his career with Durand-Ruel, and he was assured of financial stability when he won a large prize in the Loterie Nationale in 1891. He became friendly with van Gogh, with whose work his own has certain affinities (1895; View of Agay), and in 1904 he spent some time in Holland. The vigor of his brushwork, and the obvious lyrical zest that informs his landscapes bring him close to van Gogh, and clearly influenced the young Matisse.
— Self-Portrait (45x37cm)
— Self~Portrait (1875, 73x60cm)
— Self~Portrait With Easel (1878; 935x750pix, 106kb)
— Chemin Creux, Effet de Neige (1869, 66x55cm; 599x487pix, 81kb _ ZOOM to 2491x2024pix, 541kb)
— Landscape (1870; 599x731pix, 138kb _ ZOOM to 2079x2536pix, 617kb)
— Rainy Weather
–- Enfant Couché (1896; 415x560pix, 32kb _ .ZOOM to 729x1006pix, 96kb) _ le bébé est le fils de l'artiste, et son teint bleuâtre pourrait faire soupçonner qu'il souffre de troubles de la circulation sanguine, à moins que le peintre ait faussé les couleurs.
–- Paysage au Chariot (1889 color lithograph 26x37cm; 410x583pix, 54kb _ .ZOOM to 728x1109pix, 121kb)
–- La Seine (1874, 45x62cm; 729x1075pix, 85kb) with flags on two barges, bridge in the background.
— different La Seine (1868) no flags on the barges, no bridge.
–- yet another La Seine (Feb 1873, 65x81cm; 963x1200pix, 93kb) in this one the river is secondary to the road along its bank.
— Sunset at Ivry (1873)
— Outskirts of Paris (1873)
— La Place Valhubert, Paris (1875)
— Le Quai de Bercy
— L'aqueduc d'Arcueil surplombant la voie de chemin-de-fer de Sceaux (1874, 52x65cm) _ While employed by the Paris-Orléans railway, Armand Guillaumin began painting the countryside around the capital. The subject of this canvas is a new aqueduct, constructed in early 1874, that crosses over the tracks of the suburban Sceaux line in Arcueil, south of Paris. Listed in contemporary guidebooks as a major tourist site, this was the latest in a series of regional water channels dating back to the Roman era.
–- Agay, la Baie par Temps de Mistral (1895, 60x73cm; 1147x1400pix, 158kb)
— Marguerite Guillaumin Reading (1907; 907x1104pix, 193kb) _ Marguerite Guillaumin [25 Feb 1893–] was the second daughter of the artist. The woman in this image looks more like 30 than 14; could it be the wrong image? or are the dates wrong?
— 22 images at pintura.aut — 178 images at the Athenaeum
Born on 26 June 1763: George
Morland, London painter who died on 29 October 1804.
— He first exhibited chalk drawings in 1773 at the Royal Academy; his father, Henry Robert Morland [06 Oct 1716 – 30 Nov 1797], recognized his precocious talent and bound him apprentice for seven years from 1777. George Morland’s chief employment during this period was copying and forging paintings, particularly 17th-century Dutch landscapes, although he also made a number of sea-pieces after Claude-Joseph Vernet. The excessive discipline imposed upon him during his apprenticeship may have inspired the libertarianism and disregard for social convention that characterized his later years. Although he entered the Royal Academy Schools, his attendance was sporadic; he preferred to frequent alehouses, such as the Cheshire Cheese in Russell Court.
George Morland was an immensely prolific painter, chiefly of rustic and smuggling scenes. His brother Henry was active as a dealer. In 1786 their aunt Maria Morland married the engraver William Ward, while George married William’s sister Anne; a close working relationship ensued, since there was an extensive market both in Britain and abroad for engravings after George Morland’s pictures. His colorful personality and racy life provided popular subject-matter for biographers for several years after his death.
—William Collins and William Seguier were students of Morland.
— Full Cry
— Louisa (40x33cm)
— Taking Refreshments Outside a Village Inn (68x88cm)
— Travellers Resting Outside the Bell Inn (61x75cm)
— Two Men Hunting Rabbits With Their Dog, a Village Beyond (45x57cm)
— Wayside Gossips (51x66cm)
Sketches of farm animals, an old man and two little girls (1800, 40x53cm)
–- Two boys in garden, rake and barrel on ground (etching, 41x54cm)
— Morning: Higglers Preparing for Market (1791, 70x90cm) the more common word for “higgler” is “haggler”.
— Morning, or the Benevolent Sportsman (1792, 102x137cm; 557x760kb, 92kb)
— The Gravel Diggers (18x23cm)
— Door of a Village Inn (104x126cm)
— The Fortune Teller (46x53cm)
The Ale House Door (1792)
— Roadside Inn (1790, 51x66cm)
— The Smugglers (1792, 102x142cm; 545x760pix, 47kb)
— Visit to the child at nurse (1788; 627x760pix, 53kb)
— The Tea Garden (<1791, oval 41x51cm) _ Morland's most popular works were painted specifically for the print trade. This scene of cosy middle-class ease is set in Ranelagh Gardens where the public could take tea after an afternoon's walk. Its companion St. James's Park shows a similar family drinking the milk that could be bought by promenaders on the Mall. The pair was first engraved in 1790 and several times thereafter, remaining hugely popular well into the nineteenth century. Colored and framed - sometimes very elaborately - such prints formed part of the interior decor of innumerable better-off households.
— Inside of a Stable (1791, 149x204cm) _ This painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1791. Morland specialized in scenes of rural laborers and farm animals, subject matter which seemed to some an unwarranted intrusion amongst the aristocratic portraits and historical scenes on the Academy’s walls. Morland’s work was most widely known through reproductive prints, which provided much smaller, and often softer, versions of his paintings. The Academy was however, always keen to prevent its exhibitions from being used by printsellers to advertise their wares.
— Rabbiting (1792, 86x117cm) _ The rabbit warren was a staple part of the rural economy, and an important feature on most country estates. This scene shows the tense moment as the country folk wait for the rabbits to emerge from a burrow, having been flushed out by ferrets; the eager lurcher is poised for the chase that will ensue.Morland is perhaps best known as a painter of picturesque scenes from everyday rural life. His genre subjects occasionally have a sporting theme, yet he rarely attempted the conventional ones of hunting or horse-racing. This is somewhat surprising as it is known that Morland himself enjoyed riding to hounds and on several instances rode as a gentleman jockey.
— Outside the Ale-House Door (1792, 35x27cm) _ Pictures of country peasants at work and play were popular with urban art audiences in the late-eighteenth century. They provided a reassuring vision of timeless rural life. In reality the countryside was changing rapidly, with the introduction of modern farming techniques and the growth of political unrest.
— Cowherd and Milkmaid (1792, 51x66cm) _ This simple scene of rustic folk at a farmstead is characteristic of much of Morland's work in its portrayal of an incident from contemporary life. He captures the fleeting moment when the milkmaid enters the pen and exchanges a friendly greeting with the cowherd.Morland achieved immense success with his picturesque scenes of everyday rural life. His subjects were inspired by seventeenth-century Dutch masters who had established the tradition of rustic genre. The influence of Gainsborough's pastoral landscapes is also apparent although Morland's are more naturalistic and give the impression that they are direct reflections of the lives of country people at the end of the eighteenth century.
— Outside an Inn, Winter (1795, 72x92cm) _ George Morland specialized in scenes of cottages and country inns. He was a great success in the 1790s. In contrast to the more simplistic and sentimental views of the nineteenth century, his work sometimes acknowledged the rougher side of country living, and even the distinctions of class and status which underpinned rural society. Here, a gentleman traveler is leaving an inn, and is paying the landlady. The contrast between the well-fed pig and the gentleman’s pedigree spaniel emphasises the social division between the two figures.
Suicide on 26 June 1835: baron Antoine-Jean
Gros, French Neoclassical
painter. He was born on 16 March 1771. He studied under Jacques-Louis
Gros was trained by his father, a miniaturist and then by Jacques-Louis David. Although he revered David and became one of his favorite students, Gros had a passionate nature and he was drawn more to the color and vibrancy of Rubens and the great Venetian painters than to the Neoclassical purity of his master. In 1793 Gros went to Italy, where he met Napoléon and was appointed his official battle painter. He followed Napoléon on his campaigns, and his huge paintings such as The Battle of Eylau (1808) are among the most stirring images of the Napoléonic era. Compared to the contemporary war scenes of Goya, they are glamorous lies, but they are painted with such dramatic skill and panache that they cannot but be admired on their own terms. When David went into exile after the fall of Napoléon, Gros took over his studio, and tried to work in a more consciously Neoclassical style. He never again approached the quality of his Napoléonic pictures, however (although he painted excellent portraits), and haunted by a sense of failure he drowned himself in the Seine at Meudon. Gros is regarded as one of the leading figures in the development of Romanticism; the color and drama of his work influenced Géricault, Delacroix, and his student Richard Parkes Bonington [1802-1828] among others. His other students included George Peter Alexander Healy, Charles Muller, Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Joseph-Louis-Hippolyte Bellangé, Thomas Couture, Paul Hippolyte Delaroche, George P.A. Healy, Antoine-Louis Barye, Carl Joseph Begas [1794-1854], Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet, Jean-Désiré-Gustave Courbet [1819-1877], Joseph-Désiré Court, François Diday, Jean-François-Théodore Gechter, Jean-Antoine-Théodore Gudin, Nicolas-Auguste Hesse, Paul Huet, Pierre-Jules Jollivet, Eugène-Louis Lami, Jean-Charles Langlois, Charles Martinet, Louis Martinet, Louis Mazer, Carl Peter Mazer, Antonin-Marie Moine, Henry Bonaventure Monnier, Johann David Passavant, Charles Philipon, Denis-Auguste-Marie Raffet, Louis Léopold Robert, Camille-Joseph-Etienne Roqueplan, Philippe Rousseau, Philippe Schnetz, Jean Victor Schnetz, Émile Signol, François Simonau.
— Antoine-Jean Gros à l'Âge de Vingt Ans (1891, 59x48cm; 465x380pix, 16kb), attributed to François Gérard.
Napoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge on 17 November 1796 (1797; _ ZOOMable) _ Napoléon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge (Gros' copy of the 1797 painting) _ Generals Bonaparte and Augereau took the bridge at Arcola, a town in Italy, on 15 November 1796 and defeated the Austrian army two days later.
Napoléon on the Battlefield of Eylau on 09 February 1807 _ detail (1808; _ ZOOMable)
Bonaparte Visiting the Pesthouse in Jaffa, 11 March 1799 (1804, 714x1000pix, 420kb _ ZOOMable to 1972x2763pix, 1721kb)
— Madame Bruyère (1000x834pix, 315kb _ ZOOMable)
— Mademoiselle Récamier (1000x834pix, 315kb _ ZOOMable)
Madame Récamier _ Juliette Récamier [1777-1849] was one of the foremost society beauties of the period. She was the daughter of a banker from Lyon. In 1793 she had married a 43-year-old banker, a business acquaintance of her father.
_ compare Jacques-Louis David's Madame Récamier (ZOOMable)
François Gérard's Juliette Récamier, (1805, 225x148cm; 722x483pix, 20kb)
René Magritte's Perspective I: David's Madame Recamier (1951, 60x80cm; 483x640pix, 49kb)]
— The Battle of Abukir (1806, 578x968cm)
— Christine Boyer (1800, 214x134cm)
— Madame Pasteur (1796, 86x67cm)