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DEATH: 1964 DAVIS
BIRTHS: 1913 CARREÑO — 1883 METZINGER — BAPTISM: 1616 VAN BOL
FIRST EXHIBIT: 1901 PICASSO
^ Born on 24 June 1913: Mario Servando Carreño, Cuban painter.
— He studied at the Academia de San Alejandro in Havana (1925–1930), at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid (1932–1935) and at the École des Arts Appliqués in Paris (1937–1939). He lived in New York from 1944 to 1950. During the 1940s he was part of the Caribbean avant-garde that applied Cubist and Surrealist approaches to regional themes, producing paintings such as Caribbean Enchantment (1949). Widely traveled and stylistically diverse, in the 1950s he worked primarily in geometric abstraction, but after settling permanently in Santiago, Chile, in 1957, he integrated these Constructivist forms into dreamlike settings influenced by the Andean landscape and by the poetry of his friend, Pablo Neruda [1904–1973], as in Land of Volcanoes (1974). In the 1960s and early 1970s he treated the threat of nuclear war in paintings such as 20th-century Totem (1973), which depicts a column of mannequin fragments over a desolate terrain. In 1948–1949, and again in the early 1980s, Carreño worked on the Antillanas series, which celebrates the lore and colors of the Caribbean.

LINKS
–- Mujer con Guitarra (1972, 130x95cm)
 _ .detail 1 (3 fruits in bowl) (723x472pix, 33kb)  _ .detail 2 (mid~section) (723x476pix, 25kb)  _ .detail 3 (bowl~head with leaves) (643x978pix, 72kb)
–- Cuba Libre (416x375pix, 63kb)
–- Mujer Sentada (1943, 79x57cm; 896x656pix, 117kb)
El Nacimiento de las Nacionas: América (584x800pix, 106kb)
Bucaro (1943)
Dos Mujeres (1943)
Frutera (1946)
—(080625)
just kidding!!! click for REAL self-portrait^ Died on 24 June 1964: Stuart Davis [click image for self~portrait >], US Abstract painter born on 07 December 1894.
— He grew up in an artistic environment, for his father was art director of a Philadelphia newspaper, who had employed Luks, Glackens, and other members of the Eight. He studied with Robert Henri from 1910 to 1913, made covers and drawings for the social realist periodical The Masses, which was associated with the Ashcan School, and exhibited watercolors in the Armory Show, which made an overwhelming impact on him. After a visit to Paris in 1928-1929 he introduced a new note into US Cubism, basing himself on its Synthetic rather than its Analytical phase. Using natural forms, particularly forms suggesting the characteristic environment of US life, he rearranged them into flat poster-like patterns with precise outlines and sharply contrasting colors (House and Street, 1931). He later went over to pure abstract patterns, into which he often introduced lettering, suggestions of advertisements, posters, etc. (Owh! in San Pao, 1951, 133x106cm; 1014x828pix, 116kb). The zest and dynamism of such works reflect his interest in jazz. Davis is generally considered to be the outstanding US artist to work in a Cubist idiom. He made witty and original use of it and created a distinctive US style, for however abstract his works became he always claimed that every image he used had its source in observed reality: “I paint what I see in America, in other words I paint the American Scene.” {was he legally blind? or just illegally?}.

LINKS
–- Self~Portrait (1919)
— different Self~Portrait (1912, 82x67cm; 800x635pix)
New York Docks (1938; 600x852pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1988pix)
Gloucester Beach (1916; 600x472pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1101pix)
Colonial Cubism (1954, 114x153cm; 785x1067pix, 88kb)
Egg Beater #1 (653x800pix, 91kb)
Egg Beater #2 (637x800pix, 109kb)
Egg Beater #4 (1928, 69xcm; 768x1097pix, 97kb) _ These last four pictures have been combined by the pseudonymous Vivart de Conseil and metamorphosed into the complex and colorful twin abstractions
      _ Colonial Big Eater (2007; 550x778pix, 114kb _ ZOOM to 778x1100pix, 207kb _ ZOOM+ to 1100x1556pix, 406kb _ ZOOM++ to 1710x2418pix, 1078kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 2648kb) and
      _ Cologne Beater 1+2+4 (2007; 550x778pix, 114kb _ ZOOM to 778x1100pix, 207kb _ ZOOM+ to 1100x1556pix, 406kb _ ZOOM++ to 1710x2418pix, 1078kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 2648kb)
Hot Still-Scape for 6 Colors. 7th Avenue Style (800pix, kb)
International Surface #1 (30kb)
Report from Rockport (1940, 61x76cm; 830x1036pix, 179kb)
The Mellow Pad (1951, 66x107cm; 724x1175pix, 178kb) _ De Conseil has greatly enhanced and thoroughly transformed this into
      _ Yellow Paid (2006; screen filling, 308kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2512kb).
New York Waterfront (1938, 56x77cm; 780x1068pix, 116kb)
Tropes de Teens (1956, 115x153cm; 300x400pix, 72kb)
T-View (1951, 54x36cm; xpix, kb)
click for image (Oct 1952, 132x101cm; 1048x801pix, 115kb)
Blips and Ifs (1964, 181x135cm; 1070x784pix, 87kb)
92 images at Ciudad de la Pintura (all 800pix in their larger dimension)
–(060623)
^ Born on 24 June 1883: Jean Metzinger, French Cubist painter, critic, and poet, who died on 03 November 1956.
— He came from a military family, but, following the early death of his father, he pursued his own interests in mathematics, music and painting. By 1900 he was a student at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Nantes, where he worked under the portrait painter Hippolyte Touront. After sending three pictures to the Salon des Indépendants in 1903, he moved to Paris with the proceeds from their sale. Thus, from the age of 20, Metzinger supported himself as a professional painter, a fact that may account for some of the shifts to which his art submitted in later years. He exhibited regularly in Paris from 1903, taking part in 1904 in a group show with Touront and Raoul Dufy at the gallery run by Berthe Weill and also participating in the Salon d’Automne in that year. By 1906 he had enough prestige to be elected to the hanging committee of the Salon des Indépendants. By the time he began dating his works around 1905 he was an ardent participant in the Neo-Impressionist revival led by Henri Edmond Cross. He also formed a close friendship at this time with Robert Delaunay, with whom he shared an exhibition at Berthe Weill early in 1907. The two of them were singled out by one critic in 1907 as divisionists who used large, mosaic-like ‘cubes’ to construct small but highly symbolic compositions. About 1908 he met Max Jacob, who introduced him to the group of artists around Apollinaire, which included also Braque and Picaslso, who had much influence on Metzinger until 1923. In 1910 he began to write articles on contemporary painting. With Delaunay, Gleizes, and Léger he participated in the 1911 Salon des Independents, in the controversial Salle 41, the first official group exposition of the Cubist painters.
— Metzinger's students included Serge Charchoune, Jessica Dismorr, Lyubov’ Popova, Nadezhda Udal’tsova.

LINKS
–- Still Life (72x99; 846x1200pix, 89kb _ .ZOOM to 1411x2000pix; 260kb) _ could have been named La table du déjeuner au café.
Fruit and a Jug on a Table (1916, 116x81cm; 1600x1122pix, 305kb)
Still Life (1921, 64x91cm; 1696x2412pix, 2531kb)
Cubist Composition, Still Life (1918)
Landscape (1904, 380x462pix, 193kb) _ This early landscape by Metzinger shows his roots in Fauvism. Inscribed on the reverse of the canvas is the date 1904, indicating that it was painted soon after Metzinger's arrival in Paris, at the height of the Fauvist movement led by Matisse. Fauve painting is characterized by brilliant color and simplified forms, celebrating emotions inspired by nature, as opposed to the imitation of nature. Metzinger once described Fauvist painting as "taking our hint from Nature, to construct decoratively pleasing harmonies and symphonies expressive of our sentiment." In this landscape, the vibrant color patches are far from naturalistic, depicting instead the exuberance inspired in the artist by the scene. The short, broad brushstrokes add a rhythmic pattern to the canvas, energizing the negative spaces as well as the solid forms. The result transforms notions of time and space to show intensity, radiance, and joy in the experience of nature.
Scène du port (1912, 54 x 46 cm) _ The greatest liberating pictorial style of the twentieth century was the Cubism developed by Picasso and Braque in the first years of the century. For some artists, it led to abstraction; for others, it was merely a style to be adapted to pre-existing approaches to picture making. For Metzinger, Cubism was a system by which multiple perspectives could be juxtaposed on a single plane; his almost monochromatic palette meant that the viewer is not distracted from the study of perspective. Metzinger was an early proponent of Cubism and wrote some of the first important theoretical essays on it. On Cubism, written in 1912 with his fellow Cubist Albert Gleizes, was the first theoretical work devoted to the new movement and played a major role in its recognition. Metzinger himself often experimented with Cubist techniques, but his work differs from other Cubists in that his paintings retain a recognizable scene, here a landscape, a fairly rare subject for the early Cubists, with a system of mathematically calculated proportions, planes, and angles superimposed on it, like a grid. In the works of Picasso and Braque, small rectangular planes first go above, then below, then simply fade into other planes; Metzinger reduced his recognizable subjects into a series of rationally calculated and plotted planes, each laid over the other, as they move back in depth.
Au Vélodrome (1914, 130x97cm; 573x429pix; 118kb) _ Jean Metzinger, a sensitive and intelligent theoretician of Cubism, sought to communicate the principles of this movement through his paintings as well as his writings. Devices of Cubism and Futurism [more] appear in At the Cycle-Race Track, though they are superimposed on an image that is essentially naturalistic. Cubist elements include printed-paper collage, the incorporation of a granular surface, and the use of transparent planes to define space. The choice of a subject in motion, the suggestion of velocity, and the fusing of forms find parallels in Futurist painting. Though these devices are handled with some awkwardness and the influence of Impressionism persists, particularly in the use of dots of color to represent the crowd in the background, this work represents Metzinger’s attempt to come to terms with a new pictorial language. Lucy Flint.
—(080623)
^ Baptized on 24 June 1616: Ferdinand Janszoon van Bol, Dutch Baroque era painter and etcher who was buried on 24 July 1680. He was born in 1610.
— Bol was born and grew up in Dordrecht. He learned to paint either there or in Utrecht under Abraham Bloemaert. Then, about 1635, Bol worked for a period at the studio of Rembrandt in Amsterdam, before setting up as an independent artist in 1642. Rembrandt had strongly influenced the development of the young artist. Of all of Rembrandt's students, Bol is the one on which he had the most direct influence. This influence is apparent less in Bol's paintings than in his etchings, which are sometimes mis-identified as Rembrandt's. Bol's etchings are extremely expressive, often spiritual, and done in a bold and free manner. His compositions are studied and yet natural, and light and shadow are very judiciously managed. Bol stayed and worked in Amsterdam till the end of his life in 1680; he painted portraits, historical compositions and sometimes still-lifes. At first his work resembled Rembrandt's, but after 1650 he developed a more colorful and elegant style. Bol received numerous commissions, including for the Amsterdam town hall and the Admiralty. After 1669 and his second marriage to Anna van Arckel, Bol, now a wealthy man, hardly painted anymore. His self portrait of the late 1660s is one of his last works.
— Bol was a student of Rembrandt in the mid-1630s and in his early work imitated his master's style so well as to create occasional difficulty in distinguishing between them. The portrait of Elizabeth Bas in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, is the best-known instance; it was acknowledged as a Rembrandt until 1911, when it was attributed to Bol, and although this opinion is still generally accepted, there has been renewed support for Rembrandt as the author. As Bol's career prospered, both as a portraitist and a painter of historical subjects, his style moved away from that of Rembrandt, becoming blander and more elegant in the style of van der Helst. In 1669 he married a wealthy widow and seems to have stopped painting.
— Bol's students included Godfrey Kneller and Cornelis Bisschop.
— F#>Ferdinand Bol Leaning on Window Sill (etching 19x15cm) by Adam von Bartsch
— F#>Young Man in Velvet Cap (Ferdinand Bol) (1637 etching, 10x8cm) by Rembrandt van Rijn.

LINKS
Self Portrait (1669, 128x104cm) _ Bol has portrayed himself as a self-confident, wealthy burgher, wearing an elegant Japanese robe, a wig with curls, and a velvet cloak. His left arm is resting on a statue of a sleeping Cupid. The artist's wig and costume are in the fashion current in the 1670s. The splendid frame (included in the image) dates from the same period.
     After nine years a widower, in 1669 Bol married his second wife, Anna van Arckel, was a well-to-do woman of 45. This painting was probably a marriage gift to her. It reflects Bol's views on marriage and fidelity. Cupid, the god of love, is depicted sleeping, next to Bol. It symbolizes restrained passion, a chaste life. Here Bol indicates that at his age desire is no longer plays a dominant role. The sunflowers on the frame also refer to a higher love. The massive pillar in the background again underscores Bol's constancy in love.
     Ferdinand Bol ordered a richly decorated frame for his self portrait. And the painting is still in this original frame, a unique phenomenon since frames were frequently changed as fashions moved on. The limewood frame was carved and subsequently gilded. Beside sunflowers, it features roses, grapes, corn and dangling brushes. The lobe-like curves in the corners at the top of the frame are reminiscent of the seventeenth-century auricular ornament in the work of Paulus van Vianen.
     As a young artist Ferdinand Bol worked in the studio of Rembrandt van Rijn. By the time he painted this self portrait he had long adopted a different, more elegant style. Yet Rembrandt's influence is clearly felt in the way the robe is painted. Bol has imitated the shine of the gold-colored material by applying white highlights covered with a layer of transparent paint. Bol has not portrayed himself as a painter, but as a well-to-do gentleman in casual dress. His second wife had money enough to live from. After this self portrait Bol made few paintings.
Aeneas reikt prijzen uit na de wedstrijd ter zee aka Aeneas at the Court of Latinus (1663, 218x232cm) _ This busy scene is actually a prize giving ceremony. The man standing on the platform is Aeneas, a Trojan prince and the legendary founder of Rome. On his long voyage Aeneas kept up morale among the men by organizing occasional competitions. Here he rewards one of the captains who has just won a race between the ships. A slave presents the prize, magnificent suite of armour. Aeneas' fleet is anchored in the distance. This is the first painting ever to have been made of the story. It is taken directly from Virgil's Aeneid.
     Aeneas was admired in the seventeenth century as a capable administrator. Civic authorities often commissioned artists to depict example of good public administration. Paintings on the theme would be hung in assembly rooms and courts of justice. Ferdinand Bol painted this work for the Amsterdam Admiralty, the province's naval command. Following a successful battle the Admiralty would reward the best ships and captains, just like Aeneas. In the assembly room at 'Prinsenhof' on Oudezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam this work hung opposite Consul Titus Manlius Torquatus Beheading his Son. Each painting hung above a fireplace.
     In 1661 the Admiralty totally rebuilt Prinsenhof in an attempt to match the grandeur of the new Town Hall on Dam Square. The building was given a new classical façade, that rather resembled the façade of the Town Hall. Ferdinand Bol was commissioned to produce large paintings for the chimneypieces, just as in the Town Hall, and Joost van den Vondel was again commissioned to produce poems. Here is the one accompanying Aeneas at the Court of Latinus:
De vorst Eneas deelt, op 't vrolijck strant geschater
Des volx, en 't klincken van de schelle zeetrompet
Den prijs des zeestrijts uit aen elck, die zich te water
Om 't braefst gequeten heeft, naar d'ingestelde wet
Men hanthaeft staeten door het straffen en beloonen.
Gestrengheit baert ontzagh, miltdaedigheid baert min.
De booze schroomt de roe, de brave staet naer kroonen.
Zoo wort de rijcke zee geveilight om 't gewin.
( Prince Aeneas deals out, to the happy cheers / Of the people, and the shrill blast of the trumpet, / The prize of the maritime contest to the person who the most / Has excelled the most according to the rules laid down / States are governed by punishment and reward / Firmness leads to respect, weakness to contempt / The wicked fear the birch, the good long for honor / And so the rich waters are made safe through competition.)

      In 1663 Ferdinand Bol received 2000 guilders for the chimneypiece paintings and two other works.
     A oil study for this painting exists in Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum in Brunswick. The broad lines are the same, but the ships in the background are more detailed in the painting than in the oil sketch. Less people are gathered around in the foreground in the study. And there is no man standing below. In the painting there are numerous intriguing details: the warrior sitting in the foreground, for example, wearing an impressive leopard-skin costume. Next to him, diagonally, is a herald blowing a curious bugle. On the right, a man is calming a magnificent horse.
Consul Titus Manlius Torquatus laat zijn zoon onthoofden aka Consul Titus Manlius Torquatus Beheading His Son (1663, 218x242cm) _ A dramatic scene: a father ordering his son to be beheaded because he disobeyed an order. The father, on the platform, is the Roman consul Consul Under the Republic (496-27 BC) the highest public officials in Rome were the two consuls. They were elected simultaneously for a term of one year and exercised executive power in the administration of Rome. Consuls led the army and chaired the Senate, the assembly of elders. In fact, real political power in Rome lay with the Senate. It was a constant factor in contrast to the annually displaced consuls. Under the Empire (after 27 BC) the consulate was reduced to an honorary function.Titus Manlius Torquatus. He had ordered that no officer should engage the enemy. When his son, Titus Manlius, failed to obey the consul had to punish him. The dead youth is lying in the foreground. The blood flows from his neck as the executioner displays the severed head to the astonished onlookers.
     The story of Titus Manlius Torquatus was seen in the seventeenth century as an example of strict but fair public administration. Artists were commissioned by civic authorities to portray stories such as these for their assembly rooms and courts of justice. In the assembly room at 'Prinsenhof' Torquatus hung opposite Aeneas and had its own poem by Vondel:
Gestrenge Manlius gebiet zijn' zoon te rechten,
Die tegens vaders last den vyant heeft bestreen.
Het baet niet dat de zoon verwinner blijft in 't vechten.
De strenge vader acht geen' zoon, noch 's volx geween.
Al wort de zegekrans de vyant afgekeecken,
Dat baet geen dienaer, die op 's heeren woort niet past.
Het krijgsgerecht kent geen bloet, noch luistert naer geen smeecken.
Zoo leert een dienaer stip te volgen 's meesters last.
( Harsh Manlius passes judgment on his son, / Who fought the foe against his parent's order. / And although the lad emerged triumphant, / The strict father hears neither son nor people's cries. / The victor's laurel may be taken from the foe, / Yet no reward should follow from this disobedience. / Courts martial know no ties of blood and heed no pleas. / So the underling learns to accept the master's word.)

     Torquatus is seated, like Aeneas on the opposite chimneypiece, on a small podium flanked by columns. Bol has painted a city in the background. From the round tower on the left, which resembles Rome's Sant'Angelo bridge, and the abbreviation SPQR (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) on the standard, it seems that the episode takes place in Rome. Rome's public administration was considered the ultimate model in the seventeenth century. The horse and the soldier on the right have been skillfully portrayed by Bol. It is far from simple to paint people or animals foreshortened.
Elisabeth Jacobsdochter Bas, weduwe van Jochem Hendrickszoon Swartenhont aka Elisabeth Jacobsdr. Bas [1571-1649], widow of Jochem Hendricksz. Swartenhont (1640, 118x92cm) _ An old woman is sitting quietly in her chair. On the table beside her is a book. She is wearing a kind of two-piece: a black dress and matching coat trimmed with fur, which is draped elegantly over the chair. In her hand is a handkerchief. This type of costume was fashionable around 1640 but the large ruff and the cap with wing flaps were out-of-date by this time. Nevertheless, the older generation tended to ignore the whims of fashion and continued to wear these garments.
     A hundred years ago this portrait was attributed to Rembrandt and was an even greater favorite than The Night Watch. Indeed, this picture was so popular that its name was used for a brand of cigar [its logo >]. In 1911 the question arose whether the painting was indeed a genuine Rembrandt. A heated discussion developed, since the public was attached to this painting. Today the experts ascribe the painting to Bol. A comparison can be made of the painting style of the two artists by considering Rembrandt's The Mennonite Minister Cornelis Claeszoon Anslo in Conversation with his Wife, Aaltje (1641, 176x210cm; 835x1002pix, 85kb). Aeltje and Elisabeth are of the same age and wear the same type of dress. They both have a handkerchief on their knee. What is most noticeable is that Rembrandt has introduced more nuances into the face, the cap and the hands of Aeltje than Bol in the portrait of Elisabeth. She appears somewhat flatter than Aeltje Schouten. Moreover, the effect of light and shadow is more pronounced in Rembrandt's work.
     The adoring public used to call this picture the Dear Old Woman. In 1906 the critic Albert Hahn wrote “Museum-Idylle” to accompany a satirical cartoon:
Op canapé
Zit naast 't modieuse snobje 't
Teer-anemisch ethisch popje
Te smelten voor de Weduw Bas.
't was vroeger toch een stoerder ras
Dan die twee! 't Popje zee:
“Oh, wat een gloed en wat een verve,
Legde Rembrandt in zijn verven...!”
En 't snobje zuchtte:
“Ah superbe! Rembrandt zien..., en dán sterven!”
Onderwijl denkt bij zichzelven
De zaalsuppoost: “Pas kwart na elven, G.V.D.!”
( Seated on the bench / Beside a fashionable fraud, / A dainty, anaemic maiden's / Heart melts for the Widow Bas. / It used to be such a tough race, / Now look at them! / The Maiden says: “O, the warmth and the life / That Rembrandt breathes into his paints...!” / And the Fraud sighs: “Ah yes. Divine! To see Rembrandt ..., and then to die!” / Meanwhile, in silent reflection,/ The Attendant notes: “only eleven fifteen, Damn it!”)

     Doubt has recently been cast on the woman's identity. She is traditionally held to be Elisabeth Bas [1571-1649], who married Jochem Hendrickszoon Swartenhont [1566-1627], naval captain and a military hero. The couple had four children, three of whom predeceased their mother. When Maria, Elisabeth's eldest daughter, died, she took care of her three grandchildren. One of these, Maria Rey, later also commissioned a portrait by Bol. Jochem Swartenhont and his daughter Maria were immortalized by Bol. Nicolaes Eliaszoon Jochem is wearing the medal he received for his maritime feats.
     The naval hero Jochem found himself unemployed and domesticated during the Twelve Year Truce (1609-1621) between Spain and the Dutch Republic. Neither nation was able to achieve outright victory. In the Republic the peace was marred by increasing political polarization. Conflict centered on foreign policy, religion and the ties between Church and state. The main protagonists were Prince Maurice and Grand Pensionary Johan van Oldenbarnevelt. The conflict almost escalated into civil war. Maurice ordered the arrest of his rivals in 1618. Oldenbarnevelt was charged with treason and sentenced to death. He was beheaded on 13 May 1619.
      Jochem and Elisabeth set up a tavern known as the Prince of Orange, in the city center on the corner of Nes and Pieter Jacobszstraat. It was a popular place for well-known Amsterdammers: politicians, artists, and writers. After Jochem's death, Elisabeth continued the business for several years. At her death in 1649 she revealed herself to have been an excellent manager: Elisabeth Bas left no less than 28'000 guilders. A vast fictional narrative has been built up around the motherly figure in this portrait. Unfortunately, it is no longer certain whether the woman here is in fact Elisabeth Bas.
Maria Rey, echtgenote van Roelof Meulenaer (1650, 118x96cm) _ A woman is standing timidly, her hands folded, on a terrace. Behind her is a balustrade that culminates in a classical column. The terrace looks out over a wooded landscape. The woman is wearing a triple starched collar, wide around the neck, a black cap with pearls, bracelets around her wrists and pearl earrings. In her hand she has a fashionable fan.
     The woman, Maria Rey, was married to postmaster Roelof Meulenaer. He is depicted on this painting's pendant , against almost the same background. In fact they appear to be standing next to each other although, remarkably, the balustrade in Maria's portrait is slightly higher than in Roelof's. Maria Rey was orphaned as a young girl and raised by her grandmother. That was Elisabeth Bas, probably also portrayed by Ferdinand Bol some years earlier.
     The background in the two paintings was not a random choice. The couple appear to be standing on the terrace of a luxurious country house. They were supposed to appear wealthy and distinguished. The classical column behind Maria is also a sign of distinction. Ferdinand Bol also added a column to his own self portrait later. The landscape behind Maria and Roelof may have been intended as a so-called Garden of Love, to emphasise their unity in marriage.
<–- The two portraits side-by-side: Roelof's and Maria's (597x484pix, 16kb and 597x477pix, 21kb _ separately ZOOMable) -->
Roelof Meulenaer, koopmansbode of postmeester op Antwerpen te Amsterdam aka Roelof Meulenaer [1619-1691], Amsterdam mercantile courier or postmaster (1650, 118x96cm) _ The man is looking straight at the viewer, self-assured, even a little disdainful. He is leaning against a balustrade over which his cloak is draped. In the background is a wooded landscape, suggesting perhaps that the man, Roelof Meulenaer, is on the terrace of a country estate. His pose, hand on hip, turning outward, is a gesture normally reserved for royalty.
     This portrait was accompanied by a pendant showing Meulenaer's wife, Maria Rey. When the second canvas is placed on the right, the two figures appear to turn towards one another. The landscape in the background and the balustrade continue from the one into the other. Little remains of Rembrandt's influence in these paintings. Here Bols's rendering of texture is highly accurate, while Rembrandt was far less detailed after 1650. Bol borrowed the elegant pose, with balustrade and landscape, from a quite different painter: the Fleming Anthony van Dyck.
     The woman, Maria Rey, was married to postmaster Roelof Meulenaer. He is depicted on this painting's pendant, against almost the same background. In fact they appear to be standing next to each other although, remarkably, the balustrade in Maria's portrait is slightly higher than in Roelof's. Maria Rey was orphaned as a young girl and raised by her grandmother. That was Elisabeth Bas, probably also portrayed by Bol some years earlier.
     The background in the two paintings was not a random choice. The couple appear to be standing on the terrace of a luxurious country house. They were supposed to appear wealthy and distinguished. The classical column behind Maria is also a sign of distinction. Bol also added a column to his own self portrait later. The landscape behind Maria and Roelof may have been intended as a Garden of Love, to emphasize their unity in marriage.
De vredesonderhandelingen tussen Claudius Civilis en Cerealis aka The Peace Negotiations between Claudius Civilis and Cerealis (1670, 122x112cm) _ Standing on opposite sides of a demolished bridge are two warriors. They are negotiating across the divide. The man on the right is Cerealis, recognizable as a Roman from the standard with an eagle behind him. His men are pictured higher up. The man opposite him is Claudius Civilis, a Batavian. His followers are refreshing themselves in the river in the foreground. Fama floats in the sky above. She is crowning the two leaders with laurel wreaths.
     The story of Claudius Civilis was recorded by Tacitus and took place in the first century BC. The Batavian leader, Claudius Civilis spearheaded a revolt against the Romans. Initially successful, in the end he succumbed to Rome's superior strength. On a destroyed bridge on the Rhine near Xanten, Claudius surrendered to the enemy. What happened to him after this is not known.
     The Batavians were once thought of as the forefathers of the Dutch people. Claudius Civilis was admired as a fighter against oppression. The Dutch remembered this in their struggle against the Spanish. Scenes from the life of Claudius Civilis often adorned the public buildings of the Republic's cities. Bol's teacher, Rembrandt van Rijn, painted Civilis making his pact with the Batavians for the new town hall in Amsterdam. It is not clear for which building Bol's painting was intended. The piece is slightly wider and less precisely painted than his other work, which suggests that it was a preparatory study for a larger picture.
     There is a series of paintings about Claudius Civilis by Otto van Veen made for the States General in The Hague in 1613.
     The name States General was first used for the 1464 meeting in Bruges of the representatives of the estates of the various provinces of the Netherlands, who had been invited by Philip the Good. A century later, during the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish king, the States General assumed sovereign power. Under the Dutch Republic (1588-1795) the States General represented the central authority. The delegates of the seven provinces met in the Binnenhof in The Hague. Today, the States General is the name given to the combined upper and lower houses of the Dutch parliament.
      That Bol knew Van Veen's work and was inspired by it can be seen from the horse drinking in the foreground. A print made by the Italian engraver Antonio Tempesta from a painting by Van Veen shows almost exactly the same horse. In this picture, Claudius Civilis and Cerealis, the Roman general also meet on a broken bridge, just as in Bol's painting.
     If you look closely you can see that Ferdinand Bol has tampered considerably with this painting. He has painted out and moved a number of figures, including Claudius Civilis which is why it looks as though a ghost is hovering in front of Civilis, also holding out its hand towards Cerealis. Further to the left, another overpainted group of figures can be spotted. Cerealis too has been altered: his arm was longer to begin with. Areas that have been overpainted in this way are called 'pentimenti'. When Bol first made the painting they would have been invisible. But now, centuries later, they have become visible once again.
Venus en Adonis (1657, 168x230cm) _ The story of Venus and Adonis is taken from the tenth book of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Venus, the goddess of love, becomes enamored of the beautiful young huntsman, Adonis. In Bol's painting Venus and the young Cupid try in vain to prevent Adonis from going hunting, as the goddess has had a premonition that the hunting party will have fatal consequences, and indeed the hunter is killed by a wild boar. The story of Venus and Adonis was a favorite in the Netherlands. Rubens painted the subject several times and Bol later painted another picture of the same theme. It was probably the moral component that made the story popular: Adonis was seen as the epitome of reckless youth, whose rejection of Venus' advice led him to his death.
— Venus, goddess of love, en Cupid, her assistant, are trying to stop a man setting out to go hunting. His quiver of arrows is hanging on a tree to the right and his spear is at the ready. The hunter, Adonis, has his horn at his hip. Venus, his lover, is trying to stop him because she fears something will happen to him during the hunt. Ferdinand Bol painted two turtle doves in the foreground to emphasise that the two figures are lovers.
     Venus was right to fear for Adonis' safety on the hunt. Mars, the god of war, was jealous and meant to kill Adonis. One day he sent his rival a wild boar and the animal killed him. But according to the story, the love between Venus and Adonis was so great that the gods only held Adonis in Hades, the underworld Underworld In Greek mythology the underworld is the kingdom of the god Hades. After death, the soul leaves the body and enters the underworld. To get there it must be brought across the river Styx by the ferryman Charon. The Greek kingdom of the dead is known as Hades, after its ruler., for half the year. The other half he was able to spend with his beloved Venus.
     As a young artist Bol worked in Rembrandt's studio. Rembrandt's influence is certainly evident in the dramatic lighting of the scene and the way in which the mantle on the right is depicted. Bol has made the material shine by applying highlights Highlight A highlight is created with a little light paint or white chalk on a dark background. It is usually applied to suggest depth, or to imitate a glossy surface or the way light falls. The paint used for highlights is generally white lead. of white patches of paint. Against the dark background the colors - red, white and blue - contrast clearly. The figures are arranged in a pyramid-like shape. Adonis' body casts a shadow over Venus' face. 
     The story of Venus and Adonis is told in the Metamorphoses by the Roman writer Ovid. According to the Dutch critic and painter Karel van Mander, Adonis is the example of a reckless youth who, ignoring the advice of the gods, precipitates his own death. The moralistic message made the theme especially popular in the Netherlands. Ferdinand Bol would have known paintings by Rubens, who regularly depicted the tale of Venus and Adonis. Later, Bol was to paint the subject a second time.
–- The Crowning of Mirtillo (1650, 141x195cm; 1/12 size, 46kb _ .ZOOM to 1/6 size, 148kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1/3 size, 502kb _ .ZOOM++ to 2/3 size, 2063kb) _ The painting depicts a moment from the 1590 tragicomedy Il Pastor Fido by Giovanni Battista Guarini [10 Dec 1538 – 07 Oct 1612]. The shepherd Mirtillo got disguised as a shepherdess to gain access to the woman he loves, Amaryllis. She has been overseeing a kissing contest among her female friends; her mouth already having been judged the fairest, her role is to judge whose kisses most please. Mirtillo enters the contest and wins. The painting focuses on the moment when Mirtillo receives from Amaryllis the winner's floral crown. Van Dyck, for his Amaryllis and Mirtillo (1629, 137x123cm; 600x491pix, 24kb), had chosen the slightly later moment when Mirtillo gives his crown to Amaryllis.
Jacob's Dream (1642, 128x97cm) _ In his later career Bol turned to a more courtly style and a lighter tonality, the faces of his models look rather pasty, and the highlights on the red velvet he loved to paint appear to have been dusted lightly with talcum powder. In a subject picture like Jacob's Dream Bol captures something of the mood and tender character of Rembrandt's art of this period; but the elegant and noble attitude of the angel, with its long limbs and aristocratic gesture, is foreign to Rembrandt.
Portrait of a Man (87x72cm) _ Ferdinand Bol entered Rembrandt's studio about 1636-1637 and left Rembrandt about 1642 when he began working independently in Amsterdam where he settled for the rest of his life. His early painted portraits are very similar to the commissioned ones Rembrandt made in the late thirties and early forties and in them he successfully incorporates aspects of the transparent chiaroscuro the older master develops during these years.
David's Dying Charge to Solomon (1643).
 

Died on a 24 June:


^ 1938 (24 Jul?) Pedro Figari, Montevideo Uruguayan painter, writer, lawyer and, politician born on 20 (29?) June 1861. He showed artistic inclinations from childhood but completed a degree in law in 1886; his appointment as a defense counsel for the poor brought him into contact with social issues that later informed his art. In the same year he studied briefly with the academy-trained Italian painter Godofredo Sommavilla [1850–1944], married and left for Europe, where he came into contact with Post-Impressionism. On his return to Uruguay he became actively involved in journalism, law and politics as well as fostering the creation of the Escuela de Bellas Artes. During the course of his life he published a number of books that reflected his broad interests in art, art education and legal matters. He was a member of the Uruguayan Parliament, president of the Ateneo of Montevideo (1901) and director of the Escuela Nacional de Artes y Oficios (1915). — LINKS
–- S*#> La Pica (xcm; 569x798pix, 73kb)
–- S*#> Corrida de Toros, Carrasco (1922, 40x50cm; 636x799pix, 99kb)
–- S*#> Rosarito (Río de la Plata) (35x50cm; 564x799pix, 96kb)
–- S*#> Baile Frente al Rancho (25x35cm; 581x799pix, 76kb)
–- S*#> Alto en el Campo (60x80cm; 588x799pix, 87kb)
–- S*#> La Plaza del Pueblo (69x99cm; 562x799pix, 95kb)
–- S*#> Los Pasteles (40x31cm; 800x585pix, 94kb)
–- S*#> Un Cuento (30x40cm; 645x800pix, 104kb)
–- S*#> Negros y Mulatas (1930, 35x50cm; 569x800pix, 137kb)

^ 1794 Gerrit Zegelaar Loenen aan de Vecht, Dutch painter born on 16 July 1719.
Woman Sorting Fish (28x22cm; 650x525pix, 49kb)

^ 1693 Isaac Willaerts, Utrecht Dutch painter born in 1620. — In 1637 he was a master, and, in 1666, the dean of the Utrecht Guild. His mediocre coastal scenes are derived from those of his father, Adam Willaerts [1577 – 04 Apr 1664] but are more loosely painted (e.g. Marine Scene with Rocky Coast and Ruin). He also followed his father in contributing marine backgrounds to Ormea’s still-lifes of fish. His paintings of southern ports resemble those of his brother Abraham Willaerts [1603 – 18 Oct 1669].
–- S*#> Coastal Landscape with Ships at Anchor and Fisherfolk (43x63cm; 545x799pix, 62kb)
–- S*#> Coastal Landscape with Ships and Walled Town (1662, 45x73cm; 563x900pix, 91kb) _ The ships are Dutch Men-o'-War and barges off the coast. Orientals and other people are seen before the walls of the town in the foreground.
Ships Near Beach With Fishermen and Strollers (1630, 48x66cm; 295x400pix, 41kb)


Born on a 24 June:


1925 Antonio Prats Ventos, Spanish-born Deminican painter and sculptor. —(080623).

^ 1866 Giovanni Bartolena, Italian painter who died in 1942.
–- S*#> Campolecciano (16x27cm; 537x900pix, 128kb)
Il Ponte Vecchio (22x12cm; 425x221pix, 67kb)
Natura Morta con Pesce (18x34cm; 254x469pix, 24kb)

^ 1865 Robert Henry Cozad “Robert Henri”, US Ashcan School painter and teacher who died on 12 July 1929. He changed his name in 1883 after his father killed someone; in honor of his French ancestry, Henri adopted his own middle name as a surname, taking the French spelling but insisting all his life on its US pronounciation. After living with his family in Denver CO, and New York, he entered in 1886 the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he studied under Thomas Anshutz and Thomas Hovenden. He also studied under Robert Vonnoh. In 1888 he attended the Académie Julian in Paris, where he received criticism from the French painters William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury. He returned to Philadelphia in 1891 and painted in an Impressionist manner, for example Girl Seated by the Sea (1893). In Philadelphia he became leader of a circle of young artists, Sloan, Glackens, Shinn, and Luks. He painted in a high-keyed Impressionist style from 1892 to 1895, then adopted a more somber, tonal palette and painted cityscapes, landscapes, and portraits influenced by early Manet, Velázquez, and Hals. He lived in Paris again from 1895 to 1897 and from 1898 to 1900, then settled in New York. He was very influential as a teacher, especially at the New York School of Art from 1902 to 1909 and at his own art school from 1909 to 1912. His attempts to win recognition for the more advanced artists led to the exhibition of The Eight in 1908 and the exhibition of the Independent Artists in 1910, a forerunner of the Armory Show. His late works were mainly portraits and figure studies of Spaniards, Irish peasants, etc. He died in New York. — Henri's students included Leon Kroll, Victor Higgins, Manuel Encarnación Amador, George Wesley Bellows [1882-1925], Patrick Henry Bruce, Stuart Davis, William James Glackens, Adolph Gottlieb, Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent [21 Jun 1882 – 13 Mar 1971], Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Man Ray, Walter Pach, Morgan Russell, Niles Maurice Spencer. — LINKS
— F#>Ice Floe (1902, 65x81cm; 1/5 size, 54kb _ F#>ZOOM to 2/5 size, 218kb _ F#>ZOOM+ to 4/5 size) paint badly cracked
— F#>O in Black with Scarf aka Marjorie Organ Henri (1910, 196x94cm; 1/12 size, 18kb _ F#>ZOOM to 1/6 size, 69kb _ F#>ZOOM+ to 1/3 size, 304kb _ F#>ZOOM++ to 2/3 size, 1384kb)
Catherine, Mrs. Edward H. Bennett (81x66cm; _ ZOOMable)
El Segoviano (1924, 81x66cm)
La Madrilenita (1910, 61x51cm)
Doris Trautman (119kb)
Edna (1910; 120kb)
Spanish Girl of Segovia (1912; 112kb)
Gregorita with the Santa Clara Bowl (1917; 150kb)
Smiling Tom (1924; 123kb)
91 images at the Athenaeum

1847 Joseph Noël Sylvestre, French painter who died on 08 November 1926. He studied under Cabanel. He painted battle scenes, other historical subjects, and portraits.

1819 Juan Pablo Sanz-García Correa [–24 Mar 1897], Quito Ecuadorian architect, painter and tyipographer. Considerado el mejor arquitecto ecuatoriano del siglo XIX, fue un hombre emprendedor para todo lo útil y novedoso, un maestro que nunca dejó de aprender y enseñar lo que sabía. En 1833 trabajó como cajista del semanario El Quiteño Libre, pero el cultivo de sus innatas cualidades no lo inició hasta 1838, cuando su padre le ayudó para que aprendiera dibujo, grabado y arquitectura con maestros particulares. A la edad de 47 años, en 1866, comenzó sus estudios de Agrimensura en la Universidad Central, donde se graduó en 1869. Igualmente en 1870 se matriculó en la Escuela Politécnica. —(080623)


Happened on a 24 June:


Click for full Picasso self-portrait^ 1901Picasso's first exhibit:
      The works of Spanish artist Pablo Picasso Ruiz [25 Oct 1881 – 08 Apr 1973] could fill an entire museum and offer histories of a variety of art movements. For most of his creative career, Picasso seemed more interested in creating form than in imitating it, but his first exhibition in Paris on 24 June 1901, offered moody, representational paintings by a young artist with obvious talent. Once described as a millionaire with a castle and a Communist party card, Picasso refused to slow down until his death near Mougins, France..
    [< click on image for full self-portrait and more].
      The first major exhibition of Pablo Picasso's artwork opens at a gallery on Paris' rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. The 75 works displayed at Picasso's first Paris exhibition offered moody, representational paintings by a young artist with obvious talent.
      Pablo Picasso, widely acknowledged as the dominant figure in 20th-century art, was born in Málaga, Spain, in 1881. His father was a professor of drawing and bred Picasso for a career in academic art. He had his first exhibit at age 13 and later quit art school so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles. He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, and in 1901 he returned with 100 of his paintings, aiming to win an exhibition. He was introduced to Ambroise Vollard, a dealer who had sponsored Paul Cézanne, and Vollard immediately agreed to a show at his gallery after seeing the paintings. From street scenes to landscapes, prostitutes to society ladies, Picasso's subjects were diverse, and the young artist received a favorable review from the few Paris art critics who saw the show. He stayed in Paris for the rest of the year and later returned to Paris to settle permanently. The work of Picasso, which comprises more than 50'000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period--the "blue period"--began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor. The blue period was followed by the "rose period," in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso's early work in sculpture. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cézanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.
      In Cubism, which is divided in two phases, analytical and synthetic, Picasso and Braque established the modern principle that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Major Cubist works by Picasso included his costumes and sets for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1917) and The Three Musicians (1921). Picasso and Braque's Cubist experiments also resulted in the invention of several new artistic techniques, including collage.
      After Cubism, Picasso explored classical and Mediterranean themes, and images of violence and anguish increasingly appeared in his work. In 1937, this trend culminated in the masterpiece Guernica, a monumental work that evoked the horror and suffering endured by the Basque town of Guernica when it was destroyed by German war planes during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso remained in Paris during the Nazi occupation but was fervently opposed to fascism and after the war joined the French Communist Party.
      Picasso's work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly and enjoyed commercial and critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, and painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art. Known for his intense gaze and domineering personality, he had a series of intense and overlapping love affairs in his lifetime. He continued to produce art with undiminished force until his death.

LINKS
— Tragedy — Portrait of Stravinsky — Crucifixion — Nude Boy — Boy With Dog — Guernica — Saint Antoine et Pierrot — Le Coq de la Libération — Absinthe Drinker — Déjeuner Sur l'Herbe — Mort de Marat — Jeunes Filles au Bord de la Seine — Primera Comunión — Paulo en Pierrot — Crucifixion — Boy Leading a Horse — Mort de Casagemas — Enterrement de Casagemas — Cat Seizing a Bird — Les Demoiselles d'Avignon — Femme au Corbeau — Femme à la Fleur — Helmut — Le Tub (The Blue Room) — Maya with Doll — Flute de Pan — Chapeau à Plume — Sabartes et sa Bière — Saltimbanques — 1889 Self~Portrait — 1907 Self~Portrait — 1896 Self~Portrait — 1940 Self~Portrait — 1899 Self~Portrait — Self and Monster — Composition with Skull — Ulysse et les Sirènes — Femmes Courant sur la Plage — Femme dans un Fauteuil — Yo, Picasso

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