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DEATHS:  2002 POSSUM — 2003 KUPFERMAN 1949 WADSWORTH 1940 VUILLARD
BIRTHS: 1814 FRÈRE — 1640 MIGNON — 1882 KENT — 1859 TANNER
^ Born on 21 June 1814: Charles-Théodore Frère “ frère Bey”, French painter specialized in Orientalism, who died on 24 March 1888. He was the brother of Pierre Édouard Frère [10 Jan 1819 – 20 May 1886]. — {Ce dernier aurait dû devenir moine: il aurait été le Frère Frère frère de Frère, Charles-Théodore...}
— Frère began his career painting the French countryside, but during a stay in Algeria in 1837 he was attracted to the Islamic world and from that time on he exhibited only oriental scenes and landscapes, and views of Eastern cities and interiors. In 1861 he made his final visit to the eastern Mediterranean, traveling in the party of the Empress Eugénie [05 May 1826 – 11 Jul 1920].

LINKS
A View of Beni Souef, Egypt (46x38cm)
Interior of a Moorish Café (21x39cm)
Jerusalem from the Environs (1881, 75x111cm) _ This may be a work that Frère exhibited at the Salon of 1881, View of Jerusalem from the Valley of the Jehoshaphat. It was undoubtedly painted from an earlier study or a photograph. The meticulous style, like that of Gérôme [11 May 1824 – 10 Jan 1904], was based on the technique and paint handling of Ingres [29 Aug 1780 – 14 Jan 1867] and his students.
Les Chameliers Buvant le Thé (1855, 65x55cm)
A Market Place, Cairo (62x40cm)
Along The Nile (97x130cm)
An Arab Encampment (74x92cm)
Halte à L'Oasis (44x72cm)
The Souk (46x31cm)
A Street In Damascus (35x26cm)
A Street In Cairo
Sunset On The Nile (46x65cm)
 
^ Died on 21 June 2002: “Clifford Possum” Kumuntjayi Tjapaltjarri [photo >], KumuntjayiAustralian aborigine painter born in 1932 in the desert near where the community of Kiwirrkura now stands in Western Australia. He began painting in 1986. — Not to be confused with Dr. George Tjapaltjarri, Morris Gibson Tjapaltjarri, Tim Leura Tjapaltjarri, Thomas Tjapaltjarri, Joseph Jurra Tjapaltjarri [1952~], or the brothers Walala Tjapaltjarri and Warlimpirringa Tjapaltjarri.
— Born on the Napperby cattle station to the north of Alice Springs, “Clifford Possum” grew up there and also at the aboriginal settlement at Jay Creek. He began wood-carving and was stimulated by meeting the members of the Hermansburg watercolor painting group, including Albert Namatjira, the founder. This gave him the freedom to paint realistic scenes on his carved works. But by the l970s, when living at Papunya where he met Geoffrey Bardon, the art teacher who worked there he was encouraged to take up painting on canvas. His work carefully blended the traditional imagery of aboriginal culture with those traces of European culture, which he had encountered. Together with his “brother”, Tim Leura Tjapaltjarri [–1984] he embarked on a superb series of major scale paintings which “mapped” his ancestors’ sacred sites for posterity. Indeed these works have become the masterpieces of the Aboriginal culture. Apart from an increasingly important series of exhibitions in his native land, Clifford Possum was given a retrospective exhibition in 1988 at the Whitechapel Gallery, London. He may not have been elated by the use of a Clifford Possum painting for one of the 747 tail fins decorated during British Airways’ “ethnic” period, in l997, but took it in good heart. He knew before his death that he had been appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia, but he died before its investiture by the Administrator of the Northern Territory, passing quietly into a coma at Alice Springs.
—   “Clifford Possum”, who painted some of the masterpieces of Australian aboriginal art, dies in Alice Springs in the Australian desert, an ancient landscape he depicted in the mythical terms central to his heritage. In accordance with tribal tradition, details of his death, the long illness that preceded it and his exact age were not disclosed by his family.
      “Possum”, known among the Ammatyerre people as Kumuntjayi Tjapaltjarri, was the first Australian aboriginal artist to gain international recognition. He cleared the paths to artistic and economic success that many indigenous painters have followed since the 1970's by invoking sources and spiritual beliefs thought to be many thousands of years old.
      Since 1974, Tjapaltjarri's paintings, mixing symbolism and abstraction, have been shown in solo and group exhibitions and sold to major galleries and collections in Australia, the United States, Europe, and Asia. His work had its first public exhibition in the United States in 1980, in Los Angeles. His first major New York exhibition was in a group show at the Asia Society in 1988. In the United States, his work is in the collections of the Kelton Foundation in Santa Monica, California, the Lowe Art Museum at the University of Miami, and the Pacific Asia Museum in Los Angeles. On 24 June 2002, five of his works were sold in Melbourne at Sotheby's Australia for more than $20'000 each; one, Love-Sun Dreaming, was bought by private collectors for $60'000.
      At the time of Tjapaltjarri's death, the record auction price for on of his paintings was $68'000, paid by an Australian public gallery in 2001 for one of his earliest works, a 1972 landscape. At the time he painted it, some of his depictions of what is known as the Dreaming, a legendary time akin to creation or Genesis in other cultures, were selling for less than $50. Although works by other aboriginal artists have sold for much higher prices, Tjapaltjarri essentially made them possible.
      He was born about 1932 in a desert tribal community that was making a difficult transition from nomadism. Tjapaltjarri adopted the name “Clifford Possum” for nontribal use after a stay in the 1940's at a Christian mission where he was nursed for malnutrition. He began painting after 15 years of work on a cattle ranch. Earlier, he had shown skill at carving snakes and lizards in wood. At Papunya, a remote government settlement for the desert people, a teacher, Geoffrey Bordon, encouraged aborigines to counter feelings of alienation by recording traditional images and themes in modern media, like acrylic paint on hardboard and later on canvas. This was the cradle of the Desert Painters movement in aboriginal art. In 1971 the artists formed a cooperative; Tjapaltjarri was chairman for 10 years. Tjapaltjarri quickly showed himself to be an accomplished and inventive artist, an exponent of striking multilayered visual effects, meticulously rendered. Many collectors and galleries rated Tjapaltjarri high in the pantheon of aboriginal painters for his innovative visual language and complex narratives of myths.
      In June 2002, the Australian government awarded Tjapaltjarri the Order of Australia medal for his service to the art movement and to the indigenous people. Manipulative art dealers and forgers, one of whom was convicted, marred his later years. He also experienced personal problems after moving from his desert community in 1985 to the bustling township of Alice Springs. His numerous works since the 1980's fall short of his achievements in the 70's, and his scarcer earlier canvases draw higher prices. It was estimated at the time of his death that several such works in private US collections would bring about $500'000 each if sold at auction then. Tjapaltjarri's survivors include two daughters, Gabriella and Michelle; a son, Lionel; and 11 grandchildren.

Untitled (168x46cm B&W; 1503x402pix, 278kb) _ The almost identical six groups of concentric rectangles, made of white dots on a black background, which are stacked in this painting are designs associated with the soakage water site Minyinanga, west of Kiwirrkura Community. According to native mythology, a large group of Tingari men gathered at that site to perform ceremonies and later went further east.
–- Untitled (1983, 70x50cm; 1600x1146pix, 464kb)
–- Untitled Ceremony (1971, 40x92cm; 708x1622pix, 235kb _ .ZOOM to 1180x2703pix, 480kb) _ This is the first known painting on board by the artist. The next two are: Emu Corroboree Man (1972) and Love Story (1972). Characteristically, several of the paintings made at the very early stages of the Papunya movement, in 1971 and 1972, contained figurative images of ceremony and sacred objects. As the artists became more aware of the public audience for their art, they adopted the iconographic style of traditional painting in the desert. The painting is divided into two parts: in the upper section the subjects are depicted naturalistically in profile view; in the lower two sections the artist has adopted a planar view including the conventional depiction of roundels surrounded by U-shapes indicating people, and the lines or tracks that join the three sites. The upper section shows a ritual in progress: one decorated figure wearing a headdress is seen dancing. His footprints cover the central section of the work; these indicate where he walked - the entire footprint is depicted - and where he hopped or ran on the balls of his feet, as seen in the line of footprints with no heel. The two seated figures are shown placing sacred boards into a ground sculpture on which stands a feather-topped pole, surrounded by a ground painting of concentric circles. To either side are three caterpillars, seemingly rising from the ground, and an array of shields, boomerangs, stone knives and stone axes. The lower section is defined by a horizontal line containing three sites, adjacent to which is a line of ants and sacred boards. The two boards on the right depict possum tracks.
6901
Man's Love Story (1995, 25x51cm) _ This is a love magic story, an old man is singing to entice a woman to join him. (The older a man is, the more power he has with his tongue and the greater his tribal authority. He can even sing a law breaker to death.) He plans to use a string to secure her and bring her back to him. The central motif (the diagonal white line with four white "horns" in the upper left) is a hair string spindle with possum hair string wrapped around it. The string dangles through the center of the painting as if ready to catch the woman who the old man sings to. The red U shape represents the old man singing and the central white circle and line motif are his body paint designs. The footprints scattered throughout represent his tracks as he dances. This is one of Clifford's most important stories.
Love Story (1972, 61x45cm; 543x399pix, 157kb)
Love Story (1992, 143x100cm; 546x378pix, 88kb)
The Law (1992, 91x125cm; 144kb)
–- Water Track Dreaming (1981, 61x45cm; 1600x1196pix, 447kb)
Creation Story: Water Dreaming (1992, 144x86cm; 107kb)
Corkwood Dreaming (1991, 128x188cm; 113kb)
Men's Dreaming (1992, 120x120cm octogonal; 161kb)
Napperby Lakes (1994, 122x185cm; 130kb)
Warlugulong (1977, 220x385cm; 89kb)
Worm Dreaming (1993, 120x190cm; 143kb)
— a different Worm Dreaming (202x311pix, 18kb)
–- a third Narripi Worm Dreaming (1996, 120x90cm; 1045x1400pix, 298kb)
— yet another The Worm Dreaming (175x145pix, 17kb) _ This painting depicts the trail that the little yellow worms leave as they burrow underground. The ridges in the earth are shown by the wiggly lines. The lines also depict the trails of the Ancestor Worm-men as they traveled across the earth during the Dreamtime. The Worm Dreaming is the artists Dreaming and belongs particularly to a site, Narripi, approximately 100 kilometers east of MountAllan. Late in the afternoon the man prepare the camp and clear the ground for the ceremony. In preparation for the ceremony the man burn Spinifex grass ( ashes from Spinifex grass are mixed with Kangaroo or Emu fat and are used for body painting ) then they start painting the body designs. The ceremony starts after dark and continues till the early hours in the morning. During the ceremony the Worm-men and the Possum man dance and sit around the symbolic ceremonial circle (ceremonial site), chanting song - titles which tell the journeys of the ancestors. They then become one of the totem.
Human Tracks (81x130cm)
—(080620)
^ Born on 21 June 1640: Abraham Mignon, Frankfurt am Main German still-life painter who died in 1679. — {Ses tableaux étaient des natures mortes, tout ce qu'il y a de plus Mignon.}
— Born in Frankfurt, Mignon was originally apprenticed at the age of nine to the still-life painter Jacob Marrel (Marrell?), who took his student with him when he moved from Germany to the Netherlands in 1664. From 1669 both artists are recorded as members of the Saint Luke's Guild in Utrecht. Here Mignon studied under the still-life specialist Jan Davidszoon de Heem. Until 1672 he worked as the latter's assistant. In 1676 Mignon returned to Frankfurt, where Maria Sibylle Merian became one of his students.
      Mignon's paintings of flowers and fruit show the same opulent style of composition and the same brilliant colors as De Heem's work. His flower pieces are marked by close observation, careful finish, and delicate handling. His favorite scheme was to introduce roses against a dark background. He also did detailed studies of the forest floor.
      Mignon's paintings were popular at courts, the Elector of Saxony and the French king Louis XIV both bought work by Mignon.

LINKS
Still Life with Flowers and Watch (75x60cm) _ In front of a dark recess stands a vase with flowers. Bright reds dominate. The flowers in the bouquet seem to have been scattered casually about the canvas, with almost no overlap. Placed next to the bouquet is an open pocket-watch with a blue ribbon attached. This timepiece and the insects crawling across the flowers suggest the transience of life - of time passing and impinging on everything. The sumptuous, lively still-life paintings of Mignon and his master De Heem have much in common, although Mignon tended to devote more attention to the flower stems in his bouquets. The light enters from the side, making the stems stand out against the dark background.
     Mignon arranged his painting as follows. First he applied dead color over a gray ground to indicate the positions of the flowers. Occasionally, the gray paint appears through the upper layer, as with the pink peonies. Then he painted the surrounding dark background - visible near the striped carnation. His next step was to develop the flowers in further detail, applying yellow tones to the red near the tulip on the right. Some of the flowers are less well-preserved than others, such as the yellow rose left of center. For this, Mignon used less durable pigments. The yellow pigment, orpiment, is short-lived, eventually disappearing when exposed to daylight. In the end, all that remains is a delicate, powdery surface while the bright-yellow color is lost. Orpiment is therefore not suitable for painting large surfaces. It is a pigment that should only be used, if at all, to finish a painting's highlights.
Still life with fruit and oysters (60x75cm) _ Here Mignon presents luscious fruit from far and near. Grapes, apricots, an orange, and a pomegranate are displayed on the table. And amidst this abundance stand costly utensils: a gold cup, a large glass rummer, and a flute. Mignon was a master in rendering different materials and textures.
     The fruit in this still life have not been put down just anyhow. Mignon built the composition up with great care: from small objects in the left foreground, like the orange and the oysters on the flat pewter plate, to large items towards the back on the right, such as the pumpkin and the gold cup. The reflection in the large glass emphasizes the spatial quality.
     Mignon demonstrates just how skilfully he could handle perspective in the lid of the gold cup, lying on the table. Depicting a circle lying diagonally was a feat with which artists liked to show what they could do. The pewter plate protruding just slightly over the edge of the table is another trick that still~life painters often used.
     In the foreground on the right lies a gold pocket watch on a blue ribbon-a traditional element of a 17th-century still life. The instrument, marking the passage of time, was a reference to the transience of life. The snail and the butterfly may symbolize the same idea.
     The colors in Mignon's work sing. The various shades of vermilion stand out against the dark curtain. The blue ribbon on the watch contrasts with the bright green of the velvet tablecloth.
Still Life with Fruits, Foliage and Insects (58x49cm; 400x328pix, 37kb _ ZOOM to 800x656pix, 370kb _ ZOOM+ to 2235x1832pix, 2698kb) _ Still lifes often carried symbolic meanings for their original Dutch viewers. Here, the crowded display of fruit and insects testifies to the bounty of nature. The artist's virtuoso technique also reveals his desire to vie with the natural world and briefly halt time's passage by fixing these objects in paint. The sheer variety of natural organisms still fascinates. But the fruit has begun to rot, and the once-mighty oak tree shows signs of blight. The stone in the foreground has fallen from a once-perfect building, and the arch in the right background crumbles. Butterflies and caterpillars, traditional symbols of transience, also allude to the impermanence of earthly things.
–- Still Life with Crabs on a Pewter Plate (1672, 43x35cm; 3/10 size _ .ZOOM to 3/5 size )
Still-Life (after 1672, 92x73cm) _ Like van Schrieck and Ruysch, Abraham Mignon also composed dioramic situations in the form of forest still-lifes. Set against a dark background without clear spatial delimitations, we can see pedestals and stone plinths building up from the ground. These are covered with an abundance of fruit and vegetables, with delicate stalks of grain winding themselves around pumpkins and corn cobs with blue and yellow kernels. Together with peaches, plums and grapes they combine to form an arrangement which has an affinity to de Heem's religious fruit still-lifes. This painting, too, includes an encoded Christian message. Because of its many seeds and its rapid growth, the pumpkin had been interpreted as a symbol of growing Christian faith since the early Middle Ages. Similar ideas were probably associated - as far as can be determined - with corn cobs and its many kernels, though corn is not mentioned in the Bible. Grapes and corns are well-known references to the Eucharist again. In Mignon's painting the artist arranged the fruit in such a way that it is framed vertically by branches growing upwards from the ground. These branches, which are probably intended to indicate an oak tree, are completely covered with moss and seem almost dried up, though some shoots can be identified which indicate the tree's ability to survive.
Still-Life with Fruits (1665, 40x33cm) _ Notable among the artists Jan Davidszoon de Heem trained during his stay in Utrecht who then worked in his manner is the flower and fruit specialist Abraham Mignon.
Still Life with Peaches, Grapes, and Apricots
Fruit Still-Life with Squirrel and Goldfinch (81x100cm) _ This painting is a variation on the artist's style as seen in his other works. However, the individual objects are no longer scattered across the forest ground but are grouped together in an arched niche, to form a fruit-basket motif that resembles the display of a harvest festival. The painting contains both Eucharistic symbols and an element of transience, indicated by the small number of rotten spots of the fruit, as well as the presence of a clock, and the dualism of good and evil. The two rather cute little animals, a squirrel and a goldfinch, are also in opposition to each other. The squirrel seems to be chained up, but on closer inspection we notice that it has managed to free itself. It has cracked open a walnut and is now eating its kernel. The squirrel had been regarded as a symbol of the evil since the Middle Ages. In this painting it embodies the unleashing of evil in the form of harmlessness. The bell collar around its neck also identifies it as a 'fool' and thus a sinner. The meaning of a squirrel eating walnut becomes obvious when we consider that St Augustine saw the walnut as a symbol of Christ, with the shell as the wood of the cross and the kernel as the life-giving nature of Christ. Unlike the squirrel, the goldfinch is a christological symbol, particularly with reference to the Passion. Its positive meaning can be gathered from its position in the upper portion of the painting (top=sphere of salvation). The actions of the bird are worth nothing. Chained to an arched semicircle, from which it can peck food out of a small container, it is pulling up a thimble-sized receptacle from the left-hand edge of the shelf. It is filled with water or - more likely - wine (as a Eucharistic symbol of the blood of Christ), which has been scooped out of a conical glass without stem or base.
 
^ Died on 21 June 2003: Moshe Kupferman (or Kupperman), Israeli abstract painter, born in Poland on 12 August 1926.
— He fled with his family to the Soviet Union during World War II. His family died during the war and Kupperman came to Israel in 1948. He was one of the founding members of the Lohamei Haghetaot kibbutz in the north of Israel, where he lived until his death. His abstract designs — painted primarily in violet, black, white and occasionally green — were influenced by his experiences as a Holocaust survivor.
— Kupferman, an autodidactic artist, found his way to abstraction working in self-imposed seclusion in his kibbutz, Lohamei Hagetaot, almost completely detached from the shifring trends and processes of the contemporary art world. His work is represented in museum collections in Israel and abroad. Kupferman's painterly "handwriting" results from the combination of two fundamental elements: the obsessive superimposition of layer upon layer of paint in subdued shades ranging from soft violet to grayish mauve, and the repetition of parallel lines, freely brushed but "regulating" the canvas with at times almost drawing like precision. This work process is reflected in an uneasy grid, with the intersecting diagonals showing signs of erasure, and the alternate transparency and opacity of the layers affecting the saturation of the color. Many of Kupferman's works start out with spontaneous "first marks" and continue with the response of the brush to these or with a process of erasure and reconstruction. His compositions are fraught with tension between the revealed and the concealed, between the transparent and the opaque planes. At times they show signs of more extrovert work process related to Abstract Expressionism.

LINKS
The Rift in Time # 1 (1431x1337pix, 370kb)_ The Rift in Time # 2 (1432x1333pix, 315kb) _ The Rift in Time # 3 (1454x1353pix, 232kb) _ The Rift in Time # 4 (1444x1345pix, 312kb) _ The Rift in Time # 7 (1428x1320pix, 276kb) _ The Rift in Time is a series of eight paintings, each 200x200cm. Three of the paintings were made for Yad Layeled, the Children’s Memorial, an institution for teaching children and youth about the Holocaust, built in Kupferman's kibbutz. He called the series at first Di Kriye (in the language of his childhood, Yiddish), i.e. “the Rip” that Jews traditionally tear in their clothes in mourning (such “rips” with real or imaginary knife, indeed, appeared in Kupferman’s early paintings). It is meant both as a concrete gesture of defiance, a ritual of mourning, as well as an abstract concept, an irreparable, unbridgeable rift, like the “Syrian-African Rift,” the result of a geological catastrophe.
Untitled (1974, 131x163cm) _ Kupferman’s vigorous and enigmatic abstractions well up from vivid life experiences: note, for example, the prevalence of architectural or structural idioms in this composition-resonant of his earlier work as a construction worker on his kibbutz in Galilee. His paintings record the often contentious process of wresting images out of paint. In this deceptively simple work, a freely painted grille defines the foreground plane-like a gate through which the eye roves into a pale, luminous space. The space is not vacant, but sectioned and animated by half-submerged systems of brushed and incised lines. Note the faint “horizon”, approached but never touched by lines from above and below. Even fainter lines inscribe wide arcs and a sideways rhythm of curves.
–- Composition (50x55cm ; 1100x1200pix, 151kb) _ The pseudonymous Mushy Sauserforgal has transformed this into the colorful and finely detailed quadruplet pictures
      _ Come Into Position (2007; 940x1328pix, 390kb _ ZOOM to 1329x1880pix, 899kb _ ZOOM+ to 1880x2658pix, 1768kb _ ZOOM++ to 2658x3760pix, 3398kb),
      _ Complex Position (2007; 940x1328pix, 390kb _ ZOOM to 1329x1880pix, 899kb _ ZOOM+ to 1880x2658pix, 1768kb _ ZOOM++ to 2658x3760pix, 3398kb),
      _ Supposition (2007; 940x1328pix, 456kb _ ZOOM to 1329x1880pix, 1089kb _ ZOOM+ to 1880x2658pix, 2103kb _ ZOOM++ to 2658x3760pix, 4263kb) and
      _ Opposition (2007; 940x1328pix, 456kb _ ZOOM to 1329x1880pix, 1089kb _ ZOOM+ to 1880x2658pix, 2103kb _ ZOOM++ to 2658x3760pix, 4263kb) _ One year earlier Sauserforgal had already transformed the same picture into the remarkable
      _ Puck Cup (2206; screen filling, 193kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1480kb)
Painting 1967 (390x482pix, 53kb) _ Painting 1967, a symphony of lively forms in a rich range of colors, brushed with dynamic strokes, demonstrates the expressionistic-dramatic aspect of Kupferman's art.
–- Abstract (1969, 90x125cm; 763x1050pix, 43kb) _ a reddish blackboard with half-a-dozen white chalk lines, and roughly the bottom 30% smeared in green. Sold at Hammersite for $8200 on 19 Oct 2000.
–- Untitled and uninspired (1986, 183x251cm; 511x800pix, 78kb) _ Almost monochrome dull gray with an overall pattern of bands of a slightly different shade of gray, and some off-white smears. The pseudonymous Aaron Taspourom has undertaken the seemingly impossible task of transforming the non-art of this and another seven almost colorless and feature-poor pictures of Kupferman into something colorful and has almost miraculously succeeded with
      _ This is the Title aka Puck Cup (2006; screen filling, 193kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636kb, 1480kb).
Composition (1995, 74x105cm) _ Sold at Hammersite for $3052 on 26 Mar 2000.
Abstract (1975, 57x78cm) _ Right half of Composition 1995, stretched out horizontally and changed from black to gray. Sold at Hammersite for $1265 on 12 Feb 2001.
Composition (1986, 30x26cm; 783x700pix, 95kb) _ Similar to Abstract 1975, but rotated 90º and the top 42% black, the middle 43% bluish gray, and the bottom 15% cream. Sold at Hammersite for $1035 on 19 Oct 2000.
Abstract (28x37cm) _ Sold at Hammersite for $862.50 on 19 Jun 2003.
Untitled black at top (26x19cm; 450x355pix, 42kb)
Untitled black at bottom (26x19cm; 450x358pix, 41kb)
Untitled dark gray (13x22cm; 300x492pix, 57kb)
Untitled medium gray (13x22cm; 289x492pix, 40kb)
Untitled dark purple (13x22cm; 300x492pix, 54kb)
–- Untitled (524x799pix, 67kb)
–- Untitled (527x798pix, 89kb)
–- Untitled (651x799pix, 109kb)
–- Untitled (541x800pix, 47kb) _ Sauserforgal has transformed this rather dull almost monochrome brown picture into the breathtaking twin pictures
      _ Unlit Lead (2007; 664x940pix, 154kb _ ZOOM to 940x1328pix, 282kb _ ZOOM+ to 1329x1880pix, 554kb _ ZOOM++ to 1880x2658pix, 1004kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 1707kb) and
      _ Until Led (2007; 664x940pix, 154kb _ ZOOM to 940x1328pix, 282kb _ ZOOM+ to 1329x1880pix, 554kb _ ZOOM++ to 1880x2658pix, 1004kb _ ZOOM+++ to 2658x3760pix, 1707kb)
Abstract (1983, 114x130cm; 614x700pix, 57kb)
—(070621)
^ Born on 21 June 1882: Rockwell Kent, painter, printmaker, illustrator, who died on 13 March 1971. He studied under William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller.
— Few artists become legends in their own time, but Rockwell Kent has been acclaimed as such and remains one of the great twentieth-century American artists. Persuaded against an art career by his family, he enrolled in the Columbia University School of Architecture in 1900. Still motivated by an interest in art, Kent took summer and night courses at Chase’s New York School and the New York School of Art. In 1902, he entered Chase’s on a scholarship and by 1908 he had his first one man art show and had married Kathleen Whiting. Together they explored Monhegan Island, MA, Newfoundland, Vermont and the Adirondacks, NY. A great artist-adventurer, Kent’s travels took him throughout America and to countries around the world including Ireland, Cape Horn, Labrador, Greenland, Denmark, Sweden and Russia. Kent was particularly interested in Russia and his outspoken socialist politics caused controversy throughout his life and cost him his passport in the 1950’s. A court battle restored his right to travel, and he eventually gave his own collection of his paintings, drawings and graphic works to the Soviet Union. In 1967 he received the Lenin Peace Prize and donated part of the award to North Vietnam. In testimony to his greatness as an American artist, his obituary appeared on the front page of the New York Times in 1971.
—   One of the most widely known US graphic artists and illustrators of the twentieth century, Kent established his reputation in the 1920s and 1930s. The stark contrasts and dramatic mood of prints such as Foreboding (1926) and Almost (1929) distinguish his work.
      Kent was born in Tarrytown, New York. He initially studied architecture at Columbia University (1906-1910) but soon switched to art, becoming the student of such noted teachers as William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Kenneth Hayes Miller. By the 1920s, Kent had developed his style of bold, stylized patterns with dramatic contrasts of black and white. His prints and illustrations brought him wide popularity.
      Kent loved adventure and travel. He spent one winter with his young son on a remote Alaskan Island, and he described his trips to Greenland, Alaska, and the Straits of Magellan in a number of books that he illustrated. His autobiography, It's Me, O Lord, was published in 1955.
      Politics also interested Kent and he participated in the anti-fascist American Artists' Congress. Kent received the Lenin Peace Prize in Moscow in 1967, and was criticized in America for his sympathies with left-leaning radical causes.
—       Born into a genteel but financially insecure family in Tarrytown, New York, in 1882, Rockwell Kent enrolled in Columbia University in 1900 as an architecture student. But his enjoyment of painting classes at William Merritt Chase's summer school soon led him to abandon college, and he moved on to the New York School of Art, where he studied under Robert Henri.
     In 1905, Henri introduced Kent to the summer artists' colony on Monhegan Island off the coast of Maine. Kent, unlike most of the artists, made the decision to remain on Monhegan through the winter, making friends with the residents, sailing with the lobster men, building his own house and painting canvases such as Winter, Monhegan Island and Village on the Island Monhegan.
     In 1914, now married and a father, Kent moved to the small town of Brigus in Newfoundland, where he hoped to find an arcadian way of life and start an art school. His outspoken manner, socialistic views and love of German culture soon aroused enmity among the local residents, who suspected him of being a German spy. He was deported in 1915. The experience deeply depressing to Kent is reflected in powerful paintings, such as House of Dread.
     Again feeling the need for solitude, in 1918 Kent went with his eight-year-old son, Rockwell III, to Fox Island, off the coast of Seward in Alaska's Resurrection Bay. There Kent found the isolation he'd been seeking for painting and reading, living with his son in a trapper's cabin. He also used his time in Alaska to perfect his skill as a woodblock engraver. The publication of his illustrated book Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska (1920), along with the exhibition of his paintings from Resurrection Bay, established Kent as a major US artist.
     In 1922, Kent voyaged to Tierra del Fuego, on an unsuccessful attempt to sail around Cape Horn. The trip inspired a number of paintings and provided the material for a second illustrated book, Voyaging: Southward from the Strait of Magellan.
     After a subsequent stay in a remote village in Ireland, Kent returned to New York State, where he purchased an 80-hectare farm in 1927. For the remainder of his life, it was to be his home, though not his resting place. In 1929, he was off again, sailing to Greenland in a small boat with two men half his age. The voyage ended in shipwreck; but it introduced him to the Greenland natives and gave him his third illustrated book, N by E (1930). Kent was to return to Greenland twice more, in 1931-1932 and 1934-1935, and settled among the Greenlanders, making paintings and gathering the experiences that he set down in two subsequent illustrated books, Salamina (1935) and Greenland Journal (1960). According to Constance Martin, Greenland life "totally charmed him." Kent wrote, "How rich in everything was Greenland!...And no more complete with majesty were the mountains, nor limitless the ocean, than human kind seemed what it ought to be." Martin adds, "For Kent, the Greenland paintings were the most important of his career. He continued to work on them until his death." Kent also illustrated his autobiography It's Me, O Lord (1955).
     Kent poured his first-hand knowledge of wilderness and the sea into the images he created for Herman Melville's Moby Dick. R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company published the deluxe, limited edition in 1930, featuring over 270 illustrations. A Random House edition was published the same year and was sold through the Book-of-the-Month Club, popularizing Kent's illustrations throughout the United States and the world.
     There was one notable limit to Rockwell Kent's celebrity. When he was introduced to people, they frequently took him to be another artist known for his illustrations, Norman Rockwell. The latter, in turn, found that people often mistook him for Rockwell Kent.
     After World War II, however, Rockwell Kent's fortunes declined. His art fell out of favor, as Abstract Expressionism became a dominant force; and his left-wing politics opened him to attack. During the years from 1950 to 1958, Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations subcommittee summoned him to testify, the State Department revoked his passport and many institutions withdrew their invitations to exhibit his works. In 1958, Kent won a Supreme Court decision restoring his passport. But in outrage against his treatment during the McCarthy years, and in gratitude to the Soviet Union for giving him a 1957 retrospective at The State Hermitage Museum, Kent decided in 1960 to donate more than eighty of his paintings and 800 watercolors and drawings "to the people of the Soviet Union."
     In the spring of 1969, Kent's home in the Adirondacks was struck by lightning and destroyed. Although he immediately arranged for a new house to be built on the foundations, he subsequently suffered a stroke. He died in 1971, shortly before his eighty-ninth birthday.

LINKS
5 by Kent
Clover Fields, Asgaard
Workers of the World, Unite!
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis illustrated by Kent _ As artist, illustrator, Radventurer, and explorer, Rockwell Kent was a prolific and active individual. In 1903, he took his mother’s advice to prepare for a conventional profession by accepting a scholarship at Columbia University’s School of Architecture. However, after three years of study, Kent chose to pursue his lifelong love of painting with a scholarship at the New York School of Art. Under the tutelage of painters Robert Henri, William Merritt Chase, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and Abbott Thayer, Kent’s spare and distinctive style developed, which he applied to magazine covers, paintings, and prints.
      While commercial illustrations provided Kent with a steady income in the 1920s, by the 1930s, he had perfected his technique in book design and typography. At the height of his popularity, Kent illustrated classic literature such as Candide, Faust, Moby Dick, Canterbury Tales, and Venus and Adonis. His illustrations for Venus and Adonis incorporate the flowing Art Deco line and the bold, simplified forms that were his hallmarks.
Hay Bales, Evening, Below Whiteface (1965, 88x112cm)
Mountain Landscape (1939, 46x76cm)
Monhegan Harbor (1950, 71x96cm)
Mount Whiteface Asgaard (1961, 51x61cm)
—(070620)
^ Born on 21 June 1859: Henry Ossawa Tanner, Black US Realist painter born in Pittsburgh PA, who died on 25 May 1937 in Paris, France. He studied under Thomas Eakins, Bouguereau, Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin-Constant.
— Henry Ossawa Tanner was the son of Benjamin Tucker Tanner, a minister and eventually a bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Thus Henry Ossawa Tanner was raised in an affluent, well-educated Black US family. Although reluctant at first, Tanner’s parents eventually responded to their son’s unflagging desire to pursue an artistic career and encouraged his ambitions. In 1879, Tanner enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where he joined Thomas Eakins’s coterie. Tanner moved to Atlanta in 1889 in an unsuccessful attempt to support himself as an artist and instructor among prosperous middle-class Blacks. The White Methodist missionary bishop Joseph Crane Hartzell [01 Jun 1842 – 1929] and his wife arranged for Tanner’s first solo exhibition, the proceeds from which enabled the struggling artist to move to Paris in 1891. Illness brought him back to the United States in 1893, and it was at this point in his career that Tanner turned his attention to genre subjects of his own race. In 1893 most US artists painted US Black subjects either as grotesque caricatures or sentimental figures of rural poverty. Tanner, who sought to represent Black subjects with dignity, wrote: “Many of the artists who have represented Negro life have seen only the comic, the ludicrous side of it, and have lacked sympathy with and appreciation for the warm big heart that dwells within such a rough exterior.”

LINKS
–- S*#> Man with a Ruff (1895, 44x36cm; 500x403pix, 18kb _ /S#*>ZOOM to 1591x1282pix, 107kb) probably a copy of a 16th century painting, or possibly the portrait of a contemporary actor in a 16th century costume.
The Annunciation (1898, 145x182cm; 621x774pix, 58kb)
The Banjo Lesson (1893, 124x90cm; 830x591pix, 65kb) _ The banjo had become a symbol of derision, and caricatures of insipid, smiling US Blacks strumming the instrument were a cliché. In The Banjo Lesson, Tanner tackles this stereotype head-on, portraying a man teaching his young protégé to play the instrument — the large body of the older man lovingly envelops the boy as he patiently instructs him. If popular nineteenth-century imagery of the Black male in the US had divested him of authority and leadership, then Tanner in The Banjo Lesson recreated him in the role of father, mentor, and sage. The Banjo Lesson is about sharing knowledge and passing on wisdom. The exposition-sized canvas was accepted into the Paris Salon of 1894. That year it was given by Robert Ogden of Philadelphia to Hampton Institute near Norfolk, Virginia, one of the first and most prestigious black colleges founded shortly after Emancipation. Hampton lent it the next year to Atlanta’s Cotton States and International Exposition of 1895, where it hung in the Negro Building. Contemporary critics largely ignored the work. Tanner painted another Black genre subject in 1894, The Thankful Poor, but then abandoned subjects of his own race in favor of biblical themes. When Tanner returned to Paris in 1895, he established a reputation as a salon artist and religious painter but never again painted genre subjects of US Blacks.
Salome (1900; 461x343pix, 19kb)
The Two Disciples at the Tomb (1906, 130x106cm) _ “Peter and the other disciple [John] started for the tomb. Both were running, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first. He bent over and looked in at the strips of linen lying there but did not go in. Then Simon Peter, who was behind him, arrived and went into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, as well as the burial cloth that had been around Jesus' head. The cloth was folded up by itself, separate from the linen. Finally the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went inside. He saw and believed. (They still did not understand from Scripture that Jesus had to rise from the dead.” (John 20:3~9)
      Here, John’s youthful face reflects the emptiness of the arched tomb. Next to him, bowing his head in awe, stands the bearded disciple Peter, who will later become the leader of the Christian church. The sense of spirituality is emphasized by the light radiating from the tomb. Born on the eve of the Civil War in a house that served as an Underground Railroad station, Tanner was six years old when slavery was abolished in 1865. At the age of 21 he was the only black student admitted to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, a noted art school. There he studied with Thomas Eakins, one of America's leading painters in the late 19th century. After struggling to establish a career as an artist in Philadelphia, Tanner moved to Paris, then the art capital of the western world. In Paris, Tanner was able to live and paint without battling the racial barriers of the United States. Although Tanner depicted a wide range of subjects — North African landscapes, portraits, and Black US genre scenes — he considered himself primarily a painter of religious subjects. Two Disciples at the Tomb became one of Tanner’s most well-known religious paintings in America, giving him at long last the kind of recognition that he had received abroad. Called "the most impressive and distinguished work of the season" in 1906, the painting competed against 350 other works to win the Harris Silver Medal at The Art Institute of Chicago.
 

Died on a 21 June:


1985 Werner Drewes, US painter born in Germany (main coverage) on 27 July 1899. —(060213)

^ 1975 Émile Grau-Sala, French painter born on 22 June 1911.
–- Figuras
–- Paddock

^ 1957 Frantisek Kupka, Czech painter born on 22 September 1871. — LINKS
The Way of Silence (1903) _ This was inspired by the poem “Dream-land” (1850) by Edgar Allan Poe [1809-1849], about a lone traveler on a seemingly endless road under a starry sky, flanked by two rows of stone sphinxes. A Latin text on the pedestal of the front sphinx, 'QUID AD CAUSUM SUMUS' poses a life-and-death question. Although Kupka's painting certainly doesn't correspond to Poe's Dream-land in the particulars of its imagery, its depiction of a pathway through eternity certainly captures the atmosphere of the poem's opening stanza:
BY a route obscure and lonely,
Haunted by ill angels only,
Where an Eidolon, named NIGHT,
On a black throne reigns upright,
I have reached these lands but newly
From an ultimate dim Thule —
From a wild weird clime that lieth, sublime,
Out of SPACE — out of TIME.
The Wave (1902)
The Lotus Soul (1898)
The Book Lover I (1897)
Color Abstraction (772x800pix, 197kb) _ The pseudonymous Frantik Cupcayk has metamorphosed this picture into a much more colorful symmetrical abstraction with the irrelevant title
      _ Cabbage, Parrot, Traction aka Loco Col (2006; screen filling, 210kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1830kb) .
View from a Carriage Window (1901)
Dynamic of a ballet (1912)
Planes by Colors aka Great Nude (1909, 150x180cm)
Machine comique (1928, 74x84cm)
Musique (1936, 85x93cm) monochrome bluish gray
L'archaïque (1910, 110x90cm)
Compliment (1912, 89x108cm; 572x700pix, 245kb) _ Cupcayk has transformed this in two ways: into
      _ Complir Sans Mentir aka Oir Río (2006; screen filling, 330kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2346kb) and
      _ Accomplissement qu'on plus ment aka A Río Irá (2006; screen filling, 331kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2345kb).
Lignes animées (193x200cm)
Plans verticaux (1913, 104x68cm)
Boudoir scene (1903)
Money (1899) —(060528)

1949 Edward Alexander Wadsworth, English painter born (full coverage) on 29 October 1889. —(071029)

1940 Jean Édouard Vuillard, French painter born (full coverage) on 11 November 1868. —(051110)

1920 Gaetano Previati, Italian artist born on 31 August 1852.

1900 Francesco Beda, Italian artist born on 29 November 1840.

^ 1812 Johann-Friedrich-August Tischbein “Leipzig Tischbein”, German painter specialized in Portraits, born on 09 March 1750. He studied under Anton Raphael Mengs. — Not to be confused with more than twenty other painters of the same family, including his cousin the portraitists Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein “Goethe Tischbein” [15 February 1751 – 26 June 1829]; his uncle and teacher Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Elder “Kassel Tischbein” [14 October 1722 – 22 August 1789]; Anton Wilhelm Tischbein [01 March 1730 – 01 November 1804]; and August Anton Tischbein [09 October 1805 – after 1867] — LINKS
Self-Portrait (1800, monochrome reproduction)
William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau (1789; 1600x1344pix, 123kb)
Gräfin Henriette von Egloffstein [1773-1864] (700x528pix, 42kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1056pix, 147kb)
Lautenspielerin (1786; 600x458pix, 89kb)
Frédérique Louise Wilhelmine, princesse d'Orange~Nassau (1788, 210x165cm; 512x391cm, 26kb)

^ >1661 Andrea Sacchi, Roman painter and designer born on 30 November 1599. He occupied an important position, midway between Annibale Carracci and Carlo Maratti [1625-1713], in the development of a more restrained, less decorative painting in 17th-century Rome, a trend that culminated in the 18th century with Pompeo Batoni. Sacchi was trained by Francesco Albani [1578-1660], Carracci’s student, and taught Maratti. His often expressed devotion to the art of Raphael and Carracci and his criticism of the views of Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini made him, with Nicolas Poussin and Alessandro Algardi, one of the most significant representatives of a stylistic and aesthetic opposition to the more flamboyant, extrovert aspects of the High Baroque. Sacchi did not, however, share Poussin’s passionate interest in Classical antiquity, nor was his mature work as cerebral. Yet his mature style, less richly colored than his early manner and more restrained emotionally, blended elements now associated with both Baroque and Classical art in a complex synthesis that was an original and deeply considered interpretation of Italian artistic traditions. — The assistants of Sacchi included Andrea Camassei, Giacinto Gimignani, Carlo Maratti. — Besides Maratti, the students of Sacchi included Pietro Paolo Baldini, Luigi Garzi, and Joseph Werner II too. — Portrait of Sacchi by Carlo Maratta [13 May 1625 – 1713)] — LINKS
The Three Magdalenes (1634, 68x50cm; 1042x771pix, 121kb)
The Vision of Saint Romuald (1631, 310x175cm; 1000x569pix, 79kb)
L'Angelo Custode (242x149cm; 466x300pix, 27kb) _ Compare:
      _ by Carlo Dolci, The Guardian Angel (1675)
      _ by Marcantonio Franceschini, The Guardian Angel
      _ by Pietro Novelli, The Guardian Angel
      _ by Giovanni Batista Piazetta, The Guardian Angel (1718) and The Guardian Angel with Saints Anthony of Padua and Gaetano Thiene (1729)
      _ by Pietro da Cortona, The Guardian Angel (1656)
      _ by Andrea Pozzo, Guardian Angel
A Nobleman (75x61cm; 730x600pix, 58kb) from “the circle of Sacchi” —(080620)


Born on a 21 June:

>1850 Johann Hamza, Austrian painter of genre scenes and portraits who died in 1927.. He was a student of Edward Von Engerth at the Academy of Fine Arts of Vienna.
–- The Wedding (958x1396pix, 172kb)
Die Hochzeit (34x44cm; 480x616pix, 34kb). —(080620)

>1847 Wilhelm Velten, Russian German painter who died in 1929. — [Is it true that when an art dealer asked a hesitating customer: “What exactly do you want?”, the vealthy Svede answered: “Vat I vant? Vell... ten Velten.”?}
Harvest scene (8x13cm)

^ 1845 Luis Jiménez Aranda, Spanish Impressionist painter who died in 1928. — LINKS
La Cuna ( 82x58cm; _ ZOOM to 2388x1780pix, 1157kb)
Washerwoman On a River Bank (59x85cm; 700x1000pix, 204kb)
–- La visita al hospital (1897) _ Representa al período de aprendizaje del médico, a través de las endeñanzas de sus maestros.
A Lady at the Paris Exposition of 1889 (636x450pix, 42kb) —(080620)

1744 (infant baptism) Wybrand Hendriks, Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 28 January 1831. —(080620)


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