ART 4 2-DAY 19 June v.9.50
Died on 19 June 1839: Joseph
Paelinck, Flemish painter born on 20 March 1781.
— The son of a farmer, he studied at the Academie in Ghent. He exhibited for the first time in 1802 at the Ghent Salon, then left for Paris where he was admitted into Jacques-Louis David’s studio. In 1804 his Judgement of Paris obtained a prize at the Ghent Salon. The first of numerous commissions that followed was for Saint Colette (1806), which was in keeping with the contemporary Historicist vogue. In 1808 he was commissioned to paint a portrait of the Empress Josephine, and in the same year the town of Ghent granted him an allowance for four years of study in Rome where, with other former students of David, he took part in the decoration of the Palazzo del Quirinale; his contribution, Augustus Ordering the Adornment of Rome, is untraced. While in Italy he also painted a Neo-classical Invention of the Cross (1812; Ghent, St Michel), inspired by Raphael. In 1812 he returned to Ghent and in 1815 moved to Brussels to paint the portrait of William, Prince of Orange (1818). He painted several religious subjects, including a Crucifixion (1817) and the Disciples at Emmaus (Everghem Church), which have links with the 17th-century French tradition. Among the portraits he executed in this period is The Snoy Family (1818), a painting that attempts to create a new iconography in its reversal of traditional postures: it is the wife who stands, denoting authority, while the husband sits in a relaxed pose. In 1820 he began working on lighter mythological subjects, such as Eros and Beautiful Anthea. In a similar vein, his Toilet of Psyche (1823) was highly influenced by David. He later returned to religious subjects (e.g. Flight into Egypt, 1829), emphasizing emotional expression, even sentimentality, and in doing so he joined a populist tendency in religious art. In such late works as the Abdication of Charles V (1832) Paelinck attempted to satisfy current Romantic taste, but the painting was badly received, and his reputation continued to decline until his death.
— Self~Portrait (380x299pix, 14kb)
William I, King of the Netherlands (1819, 227x156cm; 1600x1084pix, 174kb) _ King William I [24 Aug 1772 – 12 Dec 1843] is pictured here in the ceremonial dress of a general in the Dutch army. Over it he is wearing an ermine lined and trimmed cloak. On his cloak are the emblems of the Military Order of William, established by him in 1815. On the table are the sceptre, crown and general's bicorne. Over the edge of the table hangs a map showing part of the Indonesian Archipelago with the words: 'Map of the State of Bantam, Batavia and Cheribon'. The map refers to the destination of the state portrait: Batavia in the Dutch East Indies.
William I was the eldest son of Stadholder William V [08 Mar 1748 – 09 Apr 1806] and Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia. In 1791 the 19-year-old prince married his cousin, also called Wilhelmina of Prussia [1774-1837], two years his junior. A year later their son William was born. If the French army had not brought the Republic to an end in 1795, William would have succeeded his father as stadholder. As it was, he and his family were forced into exile in England. However, William did not remain in England long. He soon left for Germany with his wife and son to fight as a general in the Prussian army. He campaigned against the French, later tried to reach a settlement with Napoleon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821], and finally returned to England. After Napoleon's defeat in 1813, William was invited to return to the Netherlands. He commissioned construction of the North Holland Canal (the Willemsluizen), which was completed in 1824, and whose entrance is shown in the background of the portrait of its chief hydraulic engineer, Blanken (1825, 79x66cm; 1600x1318pix, 222kb), by Jean-Augustin Daiwaille [06 Aug 1786 – 11 Apr 1850].
The office of stadholder (deputy) began as the representive the monarch in a part of the realm. He was both administrator and military commander. In places far away from the monarch's seat of government it could be a powerful position. In the late sixteenth century, when the Dutch provinces rebelled (starting in 1566) against Philip II [21 May 1527 – 13 Sep 1598] of Spain, the office still existed. But now these provinces took it upon themselves to appoint their own stadholders.
— The Fair Anthia Leading her Companions to the Temple of Diana in Ephesus (1820, 230x300cm; 403x532pix, 153kb)
Died on 19 June 1928: Maria
Katarina Wiik, Helsinki painter born on 02 (03?) August
— She studied in Paris at the Académie Julian from 1875 to 1876 under Tony Robert-Fleury and continued her studies with him in the same studio between 1877 and 1880. Her paintings appeared at the Salon for the first time in 1880 (e.g. Marietta, 1880). The realist techniques Wiik absorbed in Paris came to form the basis of her work, tranquil in composition and restrained in color. Her favorite subjects were relatively small-scale portraits such as Hilda Wiik (Fröken Hilda Wiik, 1881, 34x23cm; 707x567pix, 35kb) and still-lifes (e.g. Still-life, 1880). Like many other foreign painters Wiik went to Brittany to paint. In 1883–1884 she worked in Concarneau and Pont-Aven, where her enthusiasm for plein-air painting brought immediacy to her work and greater brightness to her colors (e.g. Breton Farm, 1883). She preferred to record her impressions in portraits, although she also painted small, light-filled landscapes.
In 1889 Wiik worked under the direction of Puvis de Chavannes in Henri Bouvet’s studio in Paris, and in the same year she visited St Ives where she painted, among others, two major works: Out in the World (Ut i världen, 1889, 69x61cm; 36kb) and the St Ives Girl. Both works show Wiik moving towards an ever more internalized and minimal mode of expression, thereby taking part in the process that led, in the 1890s, to a general abandonment of realism in favor of a greater emphasis on emotion. Out in the World, which shows an old woman’s sad parting from a young girl who is leaving home to begin work, shows a change in technique with the use of more united color surfaces and of tone painting. (This work was awarded a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.) During the 1890s and the early 20th century Wiik’s travels were concentrated in Scandinavia, although she visited Paris in 1905. After 1900 she turned from a realist approach to one influenced by Symbolism, taking up sombre and emotional themes, for instance in The Story (1903). She also tried to apply Impressionist ideas on color but failed to recapture the sensitivity and spontaneity of early works painted in Paris. The deterioration of her eyesight made it more difficult for her to work.
— Portrait of the Artist´s sister Miss Hilda Wiik (Porträtt av Hilda Wiik, 1880, 23x20cm; 60kb)
— In the Atelier (I ateljén, 1889, 31x42cm; 43kb)
— Farewell, study for The Obstacle (Avskedet, skiss till målningen Hindret, 1883, 34x2cm; 69kb)
— Hilja Tukiainen (1884; 500x401pix, 57kb) _ Helsinkiläisessä Tukiaisen perheessä oli 11 tytärtä, joista ainakin kolmea Maria Wiik käytti malleinaan. Hilja on tässä viisivuotias. Hän on ollut myös Helene Schjerfbeckin mallina Pajunkissatyttö-maalauksessa.
Born on 19 June 1815: Cornelius David Krieghoff,
Dutch Canadian painter who died on 08 (04?) March 1872.
— He learnt the rudiments of music and painting from his father and about 1830 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Düsseldorf. He moved to the US in 1835 and enlisted in the US army. In New York he met Louise Gauthier, a French–Canadian, and settled in Montréal with her in 1840, working as a painter and a musician. In 1842–3 he had a studio in Rochester, NY; in the following year he studied in Paris, making copies in the Louvre. Returning to Canada in 1845, he painted portraits in Toronto, and from 1845 to 1853 he lived in Longueuil and then in Montreal, where he produced genre paintings, landscapes and portraits. He exhibited in Montreal and Toronto, and a series of lithographs were published after his drawings. However, he found it difficult to sell his work in Montreal and had to resort more or less completely to sign-painting for a living.
About 1853, at the instigation of the auctioneer John Budden, Krieghoff settled in Quebec City. He lived there for 11 years, making several trips to Europe. During this period of intensive production, he achieved popularity and prosperity and painted his best-known pictures, which were scenes depicting the local townspeople and the North American Indians, and views of Quebec City and the surrounding region. About 1858 he made panoramic paintings of Canada for the Provincial Parliament buildings in Quebec. From 1864 to 1867 he lived in Paris and Munich, continuing to paint Canadian themes. He then seems to have joined his daughter in Chicago, returning in 1870 to Quebec, where Budden encouraged him to take up painting genre pictures and townscapes once again.
— Krieghoff is one of the major contributor to Canadian fine arts. Born in Amsterdam, Holland, Krieghoff arrived to New York in 1836. He spent his early years in the States as an army artist and when he left the army in 1840, he married Emilie Gauthier dit Saint-Germain and moved to Canada where the home of Emilie was. In the same year, Emilie gave birth to a son whom they named Henry (Ernest).
After his journey to Europe in 1845, Krieghoff returned to Montreal and since then, he was considered a "Painter of Canada". Krieghoff was mainly a Canadian landscape painter, although in many of his paintings the theme of "les habitans" is woven exquisitely into his works.
During the period of 1846 to 1853, Krieghoff stayed in Longueil, Montreal where he earned his living by selling his own paintings and reproductions of famous paintings. The sale of his own paintings are bad because Canadian, especially the French Canadian, of that time didn't like the genre of his work. Lucky for him, the paintings which he had reproduced are better in sales. However, Krieghoff hated to copy paintings, so, he did very few of these reproductions. With such limited income, Krieghoff could hardly live in the fashion that he wanted; generously and lavishly in drinking houses.
Between 1847 and 1849, Krieghoff taught painting at a school operated by the Misses Plimsoll on Bonaventure street. In fact, Krieghoff's success in Montreal was only prominent in two art auction sales (January 1848 and February 1850) during the period of 1847-1850. In one of these auction sales, Krieghoff competed with Paul Kane who was also a famous painter at that time.
By the year 1860, Krieghoff was a well-established painter in Quebec. After that, he traveled around in Europe and continued to paint and selling them. After his last visit to Quebec in the late 1871, the artist moved permanently to Chicago where he died few months later.
–- Tête d'habitant (708x654pix, 39kb)
— The Game of Cards (1848, 25x30cm) _ detail
— Game of Cards, Playing for Apple (1847, 28x34cm) _ detail
— No Money, No Water (1852, 23x29cm) _ detail
— Après le bal chez Jolifou (61x91cm)
— Bilking the Toll (1859, 42x62cm ; 460x637pix, 33kb) _ detail (480x640pix, 53kb) _ In the early 19th century tollgates were established on major routes into Montreal and Quebec City to fund road maintenance. The largely francophone rural population resented paying the fees to the anglophone government, and young habitants (as the French-speaking people were sometimes called) in particular sometimes tried to run the gates. This painting by a non-francophone artist makes light of the situation and depicts the habitants as mischievous yet harmless. Such stereotypical images confirmed the misguided impressions that many anglophones held of habitants as simple and frivolous people, ignoring the fact that they contended with serious social and political issues.
— Tracking the Moose on the Lake Famine, South of Quebec (1863, 36x53cm) _ detail
— Death of the Moose, South of Quebec (1859, 46x61cm) _ detail
— Habitant in Winter (1858, 43x61cm) _ detail
— Chief Tanaghte, Delegate to Lord Elgin of Montreal (1849, 33x25cm)
— The Basket Seller (1850, 25x19 cm; 539x400pix, 43kb)
— Ships on the North Coast of Holland (70x92cm) _ detail
— Quebec Farm (1856, 57x81cm) _ detail
— Falls of the Little Shawinigan (1859, 49x60cm) _ detail
— Winter Landscape, Laval (1862, 57x89cm; 319x500pix, 36kb)
Died on 19 June 1805: Louis-Jean-François
Lagrenée l'aîné, Parisian Neoclassical
painter born on 21 January 1725.
— Louis Lagrenée was the brother and teacher of Jean-Jacques Lagrenée [18 Sep 1739 – 13 Feb 1821]. From 1760 to 1762 the brothers were together in Russia, Louis having been invited there by Empress Elizabeth. Each brother also spent time at the Académie de France at Rome, before returning to France to pursue a career as a painter. Louis’s son François Lagrenée [1774–1832] was also a painter, who worked in a style much influenced by that of his father and his uncle.
— Louis Lagrenée was a student of Carle Vanloo and won the Prix de Rome in 1749. He stayed for only one year at the Académie de France in Rome (1754). On his return to Paris in 1755 he was received (reçu) as a member by the Académie Royale on presentation of the Rape of Dejanira (Paris, Louvre), a work inspired by Guido Reni’s painting of the same subject in the French royal collection. There followed a career filled with success and honors: from 1760 to 1762 he was Director of the St Petersburg Academy. In 1762 he was appointed a professor at the Académie Royale in Paris. Later, from 1781 to 1785, he was Director of the Académie de France in Rome, and in the latter year he became Recteur of the Académie Royale. From 1804 he was appointed a curator of the new national museums.
Lagrenée l'aîné was a winner of the Rome Prize, academician, director of the St. Petersburg Academy, then the French Academy in Rome, he specialized in historical scenes or scenes from Antiquity.
As a student, Louis Lagrenée won the Grand Prix at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1749. Following a brief stay in Rome, he was received into the Académie in 1755 with the completion of a painting that earned him favorable comparisons to Guido Reni. From 1760 until 1762, he directed the Saint Petersburg Academy at the Russian court. Upon his return to Paris, Lagrenée became a professor at the Académie and received a range of important public commissions, excelling at medium-size and small paintings.
A virtuoso of fine craftsmanship, Lagrenée was one of three painters responsible for the transformation of French painting away from the Rococo style towards a more restrained, classicizing idiom. He deliberately rejected the exuberant, artificial aesthetic of the mid-1700s, reviving instead the previous century's taste for an elegant, polished style.
— The students of Lagrenée l'aîné included, besides Lagrenée le jeune, Dmitry Levitsky, Pierre Peyron, L. M. A. Bilcoq.
Horatius after Striking his Sister (1754, 95x134cm). The companion piece is A War Offering Made the Day Before Battle by the Samnites who Swore to Sacrifice Themselves for their Homeland. The episode depicted is taken from Livy's History of Rome (Bk. 1, XXVI): After defeating the Curiatii, the last of the three Horatii brothers meets his sister, who had been betrothed to one of the dead champions. The young woman is "in tears [...] The proud young man is overcome by anger at his sister's lamentations amid the crowd's transports of joy celebrating his victory. He draws his sword and as he strikes the young woman, he showers her with reproach: "Take your scandalous love away! Go and join your fiancé [...] you who have forgotten your homeland! So dies any Roman woman who would mourn an enemy."
Mars & Venus, an Allegory of Peace (1770, 64x54cm) _ Mars, the god of War, throws back the rich green bed curtains that frame this gentle allegory of peace. As the drapery parts, the morning light spills in to reveal the form of the sleeping Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Mars gazes at her, utterly captivated by her beauty. Her love has tempered his fierce character, and his shield and sword lie abandoned on the floor. Echoing the lovers' bliss, a pair of white doves, symbolizing Peace, build a nest in Mars's helmet. Lagrenée created his finest works, including this small, jewel-like painting, around 1770. The lavish folds of drapery, the delicate play of light over fabric and skin, and the rich, restrained palette combine to create a captivatingly beautiful image.
— Pygmalion and Galatea (1781, oval 58x48cm; 923x760pix, 58kb) _ Ovid, in his Metamorphoses (translation), says that Greek mythological king Pygmalion, who was also a sculptor, made an ivory statue representing his ideal of womanhood and then fell in love with his own creation (which, according to later retelling of the story, he named Galatea); the goddess Venus brought the statue to life in answer to his prayer.
The story was the inspiration for many artists besides Lagrenée. Jean-Léon Gérôme [11 May 1824 – 10 Jan 1904] made at least two different paintings of the moment of transformation: Pygmalion and Galatea (1890, 89x69cm; 507x420pix, 40kb) and Pygmalion and Galatea (1890, 89x69cm; 327x225pix, 25kb). Le Moyne painted Pygmalion Seeing His Statue Come to Life (954x760pix, 72kb). Burne-Jones painted two versions (1870 and 1878) of a Pygmalion Series of four paintings: The Heart Desires (1870), The Hand Refrains (1870; 652x490pix, 33kb), The Godhead Fires (1870; 646x491pix, 36kb), The Soul Attains (1870, 645x491pix, 19kb), The Soul Attains (1878, 99x76cm; 853x636pix, 99kb). Watts [1817-1904] painted The Wife of Pygmalion (1868, 66x53cm; 700x577pix, 112kb). Boucher painted Pygmalion and Galatea (1767; 483x700pix, 92kb). Eoin de Leastar painted Pygmalion (374x302pix, 30kb).
The play Pygmalion (1912), by George Bernard Shaw [26 Jul 1856 – 02 Nov 1950], inspired the musical My Fair Lady (1956) of librettist Alan Jay Lerner [31 Aug 1918 – 14 Jun 1986] and composer Frederick Loewe [10 Jun 1901 – 14 Feb 1988].