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DEATHS: 1843 MICHEL — 1667 DE KEYSER1980 GUSTON
BIRTHS: 1868 MACKINTOSH1848 GAUGUIN — BAPTISM: 1724 MAUBERTSCH
^ >Born on 07 June 1868: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish Art Nouveau architect, designer, and painter, who died on 10 December 1928.
— Born in Glasgow, the son of a police superintendent, Mackintosh is the most famous of the Glasgow Style designers and has become something of a cult figure of international importance. He studied at the Glasgow School of Art while being apprenticed to the architect John Hutchinson, transferring to the firm of Honeyman and Keppie in 1889. In 1891 a travelling scholarship enabled him to visit Italy, France and Belgium, and in 1902 he began to paint a series of mystical watercolors. Meanwhile his furniture designs were establishing a repertoire of forms which became the hallmarks of the Glasgow Style and his reputation as an architect was confirmed by his famous designs for Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909). In 1900 he married Margaret MacDonald, who collaborated with him closely and encouraged his painting. Although his work was highly acclaimed abroad, Glasgow proved increasingly restrictive, and in 1914 he left to concentrate on painting in watercolors. He lived in Chelsea until 1923 and thereafter in France.
— In the pantheon of heroes of the Modern Movement, he has been elevated to a cult figure, such that the importance of his late 19th-century background and training in Glasgow are often overlooked. He studied during a period of great artistic activity in the city that produced the distinctive Glasgow Style. As a follower of A. W. N. Pugin and John Ruskin, he believed in the superiority of Gothic over Classical architecture and by implication that moral integrity in architecture could be achieved only through revealed construction. Although Mackintosh’s buildings refrain from overt classicism, they reflect its inherent discipline. His profound originality was evident by 1895, when he began the designs for the Glasgow School of Art. His decorative schemes, particularly the furniture, also formed an essential element in his buildings. During Mackintosh’s lifetime his influence was chiefly felt in Austria, in the work of such painters as Gustav Klimt and such architects as Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich.

LINKS
Fetges (1927, 46x46cm; 413x409pix, 40kb)
Yellow clover (1901 watercolor, 22x13cm; 522x316pix, 214kb) _ Watercolor botanical studies such as this have a long history in European art, and by Mackintosh's day were a necessary part of the training of artists and designers. Meticulous drawings of plant forms and an understanding of their basic structure were an essential source of ideas for students of design and tested their drawing skills. Mackintosh has almost a cult status as a Scottish architect and designer, and his work prefigured many developments in art and design throughout Europe in the 20th century. In his architectural work Mackintosh had used stylized patterns derived from a careful study of flowers and plants. He was a very skilled artist as well as an architect, and towards the end of his career concentrated only on painting. From 1901 he had made a collection of botanical studies of individual flowers and shrubs, usually sketched during holidays in England. Although often spare and linear, they have a powerful emotional appeal. Mackintosh took the traditional form of botanical drawing and modernized it.
–- Wild Pansy and Wood Violet, Chiddingstone Heath (May 1910, 25x20cm; 510x411pix, 43kb)
(Batik-like furnishing fabric) (1922 roller printed cretonne, 78x88cm; 585x750pix, 565kb) _ The pattern mimics the compartmentalized areas filled with small-scale decoration found in Indonesian batik designs. The technique involves applying wax to the textile to protect the patterned areas before placing it in a dye bath. The process can then be repeated by removing areas of wax and dyeing the exposed parts with further colors.
(Furnishing fabric) (1918 printed cotton, 88x78cm; 680x513pix, 413kb) _ The purple and green colors are typical of the era. Mackintosh was ahead of his time in experimenting with geometrization and the flattening of forms. These were features that later became characteristic of Art Deco. From 1915 to 1923 Mackintosh lived in London, where he was unable to attract commissions as an architect. So he created designs for textiles.
Photo of Mackintosh and 7 architectural drawings (small images)
—(070607)
^ Died on 07 June 1843: Georges Michel, French painter born on 12 January 1763.
— He came from a humble background, his father being an employee at the wholesale market Les Halles in Paris. At an early age, a farmer general, M. de Chalue, took an interest in him and found him a place with the curate of Veruts, on the plain of Saint-Denis, north of Paris. It was here that he first developed a love of the countryside. In 1775 he was apprenticed to a mediocre history painter called Leduc, but he preferred to go off and sketch out of doors. In order to assist him, M. de Berchigny, Colonel in the Hussars, engaged him in his regiment garrisoned in Normandy and arranged for him to take lessons in art. He remained there for more than a year and then returned to Paris, where he worked with M. de Grammont-Voulgy, who was Steward to the brother of Louis XVI. In 1789 Grammont-Voulgy took him to Switzerland, and Michel also visited Germany, where he stayed with the Duc de Guiche. Michel exhibited at the Salon between 1796 and 1814. Both his subject-matter and technique reveal the deep influence of seventeenth century Dutch landscapes by Koninck and Rembrandt. Michel's dark landscapes and dramatic lighting foreshadow the work of Daumier and Millet.

LINKS
Le Moulin d'Argenteuil (1839; 600x508pix, 137kb _ ZOOM not recommended to 1400x1185pix, 568kb, severely patterned especially in dark areas _ ZOOM+ not recommended to even worse 2264x1916pix, 2365kb, blurry and patterned all over)
Vaste Paysage avec Ciel Orageux (37x62cm)
An Extensive Landscape with Windmills (97x127cm)
Landscape With Windmills on a Hill (60x87cm) _ in shades of only three colors: grayish white, grayish violet (mostly for the clouds), and grayish brown (for the land).
La Plaine de Saint-Denis (1825, 32x45cm; 457x635pix, 99kb) _ This view of the plains to the North of Paris under a dramatic stormy sky is typical of Michel. The paint is swiftly and freely applied most dramatically in the bursting storm cloud where Michel has dragged the paint to mimic the sudden torrent of rain. In the foreground are two windmills, one in deep shadow the other in a pool of light. Such dramatic contrasts of light and shadow in the landscape help suggest the movement of the clouds in the sky above.
Landscape (1840, 74x102cm; 505x700pix, 46kb) _ George Michel made his living not only as a landscape painter, but also as a restorer of Dutch and Flemish paintings in the Louvre. Unlike other French landscape painters of the time, who looked to Italy and Greece for classical themes, Michel was inspired by the 17th-century Dutch landscape masters whose work he knew so well. Following their example, Michel chose scenes that were familiar to him, in this instance the countryside outside of Paris. The dominance of the stormswept sky over the panoramic sweep of flat farmlands may recall earlier Dutch compositions but Michel imbues his painting with the grandeur and drama of 19th century Romanticism.
Evening Landscape (1820; 600x800pix, 176kb) annoyingly patterned in the dark clouds.
 
^ Baptized as an infant on 07 June 1724: Franz Anton Maulbertsch (or Malberz, Maubertsch, Malpertsch), Austrian painter who died on on 07 August 1796 (he may have been born on 04 June 1724).
— His work as a painter of both oil paintings and frescoes on religious, mythological and occasionally worldly themes spanned the second half of the 18th century, adapting a Late Baroque training to the onset of Neo-classicism but remaining strikingly individual throughout. His fresco work, mostly still in situ in widespread central European locations, came at the end of an artistic tradition and was for long neglected, being far from major cultural centres; but it is now seen to establish him as one of the leading painters of his century and a colorist comparable to Giambattista Tiepolo.
— Maulbertsch was the outstanding Austrian decorative painter of the 18th century. He was active and extremely productive over a wide area of central Europe and most of his works (altarpieces as well as frescoes) are still in the churches and secular buildings in Austria, the Czech republic, Hungary, and Slovakia for which they were painted. Maulbertsch's vivacious, colorful, and emotional style was almost completely resistant to Neoclassical influences, representing the last glorious flowering of the Baroque and Rococo tradition. His painterly dash is even more apparent in his oil sketches, which are well represented in the Barockmuseum, Vienna, and he was also an outstanding etcher. His oeuvre is well represented in Hungary. A major work of his early period was a series of frescoes for the parish church of Sümeg (1757-1759) followed by frescoes for the Erdõdy-castle and its chapel (1763), allegoric frescoes for the Féltorony-castle (1765), frescoes of the Gyõr cathedral (1772, 1781), the dome of the Vác cathedral (1774) , frescoes of Saint Stephen for the parish church in Vác (1781-1782) and frescoes of the episcopal see in Szombathely (1783). The frescoes of the chapel of the girls' school in Eger show the calmness of his late period (1792-1793).
— Josef Winterhalder II was a student of Maubertsch.

LINKS
Rebecca and Eliezer (1750, 72x92cm) _ This painting and its companion-piece, Joseph and his Brothers (1750, 73x91cm), are early works showing the influence of Troger and the Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Pittoni.
Annunciation (study) (1794, 81x52cm) _ This study was painted for the fresco on the nave ceiling in the Cathedral of Szombathely.
Adoration by the Shepherds _ detail (1758) _ The detail is a self-portrait.
Mary Magdalen (1754) _ This painting shows the influence of Piazzetta.
Saint Paul (1759, 200x113cm)
The Trinity (62x33cm) _ This sketch from the late period of the artist was a study for the altarpiece in the Parish Church in Wien-Reindorf.
Allegory of the Alba (1750, 67x53cm) _ The artist applied the same rococo style to all subjects whether religious, mythological, or allegorical subjects.
The Death of Saint Joseph (1767)
Apotheosis of a Hungarian Saint (1773)
52 images at Bildindex
 
^ Buried on 07 June 1667: Thomas Dirk de Keyser, Amsterdam Baroque painter born in 1596.
— Following an apprenticeship with an unidentified master in painting, Thomas de Keyser was trained in architecture from 1616 to 1618 by his father. Although he ultimately followed his father and two brothers, Pieter and Willem, into service for the city of Amsterdam as city mason (1662–1667), no designs for buildings by Thomas are known, with the exception of an unbuilt triumphal arch published in Salomon de Bray’s Architectura moderna (1631). Thomas de Keyser turned to painting, producing highly original portraits. He played a significant role in creating innovative portrait types that were favoured by members of the newly risen class of Dutch burghers. He worked in nearly every type of portrait format produced in the northern Netherlands in the 17th century.
— Son and student of sculptor and architect Hendrick Corneliszoon de Keyser I [15 May 1565 – 15 May 1621], Thomas de Keyser was municipal architect to the City of Amsterdam from 1662 until his death (he added the cupola to van Campen's Town Hall), but he is better known as a portrait painter. He was indeed, Amsterdam's leading portraitist before being overtaken in popularity by Rembrandt in the 1630s. His life-size portraits look stiff compared with Rembrandt's and he is more attractive and original on a small scale. Constantin Huygens and His Clerk (1627) is an excellent example of one of his small portraits of full-length figures in an interior, forerunners of the conversation pieces. His small equestrian portraits were also a new type (Pieter Schout, 1660).
— Henry Stone was a student of de Keyser.

LINKS
The Company of Captain Allaert Cloeck and Lieutenant Lucas Jacobszoon Rotgans, Amsterdam [giant size] — The Militia Company of Captain Allaert Cloeck [regular size] (1632, 220x351cm) _ Here de Keyser follows the Amsterdam tradition of showing civic guards standing full-length that was established by Cornelis Ketel in the previous century (1588). De Keyser accentuated the middle group by placing it in front of the other guardsmen, who are on different levels and appear to be on the way to join their officers. Nevertheless, the result is not very satisfactory. There is no indication of a unity between the sixteen figures, and de Keyser's attempt to combine a horizontal setting with the effect of depth by placing symmetrical groups at various distances fails by its stiffness. The painting was commissioned by the guards for the Kloveniersdoelen, where it was mounted with other group portraits of Amsterdam civic guard companies that used the building. Rembrandt's Nightwatch was hung there a decade later.
     It is no easy task to paint a group portrait in which everyone is clearly visible without it looking forced. Thomas de Keyser found an unusual solution to this problem. In his militia piece the most important figures are in front on a sort of platform. They are somewhat larger than the other militiamen. The captain is on the left. He is recognizable from his walking stick and his gesture. The man next to him, with the banner, is the ensign. The lieutenant on the right, true to tradition, is holding a halberd, a “partisan“ which is a weapon with a shaft of some three to four meters and a long flat iron blade, culminating in a broad point. At the base of the blade are tiny hooks. Partisans were employed as weapons in battle from the Middle Ages to the 19th century. By the 17th century it had become the lieutenant's symbol in the Dutch militias. Today a few regiments of guardsmen still carry partisans. On both sides of this group are three junior officers, with one foot on the platform,. The men in the background are both the lowest in rank and the smallest in size. The names of all the militiamen are written on two pieces of paper on the left.
     De Keyser attempted to achieve perspective by giving his figures different positions and sizes. In the original designs this was more convincing than in his finished painting. This is clear from two preliminary studies that have been preserved. On these drawings the composition is broader and the figures stand more freely in the space. Presumably De Keyser had expected to be able to paint a broad canvas. In the end the space available was divided between two paintings. The two canvases hung above the stairs in the entrance hall of the arquebusiers' building, the Kloveniersdoelen.
Equestrian Portrait of Pieter Schout (1660, 86x70cm) _ In his group portraits de Keyser follows the Amsterdam tradition of showing civic guards standing full-length. The result is not very satisfactorily. He is more original and successful in his small scale, full-length portraits of one or two figures in interiors surrounded by objects that allude to their interests and achievements. His masterwork in this branch of genre-like portraiture, which he principally formulated and popularized, is Constantijn Huygens and his Clerk dated 1627. In addition to portraits, de Keyser's oeuvre includes religious and mythological subjects. During the 1640s and 1650s he was active as a stone merchant and mason, and painted less, but afterwards he picked up his brushes more frequently. During his last years he painted a few small-scale equestrian portraits, a type that never gained wide popularity in the Netherlands. The first is Pieter Schout on Horseback, which depicts his patrician patron, who was High Bailiff of Hagstein, on a black Andalusian executing a 'pesade' in a dune landscape.
Constantijn Huygens and his Clerk (1627, 92x69cm) _ Thomas de Keyser lived and worked in Amsterdam and from the diary of the sitter, Constantijn Huygens, we know that Huygens was in Amsterdam between 22 February and 27 April 1627, the year on this portrait. It may well be 'my portrait painted shortly before my wedding' (which took place on 6 April 1627) about which Huygens wrote some Latin verses: he was then thirty-one. Two years earlier Huygens, who had previously been at the Dutch embassies in Venice and London, was appointed secretary to the Stadholder Prince Frederick Hendrick of Orange. Among his duties he had to advise the Prince on artistic matters and consequently Huygens is an important figure in the history of the art and architecture of the northern Netherlands in the seventeenth century. He was one of the first to recognize the talent of the young Rembrandt and gave him his most important early commission, a series of paintings of the Passion of Christ for the Prince's Noordeinde Palace in The Hague. De Keyser shows Huygens as he sits at his desk in his house in The Hague, attended by a servant bringing a message. Behind him hangs a rich tapestry with his coat of arms in the centre of the border at the top: the central panel appears to depict Saint Francis before the Sultan. Above the mantelpiece is a marine painting in the style of Jan Porcellis, whom Huygens admired. On the table is a long-necked lute or chitarrone, referring to his interest in music, as well as books and architectural drawings. (He was a close friend of the great classical Dutch architect, Pieter Post, and with Post's help designed his own house in The Hague). The globes which can be seen beyond the table, indicate his interest in geography and astronomy. Huygens served successive Princes of Orange: he was first councillor and reekenmeester to the Stadholder-King William III until his death in The Hague in 1687.
Portrait of a Man (1632, 122x90cm) _ Formerly the portrait was attributed to Frans Hals.
Woman Holding a Balance
–- A Family Group (1634, 86x60cm; 800x555pix, 76kb)
—(070606)

Died on a 07 June:


1966 Jean Arp, Alsacian Dadaist~Surrealist poet, artist, sculptor born (main coverage) on 16 September 1886. —(080604)

^ >1942 (1947?) Jean Dunand, Swiss-born French Art Deco sculptor, metalworker, painter, and designer born on 20 March (May?) 1877. Not to be confused with the founder of the Red Cross, Jean-Henri Dunant [08 May 1828 – 30 Oct 1910]. He was trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris, while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. Wisteria vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, 1912) reflect Art Nouveau forms, but he quickly adopted the geometric forms of Art Deco in his work. In 1912 the Japanese artist Seizo Sugawara asked him to solve a problem concerning dinanderie, and in exchange he was given instruction in lacquering. From then on he produced vases, folding screens, doors and other furniture (e.g. Geometric Decor, black and red lacquered screen). About 1925 he started to use egg shell on lacquer. Different effects were produced by varying the size of the pieces and by using the inside or the outside of the shell. He used this technique for both portraits and Cubist compositions (e.g. tray). He worked closely with contemporary artists and designers, especially the furniture designer Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann and the couturiers Madeleine Vionnet and Paul Poiret. His jewelry designs demonstrate a preference for pure, geometric forms, with regular black and red lacquer dots on the metal surface. — LINKS
–- Three decorative door panels (1930, each 197x79cm; spaced together on one image 630x788pix, 89kb) each lacquered on one side with geometric design in autumnal shades and black, with areas of silver leaf.
Portrait (1930, 94x64cm; 450x300pix, 36kb)
–- La Pêche (1935, 62x57cm; 1190x1250pix, 197kb) Ancient Egyptian fishermen in two boats; a lacquered monochrome gold panel, of which Dunand had made a larger version for the Smoking Room of the S.S. Normandie.
–- La Conquête du Cheval (62x57cm; 892x1228pix, 147kb) lacquered monochrome gold panel, five horses about to be lassoed by two riders on other horses. —(070606)

^ 1912 Albert Welti, Swiss painter and engraver born on 18 February 1862 in Zürich. .— After studying photography in Lausanne, he studied art at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich from 1881 to 1885. Following a stay in Venice, he returned to Zürich, where he studied under Arnold Böcklin, with whose intellectual approach to painting he identified. Although he broke off this apprenticeship in 1890, his work thereafter continued to reflect Böcklin’s influence, in both its choice of subject-matter and strong sense of color, as in Nessus and Deianeira (1895). In 1895 Welti moved back to Munich, where he stayed until 1908. He sought to depict dreams, nightmares, and symbolist allegory. He made a series of etchings based on Wagnerian operas. Welti was a close friend of the Hermann Hesse, author of Siddartha and Steppenwolf, who wrote of Welti:: “Die beiden Quellen seiner Meisterschaft waren eine starke, eigenwillige, aus tiefen Seelengründen genährte Phantasie und ein altmeisterlicher Formwille.” (The two sources of his mastery were a strong, independent fantasy nurtured from the depths of his soul and a sense of shape akin to that of the old masters.) — LINKS
Hochzeitstag (600x807pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1882pix)
Walpurgisnacht (1896; 613x458pix, 119kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1046pix) — The House of Dreams (1897) _ Practicing a deliberately archaic kind of art, not unlike that of his master, Arnold Böcklin, Welti has set this scene in a Swiss-style summerhouse overlooking the Lake of Zürich. Each member of the family shown here seems absorbed in some private dream or fantasy, oblivious of his or her surroundings.

^ 1909 August Friedrich “Fritz” Overbeck, German painter born on 15 September 1869 in Bröcken near Bremen-Vegesack. — {Did he die when the doctor told him: “It's over, Beck.”?}. — Not related to Johann Friedrich Overbeck [03 Jul 1789 – 12 Nov 1869] of Lübeck. — Fritz Overbeck studierte an der Düsseldorfer Kunstakademie. Kollegen und Kunstexperten rühmten seine opulenten, wolkenreichen Landschaftsbilder. Fritz Overbeck studierte nach seinem Abitur von 1889 bis 1893 an der Düsseldorfer Kunstakademie. Otto Modersohn [22 Feb 1865 – 10 Mar 1943] überredete ihn, in die neue Künstlerkolonie Worpswede zu kommen. Dort nahm er sich zunächst 1894 eine Wohnung nahm, bevor er sich 1896 auf dem Weyerberg ein Atelier einrichtete. In dieser Zeit malt er Bilder einsamer Moorlandschaften. 1897 heiratete Overbeck seine Schülerin Hermine Rothe. 1905 zog er wegen steigender Besucherzahlen mit seiner Familie nach Bröcken bei Vegesack. Hier spezialisierte er sich auf Strand- und Dünenlandschaften der Nordseeinseln.
Malerin vor der Staffelei aka Lisbeth (1906, 54x41cm; 650x465pix, 66kb)
Atelier auf dem Wayerberg mit Sandkuhle und Kirche (1896; 459x700pix, 58kb)
Stürmisher Tag (1900, 102x140cm; 524x700pix, 68kb)
Buchweizenfeld (1897; 410x650pix, 73kb)


Born on a 07 June:


^ 1965 Damien Hirst, English sculptor, installation artist, painter, and printmaker. He was a leading figure in the group of ‘Young British Artists' who emerged, predominantly in London, in the 1990s. He studied at Goldsmiths' College, London (1986–1989), and in 1988 curated the exhibition Freeze, which provided a new platform to show his own work and that of many of his Goldsmiths' contemporaries, some of whom have since become internationally renowned. His works are explicitly concerned with the fundamental dilemmas of human existence; his constant themes have included the fragility of life, society's reluctance to confront death, and the nature of love and desire, often clothed in titles which exist somewhere between the naive and the disingenuous. The works typically make use of media that challenge conventional notions of high art and aesthetic value and subject-matter that critiques the values of late 20th-century culture.
     Dead animals are frequently used in Hirst's installations, forcing viewers to consider their own and society's attitudes to death. Containers such as aquariums and vitrines are also hallmarks of his work; reflecting the formal influence of Minimalism and certain sculptures by Jeff Koons, they are used as devices to impose control on the fragile subject-matter contained within them and as barriers between the viewer and the viewed. A Thousand Years (1989), a bisected glass vitrine containing a flayed cow's head, maggots, flies and an Insectocutor, references the tradition of vanitas painting in Western art; acting as a metaphor for the tenuousness of existence and for the drive to pleasure and desire in face of the inevitability of death, it also plays out a cycle of actual birth, death and decay, with the attendant responses of fascination and repulsion, within the gallery space. In and Out of Love (1991.) was installed on two floors of a vacant shop in Woodstock Street, in central London. The upstairs room contained flowers, bowls of sugar water and white canvases with pupae attached from which exotic butterflies hatched, mated, laid eggs and died (some were crushed underfoot by gallery visitors) in a cyclical rehearsal of biological function. Downstairs the canvases held dead butterflies embedded into monochromatic fields of viscous household gloss paint, fulfilling a static aesthetic role. The exhibition stood as a challenge to the art connoisseur who sees art history as a series of collectable masterpieces, proposing instead that works of art are occasional manifestations of a continuous culture. The paintings were later sold individually to collectors. In Mother and Child Divided (1993), the four sections of a bisected cow and calf are displayed in tanks of formaldehyde between which the viewer can pass. The animals are preserved as in life, but at the same time are emphatically dead, with their entrails and flesh exposed. The immediate impact and shocking power of the work, clinically devoid of sentiment and yet referencing the most elemental of human emotions, that of the bond between a mother and child, are characteristic of Hirst's sculptures.
     Hirst's paintings can be seen as a foil to his sculptural work, though they are similarly inconclusive, exposing contradictions without resolution as a condition of human existence. The ‘spot' paintings, such as Arachidic Acid (1994), make reference to Gerhard Richter's color-chart paintings, turning the grid-like structures into rows of colored circles. They are named after pharmaceutical stimulants and narcotics, the chemical enhancers of human emotion, and yet take the form of mechanical and unemotional Minimalist paintings. Their detachment is further emphasized by the exploitation of procedures that can be simply carried out by assistants under his instruction. The ‘spin' paintings, created by pouring household gloss paint onto spinning circular canvases, rework Abstract Expressionist gestural painting in a mechanized pastiche borrowed from a fun-fair entertainment. Yet their expressive titles, such as Beautiful, Shattering, Slashing, Violent, Pinky, Hacking, Sphincter Painting (1995), contradict the apparent irony of their creation. Hirst's interest in contemporary society is further reflected in collaborative pop music projects and in his designs for the Pharmacy and Quo Vadis restaurants, London. — LINKS
–- Untitled (457x327pix, 14kb) spin painting, monochrome dirty yellow on white _ The pseudonymous Harry Deveuster Hertz has unspun this picture and completely transformed it into the colorful and doubly nightmarish
      _ Universe Negating Seemingly Phantasmagoric Unidentified Nobodies aka Unspun (2006; screen filling; 199kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1399kb)
–- Untitled (round 1115x1173pix, 128kb) spin painting, colorful —(070606)

1931 Malcolm Morley, English-born US photorealist painter and sculptor. After attending the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts in London from 1952 to 1953, he studied at the Royal College of Art, London, from 1954 to 1957. Deeply impressed by the Abstract Expressionist paintings in an exhibition of US in London in 1956, he made a brief visit to the US in 1957 and settled permanently in New York in 1958. While earning his living as a waiter he developed an abstract idiom influenced by Barnett Newman, limiting himself primarily to horizontal bands in black and white, as in Battle of Hastings (1964). After trying in 1964 to paint a ship from real life Morley turned to photographs of ships, which he copied in a meticulous trompe l'oeil style with the aid of a grid, as in Empire Monarch (1965). As a child Morley had made many detailed models of ships, which may help account for his choice of subject matter. These and the other pictures using ship imagery that followed, such as On Deck (1966), marked the beginning of Photorealism in the USA, although Morley preferred the term Super Realism. He moved from these to all manner of photographic images, including travel brochures, reproductions of celebrated paintings (e.g. Vermeer, Portrait of the Artist in his Studio, 1968) and contemporary scenes. Often he would turn both the source material and canvas upside down so as to reproduce it as accurately as possible without stylizing it. Like the Pop artists who preceded him, by focusing on the repeatability of images he questioned the basis of artistic creativity. Replicating the original in an almost mechanical way and conceiving of the painting simply as a colored surface, Morley undermined the distinction between the abstract and the figurative.
      Although Morley abandoned Photorealism as a style in the early 1970s, he continued to examine the relationship between images and the objective reality they purported to portray. The Photorealist rendering of a telephone directory in St John's Yellow Pages (1971) is accompanied by a real electric bell that negates the illusion of the image by making its flatness apparent. In Los Angeles Yellow Pages (1971) the front of a torn telephone directory was painted in a mixture of acrylic and wax encaustic so that the tears could be represented in relief, but this very literalism draws attention to the image as a painted surface. In another work, Kodak Castle (1971), Morley reproduced the folded corner of his source material, paradoxically emphasizing the flatness of his painting by reference to another two-dimensional artifact. Throughout this period in particular Morley was influenced by the philosophy and ideas about perception of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Even after adopting looser, more expressionist brushwork in the early 1970s, Morley remained committed to the conceptual approach to painting that had characterized his Photorealist works, with their focus on the process of painting.
      In the early 1970s Morley's interest in the life and work of van Gogh as representative of the myth of the romantic artist led him to shoot 11 hours of film as part of a project called The Discipline of Vincent, the Ballroom Dancer. From 1975 to 1976 he produced a number of pictures depicting scenes of disaster, such as Train Wreck (1975), in which he seemed to be destroying the remnants of his own previous style. While working in Tampa, FL, for 18 months from 1977 to 1979 he began using his own watercolors and drawings as models for his oil paintings, much as he had previously used found material, claiming that the method allowed him the freedom to incorporate abrupt changes of scale as a challenge to conventional hierarchies. A series of watercolors and drawings of the archaeology and landscape of Crete and Greece, which he visited in 1982, formed the basis of some of his later paintings, such as Albatross (1985), painted in an energetic style that invited comparison with the work of younger Neo-expressionist painters working in Europe and the US. — LINKS
–- Henley-On-Thames (1968, 127x152cm; 1244x1515pix, 211kb)
Day and Night Cabin (1965, 115x151cm) _ The pseudonymous Calmole Griflet has transformed this into a series of colorful abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the symmetrical
      The Knight In a Cab (2008; 550x778pix, 152kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 302kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 614kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 1728kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2774kb), or the asymmetrical
      They Might Cave In (2008; 550x778pix, 158kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 314kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 635kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 1877kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2847kb)
Black Rainbow Over Oedipus At Thebes (1988, 289x323cm)
157 images at Ciudad de la Pintura. —(080606)

^ 1889 Rodolphe-Théophile Bosshard, Swiss painter who died on 17 September 1960. — {Was Bosshard a hard boss?}— ). Fils posthume d'Ernst Bosshard, agent de banque en Pologne, et de Lydie Brindeau. Il étudia aux Beaux-arts à Genève. Il visita Paris en 1910 avec Gustave Buchet, et y fit un séjour en 1914. Bosshard obtint une bourse fédérale et se fixa à Montparnasse de 1920 à 1924. Ses portraits et surtout ses nus, incorporés dans un paysage traité dans l'esprit du cubisme, furent loués par la critique parisienne. Bosshard s'établit à Gryon, sans cesser d'exposer à Paris. Le banquier genevois René Hentsch commença une importante collection et Bosshard signa un contrat avec des galeries de Paris (1928-1930). Au paysage, plus stylisé, et au nu, plus classique, s'ajoutèrent des compositions mystiques empreintes de monumentalité, ainsi que des commandes de portraits et d'illustrations (Chant des pays du Rhône de Ramuz, 1929). Son nouvel atelier de Riex fut très fréquenté. Paul Budry lui consacra une monographie en 1932, le Kunstmuseum de Winterthur une rétrospective en 1933. Il voyagea en Grèce, avec Budry, André Lurçat, et Le Corbusier. Il exécute de nombreuses commandes publiques et privées: école supérieure de jeunes filles (1934), crématoire de Vevey, maison de la radio à Lausanne (1954), Mutuelle vaudoise assurances (1957). Etabli à Chardonne, Bosshard fit fréquemment des peintures à Bissone. Il exposaà Paris en 1947 et ses tableaux furent jugés abstraits par la critique.
–- Paysage au Viaduc (50x65cm; 698x900pix, 62kb)
–- Vigne à Cormondrèche (1927, 46x55cm; 442x529pix, 48kb)
Une pomme (1929, 24x35cm; 446x600pix, 42kb) fuzzily painted. — (060606)

^ 1872 Rodolphe d'Erlanger, Franco-British painter and authority on Arab art and music, who died in Tunis on 29 October 1932. He was born in Boulogne-sur-Seine, son of the banker baron Frédéric Émile d'Erlanger. Rodolphe studied at the Académie Julian in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Tony Robert-Fleury. He painted landscapes, portraits, figures, and street scenes in Paris, Deauville, Italy, England, Egypt and, mostly, Tunisia, He is chiefly known as a painter of North African subjects. He was naturalized British in 1894. About 1905 he settled in a palace he got built at Sidi-bou-Saïd in Tunisia and devoted over thirty years to researches into Arab music; he is the author of a monumental study in six volumes: L'Histoire de la Musique Arabe. He also collected Arab books and manuscripts.
Self~Portrait detail (330x242pix, 12kb) in an article on Tunisian ma'luf music.
Street in Cairo (1922, 18x12cm) almost monochrome brown.

1869 Samuel John Lamorna Birch, British artist who died on 07 January 1955. — Relative? of Charles Bell Birch [1823-1893]?

1848 Eugène-Henri-Paul Gauguin, French painter who died (full coverage) on 08 May 1903. —(060528)

^ 1819 Edwin Hayes, Irish marine painter who died on 07 November 1904. He was born in Bristol but spent his youth in Dublin where his father ran a hotel close to the quays and docks. He was a student at the Dublin Society Schools and from an early age he had the desire to be a marine artist. A keen sailor, he spent his time sailing around Dublin bay in his small yacht and even made it as far south as Cork. He was later employed as a steward's boy on board a ship bound for America. He first exhibited at the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1842, and he contributed to all but five of the next sixty-three annual exhibitions, showing a total of two hundred and fifty-five paintings. He lived in Dublin for the next ten years, moving to London in 1852, where he apprenticed himself to Telbin, who was a scenic artist. Under him he worked on the scenery of the Adelphi and other London theatres. His first work shown in London was a View of the River Liffey and the Custom House in 1854 at the British Institution. The following year he sent his first work to the Royal Academy, and for the next forty-nine years he was a regular exhibitor there. He also exhibited at the Society of British Artists and at the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours of which he became an associate in 1860 and a member in 1863. He continued to contribute to the Royal Hibernian Academy and was made an associate in 1853 and a member in 1871. In addition to painting the shores and harbors of the English coast, he traveled widely to Holland, France, Spain, and Italy in search of new subjects for his work. An exhibition of one hundred and fifty pictures, the result of twenty years of work, was held in Messrs. Dowdeswells in Bond Street, London in March 1888.
Sunset at Sea: From Harlyn Bay, Cornwall (1894, 101x127cm)
Fishing smacks in choppy seas (19x27cm; 588x820pix, 27kb) smacks are sailboats used for fishing.
Off Kinsale harbour (8x23cm; 351x991pix, 30kb)
Stormy weather off the Rocks, Howth, Ireland (21x48cm; 593x1351pix; 61kb)
Coastal scene with boats and figures (14x23cm; 345x560 pix, 57kb)
— a different Coastal scene with boats and figures (23x14cm; 550x365pix, 42kb)
Untitled (ships in bay near beach with rocks) (19x46cm; 400x991pix, 41kb)
Squally Sea (51x76cm; 317x475pix, 46kb)
Scheveningen Beach (17x30cm; 300x492pix, 23kb)


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