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DEATHS: 1944 ROUSSEL — 1962 KLEIN
BIRTH: 1756 TRUMBULL — BAPTISMS:  1638 BERCKHEYDE 1599 VELÁZQUEZ 
^ Died on 06 June 1944: Ker~Xavier Roussel, French Nabi painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, born on 10 December 1867. He was the brother-in-law of Edouard Vuillard. — {Etait-il un descendant de Guillaume “Cadet” Roussel [30 Apr 1743 – 26 Jan 1807]? Ah ! Ah ! Ah oui, vraiment? - En tout cas ce n'est pas lui, mais Benoit A. Côté qui, en 1996, a peint les 3 maisons de Cadet Roussel. (385x387pix, 65kb gif)}
— While still at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, he met Édouard Vuillard (whose sister Marie he married in 1893), Maurice Denis and Paul Sérusier; once they had finished their studies, they all went together to the Académie Julian, where Pierre Bonnard, Georges Lacombe, Paul Ranson, and Félix Valloton were already enrolled. Dissatisfied with the teaching of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Jules Lefèbvre, they left the Académie in 1890, two years after they had begun to meet together as the Nabis. Roussel took part in the exhibitions at the Café Volpini in 1889 and the Le Barc de Boutteville gallery in 1891. At that time his pictures applied the rules of Synthetism outlined by Sérusier — flat planes of repeated color encircled by dark lines forming a harmonious rhythm; a typical example of his oil paintings of this period is Ma Grand-mère (1888). Like the other Nabis, he did not restrict himself to easel painting but also produced murals, stained glass and lithographs: the color lithograph L'éducation du chien, which he contributed to the anthology Amours (1892-1898) published by the dealer Ambroise Vollard, was the first of several such projects in which he developed the Symbolist character of his work. The 12 lithographs he contributed to another Vollard publication, Album de Paysages (Paris), vividly expressed the pantheist vision of nature that was to characterize his later work.

LINKS
Mythological Scene (1903, 47x62cm; 575x754pix, 192kb)
Rural Festival (1913; 575x408pix, 140kb)
Paul Cézanne au Travail sur le Chemin des Lauves (1906 print, 1131x1054pix, 488kb) _ looks like a black-and-white photo.
 
^ Died on 06 June 1962: Yves Klein, French Conceptual painter, sculptor, performance artist, and writer, born on 28 April 1928. — {Klein was not gross?}
— He was the son of the Dutch-born painter Fred Klein [1898–], whose work was representational, and Marie Raymond [1908–], who developed a reputation in the 1950s as an abstract artist, and whose abstraction was influential on the development of her son’s work. Although Yves had had no formal art training, he was already making his first serious attempts at painting by 1946 and showing his interest in the absoluteness of color by formulating his first theories about monochrome. In 1946 he befriended Arman, with whom he was later to be associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement, and the writer Claude Pascal, whom he met at a judo class. Together they developed their interest in esoteric writing and East Asian religions. Klein became a student of the Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1946 and was influenced both by its mystical philosophy and by judo. In 1952–1953 he went with Pascal and Arman to Japan, where he studied the art of judo and the spiritual attitude associated with it, gaining the black belt ‘fourth dan’ at the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo. He worked as a judo teacher in Madrid in 1954 and in Paris from 1955 to 1959.
— Klein was born in Nice. From 1942 to 1946, he studied at the Ecole Nationale de la Marine Marchande and the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales and began practicing judo. At this time, he became friends with Arman Fernandez and Claude Pascal and started to paint. Klein composed his first Symphonie Monotone in 1947. During the years 1948 to 1952, he traveled to Italy, Great Britain, Spain, and Japan.
     Yves Klein’s first passion in life was judo. In 1952 he moved to Tokyo and studied at the Kodokan Judo Institute, where he earned a black belt. When he returned to Paris in 1955 and discovered to his dismay that the Fédération Française de Judo did not extol him as a star, he shifted his attentions and pursued a secondary interest—a career in the arts. During the ensuing eight years Klein assembled a multifarious and critically complex body of work ranging from monochrome canvases and wall reliefs to paintings made with fire. He is renowned for his almost exclusive use of a strikingly resonant, powdery cobalt pigment, which he patented under the name “International Klein Blue,” claiming that it represented the physical manifestation of cosmic energy that, otherwise invisible, floats freely in the air. In addition to monochrome paintings, Klein applied this pigment to sponges, which he attached to canvases as relief elements or positioned on wire stands to create biomorphic or anthropomorphic sculptures.
     In 1955, Klein settled permanently in Paris, where he was given a solo exhibition at the Club des Solitaires. His monochrome paintings were shown at the Galerie Colette Allendy, Paris, in 1956. The artist entered his blue period in 1957; this year a double exhibition of his work was held at the Galerie Iris Clert and the Galerie Colette Allendy, both in Paris. In 1958, he began using nude models as “living paintbrushes.”
     Klein’s activities also included using nude female models drenched in paint as “brushes”; releasing thousands of blue balloons into the sky; and exhibiting an empty, white-walled room and then selling portions of the interior air, which he called “zones” of “immaterial pictorial sensibility.” His intentions remain perplexing 30 years after his sudden death. Whether Klein truly believed in the mystical capacity of the artist to capture cosmic particles in paint and to create aesthetic experiences out of thin air and then apportion them at whim is difficult to determine. The argument has also been made that he was essentially a parodist who mocked the metaphysical inclinations of many Modern painters, while making a travesty of the art market.
     Also in 1958, he undertook a project for the decoration of the entrance hall of the new opera house in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. The first manifesto of the group Nouveaux Réalistes was written in 1960 by Pierre Restany and signed by Arman, Klein, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely, and others. In 1961, Klein was given a retrospective at the Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany, and his first solo exhibition in the United States at the Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. He and architect Claude Parent collaborated that year on the design for fountains of water and fire, Les Fontaines de Varsovie, for the Palais de Chaillot, Paris. In 1962, Klein made a plaster cast of Arman and took part in the exhibition Antagonismes 2: L’Objet at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. Shortly before his death he appeared in the film Mondo Cane (1962).
— Text of Klein's Chelsea Hotel Manifesto.

LINKS
–- IKB 92 (869x700pix, 22kb) _ The pseudonymous Onyva Gewaltig has transformed this almost featureless expanse of a single hue into the multicolored symmetrical super-abstraction
      _ I Kolor Better Than Ninety-Two Small Ivys aka Gibe Big (2006; screen filling, 310kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2095kb). Also, to save you from feeling blue from looking at one after another of Klein's boring blue rectangles, Gewaltig has combined nine of them into the super-boring
      _ Beaucoup de Blouses Bleues Barbantes (708x1000pix, 48kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 368kb)
–- Untitled (883x738pix, 70kb) blue, pitted.
–- Untitled (IKB 114) (881x325pix, 18kb) _ By extremely intensifying the contrast, and changing the color appropriately, Gewaltig has created the tricolor
      _ Drap-Pot-Franc-C'est aka I blew Kwhite Bred (2006; screen filling, 269kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2016kb).
–- Untitled (833x695pix, 44kb) blue, wrinkled.
–- IKB 159 (in one image two blue rectangles slightly smeared, 577x444pix and 577x417pix, together 20kb)
–- Triptique (689x1575pix, 72kb)
–- Ant 44 (900x618pix, 58kb)
–- Ant 23 (1960; 900x540pix, 38kb)
–- RE 40 (1960, 200x165cm; 790x650pix, 45kb) _ For this non-art, $3'256'000 was paid at Sotheby's 09 November 2004 auction by a greater fool who must have believed the following kind of nonsense (which this web site does not endorse):
     RE 40 is a stunning example of Yves Klein’s rare series of Relief Eponges. These sensuously, evocative surfaces provide the viewer with shining examples of Klein’s deeply philosophical investigation into matters of space and form seen through the glass of pure color. Klein’s previous experiments with the monochrome surface (particularly his IKB paintings from 1956-1960) are now enlivened and plasticized through the addition of pigmented sponges to the surface, lending the work an articulated relief. The viewer is thus treated to a stunning drama of palpable and spatial form within the theatre of saturated color. In both its size and stature, RE 40 remains one of the most important examples of this series: a dramatic synthesis of the sensual anthropomorphism of organic mass with an almost Baroque elegance of Klein’s signature color.
     More than just ‘creative’, Klein saw the act and art of painting as ‘procreative’. He considered his own paintings to be ‘living autonomous presences’ that ‘create atmospheres’ and ‘sensitive climates’. Indeed, the very tactile qualities of RE 40 afford a number of effects, suggestive of the seabed or the landscape of some unknown planet. Klein’s own notes from around this time show that he was inspired by space travel, and this work was executed the year before Yuri Gagarin would take the first manned space flight. Indeed, the lunar quality of the surface, together with a sense of the mystical and ethereal that is imbued in RE 40, suggest as much. The procreative, rather than creative impetus of Klein’s artistic vision is confirmed when one considers the artist’s thoughts about color. In his L’Aventure Monochrome of 1957 the artist wrote that “For me colors are living beings … [they] are the true inhabitants of space … there are myriads of nuances of all colors, each with its particular worth.” These ‘myriad of nuances’ lend RE 40 an expansive power and vital serenity. Like a divinely cultivated Zen garden, the deliberate composition combines a delicate balance of monochromatic quietude with a dynamic protrusion into real space. Whilst each sponge has its own ‘autonomous life’, they all work in concert with each other, playing out their individual roles within the drama of the whole painting. They erotically undulate over the rich landscape, appearing to levitate above the highly-worked surface. In essence, Klein here expands the traditional boundaries of pictorial space, creating a painting that captivates our gaze, but also questions the dynamics of that gaze. Klein’s genius is to compel the viewer to consider not only why one looks at a painting, but also how.
     Klein’s interest in process connects him to a number of other artists, all of whom were making similar investigations in the realm of ‘making’. One finds a nexus between Klein’s Relief Eponges and Jasper Johns' meticulous use of encaustic; Claes Oldenburg's soft sculptures; Lucio Fontana's ruptured canvases and Piero Manzoni’s pleated canvases soaked in kaolin. All of these pioneers carved a niche for themselves and their processes of expression and execution within deeply iconoclastic territory: all the visual experiments Klein made were executed at a time when the Image still remained a concrete symbol and idea (no Image would have meant no Pop Art, for example). Klein opened up the possibility of painting images of ‘nothingness’ (an idea which finds its logical conclusion in his ‘display’ of empty gallery spaces, and his creation of art by throwing gold leaf into the air). Having ‘invented’ his signature deep ultra-marine blue four years prior, he patented International Klein Blue in May 1960, with all the spectacular theatrics appropriate to the discovery of a new aesthetic. Anchored in his deeply-held belief that aesthetic experience could release the individual from the confines of the worldly, Klein's art would aim to surpass even form itself; he wrote:“What appears is separated from form and becomes immediacy”.
     The work of Yves Klein thus presents one of the most provocative paradoxes in postwar art: aspiring to overcome all barriers to ‘total physical and spiritual freedom’, it is also one of the purest experiments in form of its time. Relinquishing variations in color as he had earlier revoked line, Klein purifies painting of its conventional attributes only to render the monochrome as a realm for ceaseless experimentation. Klein began to include sponges on the surface of his paintings - as opposed to using sponges, which he chose with fanatical precision from suppliers in Greece and Tunisia, to apply paint to his surfaces - when he began working on a commission from a new theater in Gelsenkirchen, in Germany's Ruhr valley in 1958-1959. Gelsenkirchen's vast window-lined auditorium, entered around a glass-enclosed rotunda, was the perfect site for an artist obsessed with the elements of space and light, and the possibilities they hold for a transformative experience.
      RE 40 is one of the most restrained, gorgeous examples of Klein's austere art. With its irregular pattern of sponges interrupting the otherwise seamless blue canvas, it alludes to the fantasies of other, unearthly territories, to the notion of the terrestre that would be other than our own. Devoted to the work of Gaston Bachelard, the French philosopher of Air and Dreams, and to the Zen philosophy of spiritual and physical harmony that he first encountered in his training as a judo-ka in Yokohama in 1952, Klein surpasses all other artists of his time in the pursuit of the spiritual within art. Flight - with all of its allusions to the infinite, to the unknown, to the unimaginable - opposes itself to form, however, in Klein's sponge paintings, the raw material is transformed into a vessel for surpassing the questions and restrictions of medium, process and even the disavowal of form itself. Embedded in an ethereal ultramarine vacuum, the material trace becomes a trace of the immaterial, otherworldly and transcendent. RE 40 is a majestic example of Yves Klein’s unique artistic language. This is a profoundly lyrical work in which the dematerializing blue pigment enhances both the sponges and the highly textured ground. Moreover, the delicate play of light and shade that moves across the holes of the sponges further animates the entire composition. This is a seminal work that boldly confronts the viewer with a deeply intellectual philosophy of art and life and, yet, leaves the viewer with an overwhelming sense of peace and calm that is so characteristic of Klein’s oeuvre as a whole.
–- Monochrome Rouge (Aug 1957; 328x1258pix, 26kb) _ This is brown rather than red, but Gewaltig has restaured the red, added other colors, and completely metamorphosed the picture into the symmetrical
      _ Monocle de Rome Rouge aka Mon Nom (2006; screen filling, 273kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2617kb).
–- Monochrome und Feuer (768x1773pix, 71kb) triptique
–- M18 (850x1672pix, 236kb) a black rectangle covered with whitish scratches and dots, which might well be titled Close-up of a section of a man's black hair barely beginning to turn gray and holding a lot of dandruff. Gewaltig has injected colors and transformed it into the comparatively colorful
      _ Ad Rem XVIII (2006; screen filling, 332kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 3272kb).
–- F 91 (823x1181pix, 40kb)
–- RP 2: Grenoble (535x839pix, 37kb) blue, partly veined.
–- KB 242A (1304x1084pix, 188kb)
–- IKB 150 (800x658pix, 31kb)
Untitled blue monochrome (1959, 92x72cm) _ Klein rejected the idea of representation or personal expression in painting, and became obsessed with immaterial values, beyond the visible or tactile. He began making monochrome paintings in 1947 as a way of attaining total freedom. A decade later, he developed his trademark, patented color, International Klein Blue (IKB), which is very close to Egyptian Blue and to Dark Blue. He made a series of paintings using IKB, as well as sculptures made from objects such as sponges dipped in the color.
Untitled Anthropometry (1960) _ A monumental work. Women’s naked bodies in blue and gold float and soar through an intense blue space. Around these bodies Yves Klein has sprayed more paint, outlining each figure with a kind of aura. He has also sprayed round leaves and branches to leave silvery-blue silhouettes. Klein was famous for his vivid and distinctive blue which he called IKB (International Klein Blue). He achieved this by evaporating the binding element in his paint so that only the concentrated blue pigment was left. The repeated use of this blue in his work enabled him to express a sense of mysticism, or “the infinite expansion of the universe”, as he called it. The painting also seems to contain an elemental sense of air, earth, fire and water. Yves Klein was a fanatical reader of the works of the French philosopher Gaston Bachelard who was interested in a psychological analysis of space and fire, which he wrote about in his books Dreams and Air and Water. Klein’s method of creating this work was very unorthodox. He staged a 'happening' in Paris at which naked women rolled in the gold and blue paint leaving imprints of their bodies on the canvas. The world 'Anthropometry' included in the title refers to the study and measurement of human forms. Once the canvas was vertical, the figures seemed to fly like angels through a celestial space, painted on a great altarpiece. Although the imagery is secular, the blue and gold palette evokes Italian religious paintings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries where a blue-robed Virgin appears against a gold background. It is quite possible that Klein intended to convey a religious spirituality in this work. He was a devout Catholic and was always writing prayers to his patron saint, Saint Rita of lost causes. Klein died at the early age of thirty-four as a result of a hereditary heart condition.
Grande anthropophagie bleue, Hommage à Tennessee Williams (488x700pix, 220kb)

—(090427)

Died on a 06 June:


^ >1998 Carlos Nadal Ferreres, Catalan painter born in Paris on 24 April 1917. Su padre Santiago Nadal [–1932] tenía un taller de pintura decorativa en Paris. En 1921 toda la familia regresó a Barcelona con el padre enfermo, secuela de la 1ª guerra mundial. A los trece años Carlos empezó a trabajar de aprendiz pintor decorador. Siguió las clases de la escuela de la calle Caspe donde aprendió el oficio de la pintura decorativa. En 1936 recibió una beca del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona para sus estudios en la Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de San Jorge. Al estallar la guerra civil fue enrolado en el ejército republicano, luchando en los frentes de Aragón y Tremp. A principio de 1939 cruzó la frontera francesa y fue internado en el campo de refugiados de Saint Cyprien donde permaneció varios meses. Consiguió escaparse y volvió a España, cruzando la frontera sin papeles. Fue detenido por la guardia civil en Figueras y encarcelado. Bajo libertad condicional, volvió a Barcelona, en donde simultaneó los trabajos de decoración con sus estudios de Bellas Artes. Consiguió que el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, por Decreto de 19 de septiembre de 1939, acuerde “…autorizar el disfrute de la beca concedida con anterioridad al 19 de julio de 1936…”.
     Durante el otoño de 1941, expone en la muestra colectiva de la librería Dalmau, en Paseo de Gracia, donde “… destacan las limpias y bien resueltas acuarelas de Carlos Nadal, joven artista – becario del excelentísimo Ayuntamiento-, cuyo temperamento y constante estudio permiten augurarle un brillante porvenir.” Pero son tiempos muy difíciles. Teresa, su hermana, esta gravemente enferma. Su situación económica es precaria. En su diario de 1943 escribe:
Viernes 8 de enero: “…Estoy en bancarrota económicamente…”
Sábado 9 de enero: “He tenido una entrevista con el Sr. Hoyos, este como todos los marchantes quiere que pinte pero que no coma…”
Domingo 10 de enero: “…Estoy moralmente muy decaído, no tengo ánimos para trabajar – pienso que una exposición de acuarelas no tendrá éxito.”
Sábado 16 de enero: “¡ Que ingrata es la humanidad ¡ Ayer cerró la exposición Aguiló vendiendo solo dos, y hoy inauguró JM V y siendo muchísimo más malo ya tiene cuatro de vendidos.”
Viernes 22 de enero: “He pintado y estoy muy satisfecho de ello, este es de Lolita. La guerra parece que tiende a terminarse ¡Que ganas tengo de marcharme a Paris!...”
     Simultaneó el trabajo y los estudios en la Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de San Jorge: sus resultados académicos eran brillantes y confirmaban la solidez de su preparación: asignaturas tales como la anatomía, el paisaje, el dibujo, la perspectiva y el colorido fueron resueltas con la máxima puntuación y obtuvieron el reconocimiento de profesores y catedráticos. Así, Joan Farré lo contrató para asistirlo en diversos trabajos al fresco (Santa Ana, Sagrado Corazón …). Entabló una larga amistad con Josep Amat Pages, su profesor de paisaje. En 1950 introdució J. Amat a su marchante en Belgica, Georges Giroux, en cuya galería del Boulevard du Régent, 43, de Bruselas, Josep Amat expuso en 1953. Su profesor de dibujo, Luis Muntané, le cedió la quincena que tiene reservada del 15 al 28 de abril de 1944 en la Pinacoteca de Barcelona, Paseo de Gracia 34. Fue su primera exposición individual. Presentó 5 paisajes, 3 bodegones, 8 figuras, 1 boceto y 2 fragmentos al fresco. El éxito fue inmediato:
     “…Es también simpático el entusiasmo implícito en la variedad de temas, en los primeros intentos de decoración mural- fresco y encáustica-que nos ofrece como prueba de su fervor y de su inquietud. La personalidad irá forjándose en estas lides; el joven artista ofrece hoy un ímpetu suficiente para que su obra actual nos satisfaga extraordinariamente.” (Destino)
     “…Un día vino a verme. Tímidamente me expuso su deseo…Cuando me hablaba de su pintura, observé que los ojos se le encendían. Lo que voy a decir podrá parecer algo excesivamente romántico, pero lo cierto es que entonces tuve la impresión de que Nadal era, o podía ser, un artista. Ahora al ver sus cuadros acabo de comprobar que mi impresión no me engañó. Nadal es un artista….El estudio de los clásicos no ha sido ajeno en la preparación de Nadal. El equilibrio y la concepción de muchos cuadros - me refiero a los retratos, no a los paisajes-así nos lo hace saber. Nadal ha levantado el edificio de su pintura sobre una base clásica. Pero no ha desdeñado ninguna de las enseñanzas que los pintores modernos han podido proporcionarle. Así pues la obra del joven pintor, como la de alguno de nuestros mejores retratistas, es un a modo de ambiciosa síntesis de dos concepciones pictóricas.
Y para que todo sean elogios, evitemos la referencia a los paisajes. Pero insistamos en el extraordinario valor de sus figuras. Y de las figuras digamos que las que van señaladas con los números 13 y 14 son dos clarinazos que a los vientos de la fama acaba de lanzar este joven artista cuyo nombre es Nadal.” (La Vanguardia)
     “Un joven pintor expone sus primeras obras en la La Pinacoteca…Lucha, titubea, por hallar su camino. No se preocupe. Lleva un temperamento de pintor y el camino lo hallará estudiando sin pensar más que en “lo suyo”. Algunas figuras, principalmente la figura a lo Sisquella, que es un poco superficial, el bodegón numero 7 y los fragmentos al fresco y a la encáustica, dicen lo suficiente para ver su entusiasmo y su verdadera vocación, de un futuro buen pintor. Tiene ya notables obras, aunque desiguales de estilo y factura. Debe buscar “su manera”, materia y aire y personalizarse en los asuntos. Hoy es una bella promesa que creemos se realizará en un hecho positivo y fecundo.”(El Noticiero Universal)
     En 1946 alcanzó un viejo deseo: gracias a Salvador Millet Maristany quien dirigía el Negociado de Cultura, el 12 de febrero de 1946, el Ayuntamiento de Barcelona adoptó el siguiente acuerdo: “…Accediendo a lo solicitado por el artista pintor Carlos Nadal Ferreres…al objeto que pueda trasladarse a Paris y ampliar durante un año sus conocimientos artísticos …se concede al mismo un préstamo de honor de 5.000 Ptas. de cuyo reintegro sale fiador D….” El 26 de febrero de 1946 el Cónsul General de España en Francia le expidió el certificado de nacionalidad y estableció su residencia en el Colegio de España situado en el número 9 del Boulevard Jourdan de Paris. Su estancia en Paris fue determinante en su carrera y en su vida personal.
     El estado francés, a través del “Comité d’accueil aux étudiants étrangers” dependiente del Ministère des Affaires Etrangères y del Ministère de L’éducation Nacionales, le concedió una beca para proseguir sus estudios en la Escuela de Bellas Artes. También frecuentó la academia La Grande Chaumière. El Director del Comité de acogida a los estudiantes extranjeros, el Sr. J.E. Ehrhard afirmó en un documento de 19 de agosto de 1947 que “…El Sr. Nadal Ferreres, joven pintor de talento, parece haber sacado gran provecho de su estancia en Francia, según testimonios del Sr. Dorival, Conservador del Museo de Arte Moderno y del Sr Mazo, profesor en la Academia de la Grande Chaumière….” Fue también en Paris donde conoció a la escultora belga Flore Joris [1912 – 30 Apr 1988] con quien contrayó matrimonio el 01 Dec 1948, estableciendo su residencia en Bruselas en donde permaneció hasta mediados de los años 70.
     En 1949, volvió a exponer, esta vez en la Sala Busquets de Paseo de Gracia del 8 al 21 de enero. Su progresión era evidente:
     “…Al poco de salir de la Escuela de Bellas Artes, en 1944, Carlos Nadal se estrenó como expositor. Si su pintura nos hablaba de la enseñanza recibida de sus maestros, el joven novel demostraba una inquietud traducida en el mariposeo por diversos artistas locales menos escolásticos. Pero encima de todo se adivinaba en el un pintor provisto de un bagaje de claras posibilidades…Para que la identificación sea mas completa y la soldadura mas sólida, los lienzos tienen como asunto el paisaje parisino y belga, cuya natural elegancia, transparencia lumínica y riqueza de matizaciones le ayudan, como ayudaron a los maestros en cuya fuente bebe. Ausentes los contrastes, constantes los grises, abundantes las delicadezas, campea el colorido con toda su expresividad, su alegría y su optimismo. Y aquí es donde Nadal da fe de su condición de pintor, ya que sin ella el repetido libar no habría dado la aromática miel que nos ofrece, sino un catalogo de nombres sin sentido alguno. Porque es pintor, su exposición es de pintura, de buena pintura, siquiera sea trasplante directo de un clima que no es el nuestro geográficamente hablando, aunque si en lo que tiene de universal en los dominios sin fronteras del espíritu.”(Diario de Barcelona)
      “Otro pintor, Carlos Nadal, en la Sala Busquets, que reside en Bélgica, viene esta vez renovado y por tanto desviado de su primera exposición en La Pinacoteca….Su pintura es el principio embrionario de una obra que puede llegar a ser el punto culminante de la pintura moderna y un pintor que puede darnos, con la prueba de sus excelentes obras, una bella expresión de la pintura nueva de color y de luz.” (El Noticiero Universal).
      Desde finales de 1948, tras casarse con Flore Joris, estableció su residencia en Bruselas. Su estancia en Bélgica influirá su obra. Según manifestó repetidas veces, fue en Bélgica donde descubrió la luz y el color. Del 6 al 23 de diciembre de 1949 expuso, por primera vez en Bélgica, 22 obras en la Galerie Georges Giroux de Bruselas:
     “Una veintena de telas de un pintor, que nos es, por así decirlo, desconocido, están expuestas en la sala de la primera planta de la Galeria Georges Giroux. Carlos Nadal es español nacido en Paris de padres españoles y casado con una mujer belga, reside actualmente en nuestro país. En su vida por Paris, se ha naturalmente influenciado de la escuela francesa moderna; Utrillo parece haberle influido pero no mas que tantos pintores de paisajes urbanos, medio realistas, medio poéticos, como vemos a menudo. Pero Nadal tiene algo que puede desde ahora llamarse personal y eso es su colorido. Ningún francés siente el colorido como el, el colorido de Nadal esta lleno de temperamento, es elocuente y cálido y también salvaje y sostenido. Así se acerca mas al flamenco (es extraño poder hacer estos paralelismos entre el ser español y el ser flamenco) pero es diferente. Esta menos atado, es menos melancólico desde el punto de vista de las tonalidades que tantos pintores flamencos. Aparecen armonías mas brillantes, sin ser por este hecho ni débil ni agresivo. Nadal es un pintor que conoce el arte del color y lo concibe a su manera. Produce una sensación extraña ver en colores tan poco habituales, y a su vez tan exactos, calles, plazas y rincones urbanos de Bruselas, Amberes y otros. Cuando Nadal sobrecarga su composición, el color podría parecernos un tanto desordenado. Pero cuando deja de lado todo lo superfluo y se dirige de forma sintética hacia la forma esencial, hacia “el clima del alma” de una calle ò una plaza, demuestra ser un pintor realmente importante. Carlos Nadal aun es relativamente joven, dotado como lo esta de cualidades para la pintura, de concepción muy personal, tiene ante sí, sin lugar a dudas, por el desarrollo de su personalidad, un porvenir importante.” (De Standard – 11-12-49) 
     Nadal ya había forjado su personalidad y sin dejar de investigar y evolucionar, expuso en Bélgica en las Galerías Georges Giroux (en 1956 lo hizo junto al escultor Subirach), con Brachot, Louis Manteau, Kintz, Tamara Pfeifer. También alcanzó grandes éxitos en varias exposiciones organizadas en la Sala Gaspar de Barcelona en los años 50. Los Maragall, con las Salas Pares y Vayreda de Barcelona y El Cisne de Madrid, fueron sus marchantes en España durante mas de 30 años. Clave, Zadkine, Braque, Oscar Domínguez, Picasso, Lanskoy, Sartre, Paul Delvaux, Oscar Jespers, P.H. Spaak, I. Opsomer, Permeke, René Magritte, A. Vermeylen, H. Nyssen, Edgard Tytgat, Paulus, A. Henry, Eugeni D’Ors son algunas de las personas con quien se relacionó durante sus estancias en Paris, Bruselas o Barcelona.
     “…Si la pintura de Carlos Nadal sugiere visiones y palabras de fiesta, de infancia y de locura, no hay duda de que se debe a que este es su mundo interior, un mundo que el se ha forjado, y no un mundo que el pintor, como hombre curioso, haya escogido arbitrariamente para mostrárnoslo.
Para quedar convencidos de ello, es suficiente constatar como el universo de Nadal sigue siendo el mismo, a pesar de la disparidad de los temas. De los interiores flamencos a las playas españolas, pasando por el pintoresco Paris, lo que se impone no es una sucesión de testimonios o de recuerdos, sino la metamorfosis de un mismo universo que se engalana, se desviste, se rompe, se recompone…” (Hubert Nyssen . Carlos Nadal – 1980 Ed. Barthélémy).
     “…La llamada del mundo, para Nadal: la morada. No es que sea el ciudadano prisionero de una ciudad o incluso de su barrio. Se trata, aquí, de la morada en sí, cualquiera que sea y donde esté: albergue, iglesia, inmueble, o incluso cabina de playa …Que se detenga en Bruselas o en Paris, en Sitges o en Cuenca, la luz apenas cambia, porque esta luz es la mirada alegre y ávida que lanza sobre lo que construye, y no la luminosidad que se desprende del fragmento de objeto que lo inspira...” (Albert Henry – 1986).
     “…Porque, aunque el artista (Carlos Nadal) nació en Paris y fue educado en Cataluña, nunca ha pintado concretamente el paisaje de España, de Francia, de Bélgica ò de Inglaterra, sino que ha interpretado, siempre con fogosidad y decisión, lo que estos paisajes le sugerían, pero sin ser su esclavo. Ocurre lo mismo cuando Nadal pinta interiores y vistas urbanas: le sirven de punto de partida para crear, a partir de ellos, una obra que será siempre un Nadal mas que un interior o una playa o un café o una estación o una fiesta popular. Nadal se impone siempre sobre el tema: continuamente lo esencial – el pintor – domina lo anecdótico – el tema -…” (Juan A. Maragall - 1986).
     “…Como la mayoría de artistas, ha asimilado el trabajo de otros, y mantenido lo que ha necesitado para construir su propia madurez, y lo que contemplamos ahora es un artista radicado con orgullo entre los suyos en la tradición europea del siglo XX…” (Francis Farmar – 1986).
     Desde distintos ámbitos, pero siempre con entusiasmo, numerosas personas han apoyado su obra: en lugar destacado figura el Sr. John Duncalfe quien, con verdadero entusiasmo lo han introducido en el exigente mercado anglosajón, sin olvidar a los Maragall (con J.A. Maragall a la cabeza), David Solomón, A.J. Bilton, Santiago Sartre, Francis Farmar, J. Amat, B. Dorival, A. Henry, C. Ramon, P. Caso, H. Nyssen, A. Barthélemy, Paul Davay y otros muchos.
     Además de pinturas, dibujos, obra gráfica y escultura, los manuscritos que Nadal nos ha dejado reflejan un gran conocimiento del arte y una, para algunos insospechada, profundidad intelectual desprovista de toda pedantería. Sus trabajos en el ámbito de las artes decorativas, que durante años contribuyeron a darle estabilidad económica, también han sido muy destacados. Además del conocimiento del oficio adquirido desde muy joven, ha demostrado un gran dominio del espacio, del volumen y de las líneas: elementos básicos en decoración y arquitectura, profesión por la que tenía un gran interés. Trabajó en colaboración con las agencias de publicidad Vanypeco y Plans de Bruselas en numerosos proyectos de decoración comercial. Decoró la participación de Bélgica en la Exposición Internacional del Atomo celebrada en Suiza. Sin embargo su aportación a las artes decorativas culminó en la Exposición Universal celebrada en Bruselas en 1958, donde proyectó y realizó la decoración del pabellón dedicado a los transportes en el Congo Belga. Lugar destacado ocupa un enorme fresco de forma circular que corona el acceso a la escalera. También se encargo de la decoración de una parte del pabellón dedicado a la elegancia en esta misma exposición. Con una perspectiva de mas de 40 años, siguen llamando la atención la elegancia y modernidad de sus diseños.
     Su esposa, Flore Joris, hija de un director de orquestra y de una pianista, persona dotada de una gran inteligencia y personalidad, siempre le ayudó y apoyó en las alegrías y desventuras de su carrera artística., También fue una escultora y pintora destacada. Tuvieron una hija y un hijo que residieron en España.
–- Plage du Nord (737x900pix, 121kb)
–- Le Salon (1189x1462pix, 171kb) _ There have recently been discovered two stretched versions and one non-stretched version of this, rather humorous in that a version of Le Salon appears in all of them as a picture within a picture. It does not seem likely that their author is Nadal; instead the pseudonymous Darlos Nada-Feroz is strongly suspected. The first of these pictures is:
      _ Ça le salon c'est long (2006; 488x1045pix, 79kb _ ZOOM to 732x1067pix, 159kb); and the other two versions have also Plage du Nord in it as a picture within a picture:
      _ Le Salon Long (2006; 488x1045pix, 81kb _ ZOOM to 732x1567pix, 168kb) and the non-stretched picture within a picture in a picture within a picture:
      _ Salons le Salon (2007; 1189x1462pix, 232kb)
–- Au Bord de la Garonne (1137x1350pix, 258kb) —(070605)

1914 Gabriel Joseph Marie Augustin Férier, French painter born (main coverage) on 27 September 1847. —(080605)

>1846 Adèle Romany (or Romanée), French painter born on 07 December 1769.
Madame Vigée Le Brun (441x345pix, 33kb)
Auguste Vestris (1793; 375x297pix, 35kb) —(080605)

^ 1731 Giovanni Odazzi (or Odasi, Odazi), Roman painter born on 25 March 1663. Odazzi was a prolific painter who created many altarpieces and frescoes and whose increasingly restrained art marks the transition from Late Baroque to Neo-classicism. After a brief and unimportant apprenticeship with the engraver Cornelius Bloemaert, he entered the workshop of Ciro Ferri, and after Ferri’s death (1689) became the student and assistant of Giovanni Battista Gaulli. He lived almost entirely in Rome and the Lazio. His art developed evenly, without abrupt changes of direction, continuing the traditions established by Ferri and Gaulli. Ferri encouraged the development of his natural facility in drawing, enabling him to create harmonious, although sometimes rather elementary, compositions for his many altarpieces.
Estasi di S. Teresa (36x27cm; 480x356pix, 34kb) _ detail 1 (456x640pix, 45kb) baby angels _ detail 2 (632x626pix, 43kb) foot, book, 2 lilies.
Apparizione della Vergine a San Brunone _ pala dipinta da Odazzi per l'anno del Giubileo (1700), con l'apparizione della Vergine che consegna a San Bruno la Regola (il libro) alla presenza di San Pietro (la Chiesa) e dei suoi confratelli in adorazione. E' uno dei migliori dipinti dell'artista, allievo del Baciccia, che qui realizza in pieno il passaggio dalla libera ma forte impalcatura devozionale e prospettica barocca, all'arioso movimento compositivo rococò fatto di leggere tinte giustapposte, intrise di aerea luminosità.

^ 1704 Andrea Scacciati, Florentine flower painter born in 1642. One of his patrons was Vittoria delle Rovere, the wife of Ferdinando II. In the Villa at Poggio Imperiale, set aside for the grand duchesses of the Medici family, she gathered a huge collection of canvases, predominantly with floral themes. Above all Vittoria collected works by the Roman painter Giovanni Stanchi and by Scacciati, both authors of elegant vases of flowers and garlands often framing paintings by other artists. Scacciati favored tulips, anemones, carnations, and narcissi, often placed loosely in precious Chinese porcelain vases in a completely "baroque" style. Scacciati also started the style of representing exceptional floral examples such as Due tulipani that preceded the systematic representation of "mostri della natura" by Bartolomeo Bimbi [1648-1730].
Vaso con fiori (93x72cm; 1248x928pix, 95kb) e con un limone.

1676 Jan Olis, Dutch painter born in 1610.
Fröhliche Gesellschaft (1644, 49x64cm; 1540x2024pix, file size: 226kb)—(080604)

^ 1678 Pieter Janszoon van Asch (or As, Nas), Dutch painter born in Delft in 1603. The son of portrait painter Hans van Asch who did not join the Guild, Pieter van Asch did in 1623 and became a small-scale landscape painter in the manner of his teacher Jan Josephzoon van Goyen [13 Jan 1596 – 1656] and of Salomon van Ruysdael. He did not make many pictures, as he had to take care of his parents. One of his sunny, backlit landscapes is seen in the background of the Kenwood House Vermeer. He lived on Choorstraat in 1655, paying a rent of 108 guilders; later on Doelenstraat where he died. In 1669 the town of Delft paid him 100 guilders for a painting above a mantlepiece in the Prinsenhof building.— Engraving portrait of van Asch (370x355pix, 60kb gif) by Jan Verkolje. — LINKS
–- Self-Portrait (52x44cm; 960x813pix, 81kb _ .ZOOM to 1680x1422pix, 219kb) the artist is holding a landscape.
–- Self-Portrait (52x44cm; 958x813pix, 65kb _ .ZOOM to 1677x1424pix, 146kb) this is identical to the previous, except that the artist is holding a detail of this very same painting. Most experts believe that this is not the work of van Asch but that of an obscure and distant follower, the humorous and pseudonymous Magpierth Andso'on S. U. V. Sinder.
Distant View (600x947pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2210pix, 773kb)
River Landscape (26x40cm; 840x1280pix)
Wooded Landscape with a waterfall and a cart on a road (100x73cm; 960x688pix, 663kb _ .ZOOM to 1680x1204pix, 184kb)
Scene at the edge of a wood (59x 44 cm; 428x600pix, 58kb gif) _ On the road a merchant is coming out of the wood, with all his wares on the top of a horse and his dog in front of them. Behind them there is a shepherd with his sheep. On either side of them, to their left, another shepherd is standing in a field with his own sheep, and to the right two more figures are looking at the large pond in front of them. In the distance, there is a landscape with more fields and sheep.
–- River Landscape with a Hawking Party (42x63cm; 602x900pix, 102kb)
–- Southern Landscape with Drovers and Travelers on a Path, a Town Beyond (41x52cm; 825x1050pix, 52kb) _ The people are probably the work of another hand, and may have been added at a later date.
–- Wooded Landscape with Travelers and a Falconnier on a Path (42x63cm; 500x680pix, 55kb) badly yellowed by aging. —(070607)


Born on a 06 June:


1897 (or any year until 1900) Ismaël Gonzalez de La Serna, Spanish artist who died on 20 November 1968.

1896 Henri-Victor Wolvens (or Wolvenspergens), Belgian painter who died (main coverage) on 31 January 1977. —(080605)

1884 Gino Rossi, Italian painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 16 (01?) December 1947. Rossi had little official training, but moved in artistic circles in Venice. Unlike many of his Italian contemporaries, who were attracted to Central European art, Rossi looked towards France, in particular to Gauguin and other artists associated with Pont-Aven, and as early as 1907 he made his first journey to Paris and to Brittany. He interpreted the language of the Symbolists in a highly original way, ignoring almost completely the mystical aspects of their subject-matter but retaining certain of their stylistic traits, notably the use of emphatic outline and areas of flat color. In basing his approach on the savage and barbaric enhancement of graphic and chromatic components Rossi arrived independently at a style that had strong affinities with Fauvism, which had shared sources of inspiration. In this his concerns were similar to those of Modigliani, whom he knew.

1849 Emilie Preyer, German still-life painter who died (main coverage) on 23 September 1930. —(080605)

1756 John Trumbull, US painter who died (full coverage) on 10 November 1843. —(061103)

^ 1702 Joseph Francis (Corneille François) Nollekens, “Old Nollekens” Flemish English painter, specialized in conversation pieces and genre scenes, who died on 21 January 1748. Son of Jan Baptiste Nollekens [1665-1721+] and brother of Jan Nollekens [26 July 1695 – 17 Jan 1783], and father of sculptor Joseph Nollekens [11 Aug 1737 – 03 Apr 1823] — He first studied under his father, and later worked with him in France, where he learnt to make imitations of Antoine Watteau’s fêtes galantes; during his first visit to England, after 1718, he studied under the landscape painter Peter Tillemans, according to George Vertue. Nollekens’s early works are mostly rather pedestrian imitations of Watteau’s works, sometimes with picturesque Roman ruins added in the manner of Giovanni Paolo Panini. There was a ready market for such works in England, and the demand for decorative pieces of this kind must have encouraged him to settle there. After his arrival in London in 1733, he extended his repertory to include conversation pieces; examples of his work in this vein include a Family Group (1740) and the convincingly English if awkwardly painted Conversation in an Interior (1740). He also painted genre scenes of children, for example Two Children Building a House of Cards and Two Boys Playing with Tops (both 1745), which derive from similar works by Jean-Siméon Chardin and Philip Mercier. His patrons included Richard Child, 1st Earl of Tilney, who owned Wanstead House, Essex (destr.), from where 16 pictures by Nollekens were sold in 1822, and Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, for whom he decorated with bacchanals (destr.) the two lake pavilions built in 1717 by John Vanbrugh in the gardens of Stowe, Bucks. — {Nollekens took no lickings?}

1638 (infant baptism) Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde, Dutch painter who died (full coverage) on 14 June 1698.

1599 (infant baptism) Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spanish painter who died (full coverage) on 06 August 1660. —(060531)


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