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DEATHS: 1781 HALLÉ — 1906 BREITNER
BIRTH: 1894 MANÉ~KATZ
^ >Born on 05 June 1894: Ohel Emmanuel Katz “Mané-Katz”, French painter of Jewish life, who died on 08 September 1962. — {many cats? — Oh, hell !}— {“many cats” is not the same as “alley cats”, and Mané-Katz is not the same as Alex Katz [24 Jul 1927~]}
— Born in Ukraine. He studied in an Art School in Kiev. In 1913 he went to Paris to study art at the École Nationale des Beaux Arts and became a friend of Haim Soutine. He was made prisoner of the Germans in Royan in 1939. In 1958 he moved to Israel, where he died.
— French painter and sculptor of Ukrainian birth. He came from an orthodox Jewish family; his father was sexton of a synagogue, and he was originally intended to become a rabbi. After studying at the School of Fine Arts in Kiev, he visited Paris for the first time in 1913 and enrolled in Fernand Cormon's class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where his fellow students included Chaïm Soutine. He was influenced by Rembrandt, by the Fauves (especially Derain) and, briefly, by Cubism. Mané-Katz returned to Ukraine after the outbreak of World War I. There he was appointed professor at the academy in Khar'kov (now Kharkiv) in 1917, after the Revolution. He left again for Paris in 1921, this time with the intention of taking as his principal theme life in the ghettos of Eastern Europe, the rabbis and Talmudic students, the fiddlers and drummers, comedians and beggars, for example in The Eternal People (1938); he also painted a number of landscapes and flower studies. His style became expressionist and baroque, with loose brushwork and rhythmical forms. He obtained French citizenship in 1927 but after the fall of France took refuge from 1940 to 1945 in New York, where he also began to make a few sculptures, such as the Double-bass Player (bronze, h. 61cm, 1943). After the war his paintings became much bolder in their colors and patterning. He made a number of visits to Israel and left the works in his possession to the town of Haifa, where they formed the basis of a museum devoted to his work.
— Ohel Mané-Katz was born in Kremenchug, Ukraine, a province of the Russian Empire. He studied in religious schools and was expected to become a Rabbi. At age 16, however, young Ohel developed an interest in art. In due time, he graduated from the Vilnius School of Art and the Academy of Art in Kiev. In 1913 he moved to Paris, along with many promising artists of the day. He enrolled in the prestigious École Nationales des Beaux-Arts and studied under Fernand Cormon, teacher of Vincent van Gogh. It was there he befriended Soutine and Chagall. Who knows who influenced whom during those formative years? Parenthetically, we don’t even know why young Mané-Katz enlisted in the French Foreign Legion. [He was rejected.] We do know that Chagall and Katz wound up with similar styles and common [religious] themes. At the outbreak of WWI the artist returned to Russia, only to surface again in Paris soon thereafter. He became a citizen of France in 1927. Now famous, the prominent artist traveled to Palestine and established a workshop in Haifa, a city destined to become his permanent artistic residence. The artist bequeathed hundreds of paintings and sculpted works to this "adopted ancestral home." Even though Mané-Katz was a fine sculptor, he is known to the world as an exemplar of Jewish Expressionism, a painter. Today a museum in Haifa is dedicated to his work. One of his paintings, Rabbi in a Yellow Gown, is on display at the Vilna Gaon Jewish Museum. The artist died in Tel Aviv.
— Mané-Katz was born into a religious Jewish family in the Ukraine and impregnated with Jewish mysticism. Mané-Katz studied art in Kiev and came to Paris in 1913. There he befriended Soutine and Chagall and discovered the works of Rembrandt exhibited in the Louvre museum. He returned to Russia during the First World War and worked for the Russian Ballets. Back in Paris in 1921, he started to collect many Jewish art objects and took French citizenship in 1927. Two years later he traveled to Palestine to feel the air of the Holy Land. He exhibited his works in many Salons until 1939 and then sought refuge in the US during World War Two. Back again in Paris in 1945, he continued to work intensely producing in a joyful manner hundreds of Rabbinical portraits and Judaic themes as if he wanted to partly fulfil his father’s wish to see him become a Rabbi.
— Mane-Katz was born in the Ukraine in 1894. At age 17 he was admitted to the Beaux Arts in Kiev but escaped to France in 1913. When World War I began in 1914, he tried to join the Foreign Legion but could not because he was too short. He continued studying at the Beaux Arts of Paris. His first exhibit was in Saint Petersburg n 1914. In 1917 he joined the Soviet Revolution in Kiev but was horrified by Stalinism. He escaped to France in 1926, and became French. Mane-Katz was a great traveler from 1927 to 1939. He went all over the world painting and showing his masterpieces. Drafted in 1939, he was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, and went to New York where he stayed until 1945, showing his paintings at Katia Granoff Gallery, at Wildenstein etc. After the war he resumed traveling, painting, and showing in Brazil, Japan, Isreal, Argentina, Switzerland. He died in 1962. Mane-Katz is one of the main masters of the "Ecole de Paris". His painting is extremely powerful but often somber and even sad.
— The Jewish background, inconspicuous or absent in the work of so many of his contemporaries, can hardly be escaped or avoided in the work of Mané-Katz. His devout father, shammash (synagogue beadle) at Kremenchug in the Ukraine, was shocked to see his son choose the career of an artist. In Russia, in 1914, he began to treat the Jewish themes and subjects which he saw around, elaborating and magnifying them often in poetic terms and on a grandiose scale. In 1921, in the midst of the Bolshevik Revolution, he decided to return to Paris, where he soon attracted attention and exhibited regularly. Originally a painter of Biblical scenes and ghetto types, Mané-Katz has refrained from limiting his art to documentary studies. Like many other Jewish painters, he has stressed, in his works, the spiritual aspects of all that he paints
click for Jeune Juive
–- Portrait of a Young Jewish Woman(1928, 55x46cm; 842x700pix; 147kb — ZOOM to 1684x1400pix, 300kb)
–- Rabbi Studying (62x50cm)
–- Father and Son (74x74cm)
–- Chaim Soutine peintre de plein air (30x36cm; 322x397pix, 48kb)
–- Red Gladiolas (91x51cm)>
–- Place de la Concorde (74x91cm)>
–- Russian Shtetl (1931) In 1931, when Mané-Katz painted this fierce Russian landscape, he had already acquired French citizenship and was a successful artist in his adopted country. Mané-Katz first arrived in Paris in 1913, staying only one year before returning to the Ukraine. He settled in France in 1921 and quickly became identified with the Jewish artists of Montparnasse. Although religious subjects and Jewish genre scenes were rare among the avant-garde, he remained faithful to his orthodox heritage, choosing as his primary theme life in the shtetls of Eastern Europe. Russian Shtetl shows Mané-Katz’s admiration for Rembrandt in its dark, northern tone. The tumultuous brushwork and violent masses of somber color that engulf the lone figure convey the harshness of everyday life.
–- Hassidic Child (33x41cm; 488x688pix, 24kb) Sadness, solitude, resignation, all these appear in the eyes of this "Hassidic child". Still, faith is there, and its somber joy! A heartbreaking picture!
–- The Yeshiva Boy (1950, 24X18cm) _ At the age of 16, Katz went to the Academy of Kiev where he started to paint Chassidic subjects drawing from his environment of the Yiddish shtetl and elaborating on them in poetic terms and on grandiose scale. In 1921 he exhibited in Paris. He is especially known for his glowing and sumptuous color harmonies and his nervous line. His paintings executed in thick roughly textured layers of colors and his long and impulsive brushstrokes determine the visual rhythm and movement of his pictures such as this one.
The Rabbi
Snowy Landscape (1961, 54x65cm; 385x471pix, 21kb)
Rabbi in a Yellow Gown (1925, 38x47cm) _ Mané-Katz was born to a religious family. He was expected to be a Rabbi but became an artist instead, producing joyful rabbinical portraits like this one. Painted with bold and whimsical brushstrokes, the "Yellow Rabbi" howls of Jewish tradition. The artist was exposed to this stylish exaggeration at Berlin Academy of Art, the birthplace of modern expressionism. He continued his training in Paris, working with Soutine and Chagall. Katz and Chagall would develop a semblance of common style and subject matter, devoted to Jewish life and Judaic themes. Today Mané-Katz is recognized as an exemplar of Jewish Expressionism.
–- Dreamy Boy (1928, 163x97cm; 1125x662pix, 81kb) behind him, his dream: an artist looking in a large portfolio of pictures.
–- Boats in a Storm (1928, 163x97cm; 707x900pix, 88kb) _ Compare
      _ Fishing Boats in a Storm off the Dutch Coast (21x30cm; 514x700pix, 78kb) by Abraham Storck [bap. 17 Apr 1644 – 08 Apr 1708 bur.] and
      _ Boats in a Storm (1696, 63x79cm; 553x691pix, 61kb) by Ludolf Bakhuizen
–- The Flute Player (1938, 100x81cm; 1099x875pix, 106kb)
–- Mountain Village (50x59cm; 1156x1398pix, 154kb)
–- Two Students (1926, 92x73cm; 1099x862pix, 80kb)
–- Vase de Tulipes (65x50cm; 900x674pix, 101kb)
—(070604)
^ Died on 05 June 1781: Noël Hallé, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, specialized in historical scenes, born on 02 September 1711
— He was the son of Claude-Guy Hallé [17 Jan 1652 – 05 Nov 1736], grandson of Daniel Hallé [bap. 27 Aug 1614 – 14 Jul 1675], brother of Marie-Anne Hallé [15 Nov 1704–] who, in 1729, married Jean Restout [1692-1768] a nephew of Jean Jouvenet [1644-1717]. Noël Hallé was thus part of a network of related artists who dominated the areas of history and religious painting in the early and middle decades of the 18th century. He was one of the major French painters of the 18th century, receiving many commissions from the Crown, from the Church, and from the city of Paris. After studying architecture he became the student of his father and of his brother-in-law Jean Restout. In 1736 Hallé won the Prix de Rome, and he spent the period from 1737 to 1744 at the Académie de France in Rome. There he made a copy of Raphael’s Heliodorus Driven from the Temple, which he intended for a tapestry cartoon for the Gobelins, as well as making drawings and engravings after antique monuments and works of art.
      On Hallé's return to Paris, he was approved by the Académie Royale in 1746 and received (reçu) as a full member in 1748 on presentation of the Dispute of Minerva and Neptune over Choosing a Name for the City of Athens. He became a professor at the Académie in 1755 and was named Surinspecteur de la Manufacture des Tapisseries de la Couronne at the Gobelins in 1770. In 1775 he was entrusted with the reorganization of the Académie de France in Rome, neglected by its aging director Charles-Joseph Natoire [1700-1777]; he was rewarded for his efforts by ennoblement and the Order of St Michel. He was treasurer of the Académie Royale from 1776 to 1781 and became rector in the year of his death.
— Hallé's students included Jean-Simon Berthélemy, Vivant Denon, Balthazar Anton Dunker, Clément-Pierre Marillier.

LINKS
–- La course d'Hippomène et d'Atalante (1765, 321x712 cm; 873x2000pix, 200kb) _ In the Boeotian version of the legend, followed by Ovid (Metamorphoses 10:560-707), Atalanta was an athletic huntress. She consulted Apollo about taking a husband, but he warned her: “Coniuge nil opus est, Atalanta, tibi: fuge coniugis usum. Nec tamen effugies teque ipsa viva carebis.” Therefore she hid in the deep woods and when suitors found their way to her, she would challenge them: “Non sum potiunda, nisi victa prius cursu. pedibus contendite mecum: praemia veloci coniunx thalamique dabuntur, mors pretium tardis: ea lex certaminis esto.” Many suitors lost their lives and Atalanta remained unbeaten and a virgin until Hippomenes, great-grandson of Neptune, insisted on taking her on, though she tried to discourage him.
      Before the race, Hippomenes invoked Venus, the goddess of love: “Conprecor, ausis adsit nostris et quos dedit, adiuvet ignes.” Venus got three apples of gold from the Tamasene field in Cyprus and gave them to Hippomenes with her instructions. Accordingly, after the race started, as Atalanta was about to pass him, Hippomenes dropped one of the apples of gold. Atalanta could not resist slowing down to pick it up, but then she speeded up again and was about to pass him when he dropped the second apple. Once more Atalanta was delayed picking it up. And once more she was about to catch up with Hippomenes, now near the finish line. Hippomenes implored Venus: “Nunc ades, dea muneris auctor!”, and threw down the last apple, which Venus caused to be extra heavy. Delayed and weighed down by the apples of gold, Atalanta lost the race, not altogether unhappily, as she felt attracted to Hippomenes, and they married.
      But Venus was angered when Hippomenes failed to offer her thanks and incense. She caused Hippomenes to go hunting, out of season, near a temple of Cybele, the Great Mother of the Gods, and inflamed his passion so that he made love to his wife inside the temple, defiling it. Whereupon Cybele inflicted this punishment upon the couple: ‘levia fulvae colla iubae velant, digiti curvantur in ungues, ex umeris armi fiunt, in pectora totum pondus abit, summae cauda verruntur harenae; iram vultus habet, pro verbis murmura reddunt, pro thalamis celebrant silvas aliisque timendi dente premunt domito Cybeleia frena leones.’
      In the picture Atalanta is shown in the act of stooping to pick up the second apple as Hippomenes pulls ahead and prepares to drop the third and last apple.
_ Compare:
      _ Atalanta and Hippomenes (1612, 206x297cm; 637x851pix, 89kb) and the practically identical
      _ .Atalanta and Hippomenes (1625; 801x1092pix, 99kb) both by Guido Reni [04 Nov 1575 – 18 Aug 1642];
      _ Atalanta and Hippomenes (1660, 123x200cm; 654x1095pix, 79kb) by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld [1609-1683]; and
      _ Hippomenes and Atalanta (1630; 274x343pix, 30kb) by Jacob Jordaens [1593-1678].
La Prédication de Saint Vincent de Paul
The Death of Seneca (154x122cm; 520x422pix, 14kb)
 

Died on a 05 June:


1923 George Hendrik Breitner, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 12 September 1857. —(090403)

Tarkhoff ^ >1920 Nicolas Alexandrovitch Tarkhoff (or Tarchoff), Russian painter of landscape, genre scenes, portraits, and still-lifes, born on 20 January 1871. He was denied entry at the Beaux-Art School in Moscow, because of his revolutionary ideas, but went on to learn with a group of Muscovite painters. He traveled extensively, and visited Paris for the first time in 1898. He returned a year later to Moscow, where he started to establish his reputation. He joined the Mirizkoustva movement (the Artistic World) founded by Leon Bakst, as well as the Union of Russian Artists. He returned to France where he was to settle in 1899, joining there the École de Paris. He studied at the Académie Julian and at the Beaux Arts, and started exhibiting at the Salon des Independants and at the Salon d'Automne as early as 1903-1904. His paintings show a use of rich and strong colors, and his bold technique is reminiscent of some of the works of the Impressionists.
     Tarkhoff moved from Moscow to the artistic center of Paris in 1899. By 1906, noted art dealer and publisher Ambroise Vollard mounted an extensive solo exhibition of over 70 of Tarkhoff's paintings. From 1904 until 1911 he contributed paintings to the Paris Salon d'Automne. In the 1907 Salon d'Automne exhibition,Tarkhoff’s vivid, exuberant work led one reviewer to regard him as “part of the younger Bohemian crowd who outrage even the Byzantines and our North American Indians with their brilliant color”. Tarkhoff’s early friendship with Russian artist Konstantin Korovin introduced him to the vibrant colors and rapid brushwork of impressionist painting. Additionally, works by Monet, Van Gogh and the Fauves greatly influenced his style and choice of motifs. After 1905, Tarkhoff concentrated on the theme of motherhood. Despite living abroad, Tarkhoff continued to actively exhibit in Russia. Upon Alexandre Benois' recommendation, The State Tretyakov Gallery acquired his 1904 painting Goats in the Sun.
A Bouquet of Red Roses (63x49cm; 430x326pix, 53kb)
Chat sur fond rouge (1908, 80x65cm; 313x250pix, 74kb) _ Le fond n'est pas du tout rouge, mais plutôt verdâtre. Mais vous voulez un fond rouge? Bon, mais ce n'est pas de Tarkhoff, tout le contraire: voici, par “Fok-Rat”, le
      _
Chat sur fond vraiment rouge (2004; 625x500pix, 109kb). Pas le fond, mais le chat? Alors ce que vous voulez c'est
      _
Chat rouge sur fond verdâtre (2004; 625x500pix, 143kb)
–- The Artist's Two Children aka Les deux Garçons et le Chat (60x73cm; 1155x1400pix, 172kb) The young boys (whose long hair and dresses make them look like girls) are mothered by the stern cat (which is almost their size) which watches that they eat everything on their plates.
–- Bébé sur Tapis (1902, 66x81cm; 1092x1398pix, 135kb) _ an early example of Tarkhoff's impressionistic style. —(070604)


1915 Henri Gaudier~Brzeska, French sculptor and draftsman born on 04 October 1891. He began sculpting in Paris about 1910, taking as his model Auguste Rodin rather than the avant-garde artists of his own generation. When he moved to London in January 1911, having previously visited England on a scholarship in 1906 and again in 1908, his knowledge of contemporary developments in sculpture was slight. He was accompanied by Sophie Brzeska, whose surname he appended to his own. A crucial meeting with Jacob Epstein, when The tomb of Oscar Wilde (1912) was still in his studio, strengthened Gaudier-Brzeska’s determination to pursue a more experimental direction. He delighted in pitting himself against the cultures that he admired during visits to the British Museum, and his work ranged from carefully carved Classical torsos to deliberately barbaric painted masks.

^ 1880 Karl (or Carl) Friedrich Lessing, German painter born on 15 February 1808. Great-nephew of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. He studied architecture in Berlin at the Königliche Bau-Akademie under Karl Friedrich Schinkel [1781-1841], before transferring to the Kunstakademie, where he became a student of Wilhelm Schadow in 1825. The next year Lessing followed Schadow to Düsseldorf, where the latter had been appointed Director of the Kunstakademie. Lessing also studied under Julius Hübner. Almost to the end of his career Lessing was to follow Schadow’s rules for a standard series of procedures in the production of a finished work: compositional sketch, oil study, detailed model study, cartoon and underdrawing for the final painting. Without an official position, Lessing worked at the Düsseldorf Akademie until 1858, when he was appointed Director of the Grossherzogliche Gemäldegalerie in Karlsruhe, a position he held until his death. — Karl Lessing's students included his son Otto Lessing [24 Feb 1846 – 22 Nov 1912] and John W. Ehninger.
LINKS
Hussiten Predigt (1836; 600x790pix, 313kb) —(070605)

^ >1854 (or 04 Feb 1854?) Jenaro Pérez Villaamil Ferrol, Spanish painter born on 03 February 1807. He was a leading exponent of the Romantic tradition in Spanish painting during the nineteenth century. He was trained in Cadiz in 1823. Villaamil's early years were influenced by 17th century Flemish and 18th century French painting. In 1833 he was introduced to the Scottish painter David Roberts through whom Villaamil became familiar with the British landscape tradition. Discovering in Robert's work the “poetical interpretation of the natural”, the idealized landscape became central to his work and teaching. — Nació en La Coruña. Hijo de un profesor de dibujo, tal vez militar de profesión, inicia sus estudios en la clase de su padre con sólo cinco años. Sus excepcionales dotes le permitieron convertirse en su ayudante con sólo ocho. Más adelante, se traslada a Madrid, presumiblemente con toda su familia, y cursará estudios de Bachillerato en el Colegio Imperial al tiempo que sigue la carrera militar. Con todo, la invasión de 1823, protagonizada por la venida de los Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis a España para restaurar el gobierno absoluto de Fernando VII, llevó al joven pintor a dejarlo todo para alistarse en el ejército, con el grado de subteniente, para luchar a favor del liberalismo; fue herido. —(080604)
–- Paisaje Romántico (25x32cm; 892x1155pix, 109kb) —(080604)

^ 1568 Willem Key (or Kay), Flemish artist born in the period 1515-1520. He was one of the most successful portraitists of his generation, ranking alongside his contemporary Anthonis Mor and the slightly older Pieter Pourbus. He studied under Lambert Lombard in Liège about 1540, but shortly after settled in Antwerp, where he was enrolled in the Guild in 1542.
–- Man standing half length before a green curtain (1555, 58x44cm; 644x481pix, 21kb) —(070604)


Born on a 05 June:

^ >1923 Jesús Rafael Soto [–14 Jan 2005], Venezuelan painter, sculptor, kinetic artist, and installation artist. He studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas in Caracas from 1942 to 1947, and from 1947 to 1950 he was director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Maracaibo. At first he painted principally under the influence of Cézanne and Cubism and to a lesser extent under that of Mondrian and the Soviet Constructivists, whose work he knew from reproductions. In 1950 he settled in Paris, where he began producing abstract paintings composed of serialized and geometric forms that suggested effects of motion. These revealed Soto’s affinities with other artists later associated with Op Art. His first kinetic work, Spiral (1955), consisted of two overlapping perspex sheets, each painted with a spiral to produce an apparently vibrating image. The exhibition Le Mouvement at the Galerie Denise René, Paris, in 1955, at which Spiral was shown along with works by Victor Vasarely, Yaacov Agam, Jean Tinguely, Pol Bury and others, marked the official birth of Kinetic Art..— web site jr-soto.comLINKS
Ambivalencia diagonal virtual (795x800pix, 136kb)
Metamorfosis (799x800pix, 169kb) monochrome light brown.
Vibration (1960; 680x678pix, 203kb) monochrome dull brown.
–- La Cruz de Color (1200x1197pix, 127kb) most of the color is in the flat yellow background, on which there is a cross consiting of five squares with striated black and white backgrounds on each of which there are four smaller separated squares, 8 black, 8 blue, and, in the central square, 4 gray. _ This was quite unsatisfactory to the pseudonymous Gabriel Smarto, so he metamorphosed this picture into
      _ La Resurrección del Color aka —H— (2006; screen filling, 140kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1164kb) which resembles its starting point as much as a butterfly resembles a caterpillar.
–- Bordes Naranjas (720x737pix, 32kb) the picture is divided into three unequal off-white rectangles with thin orange edges, featureless except for one vertical line, and gray cross hatching covering the smaller rectangle _ Compare the colorful, imaginative, and much more interesting triptych
      _ Orange Held, Orange Abstraction, Orange Trees, Orange Border (2007; 1100x1500pix, 125kb) by the pseudonymous Otto Sleafar.
untitled serigraph (1970, 8x60cm; 1126x800pix, 37kb)
–- Untitled (215kb) dense irregular vertical white lines, and two small line sketches (one white, one black), on a black background.
–- S#> Color y Movimiento _ dark red, black, and dark grays are not much color, except in comparision with Soto's usual boring grayscale.
–- S#> Untitled
–- Untitled (215kb) dense irregular vertical white lines, and two small line sketches (one white, one black), on a black background. —(100113)

>1882 Antonin Prochazka (or Prochaska), Czech painter who died on 09 June 1945.
Bacchanal (1909, 34x41cm; 450x640pix, 83kb)
— (untitled abstraction?) (640x513pix, 110kb)

>1881 Georg “Jerzy” Merkel, Austrian painter who died in 1976.
Am Vorabend (1912, 98x102cm; 480x502pix, 34kb)
Liebespaar
Liebespaar in Landschaft (1920, 50x68cm; 464x640pix, 39kb) —(080604)


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