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BURIAL: 1679 MILLET — DEATH: 1592 PASSEROTTI
BIRTHS: 1819 JONGKIND —  1840 MUNIER — 1881 LARIONOV — 1877 DUFY — 1852 ROBINSON — 1662 VAN MIERIS
^Born on 03 June 1819: Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch Realist painter and printmaker who died on 09 February 1891.
— Jongkind's small, informal landscapes continued the tradition of the Dutch landscapists while also stimulating the development of Impressionism.
— Originaire de Latrop, aux Pays-Bas, Johan Barthold Jongkind fit sortir l'art néérlandais de son provincialisme idyllique et devint du même coup l'un des plus notables précurseurs de l'évolution européenne ultérieure. Elève d'Andreas Schelfhout à La Haye et d'Isabey à Paris, il se fixa de 1855 à 1860 à Rotterdam, mais passa ensuite les trente dernières années de sa vie a Paris. Ses premières oeuvres hollandaises — surtout les représentations fluviales et marines — se distinguent cependant déjà par une atmosphère étonnamment transparente et un haut degré de luminosité. Créée en 1856, la toile intitulée Le Port de Rotterdam semble avoir pour sujet réel les teintes vaporeuses suspendues entre les objets, ainsi que les reflets de l'eau. Le coloriage de Jongkind obéissait encore aux règles de la cohésion tonale, mais dans la luminosité de ses atmosphères l'artiste dépassait jusqu'aux Français les plus hardis. A quel point il était attaché a l'inspiration puisée aux mille aspects de la nature vivante ressort aussi du fait qu'il aimait peindre et repeindre le même motif sous un éclairage different. Né exactement la même année que Colbert, et à peu près contemporain des principaux pleinairistes de l'école de Barbizon, Jongkind allait devenir, a côté de Boudin, l'un des plus grands promoteurs de l'impressionisme. Il n'a pas seulement enthousiasmé Manet, mais aussi — comme pas un autre — confirmé Monet dans son esthétique. Jongkind est mort à Côte-Saint-André, France.

LINKS
Notre-Dame de Paris, Vue du Pont de l'Archévêché (1849; 601x1056pix)
The Seine and Notre-Dame à Paris (1864)
In Holland; Boats near the Mill (1868)
The Church of Overschie
Honfleur (1865, 52x82cm) _ This canvas was painted in August–September 1865, during Jongkind's third visit to Honfleur, on the Normandy coast, where Monet also worked in the early and mid-1860s.
45 images at the Athenaeum
—(060527)
^ >Born on 03 June 1840: Émile Munier, French painter who died on 29 Jun 1895.
— Émile Munier was born in Paris and lived with his family at 66 rue des Fossés Saint Marcel. His father, Pierre François Munier [—05 Jun 1875], was an upholstery artist at the Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins and his mother, Marie-Louise Carpentier [–26 Jan 1885], was a polisher in a cashmere cloth mill.
      Émile and his older brother François Joseph [1839–] went to the local public elementary school. By the time their younger brother was born the family’s fortune had improved and Florimond Louis [11 Sep 1851–], was enrolled in a private boarding school. All three brothers displayed an early gift for drawing and each had produced a pastel self-portrait between the ages of 13 and 14. Émile’s is dated 1854. All three children entered the Gobelins, but only François stayed and he ended his career as a head-foreman like his father.
      Émile Munier prepared to become an upholstery artist by attending classes in drawing, painting, anatomy, perspective, and the chemistry of wool dyeing. Abel Lucas supervised the drawing courses; Mr. Chabale taught the flowers and ornaments classes; chemistry was taught by Mr. Chevreuil; and Mr. Decaux was the engineer of Arts et Manufactures.
      During this period Émile met Henriette Lucas, Abel Lucas’ daughter. On 10 August 1861 Émile and Henriette were married in the chapel of the Gobelins. They lived at the Gobelins and Émile, then an upholstery artist at the Manufacture, continued to draw and paint beside his father-in-law. He studied painting in the Academic tradition with Abel, as well as studying the works of Boucher.
      In the 1860s, Émile Munier became imbued with the Academic ideals og painting and an admirer of Bouguereau [30 Nov 1825 – 19 Aug 1905].
      After gaving birth to a son, Émile Henri, on 28 August 1867, Henriette died on 09 November 1867.
      In 1871, Émile Munier abandoned his career at the Gobelins and devoted his time solely to painting as well as teaching classes three nights a week.
      On 02 January 1872, Émile Munier married Sargines Angrand-Campenon, a student of Abel Lucas who had been a friend of Henriette. Sargines was teaching drawing and had acquired a certain reputation as a pastel portraitist. The couple lived in a small apartment with a studio, at 8 rue des Beaux-Arts, where Corot and Fantin-Latour also had studios.
     Munier entered the studio of William Bouguereau. Over the years the two became close friends. Bouguereau nicknamed him “le sage Munier”.
      In 1873 Munier painted Le Voleur de Pommes and La Leçon de Tricot. On 01 July 1873, Munier received his first visit from George A. Lucas, a US art agent living in Paris who was an advisor to some US dealers and collectors, including: Samule P. Avery, William T. Walters, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John T. Johnson, and Henry Walters. During the next 12 years a number of Munier's works would be bought by Lucas' clients.
      At the beginning of 1874, Munier completed Le Chaton Favori (which may be the work purchased by George Lucas on 17 January for 400 francs). This same year Sargines gave birth to a daughter, Marie Louise [12 Jun 1874–].
      Beginning in 1876, the Muniers spent their summer vacations on the Normandy coast. There, Émile made some watercolors and numerous drawings of boats and fishermen. During the summer of 1879, before joining his family on vacation in Normandy, Émile went to the Ardennes where he made the Portrait de Mme de Chanzy. It is probably during this trip that he discovered l'Ecole de Nancy and became acquainted with Émile Gallé, with whom he would later collaborate.
      Émile’s two children, Henri and Marie Louise, were his principal subjects at the beginning of the 1880s and he would continue painting sentimental genre paintings featuring them until the end of his life. Marie-Louise is most probably the subject of En pénitence (1879), L'enfant et le pantin (1880) and La petite fille et la poupée (1882).
      In 1883, the Muniers visited le lac du Bourget where Émile painted La jeune fille au lac and La petite fille aux oranges. During their stay in Aix, Émile frequently attended Italian opera and after returning to Paris, he became increasingly interested in music and singing.
      At the Salon of 1884 that year Émile exhibited Trois Amis, showing a chubby girl playing on her bed with a kitten and a dog. The picture was reproduced in many forms and used for publicity posters by Pears Soap. Munier became known as a painter of young children and their pets.
      From 1886 Émile went several times to Auvergne, where he made the preliminary sketches for such drawings and paintings of young peasants among farm animals as Le jeune chasseur (1888), La basse-cour (1889), La paysanne à la fourche (1889), La journée des confitures (1891), La jeune fille et le panier de cerises (1891), La fillette au tricot, and La lettre d'amour.
      In 1886, he painted cherubs, as he had done previously in Les deux cupidons (1883). His painting L'amour désarmé, shown at the Salon, is in the style of Bouguereau.
      In 1889 Munier painted the portrait of a couple of his US patrons, Mr. and Mrs. Chapman H. Hyams.
      In 1892, Munier painted mythological and religious subjects: several cupids, a goddess with an arm raised, a Virgin Mary praying, as well as a Maman et enfant (aka Le bain froid). He continued teaching painting in Paris and attending l'Atelier de peinture de l'Ecole Polytechnique.
      On 03 January 1893 Émile's son, Émile Henri, married Marie Marguerite Aumont [30 June 1873–], daughter of Achille and Blanche Aumont. This same year Émile exhibited at the Salon L'esprit de la chute d'eau, a nymph resembling La naissance de Vénus (1879) by Bouguereau.
     In 1894, Munier exhibited at the Salon a picture of two cupids, Un sauvetage. He also painted Premier prix, a dog among flowers at a dog show. During a stay at Mont Dore in Auvergne, he painted watercolors of the landscape.
      In 1895 he painted Deux filles avec un panier de chatons. He died a few days after the 20 June 1895 birth of his grandson, Georges.

LINKS
Two Girls Praying (1882 _ Zoomable)
Le Sauvetage (1894, 102x187cm; _ Zoomable)
Le leçon de tricot (1874, 114x84cm)
A Careful Stitch (1875, 51x43cm)
Marie-Louise (1879, 45x53cm)
Le vase cassé _ the indoors culprit being a much younger girl than the outdoors one in Le vase cassé by Bouguereau.
–- S*#> Sa meilleure amie (1882, 69x51cm; 498x375pix, 27kb) _ Munier's painting of a cherubic young girl hugging her cat perfectly embodies the dichotomy of nineteenth century attitudes towards children and childhood. The distinction between childhood and adulthood was a relatively new phenomenon, an outgrowth of the theories of eighteenth century philosophy. Childhood came to be defined as a period of innocence, which was celebrated, cherished and protected during the nineteenth century. Images of children became a popular subject in nineteenth century art as symbols of escapism. Yet images of young girls often flirted between the fine line of childhood innocence, and more mature female attitudes. Munier's child personifies these qualities with her doe-eyed gaze, flowing blonde hair and pristine white dress. She hugs her pet kitten with fervent ardor, in an amusing role reversal of a child pretending to be a parent. The undulating folds of black lace and her bare knee suggest a playful emulation of a more womanly attitude as well. The subtext of such imagery suggests an encroachment upon childhood innocence, either through the passage of time, or the demands of society.
 
^ Buried on 03 June 1679: Jean-François “Francisque” Millet (or Millé), French painter baptized as an infant on 27 April 1642. — Not to be confused with the better known Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], much less with Francis Davis Millet [03 Nov 1846 – 15 Apr 1912].
— Jean François Millet, called Francisque, was born in Antwerp, where his French father was in the service of the Prince de Condé, and where Francisque was apprenticed to a painter whose daughter he married. The couple settled in Paris in 1660, Francisque painting Italianate and Arcadian landscapes in the style of Gaspard Dughet. He was received into the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1763, after having worked in the Low Countries and in England. He was perhaps the best imitator of Nicolas Poussin's classical landscapes, retaining the formality and dignity of his models without loss of subtlety. Like those of Gaspard Dughet, his pictures are largely attributions on purely stylistic grounds, there being no sure documentation. He had relatives of the same name, and it is not clear what is by him. Three etchings are also now attributed to him.
— Little is known about his life. His oeuvre remains ill-defined, in part because he seems never to have signed his paintings and in part because, after his death (by poisoning), both his son Jean Millet [1666–1723] and later his grandson Joseph Millet [1688–1777] took the name Francisque and continued to paint landscapes in his style. The firmest point of reference for attributions to Millet is a series of 28 engravings after his works made by one Théodore, possibly a student. They are all landscapes, some with religious, mythological or heroic genre subjects, and have been identified with a number of surviving paintings that can therefore be attributed to Millet on this evidence.

LINKS
Imaginary Landscape (1665, 57x66cm) _ Under Louis XIV, the two main landscape painter of the time were Pierre Patel and Francisque Millet. They were largely derivative in their styles, but this was the secret of their success. Both of them are relatively little known today. Francisque Millet was more talented than Patel, though his present reputation is also obscure. Flemish in origin like Philippe de Champaigne, he worked mainly in Paris, specializing in classical landscapes inspired by the works of Dughet and Poussin. Millet had imagination and good powers of observation, but he never painted anything without a classical format. Millet preferred an intense blue for his landscapes (as did Poussin), which gives then an unnatural air. This Imaginary Landscape is typical of Francisque's style.
Paysage avec ruines (1715, 58x71cm)
–- S*#> Classical Landscape with Women Gathering Flowers, a Town Beyond (94x118cm; 900x1138pix, 177kb) from his studio.
—(060527)
^ Born on 03 June (22 May Julian) 1881: Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov, Moldovan~Russian French Cubist painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draftsman, and writer, who died on 10 May 1964.
— Pioneer of pure abstraction in painting, he founded the avant~garde Rayonist movement (1910) with Natal'ya Sergeyevna Goncharova [16 Jun 1881 – 17 Oct 1962], whom he later married. Early work was influenced by Impressionism and Symbolism, but he later introduced a nonrepresentational style conceived as a synthesis of Cubism, Futurism, and Orphism. In the Rayonist manifesto (1913), he espoused the principle of the reduction of form in figure and landscape compositions into rays of reflected light. Both Larionov and Goncharova exhibited in the first Jack of Diamonds exhibition of avant-garde Russian art in Moscow (1910). In 1914 they went to Paris, where both achieved renown as designers for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. During the 1920s they played a significant role within the École de Paris and continued to live and work in France until their deaths.
— Larionov was born in Tiraspol, Moldova on June 3, 1881 and died in Fontenay-aux-Roses, near Paris, on May 10, 1964. He was the son of Fiodor Mikhailovich Larionov, a doctor and a pharmacist, and Aleksandra Fiodorovna Petrovskaia, but he grew up in his grandparents' home in Tiraspol. He attended the Voskresenskii Technical High School in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Here he met Natal'ia Goncharova, who remained his lifelong companion. His imaginative work soon caught the attention of colleagues and critics and in1906 he was invited to exhibit with the Union of Russian Artists and to participate in the Russian Art exhibition at the Salon d'Automne in Paris. When Larionov met Nikolai Riabushinskii, editor of the "Zolotoe runo" (the Golden Fleece), the famous art mecenas became the artist's chief patron and in 1908 helped him organize the "Golden Fleece" exhibition of the modern French painting in Moscow. As a result of this exhibition, many artists, including Larionov, turned away from Symbolism and started to experiment with Post-Impressionism. In 1910, Larionov was expelled by the Moscow School of Painting for organizing a demonstration against the school's teaching methods. Larionov was the founder of the "Jack of Diamond" group, and with them he exhibited a remarkable series of paintings, among them the Soldiers (1910), created during his military service. Larionov soon deserted the "Jack of Diamond" for the more radical "Donkey's Tail", which held an exhibition in 1912. In 1912 he initiated two very important movements: Rayonism (Rayism) and Neo-primitivism. Rayonism was inspired by Italian Futurism and Neo-primitivism and represented a development of the artist's Fauvist and Expressionist interests.
      Rayonism was officially launched at the "Target" exhibition of 1913. In 1914 he traveled with Goncharova to Paris. They held an exhibition at the Gallerie Paul Guillaume. When the war began, they returned to Russia and Larionov was drafted into the army. He was injured in the battle of the Masurian Lakes and spent three months in a hospital. The injury affected his ability to concentrate and resulted in the decline of his artistic energy. In 1915 he traveled with Goncharova to Switzerland, at the request of Diaghilev. There he designed for the ballet and gained success. While travelling through Spain and Italy he designed three more ballets, all equally successful. In 1919 he settled permanently in Paris, where he acted as Goncharova's manager. Throughout the decade he worked with Diaghilev as a designer and artistic adviser. Following Diaghilev's death in 1929, he resumed painting and also worked occasionally for the ballet. He and Goncharova were granted French citizenship in 1938. In 1950 he suffered a stroke that seriously handicapped his activity and he spent the last 14 years of his life in poverty.

LINKS
Soldier at Rest (1911; 731x800pix, 168kb)
The Cockerel. Rayonist Study (645x668pix, 107kb)
Blue Rayonism (561x536pix, 85kb) _ Rayonism (in Russian: Luchism) was the Russian art movement founded by Larionov, representing one of the first steps toward the development of abstract art in Russia. Larionov exhibited one of the first Rayonist works, Glass, in 1912 and wrote the movement's manifesto that same year. Explaining the new style, which was a synthesis of Cubism, Futurism, and Orphism, Larionov said that it “is concerned with spatial forms which are obtained through the crossing of reflected rays from various objects.” The raylike lines appearing in the works of Larionov and Natalya Goncharova bear strong similarities to the lines of force in Futurist paintings. Rayonism apparently ended after 1914, when Larionov and Goncharova departed for Paris.
Rain (947x550pix, 125kb)
Fish at Sunset (1904; 538x544pix, 115kb)
The Fish (1906, 89x127cm; 417x585pix, 96kb) _ The Fish (often called Fishes) was exhibited for the first time in 1909 as a part of the second Franco-Russian exhibition sponsored by the Golden Fleece. The painting shares particular qualities of color, light, and rhythm with many other works by painters of the Blue Rose group (Kuznetsov, Iakulov, Sar'ian, Goncharova, and brothers Miliuti). The blue-gray tones, characteristic of this period, are intermingled with light pinks, greens, and yellows to create a harmonious color scheme, held together by the dappling technique reminiscent of the French impressionists. An almost dancing rhythm seems to unify the shapes within one spatial plane. The hidden light source and liquid, fluid atmosphere employed in the works of the Blue Rose artists combine agreeably with Larionov's brushstrokes; in fact, on the left side of the painting the brushstrokes even imitate the scales on the fish, adding to the visual unity of the composition. Unlike the darker, more pessimistic or melancholy works of Borisov-Musatov, Larionov's work imparts a light, almost exuberant feeling of ease and freedom. The nonspecific background adds a subtle sense of mystery to the harmony of the scene. Is the fish on someone's kitchen table, ready to be prepared as a meal, or is it depicted a few moments after it has been caught, when the net of a fisherman opens and reveals the wonderful variety of underwater life? The painting seems to be a whimsical still life with fish, a turtle, an eel , and a lemon; perhaps the lemon is there as a jocular reminder that fish and other frutti di mare usually go well with lemon.
      A simple comparison of The Fish and Fish at Sunset could be the proof that the shiny, shimmering, and highly reflective scales of the fish attracted the artist because he was fascinated with the phenomenon of light, which seven years later would lead him to the announcement of his rayonist theory and the abandonment of objective art (at least for a while). The earlier painting also shows a variety of sea creatures -- several large fish, a crab, and a few lobsters. However, the light in both pictures is quite different. In the earlier painting, the light of the sunset casts orangy and reddish tint on the entire left side of the canvas, while the far right side, hidden in the shadow, compliments those warm tones with the blue and green. The choice of such "violent" colors links this painting of Larionov to Russian Neo-primitivism. The later painting, with the light illuminating the entire scene evenly, with a more subdued color scheme and with freer painterly technique, shows Larionov progressive departure from Neo-primitivism and advancement towards Rayonism.
Soldier in the Woods (1909, 627x695pix, 150kb) risking lung cancer for himself and for his horse. This painting is an example of Neo-Primitivism. It deliberately violates the laws of perspective by making the surface of the canvas flat and decorative. The proportions of the composition are distorted -- the horse is small and the head and hands of the soldier are unusually large. Moreover, Larionov employs a limited number of primary colors, applied without shading and blending. All these artistic devices find parallels in the art of the Russian folk, particularly in icons, street signs, wooden toys, decorated distaffs, and popular prints (lubok) usually hand colored in red, green, purple, and yellow. In the West, Neo-primitivism was an aftermath of the exhibition of the folk arts of Africa, Australia, and Oceania in Paris. The world of art was surprised by the boldness of colors, originality of designs, and the expressiveness of these "unschooled," spontaneous creations of the "primitives." In Russia, flourishing between 1907 and 1912 and officially launched at the 3rd Golden Fleece Exhibition in 1909, Neo-primitivism was championed by Goncharova and Larionov, although many other artists went through a Neo-primitivist stage. The genesis of the style can be found in the folk art of Russia -- such as the lubok and peasant applied art (distaffs, spoons, embroideries), but even more in icon painting. Goncharova, Larionov, Malevich, Tatlin, even Chagall and Kandinskii incorporated into their works ideas and compositions common in icon painting. Neo-primitivist canvasses share with icons a pronounced flatness, lack of depth and perspective, distortions of reality, as well as a bold, striking colors. Although the forms are intentionally distorted and resemble children's pictures, the paintings' rhythm and harmony come from the music of color and line.
—(060527)
^ Born on 03 June 1877: Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist painter, printmaker, and decorative artist, who died on 23 March 1953.
— From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing, at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre in evening classes given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier [1824–1898]. Dufy discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin, and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840) was a revelation to him. In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947. His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as Beach at St Adresse (1904)
— Georges Braque was a student of Dufy.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1899, 34x41cm; 800x638pix, 101kb)
Self-Portrait (1901x28x19cm; 800x534pix, 106kb)
Regatta at Cowes (1935; 600x1420pix _ ZOOM to 1400x3313pix)
Regatta at Cowes (1934) _ very similar to the right half of the above.
La Baie de Dauville (1935; 600x744pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1736pix)
Indienne (1928; 600x768pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1792pix)
Nice* Open Window (*Nice, the nice city on the French Riviera)
Arbres à l'Estaque (1899, 34x41cm; 800x660pix, 152kb) and Arbres Verts à l'Estaque (1899, 34x41cm; 800x666pix, 101kb) two very similar versions (the first one is greener and contains the vague suggestion of a masked face with the eye being poked out, which is absent from the second one, more strongly drawn). The similarity of the two versions is reflected in their transformation into the abstraction
      _ Reflets de Revers Verts de Réverbères Arborés à l'Attaque or Revers for short (2006; screen filling, 188kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1453kb) by the pseudonymous Rahurle Dudéfy.
L'Apéritif (1908; 576x700pix)
Le Port (1908; 580x708pix)
Grandes Ombres Chinoises (1926, 55x45cm) _ A pattern more suitable for a background than for a whole picture. Dudéfy has taken an almost microscopic detail of it and elaborated it into the semi-geometrical symmetrical abstraction
      _ Grandissantes Sombres Chinoiseries aka Muse Sum (2006; screen filling, 188kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1453kb)
Baguettes Cassées (1926, 55x45cm; 800x609pix, 211kb) _ Another pattern more suitable for a background than for anything else. So Dudéfy not only transformed it into a colorful not quite symmetrical abstraction,
      _ Lawyer Who Bags, Gets Cases aka Casse Sac (2006; 95kb _ ZOOM to 154kb _ ZOOM+ to 289kb _ ZOOM++ to 1318x1864pix, 942kb) but made the image, in each size except the very largest, adjustable over a fixed background pattern of the same image, which creates a strange 2-layer effect as you change the size of your computer window.
123 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
—(060520)
^ Born on 03 June 1852: Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter who died on 01 (02?) April 1896. He studied under Claude Monet. — {OK, he was from the US. But did he have a Swiss family? or anything else to do with Der Schweizerische Robinson, Oder der Schriffbruchige Schweizerprediger und Seine Familie (1812) or Johann David Wyss [1743-1818]?}
— Brought up in Evansville Wisconsin, Robinson studied art briefly in Chicago at the end of the 1860s, and in New York at the National Academy of Design (1874–1876). His early work, for example Haying (1882), was in the US genre tradition of Winslow Homer. From 1876 to 1878 Robinson studied in Paris under Carolus-Duran, alongside John Singer Sargent, and under Jean-Léon Gerôme. In 1879 Robinson returned to the USA and lived mainly in New York and Boston; he made a living by teaching and by assisting John La Farge and Prentice Treadwell with mosaic and stained-glass decorations for the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. In 1881 Robinson was elected to the Society of American Artists, a group in revolt against the conservatism of the National Academy.
     Returning to France in 1884, Robinson worked in Paris and Barbizon and was strongly influenced for a time by the Barbizon School. A crucial event was his meeting with Monet at Giverny, near Rouen, in 1887. By 1888 they were close friends and Robinson began to develop his own Impressionist style, which was never as extreme in its use of broken color as that of Monet. His aim, as he wrote in his journal, was to combine Impressionism’s ‘brilliancy and light of real outdoors’ with ‘the austerity, the sobriety, that has always characterized good painting’. Cézanne seems to have influenced the strong compositional structure of his paintings, and his best work was done mostly in France during the next four years. He also painted in Italy for several months in 1890 and 1891. His favorite subjects were landscapes and intimate vignettes of farm and village life, such as The Watering Pots (1890), In The Grove (1888) and Wedding March (1892). Since models were expensive and Robinson was poor, he often took photographs as studies for his figure compositions.

LINKS
Woman in a White Cap (1884; 107kb)
Girl with Puppies (1881, 53x30cm)
Stepping Stones (1893, 54x72cm)
— House in Virginia (1893, 46x56cm)
— In the Orchard (1895, 46x56cm)
— Girl Sewing (1891, 46x55cm)
— Country Road (35x25cm)
117 images at the Athenaeum

 
^ Born on 03 (02?) June 1662: Willem van Mieris, Leiden Dutch painter and draftsman who died on 27 (26?) January 1747.
— Willem van Mieris was the younger son of Frans van Mieris the Elder [16 Apr 1635 – 12 Mar 1681]. Together with his brother Jan van Mieris [1660-1690] he continued his father's tradition. His paintings are similar to his father's, and his scrupulous attention to detail makes them fascinating. Willem's son and student Frans van Mieris the Younger [24 Dec 1689 – 22 Oct 1763] painted in a watered-down version of his grandfather's style.
— Willem van Mieris was trained by his father and probably contributed to several of his later works. It is almost certain, for example, that he finished his father’s signed painting of the Holy Family (1681). The earliest examples signed and dated by Willem himself are from 1682, after which there is a large oeuvre of dated works up to the 1730s, when he became partly blind. In 1693 he joined the Leiden Guild of Saint Luke, for which he served as headman several times and once as dean. About 1694, with the painters Jacob Toorenvliet [1635–1719) and Karel de Moor, he founded a drawing academy in Leiden, which he and de Moor directed until 1736.
— As the son and apprentice of the Leiden painter Frans van Mieris, Willem van Mieris grew up in the tradition of the fijnschilders. He adopted his father's smooth, enamel-like style, but besides genre pieces also produced portraits, landscapes and history pieces. After 1700 Van Mieris specialised in shop and kitchen interiors depicted behind an arched opening. He devoted much attention to detail, and many important collectors liked his dispassionate, meticulous style. For several years Van Mieris was leader of the St Luke's guild Guild A guild is a society of persons united by a particular aim or occupation. Guilds were first formed in the Middle Ages. Some guilds were founded as charities, others were societies of merchants, craftsmen, artists and militias. Craftsmen would have been unable to practice their profession without being a member of the guild. Members were bound by a code of quality and price, but could also obtain assistance from the guild. An extensive apprenticeship system developed. Only a fully qualified master could become a member of the guild. Each guild had its patron saint: the patron of the painters guild was St Luke. in Leiden. Around 1694 he set up a drawing academy with the artists Toorenvliet and De Moor. His apprentices included his son, Frans van Mieris II. The school remained in existence until 1736, by which time Van Mieris had become partially blind.

LINKS
The Peepshow (1718, 57x48cm; 1600x1346pix, 191kb) _ In a kitchen a traveling merchant is showing a few children his wares: a cabinet with all kinds of small dolls presenting an interesting show. Curious adults have also come to look. About the 1700s there were many of these French-speaking entertainers, popularly known as Savoyards. The painting's title, The Peepshow, probably refers to the cry they used to ply their wares. Willem van Mieris borrowed this subject from genre painting as a vehicle for the onlookers' various reactions. With its considered use of light, this work is a careful study of their amused and surprised looks and the differences in posture.
     Willem van Mieris was a son of the celebrated Leiden fijnschilder Frans van Mieris. Fijnschilders were painters who attempted to reproduce as realistically as possible the most diverse of materials, ranging from copper, glass and satin, to paper and skin. With their small, perfectly finished works these painters acquired a major reputation. Here Van Mieris demonstrates that there is nothing he cannot reproduce in paint: a cane basket, an earthenware jug and glistening fish.
–- Seated Man Holding a Berkemeier and a Pipe in his Hands, a Tobacco Pouch in his Lap, with a View of an Extensive River Landscape Beyond (1688, 21x17cm; 1200x967pix, 229kb) _This painting is related to two works by the artist's father Frans van Mieris the Elder: Man holding a large roemer (1668) and Man drinking and a woman offering him a fish which was probably finished by Willem van Mieris.
–- Man Holding a Pipe (1710, oval 14x11cm; 954x755pix, 71kb _ ZOOM to 1908x1509pix, 261kb)
The Greengrocer (1731, 39x32cm; 900x756pix, 138kb) _ At this greengrocer, the old shopkeeper displays her wares. And at the same time, the artist displays his talents. He captures the textures of the vegetables on the counter: carrots, parsnips, cauliflower, kale and melons. Compare the fabric of the curtain drawn back and tied at the top with that of the rough cloth under the shopper's basket. Then compare all these with the stone carved children eating, drinking and playing below the shop window.
The Spinner
(1014x824pix, 131kb)
An Old Man Reading (1729, 15x13cm; 1000x879pix, 240kb)
The Death of Cleopatra (1694, 23x20cm; 1205x1000pix, 606kb)
–- A Mother and Her Two Children (1728, 44x38cm; 1057x900pix, 68kb) _ Somewhat similar to the next picture.
Een vredig genrestuk (1718, 50x38cm; 692x565pix, 39kb) _ sold London, Christie's, 16 April 1999, Sale 6097, lot 46, for £122'500.
–- Girl at a Window, Holding a Parrot (31x25cm; 900x695pix, 116kb) 1875 copy by P.Van Slingelandt.
The Cook (1715, 47x38cm; 700x560pix, 182kb)
The Tea (42x34cm; 700x560pix, 198kb)
The Soap Bubbles (32x26cm; 700x560pix, 198kb)
The Venison Seller (31x26cm; 700x560pix, 180kb)
— Portrait of a Widow (oval 17x15cm; 600x460pix, 55kb)
Expulsion of Hagar (1724, 44x33cm; 575x461pix)
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife (27x35cm; 575x759pix, 152kb)
Militiaman with Empty Glass (1690, 30x24cm; 500x372pix, 39kb) _ In the Netherlands for centuries water was so polluted that it formed a health hazard (as it still does in many third-world countries). In large cities, canals were open sewers and industrial and craft producers used them to dump their waste. Only wells, clean rivers and rain provided reliable drinking water. In the towns the population depended on light alcoholic beverages that were clean, durable and affordable.
      Beer was the people’s beverage. There were all kinds of beers. Light beers, with an alcohol content of 0.5 to 1.5%, was drunk throughout the day, as a substitute for water. This was often referred to as thin or small beer. Heavier types of beer, with alcohol contents similar to the beers of today, were drunk on special occasions. Most towns had their own breweries that supplied local demand and the surrounding countryside. These breweries represented some of the country’s largest industrial enterprises and were major exporters. In 1590 Amsterdam had no less than 180 breweries and Haarlem over a hundred in 1620. Various cities became involved in a bitter rivalry to produce the best quality beer. For many years it was Delft that led the way. In the mid-seventeenth century, Rotterdam’s beer was the most renowned. Alongside these domestic beers, imported beverages also enjoyed a certain popularity. But these expensive German and British beers remained the privilege of an exclusive elite. Although the quantities are difficult to calculate, the amount of beer consumed per person per year in the seventeenth century has been estimated at 250 liters. That is five times the amount people drink today.
      Wine was imported from abroad. Although grapes had been grown in the Netherlands since Roman times, the lack of sunlight meant that wines produced here were of poor quality. Large quantities therefore found their way to the ports of Dordrecht and Rotterdam from Bordeaux in France, the Rhine and Moselle in Germany as well as from Spain and Portugal. From here the wine was distributed throughout the country. The trade made the fortunes of many a merchant. Wine was expensive and drunk by the wealthy classes. In fact it is an illustration of the Republic’s economic growth that after 1650 wine consumption outstripped that of beer. Indeed, the amount of wine drunk increased significantly compared to beer. At the same time, however, it should not be forgotten that the seventeenth century also saw the advent of a number of alternatives to water: coffee, tea and cocoa.
      Distilled drinks with high alcohol contents had been available since the Middle Ages. Brandy was invented by chance in a French monastery when it was noticed that the remainders of old wines and residue had fermented and turned into a new drink with a high alcohol percentage. Originally, brandy was only sold at apothecaries. It was thought to prevent plague. Brandy bowls were used to drink the beverage, superb silver examples of which are known from the early seventeenth century. In Germany, a process was developed in the sixteenth century to distil strong liquor from grain. It was the small town of Schiedam that emerged as the center of gin-making in the Republic. And the town has retained its leading position to this day. Dutch gin, or genever, was distilled from grain and became a popular favorite. As well as being sold in taverns, it was also drunk by sailors on long voyages at sea.
      Coffee and tea, and cocoa too, were imported to the Netherlands by the Dutch East India Company from the second half of the seventeenth century. At first they were too expensive for the mass market. Indeed, coffee and tea were originally consumed as medicines. Some people drank as many as three hundred cups a day. So it was hardly surprising that establishments exclusively for drinking coffee and tea should emerge. By the eighteenth century tea drinking had become such an integral part of everyday life that special pavilions and tearooms were being built. This was also the age of coffee, tea and chocolate services. The durability of these products played a major part in the popularity of these water substitutes. A typical Dutch produce like milk could not be preserved for long. In the countryside it was drunk fresh from the cow and transported from farms for sale in the nearest urban agglomeration. However, most milk was turned into butter or cheese.
—(070603)

Died on a 03 June:


1997 Salvatore Fiume, Italian painter, sculptor, architecto, and writer, born on 23 October 1915.
Via Raffaele Carrieri (1949, 76x48cm; 500x309pix, 34kb) _ This has been thoroughly transformed by the pseudonymous Salomon Fumée into
      _ Ire Iraq Afar aka Rife Fir (2006; 500x354pix, 58kb _ ZOOM to 707x1000pix, 183kb _ ZOOM+ to 1414x2000pix, 655kb) which may surprise you when you look at it while standing on your head. Just in case that is a position you do not care to adopt, and to spare you the dangers of turning your computer upside down, Fumée has thoughtfully provided the flipped image, calling it
      _ Afar Iraq Ire aka Rift Fir (2006; 500x354pix, 58kb _ ZOOM to 707x1000pix, 183kb _ ZOOM+ to 1414x2000pix, 655kb). —(060116)

1813 Johann-Christian-Jacob Friedrich, German artist born on 13 October 1746.

^ 1720 Cristoforo Monari (or Munari), Italian painter baptized as an infant on 21 July 1667. A specialist in still-life painting, he apparently worked until 1703 in his native Reggio Emilia, a protégé of Rinaldo I d’Este, Duke of Modena (reg 1694–1737). In 1703 Monari went to Rome, where he took a wife and where he served the Very Eminent Cardinal Imperiali and other princes and lords. He remained there until at least June 1706. He then moved to Florence, where for about a decade he was attached to the court of Ferdinand de’ Medici. There is a Self-portrait (1710) from this period, during which he also worked for Cosimo III and Cardinal Francesco Maria de’ Medici [1667–1710], for whom he painted, among many other similar works, Still-life with Musical Instruments (1709). Munari’s style is characterized by a realistic treatment of detail and a subtle play of reflections and transparencies, suggestive of the manner of such Dutch artists as Jan de Heem. In 1715 Munari moved to Pisa, where he worked not only as a painter but also as a restorer of paintings in the cathedral. He died in Pisa.
Natura morta con cristalli (117x88cm; 806x600pix, 83kb)
Natura morta (88x117cm; 514x700pix, 68kb) _ Typical of Munari is this pair of paintings in which Chinese porcelains, silver, and cut-glass objects are juxtaposed with such objects as richly colored fruits and musical instruments.

^ 1675 (burial) Pieter Aertszoon (or Aertsen) “Lange Pier”, Dutch artist born in 1508 (or 1507), father of Arent Pieterszoon [1550 – 12 Jun 1612 bur.]. Pieter Aertsen came from Amsterdam, but lived for a long time in Antwerp. During his first years in Antwerp he was mainly commissioned to make altarpieces for Dutch churches. Before long he also started to paint scenes from peasant life and he gained a reputation for his paintings of market scenes and kitchen tableaux, which contained an abundance of fruit, fish, poultry, cheese, bread and much more. His younger cousin and student Joachim Bueckelaer took over this style of painting and developed it further. — Schilder; in de leer bij Allard Claesz; op zeventien jarige leeftijd naar Hennegouwen; woont in Antwerpen, in 1535 ingeschreven in het st.Lucasgilde; koopt op 20-12-1547 het huis 'Vlaanderen' op de Ossenmarkt en twee jaar later het huis ernaast 'Brabant'; vesticht zich weer in Amsterdam tussen 1555 en 1557, i.v.m. een opdracht voor het glas in een nieuw zijkoor van de Oude kerk.; in 1557 woont hij op de N.Z. Achterburgwal bij de Cornelis-Buyckensteeg en op 06-07-1563 betaald hij zijn poorterschap.— LINKS
The Adoration by the Magi (1560, 168x179cm) _ The baby Jesus is sitting on the lap of his mother, the Virgin Mary. He is holding his hand up in a blessing. Before him kneels a king offering a gift of gold. This is Melchior, the oldest of the three kings who came to pay homage to the infant Christ. Behind Mary, in a red gown is her husband Joseph. Jesus was born in a stable. The donkey, the ox and the shabby straw roof remind us of this. The scene takes place against the background of a ruined palace with marble columns and steps. This refers to King David, a distant ancestor of Jesus. The ruin is symbolic and represents the old world: Jesus represents the new, Christian world. This large, colorful panel shows a varied scene with many attractive details such as the rather homely basket of clothes beside Mary and the king's entourage with camels on the left of the background.
     Middle panel: Virgin and Child with King MelchiorOnly one of the three kings is pictured on this panel. In fact, the painting is no longer complete. It was originally the center panel of an altarpiece. The other two kings were pictured on the side panels. The right-hand panel has been lost. The left-hand panel, depicting the Moorish King Caspar and his entourage, has been preserved. This king is offering a vase of myrrh, a fragrant resin which was employed in the ancient world in perfume. It was used in preparing myrrh balsam, for embalming corpses. According to tradition, this was what Caspar, the African king, gave to Christ. It is viewed as a reference to Christ's subsequent death..
     Aertsen has depicted the figures in all sorts of different attitudes, which sometimes appear rather forced. In the background are a number of men - servants from the king's entourage - in various stages of undress. The most remarkable is the naked camel driver in the middle panel. Here the artist is obviously showing off his skill in anatomy and his knowledge of examples from the Italian Renaissance and Classical Antiquity. The artificial attitudes, the contrived nude and the bright colors are characteristic of the style in which Aertsen worked: Mannerism.
The Egg Dance (1552, 84x172cm) _ There's a cheerful atmosphere in the tavern. Everyone is having fun, dancing and drinking. What is the man in the foreground doing with his left hand nonchalantly resting on the shoulder of the young woman next to him? She seems to accept his advances and points out the drunkard - the man dancing on eggshells in the middle of the room. Pieter Aertsen has packed his Egg Dance full of double meanings.
     Egg dancing was a popular game played during the springtime folk festivities. First a chalk circle was drawn on the floor. Then, accompanied by bagpipe music, the player would use his feet to roll an egg out of a bowl, keeping it inside the circle, and turn the bowl upside down on top of the egg. All this had to be done without touching the flowers, leaves or anything else, and of course the egg had to remain unbroken. The first to succeed would win a prize: usually a basket of eggs. Here the basket is shown in the foreground.
     At the back of the room an old man is playing the bagpipes. Because of its shape, the instrument often symbolised the male genitalia. In the window is a jug containing a leek, a vegetable of the onion family. A sixteenth-century viewer would immediately have realised that the scene was a room in a brothel. Onions were supposed to be a stimulant. All around lie onion flowers, leek leaves and mussels, which were supposed to have the same quality. It was also thought to be true of eggs, the theme of the painting.
     Pieter Aertsen has given this piquant scene a moral message that appears to reflect his own moral reservations. A joker is depicted on one of the wooden boards on the table, left, and on the other a goat jumping. These are cards in a Tarot set. In the sixteenth century everyone would have understood that these symbolized drunkenness and lust. The reel above the fireplace on the right is a sign of folly: in fact 'reeling' is still used today to describe a person swaying or staggering from the effects of alcohol.
     The Egg Dance is one of the earliest paintings of a peasant scene. The elongated shape suggests it was designed to be hung above a fireplace. This kind of genre painting was popular among the burghers of the cities. The moralistic message was often an excuse to paint a piquant scene. Aertsen was also commissioned to paint large religious works for churches. However, many of these were destroyed during the Iconoclast Fury. During the religious riots of 1566, radical Protestants destroyed statues in Catholic churches and monasteries. It began on 10 August 1566 in Steenvoorde in West Flanders. Following a sermon by a Calvinist minister, part of the congregation forced its way into the nearby Saint Lawrence monastery and smashed all the statues. It was the beginning of a wave of destruction which quickly spread across the rest of the country. This was the culmination of a series of events. The repression of church reform had raised tensions to breaking point. Moreover, unemployment and poverty were rife in this period of economic crisis: the seedbed of social unrest. Defacing the churches was justified by the Calvinist belief that statues in a house of God were idolatrous images which must be destroyed. They thus gave one more proof of the wisdom of the saying “those who ignore history are doomed to repeat its mistakes.” Some 700 years earlier iconoclasm had been condemned by the Church as a heresy.
The Apostles Peter and John (1575, 56x76cm; 674x930pix, 164kb)
16 images at ARC15 images at WGA7 images at CGFA

1592 Bartolomeo Passerotti, Italian painter born (full coverage) on 28 June 1885. —(080502)

^ 1428 Andrea di Bartolo, Italian early Renaissance painter born in 1361 (±3), active since 1389.
— Not to be confused with Andrea di Bartolo di Simone di Bargiella del Castagno [1418 – 19 Aug 1457 bur.] nor with Andrea di Bartolo “Solario” [1460 – <08 Aug 1524] nor, of course, with at least 18 other Andreas
LINKS
Madonna and Child (1415, 29x18cm) _ detail 1 (390x520pix; 81kb) top 60% of the framed painting _ detail 2 (390x520pix, 125kb) top triangle: Christ as Judge _ detail 3 (390x520pix, 116kb) main part of the painting _ detail 4 (390x520pix, 119kb) Mary's head _ detail 5 (390x520pix, 94kb) the nursing Baby _ detail 6 (390x520pix, 112kb) angel on the left _ detail 7 (390x520pix, 122kb) angel on the right _ detail 8 (390x520pix, 83kb) the donor _ detail 9 (390x520pix, 87kb) lower half of the framed painting, with the inscription + MARIA VIRGO ORA PRO NOBIS + on the base _ While Andrea's scenes of the Virgin's life were intended to relate a story and to engage the viewer by depicting sacred events in familiar settings, this small image invites contemplation. This way of representing the Virgin — in which she sits not on an elaborate throne but on a simple cushion on the ground — is known as the Madonna of Humility, probably reflecting the relationship between the Latin words humilitas and humus. It seems to have been invented by Simone Martini and became extremely popular. As Mary suckles the infant, she gazes wistfully away. Contemporary viewers would have instantly understood that her expression reflects sadness at her Son's future.
The Crucifixion (1415, 29x18cm, 390x251pix) _ detail 1 (390x520pix, 74kb) Christ on the cross, without the blank top and bottom of the framed painting _ detail 2 (390x520pix, 105kb) (the most important) Christ's head, arm, and torso _ detail 3 (390x520pix, 109kb) Christ, between waist and ankles _ detail 4 (390x520pix, 85kb) Christ's bleeding feet _ detail 5 (390x520pix, 82kb) lower half of the framed painting _ The foreboding mood of Andrea's Madonna and Child is reinforced by the painting on its reverse side depicting the crucifixion. This side is not on view. The viewer is intended to meditate, as Mary does, on the life and suffering of Christ and to empathize with her. The panel was painted for the private devotions of the small figure kneeling at the right. She may have been a Dominican nun; if so, the painting hung in her convent cell. If she was a lay person, it would have been used for meditations in the quiet and privacy of her bedroom.
Joachim and the Beggars (1400, 44x32cm) central detail _ As devotion to the Virgin increased in the late Middle Ages, so did the legends surrounding her life. An entire cycle of stories evolved that loosely paralleled events of Christ's own birth and childhood, and they became popular subjects for artists. This panel, as well as The Nativity of the Virgin and The Presentation of the Virgin, were part of a predella, a horizontal grouping of small panels below the large central image of an altarpiece. As here, the predella often narrated a sequence of events. Here, in the first panel of the series, Mary's aged father Joachim and mother Anne give alms to the poor. To their left a priest stands under the elaborate portico of the temple, from which Joachim had been expelled because the couple's childlessness was seen as a sign of God's disfavor.
The Nativity of the Virgin (1400, 44x32cm) main detail (390x520pix, 74kb) _ In this panel -- the second in a series of three paintings by this artist illustrating scenes from the life of Mary — we see Anne and the new infant being tended just after her birth. Details -- such as the chicken brought to the new mother — made the Virgin approachable and brought sacred events into the realm of the viewer's own experience.
The Presentation of the Virgin (1400, 44x32cm; 390x289pix, 74kb) _ Here, the young Virgin enters the same temple portico and is greeted by the same priest we saw in the first panel, Joachim and the Beggars. This continuity lends realism to the scenes despite their gold backgrounds.
Coronation of the Virgin with Saints Catherine of Alexandria, Augustine, Peter, and Paul. (160x65cm central panel, 142x36cm each of the your side panels; all five panels on one image 532x553pix, 101kb) painted in collaboration with Giogio di Andrea.


Born on a 03 June:


^ 1954 Jirí Georg Dokoupil, Czech painter. In 1968, after the the Soviet Army invaded Czechoslovakia, Dokoupil became a refugee in West Germany. From 1976 to 1979 he studied art in Cologne, Frankfurt-am-Main, and New York He liived and worked in Madrid, Berlin, Prague, and Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
–- Untitled (1983, 100x100cm; 1100x1100pix, 75kb) red, black, blue-green, and white.
–- Apfel und Birne - die neue Ordnung (854x841pix, 57kb) design similar to the preceding, but monochrome grayscale. _ The pseudonymous Quirit du Goupil has metamorphosed this drab picture into the colorful and richly detailed twin abstractions
      _ A.P. Fell and Burned (2007; 775x1096pix, 355kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 676kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1506kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 3033kb) and
      _ Dix Nouilles Hors de Numération (2007; 775x1096pix, 355kb _ ZOOM to 1096x1550pix, 676kb _ ZOOM+ to 1700x2404pix, 1506kb _ ZOOM++ to 2636x3728pix, 3033kb)
–- Körper und Geist - die neue Ordnung (103kb) monochrome grayscale
–- Untitled (773x300pix, 54kb) monochrome brownish pink 31x16 rectangular array of small rounded shapes.
Manchas y Rabos (2000, 150x150cm; 475x475cm; 73kb)
Red Buddha I (114x95cm; 480x405pix, 19kb) monochrome red head, blurry because spray-painted.
Untitled (1982, 230x160cm, 416x283 pix, 24kb) axe splits head of cubistic blacksmith.
14 small images with short bio. —(070602)

1925 Bernard SchwartzTony Curtis, US movie actor and painter.
54 images at his site —(060222)

^ 1924 Bernard Safran, US Canadian Contemporary Realist painter who died on 14 October 1995. Husband of painter Adele Safran. — Biography with Self Portrait (1967, 64x51cm; 302x243pix, 45kb) — LINKS
Adam Clayton Powell
— Deng Xiaoping
King Hussein of Jordan
Betty (1968 drawing, 23x15cm, the artist's daughter at age about 8)
Adele (1989, 53x41cm, the artist's wife at age 63)
Medea (with her two sons which she would soon murder, all three in modern dress)
The Fish Store (1970, 46x61cm) (compare with Passerotti's The Fishmonger's Shop, above)
The Old Lady (1970, 61x46cm)
A Surgeon Working (1982, 94x122cm) (compare Eakins's The Gross Clinic)
— Embroidering (1983, 89x84cm; 519x499pix; 56kb)
Springhill Miners, Ernie Banks and Jim Spence (61x76cm; 387x500pix, 65kb)

^ 1894 Herbert Boeckl, Austrian painter and sculptor who died on 20 January 1966. — {Not to be confused with US political cartoonist Herbert Lawrence Block “Herblock” (13 Oct 1909 – 07 Oct 2001)}— After an initial period of study at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna, he turned, self-taught, to painting in 1914. He served during World War I, subsequently studying in Berlin (1921–1922) and Paris (1923), and coming into contact with the classicism of the rappel à l’ordre and Cubism. Between 1935 and 1939 he was professor of the general painting school of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, running the evening life-drawing classes there, before becoming principal. — LINKS
Self-portrait with cap (1925, 80x65cm; 314x250pix, 24kb)
Self-portrait (1948, 74x57cm; 370x285pix, 16kb) _ What Boeckl decided to represent during the time he withdrew from himself was the Greek prosopon, at the same time “mask” and “face”, through which man, in the midst of his misery and the collapse of his being as a “persona”, has arranged a role and a person capable of questioning us and staring us in the face, when he has rediscovered his identity after all the havoc.
Kurt Plahna (1917, 44x35cm; 370x287pix, 30kb) _ Boeckl's fiancée's brother is shown as a dark figure against a light background. The young man's head is bowed with inner agitation and tension. At the same time, he raises his eyes, betraying churning emotions. The picture gives a premonition of the fate of the 16-year-old high-school student, who fell in the defence of Carinthia a few weeks after the work was completed. He also seems to be suffering from a strange skin condition which produces large green vegetable-like growths, and some red ones, on his face.
Anatomy (1931, 133x156cm; 268x318pix, 20kb) _ For Boeckl, anatomy was the "fundamental outcome of the nature paintings I had done up to that time" and at the same time a "conclusion, perhaps even the conclusion of my entire work as a young man". Today the picture, owned by the Museum of History in Vienna, is regarded as one of the principal paintings in Herbert Boeckl's work of the early 1930s. It shows the corpse of a young man on the dissecting-table. The thorax swells, intestines and inner organs spill out. Never before, and seldom later, had Boeckl tackled a motif with such determination. He approached the subject by a series of drawings made in the dissecting-room.
Dead youth (predella) (1931, 70x185cm; 180x505pix, 21kb)
Quarry with red shadow (1920, 50x81cm; 227x360pix, 20kb) _ One of the painter's leitmotivs is repeated here: nature, opened up, deformed and mutilated by man. The quarry is the anatomy of the earth. A flaming mountain bears witness to man's intervention in nature.

^ 1842 Eugen Felix Prosper Bracht, Swiss German artist who died in 1921. Bracht, like Arnold Böcklin whose artistic aesthetic he shared, was a leading Swiss-born Symbolist, although he was trained and worked in Germany. In 1902 he moved to Dresden to head the master studio for landscape painting at the Academy there.
A Sunlit Gorge, Palestine (91x54cm)
–- Hannibal's Tomb (1909, 90x150cm; 535x900pix, 38kb) _ This is one of several versions of the subject, and was painted in Dresden with the help of a student.
–- Heide auf dem Hohen Venn bei Malmedy (49x89cm; 479x900pix, 53kb)
Am Mühlgraben (1920, 24x18cm; 500x367pix, 72kb) —(070602)

^ 1786 William Hilton the Younger, English painter who died on 30 December 1839. The son of the japanner, theatrical scenery, and portrait painter William Hilton Sr. [1752–1822], William Jr. first studied under John Raphael Smith, the mezzotint engraver. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1806. Like his friend Haydon he was dedicated to history painting, and his style developed from the Neo-Classic to a Titianesque Baroque. Hilton was elected ARA in 1813 and RA in 1819. His diploma piece The Rape of Ganymede (1819) was the first of a long sequence of mythological subjects. Hilton was also renowned for his biblical paintings, such as The Raising of Lazarus (1816) presented to Newark Church, Notts. In 1827 he became Keeper of the Royal Academy. — LINKS
Cupid and Nymph (1828, 72x89cm)
Rebecca and Abraham's Servant at the Well (1833, 86x110cm)

^ 1736 Augustin de Saint~Aubin, French engraver and draftsman who died on 09 November 1807. Brother of Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin [17 Jan 1721 – 06 Mar 1786] and Gabriel-Jacques de Saint-Aubin [14 Apr 1724 – 14 Feb 1780]. Augustin was trained first by his brother Gabriel and then under the reproductive engravers Etienne Fessard [1714–1777] and Nicolas-Henry Tardieu. He also studied under Laurent Cars. He was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1771, but, because he failed to submit his morceau de réception, never became a full academician. He nevertheless exhibited drawings and prints at the Salon from 1771 to 1793. He produced numerous portraits, armorials, book illustrations and religious, mythological, allegorical and genre subjects, some of which he both designed and engraved himself, some of which were engraved by others, and some of which were engraved by him after drawings by such artists as François Boucher [29 Sep 1703 – 30 May 1770] and Charles-Nicolas Cochin II [22 Feb 1715 – 29 Apr 1790]. There are more than 1300 prints by or after Augustin de Saint-Aubin. — Antoine-Jean Duclos and Antoine-Louis-François Sergent-Marceau were students of Augustin de Saint-Aubin. — LINKS —(060527)


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