ART 4 2-DAY 01 June v.9.40
BIRTH: 1880 NAUEN
>Died on 01 June 1841: Sir David
Wilkie, Scottish painter and etcher born on 18 November
Wilkie was born in Cults manse in Fife in 1785. In 1799, he was sent to study at the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh and on his return home in 1804, painted his Pitlessie Fair. The Village Politicians (1806) was of great success which made him settle in London. In 1817, he visited Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford, and painted his family group.
His fame mainly rests on his genre pictures in the Dutch style, such as the Distraining for Rent (1815), The Penny Wedding (1818), The Letter of Introduction (1818) and others. Later he changed his style, tried to imitate the depth and richness of coloring of the old masters and chose more elevated historical subjects, like The Preaching of John Knox before the Lords of Congregation, 10 June 1559. He also painted portraits William Chalmers-Bethune, his wife Isabella Morison and their Daughter Isabella (1804), and was successful as an etcher.
In 1823, he was appointed King’s limner in Scotland, and in 1830 painter-in-ordinary to King William IV. In 1840, for his health, he visited Syria, Palestine and Egypt, but died on his voyage home.
— Born in Cults, Fifeshire, he first studied in Edinburgh before coming to London in 1805. His earlier work was much in the manner of Teniers (and was mocked as the 'Pauper Style'). He exhibited at the Royal Academy, London 1806-1825 and 1829-1841, being elected Associate Royal Academician, London 1809 and Royal Academician 1811. He visited France in 1814 and 1821, and in 1825-1828 he made a convalescent tour on the Continent which included a period in Madrid. Thereafter he adapted a looser, more dramatic style, influenced by Rembrandt and seventeenth-century Spanish painting. In 1830 he was appointed Principal Painter to the King, and he was knighted in 1836. In 1840 he visited the Holy Land, but died at sea on his return voyage, an event memorably described by Turner in his Peace: Burial at Sea (1842, 87x86cm)
— Self-Portrait (600x500pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1166pix)
— Beggar (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix)
–- The Blind Tenant (69x88cm; 739x941pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1478x1883pix, 556kb)
The Blind Fiddler (1806, 58x79cm; 569x800pix, 55kb) _ Soon after the founding of the Royal Academy, Joshua Reynolds said that he was worried that its annual exhibitions would tempt artists to abandon classical subjects and idealism in favor of pictures showing common life in particularized detail. He described such ‘genre painters’ as artists who ‘express with precision the various shades of passion as they are exhibited by vulgar minds’. But not long after Reynolds’ death, the work of young genre painter Wilkie was received ecstatically at Royal Academy exhibitions, in 1807 this painting, which is the antithesis of Reynolds’s ‘great style’.
The Artist's Family before the Portrait of Johann Georg Sulzer (1785)
— The Village Holiday (1811, 94x128cm) _ In the early nineteenth century, Wilkie became the great celebrity of the art world with pictures like this, showing moralizing scenes from rural life in a minutely naturalistic style. Their entertaining subject-matter and apparently straightforward ‘realism’ secured him tremendous popular interest when these pictures were shown in public. This picture was exhibited in a one-man show the artist organized in 1812. Writing of it in the catalogue Wilkie explained that “in the principal group... a man is represented hesitating whether to go home with his wife, or remain with his companions at the public house.”
–- (The Spelling Bee at the Village School?) (55x49cm; 1230x1575pix, 184kb) stipple engraving after Wilkie, strangely (and mistakenly) designated as “The Sleeping Master”.
^ >Died on 01 June 1915: John White Alexander, US Symbolist painter and illustrator born on 07 October 1856.
He began his career in New York in 1875 as a political cartoonist and illustrator for Harper’s Weekly. In 1877 he went to Paris for his first formal art training, and then to Munich, where he enrolled at the Kunstakademie under Gyuala Benczúr. In 1878 he joined a colony of US painters established by Frank Duveneck [09 Oct 1848 03 Jan 1919] in Polling, Bavaria. In 1879 they went to Italy, where Alexander formed friendships with James McNeill Whistler [14 Jul 1834 17 Jul 1903] and Henry James [portrait by Sargent, 1913]. In 1881 he returned to New York, working as an illustrator for Harper’s, as a drawing instructor at Princeton and as a highly successful society portrait painter. He also exhibited at the National Academy of Design. By 1893 his reputation in both Europe and the US had soared, and in 1895 he was awarded a prestigious commission for a series of murals entitled The Evolution of the Book in the newly established Library of Congress in Washington DC. After 1901 Alexander became deeply involved with the promotion of the arts in America. He won numerous mural commissions and continued to paint portraits
Alexander’s stylistic development falls into several distinct stages. His early landscapes and genre scenes of the 1870s bear the stamp of the Munich realism of Wilhelm Leibl [23 Oct 1844 04 Dec 1900] as espoused by Duveneck and William Merritt Chase [01 Nov 1849 25 Oct 1916]. His fluid brushwork resembled that of Frans Hals [1582 01 Sep 1666] and Diego Velázquez [06 Jun 1599 06 Aug 1660], painters he deeply admired. After his return to the USA in 1881 and under the influence of Whistler, he favored a more limited palette and experimented with the evocation of mood through shadow and gesture. His portrait of Walt Whitman (1887) is one of his finest works of the 1880s.
Many of Alexander's later portraits, notably of women, were psychological studies rather than specific likenesses, as in The Ring (1911). His brushwork became less painterly and more concerned with suggesting abstracted shapes. He also adopted a very coarse-weave canvas, the texture of which became an important element in his mature work. By applying thinned-down paint to the absorbent surface, his pictures appear to have been dyed in muted tones, in marked contrast to the glossy, impasted surfaces of his earlier work. Throughout his career Alexander favored compositions with a single figure placed against a sharply contrasting background. The sinuous curvilinear outline of the heroine standing full~length in Isabella and the Pot of Basil evokes contemporary Art Nouveau forms. Like the Symbolists, he sought by gesture and strong lighting to intensify the viewer’s response to his sensuous treatment of the subject.
–- Isabella and the Pot of Basil (1897; 192x91cm) _ This painting is based on .Isabella, or the Pot of Basil by John Keats [31 Oct 1795 – 23 Feb 1821].
–- Lady in a Pink Dress (500X387pix, 24kb)
–- Aletheia (1895; 161x133cm; 600x491pix, 26kb)
— June (1911, 124x92cm)
Mrs. Daniels with Two Children (1913)
— Repose (1895, 133x162cm)
— Gray Portrait aka The Lady in Gray (190x90cm)
— A Toiler (1898, 102x56cm) almost monochrome
— Landscape, Cornish NH (77x114cm)
–- At the Piano (1894; 80x110cm; 573x800pix, 33kb) _ The subject is Helen Hopekirk Wilson, an accomplished pianist and composer, wife of Scottish businessman and landscape painter William Wilson.
Born on 01 June 1880: Heinrich
Nauen, German painter and printmaker who died on 26 November
— He began his artistic training in 1898 at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, attended the private school of Heinrich Knirr (1862–1944) in 1899 and in 1902 completed his studies by attending the class run by Leopold von Kalckreuth at the Königliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Stuttgart. From 1902 to 1905 he lived in the Belgian artists’ colony of Laethem-Saint-Martin. In works produced at the beginning of the century he concentrated on landscapes and religious subjects. His encounter with Vincent van Gogh’s work in 1905 was of decisive importance for the development of his painting. Self-portrait (1909) and Still-life with Flowers (1909) both resemble the works van Gogh produced in the south of France. In the years Nauen spent in Berlin (1906–1911), where he took part in exhibitions at the Secession and at Paul Cassirer’s Kunstsalon, he cultivated contacts with artists such as Max Beckmann, Erich Heckel, Emil Nolde and Karl Schmidt-Rotluff, relieving him from his over-dependence on van Gogh.
— Nauen was one of the original members of Die Brücke, which was founded in 1905 by Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirschner, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Nauen participated in most of the great exhibitions of the German Expressionists, including the 1907 exhibition of the Berlin Secession (this was the first time that Barlach, Nauen, and Nolde were shown; others in the show included Beckmann, Corinth, Van Gogh, Kandinsky, Kirchner, Klein, Maillol, Matisse, Munch, Slevogt, and Rodin), the 1913 Exhibition of the Berlin Secession (others shown included Beckmann, Cézanne, Corinth, Feininger, Grossmann, Manet, Matisse, Meid, Renoir, Rodin), the 1910 exhibition of the Sonderbund in Düsseldorf (which also included Beckmann, Bonnard, Camoin, Cézanne, Corinth, Denis, Derain, Feininger, Grossmann, Manet, Matisse, Meid, Nolde, Pechstein, Picasso, Renoir, Rodin, Rohlfs, Schmidt-Rottluff, Signac, Vlaminck, and Vuillard), and the 1912 Sonderbund, which functioned as an international exhibition of the "new art" in France, Germany, and Austria; artists shown there included Barlach, Bonnard, Braque, Cézanne, Corinth, Denis, Derain, Feininger, Grossmann, Heckel, Kirchner, Klee, Kokoschka, Macke, Marc, Marquet, Matisse, Meid, Nolde, Pechstein, Picasso, Renoir, Rodin, Rohlfs, Scharff, Schmidt-Rottluff, Signac, Tappert, Vlaminck, and Vuillard. By the early 1920s, exhibitions to define "Modern Art" were being planned, and again Nauen is in good company in the 1924 Munich show along with Barlach, Becker-Modersohn, Beckmann, Corinth, Feininger, Van Gogh, Grossmann, Kandinsky, Kirchner, Klee, Kokoschka, Manet, Marc, Nolde, Pechstein, Picasso, Schmidt-Rottluff, Seewald, and Slevogt. One might mention as well his place in the ultimate honor roll of German Expressionism, the 1938 Exhibition of Condemned artists organized by the Nazis in Münich. Nauen's work, condemned by the Nazis as "Degenerate," is deeply spiritual and extremely intense. Though less known today than some of his fellows, his place in the most important shows of his time assures that he will not be forgotten.
— Geboren am 1.6.1880 in Krefeld. — 1898 - 1902 Studium an den Kunstakademien Düsseldorf und Stuttgart. Meisterschüler von Leopold von Kalkreuth. — 1911 Übersiedlung in das Schloß Dilborn bei Brüggen. Über diese Zeit, in der seine schönsten Bilder entstehen, schreibt Nauen:
"Ich wohne nun in der für mich denkbar schönsten Landschaft, habe einen Park, hab Wasser, Wiesen, Felder, Bruch und Heide und dann dieser ganz einzig schöne Buchenhochwald. . . Ich schieße wirklich wie ein Bäumchen, was man nach langem Winter mal wieder ans Licht gebracht hat". — 1915 - 1918 Militärdienst. — 1921 Berufung als Professor an die Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. 1931 Übersiedlung nach Neuss. — 1937 Entlassung aus dem Lehramt. — 1938 Übersiedlung nach Kalkar. — Gestorben am 26.11.1940 in Kalkar.
— Mutter und Kind (etching 1919, 25x20cm; 730x601pix, )
— August Hoff (1927; 834x652pix, 35kb) _ Den Kunsthistoriker Prof. Dr. August Hoff [1892-1971], bis zu seiner Entlassung durch die Nationalsozialisten Direktor des Duisburger Museumsvereins, des späteren Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museums, und nach 1945 Direktor der Kölner Werkschulen im Wiederaufbau.
Died on 01 June 1727: Cornelis
Huysmans van Mechelen, Flemish painter baptized as
an infant on 02 April 1648.
— He was the son of a builder, Hendrik Huysmans, and Catharina van der Meyden. After their deaths he was brought up by his uncle, who may have apprenticed him to the landscape painter Gaspard de Witte [1624–1681] or to Cornelis Huysman’s half-brother Pieter. He moved to Brussels to be trained by Jacques d’Arthois, who, on Huysmans’s own testimony, was the most important influence on his development as a painter. On 24 January 1682 he married Maria Anna Schepers in Mechelen and in 1688 signed an agreement with the Mechelen painters’ guild, which allowed him, upon payment of 24 guilders and 14 stuivers, to practise his trade there. Perhaps some difficulties he experienced with the guild encouraged his move to Antwerp, where he became a master in 1706–1707. In 1716 he returned to Mechelen, where he took on Augustus-Casimir Redel and Jean Edmond Turner as students.
— Born in Antwerp, son of the architect Hendrick Huysmans. Student in Antwerp of Jasper de Witte and then in Brussels of Jacques d’Arthois for whom he also worked as an assistant for a time. He was still living in Brussels in 1681, but in 1682 he settled in Mâlines, where he married Anna Scheppers on 26 January that year. It may be that he also spent a time in England. In 1702 he went to Antwerp and in 1706-1707 became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, but returned to Mâlines in 1716, working there until his death.
Cornelis Huysmans, who was called Huysmans van Mechelen, was a landscape painter and represents the Brussels-influenced decorative landscape painting in Antwerp and Mâlines [= Mechelen]. To a later age he has become an artist to whom over the years a large number of landscapes of a specific character have with more or less justification been attributed, while signed works by him are extremely rare. His younger brother, and possibly student, Jan~Baptist Huysmans [1654-1716] was a landscape painter, too, but has been overshadowed by Cornelis, and it has earlier been difficult to distinguish their works from each other. Now, however, we know of a modest number of signed works by Jan Baptist (dated between 1690 and 1700), just sufficient for forming an idea of his style. It may become possible to distinguish some of the works now known under the name of Cornelis as being by Jan Baptist, thereby contributing to a clearer picture of Cornelis’ oeuvre. A landscape which until recently was for considered typical of Cornelis Huysmans, now seems to be of Adriaen van der Cabel [1631-1705].
— Mountainous Landscape (561x700pix, 149kb)
— Forested Landscape (639x725kb, 156kb)
— Landscape with a Horseman in a Clearing (764x688pix, 141kb)
— Landscape with a Ruined Tower (81x118cm; 575x825pix, 212kb)
— Paysage Animé (56x72cm; 410x530pix, 58kb)
— Wooded Landscape I (81x116cm; 575x841pix, 220kb)
— Wooded Landscape II (55x81cm; 285x416pix, 26kb)