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ART “4” “2”-DAY  31 July v.9.60
^ Born on 31 July 1875: Gaston Duchamp “Jacques Villon”, French Cubist painter, printmaker and illustrator, who died on 09 June 1963, half-brother of Marcel Duchamp [28 Jul 1887 – 02 Oct 1968], Raymond Duchamp-Villon [05 Nov 1876 – 07 Oct 1918], and Suzanne Duchamp Crotti [1889-1963]. — {Villon vit long? et large?}
— The oldest of three brothers who became major 20th-century artists, including Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp, he learnt engraving at the age of 16 from his maternal grandfather, Emile-Frédéric Nicolle [1830–1894], a ship-broker who was also a much appreciated amateur artist. In January 1894, having completed his studies at the Lycée Corneille in Rouen, he was sent to study at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris, but within a year he was devoting most of his time to art, already contributing lithographs to Parisian illustrated newspapers such as Assiette au beurre.
      At this time he chose his pseudonym: Jack (subsequently Jacques) in homage to Alphonse Daudet’s novel Jack (1876) and Villon in appreciation of the 15th-century French poet François Villon; soon afterwards this new surname was combined with the family name by Raymond. Marcel Duchamp and their sister Suzanne Duchamp, also a painter, retained the original name.
      Villon’s work as a humorous illustrator dominated the first ten years of his career, but from 1899 he also began to make serious prints, exhibiting some for the first time in 1901 at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris. By 1903 he had sufficient reputation in Paris to be an organizer of the first Salon d’Automne. He consciously began to expand his media in 1904, studying painting at the Académie Julian and working in a Neo-Impressionist manner. His printmaking style, formerly influencd by Toulouse-Lautrec, moved towards the fashionable elegance of Paul César Helleu.
— André Fougeron was a student of “Jacques Villon”.

–- Le Petit Manège, rue Caulaincourt (1905 color aquatint; 47x58cm; 598x738pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 897x1107pix, 82kb _ ZOOM+ to 2827x3551pix, 2363kb)
–- Girl in a Hat and Veil (1925, color aquatint, 40x28cm; 605x415pix, 39kb _ .ZOOM to 1210x831pix, 124kb) _ after Henri Matisse, but not much like Femme au Chapeau (1905).
–- L'Envolée (color lithograph 26x46cm; 584x923pix, 87kb _ .ZOOM to 875x1384pix, 237kb) colorful angular abstraction
–- Coursier (color lithograph, 29x45cm; 587x890pix, 93kb _ .ZOOM to 864x1296pix, 177kb) another colorful angular abstraction
–- Composition XXX (color lithograph, 47x32cm; 686x461pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1372x922pix, 134kb)
–- Les Yeux Futiles (1956 etching and color aquatint, 15x14cm; full size, 46kb)
–- Abstraction (1927, 49x34cm; 688x476pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 1147x794pix, 160kb)
–- Two Women on a Terrace by the Sea (1922, color aquatint, etching, and roulette, 48x61cm; 780x986pix, 86kb) after Matisse.
–- Autre temps: 1830 (1904, color aquatint and drypoint, 44x35cm; 702x577pix, 64kb _ .ZOOM to 1123x923pix, 152kb)
Jacques (1924, 145x113cm)
–- Magda Pach (55x46cm; 845x824pix, 62kb) — .ZOOM to 2000x1648pix, 326kb)
–- Walter Pach (55x46cm; 865x1095pix, 113kb — .ZOOM to 1999x1644pix, 416kb)
–- Le Grand Dessinateur (1934, 25x23cm) _ This preliminary study for a painting is a self-portrait of the artist as he sits at his tilted drafting table, a pencil held loosely in his hands. Behind him are three sculptures by his deceased brother, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, including Decorative Basin on the left, and a head of the poet Charles Baudelaire on the table at the right. Villon had been particularly close to his brother, who together with a third brother, the artist Marcel Duchamp, made up one of the most famous families in the history of modern art. The importance given in this drawing to the sculptures of Duchamp-Villon, who died from typhoid fever in 1918, show how his artistic legacy continued to inspire and support his older brother.
L'entonnoir en Champagne (371x482ydb. 91kb) _ Craters blown open by mines or by large-calibre shells were a characteristic feature of any battlefield. In them, soldiers were crushed to death by shells or sought shelter once the artillery had changed targets. On the edge of this one, drawn by Villon, there are little dugouts in which the soldiers waited and rested. Such views abound in the photographs of the period, which deliberately linger over the human and material debris strewn around the crater. For Villon, it is sufficient to depict the depth of the cavity and its steeply sloping walls by means of oblique lines, in the manner of a draftsman. His aim is rather documentary than artistic, he establishes facts with a careful survey of the artificial contours caused by the explosion and leaves the spectator to imagine the power needed to open up the earth in such a way.
–- Mariée (1930; 727x454pix, 66kb _ .ZOOM to 1212x758pix, 217kb) abstraction resembling a jumble of unrecognizable objects.
Les Cartes (1903, 35x45cm; 362x468pix, 115kb gif)
The Red Umbrella (800x636pix, 91kb) no red in that dull image, the umbrella is blue! This intolerable contradiction propelled the pseudonymous Oilton Noblon into rectifying the color and then completely upgrading the picture to the much more complex and colorful, abstract (except for the two red umbrellas) and almost symmetrical .Papa Pas Replie Pas Parapluie Bleu, Papa Pas Replie Parapluies Rouges à Papa aka À Papa (2006; screen filling, 213kb _ .ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1366kb).
La Table à Manger (1912; 550x700pix, kb) still life. Except for two distorted bottles, there is nothing recognizable, much less edible, on the messily crowded, messily painted table.
26 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
^ Died on 31 July 1693: Willem Kalf, Dutch painter, art dealer, and appraiser, born in 1619 (not, as once thought, in 1622), specialized in Still Life. — [There is absolutely no truth to the rumor that his mother was a moosician named Kow]
— Kalf was one of the most celebrated of all still-life painters. In 1642-1646 he worked in Paris. On his return to the Netherlands he lived in Hoorn and then in 1653 settled in Amsterdam. His early works were modest kitchen and courtyard scenes, but he soon became the outstanding exponent of a type of still-life in which fruit and precious objects — porcelain, oriental rugs, Venetian glass — are arranged in grand Baroque displays. His pictures have often been compared with those of Vermeer because of his masterly handling of texture and his ability to manipulate warm and cool colors (he frequently contrasts the reddish browns in a carpet with the yellow of a peeled lemon and the blue and white of porcelain). Kalf also painted some interior genre pictures.
— Kalf came from a prosperous patrician family in Rotterdam, where his father, a cloth merchant, also held municipal posts. Willem Kalf studied under Hendrik Pot. In the late 1630s he went to Paris and spent a long time in the circle of Flemish artists in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris. In Paris he painted mostly small-scale rustic interiors and still-lifes. Kalf’s rustic interiors are dominated by accumulations of buckets, pots and pans and vegetables, which he arranged as a still-life in the foreground (e.g. Kitchen Still-life). Figures usually appeared only in the obscurity of the background. Though painted in Paris, these pictures belong to a pictorial tradition practiced primarily in Flanders in the first half of the 17th century by such artists as David Teniers. The only indications of their French origin are a few objects that Flemish exponents of the same genre would not have incorporated into their works. Kalf’s rustic interiors had a major influence on French art in the circle of the Le Nain brothers. The semi-monochrome still-lifes Kalf produced in Paris form a link with the banketjes or ‘little banquet pieces’ painted by the Dutch artists Pieter Claesz., Willem Claesz. Heda and others in the 1630s. During the course of the 1640s Kalf developed the banketje into a new form of sumptuous and ornate still-life (pronkstilleven), depicting rich accumulations of gold and silver vessels. Like most still-lifes of this period, these were usually vanitas allegories.

–- Old Woman in the Kitchen (1643; cropped 843x1121pix, 99kb _ .ZOOM to complete picture 1121x1480pix, 153kb)
–- Peasant Interior(1645; excluding the unimportant dark ceiling: 814x1085pix, 124kb — complete picture: 1268x1085pix, 169kb)
–- Inside a Barn (1643; cropped 849x881pix, 73kb — .ZOOM to complete picture 1444x1101pix, 177kb)
Still Life with Silver Jug (1657) _ The best representative of the classical period of Dutch still-life painting is Willem Kalf. He was born in Rotterdam, where he was probably influenced by François Rijckhals [>1600-1647], a Middelburg painter best known for his small peasant scenes which include displays of fruit and vegetables, and of impressive pronk still-lifes that include sumptuous gold and silver vessels. Kalf began by painting similar motifs: little pictures of kitchens and barns, as well as large still-lifes of metalwork, glass, and porcelain. As in the work of other pronk still-life painters, the same costly objects appear in his paintings more than once. Since he was a dealer in works of art as well as a painter he may have used objects in his stock as models.
Still-Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar (1669, 77x65cm) _ Still-life painting occasionally registers the pride that contemporaries took in global trade and colonial endeavor. Like the botanical gardens and finest collections, still-lifes gathered disparate objects from all reaches of Dutch trade, and brought them home, re-presenting them in European terms of science and collecting, without specific concern about their origin. In this painting of fine household items, Willem Kalf effortlessly combined Venetian and Dutch glassware, a recently made Chinese jar for luxury ginger, a Dutch silver dish, a Mediterranean peach, and a half-peeled lemon, the object of citrus trade and of medicinal treatises. He displayed them on an Indian floral carpet, in a dramatic spotlight that invites contemplation and admiration, for the fine wares as well as the artist's recrafting of them. Kalf's jewel technique evokes their value and unifies them in an arrangement, that, however lifelike for each individual object, is clearly pictorial.
Still-Life with a Nautilus Cup (1662, 79x67cm) _ One of the most characteristic types of painting in Holland in the seventeenth century was still-life which was brought to a higher level of refinement there than anywhere else in Europe. Some still-lifes have symbolic meanings — the vanity of earthly wealth — but others, including those of the greatest practitioner of this genre, Willem Kalf, seem to be simply pronkstilleven, lavish displays of ceramics, glassware, gold and silver vessels as well as exotic food. They reflect a new willingness of rich Dutchmen to parade their possessions, an attitude which would have been frowned upon by an earlier, more puritanical generation. Kalf was born in Rotterdam and probably trained in the studio of François Ryckhals in Middelburg, a town with a long established tradition of still-life painting. Subsequently he lived for some years in Paris where he met Flemish still-life artists, whose painterly style softened the linearity of Kalf's earliest manner. Kalf returned to Rotterdam but settled in Amsterdam in 1653 with his wife Cornelia Pluvier, a distinguished glassengraver, poetess and musician. In the following year Kalf was praised by the poet Jan Vos as one of the city's leading painters: he was much sought after by prosperous citizens anxious to record their treasures. This particular painting includes a richly decorated nautilus cup and a Wan-Li bowl, which were no doubt prized possessions of the unknown Amsterdammer who commissioned the still-life. _ detail _ Kalf depicted decorative objects — such as Chinese porcelain soup tureens, preciously decorated nautilus goblets and costly carpets — his paintings seem to have been dominated not so much by wealth and prosperity as by the aesthetic values and optical qualities of perception that emanated from these objects. Thus, the refraction of the light on the objects and the modification of the colors as mirrored by each of the other objects become the real subject of his art. Kalf achieved his effects by giving objects a bright luminescence, further emphasized by a dark background a method which made him a remote kinsman of the Caravaggists. His objects only exist to the extent that they can be perceived, but in order to be perceived they need light to dispel that darkness which is the original state of the world. However, unlike Caravaggio and his successors, Kalf avoided beaming any harsh shafts of light onto an object. Instead, his light is more subdued and diffuse, with a source that cannot be exactly identified (though it usually comes from above). It gives each object a minimum of brightness so that it shines faintly and transparently from within here and there, for example on the edge of a silver bowl, although there are also brightly shining spots in some places. The light dissolves, as it were, the material properties of the objects: delicately thin Chinese porcelain is perceived as fragile, brittle and transparent, penetrated softly by the light. Half-peeled oranges and lemons, with their skins spiralling down artistically, have their fruity flesh displayed in such a way that their drop-like fibres flicker golden in the light.
Still-Life with Drinking-Horn (1653, 86x102cm) _ Exceptionally for a still-life specialist, the Rotterdam-born Kalf was praised by an Amsterdam poet as one of the city's leading painters. Perhaps the praise would not have been forthcoming had he persevered in his first interest: shabby peasant barn interiors and still-lifes of humble kitchen implements, painted during his stay in Paris from about 1640 to 1646. After his arrival in Amsterdam, however, following his marriage to a cultivated young woman of good family, Kalf began to paint the type of still-life for which he is best known. Called in Dutch pronkstilleven ('still-lifes of display or ostentation'), these compositions, influenced by Flemish antecedents, feature luxury manufactured goods - silverware, Chinese porcelain, Oriental carpets, fragile glass - and exotic foodstuffs. They do not seem to have specific symbolic meaning but must have spoken to contemporary viewers of the wealth of the Dutch Republic, the might of its sea power and the efficiency of its distribution systems - for all this is implied in the eastern table carpet and in the fresh Italian lemon unwinding its peel in the foreground. The buffalo-horn in a silver mount belonged to the Saint Sebastian Archers' Guild, part of the city's civic guard. Dated 1565, this beautiful example of the silversmith's art, now in the Historisch Museum in Amsterdam, also testifies to the old Netherlandish tradition of municipal freedom, and the will of Dutch burghers to defend it. Kalf was to paint it more than once; it also appears in pictures by other artists. Ultimately, however, none of these associations is responsible for the grave monumental beauty of Kalf's painting. As in all his mature works, only a few objects are displayed and soberly arranged, in contrast with the luxuriant profusion of Flemish still-lifes. Against a dark background, succulent paint, broadly applied, models large forms and captures the very feel of surface textures. Strong accents of the richest and brightest colors surge to the surface - the huge scarlet lobster, the clear yellow and white lemon, touched with pink where it reflects the lobster. And it is the play of reflections and tinted shadows of these powerful hues which, like a musical motif, draws the composition together.
–- Still-Life with Lemon, Oranges and Glass of Wine (1664, 37x31cm; blank space cropped out 967x1097pix, 141kb) _ The middle axis of this painting is formed by a römer wine glass with an elaborate stem. Placed in front of a dark niche, it is partly lit by the small amount of light that shines on it. The light is also refracted by the transparent glass and the wine itself. On the marble table there are three bergamot or Seville oranges and a lemon. Jutting out over the table's edge, a knife with a polished agate handle protrudes through the bright yellow lemon peel, and the porous strip of skin, peeled off in one piece, curls around like a festoon, forming a decorative counterpart to the narrow pointed orange leaves. Showing sweet and sour citrus fruits together in this way, the artist symbolically admonishes the viewer (who can be seen looking in at the window, in the reflection on the glass) to be temperate and to add lemon and orange juice to wine, as they were considered to have medicinal, humoral, and physiological properties.
Still-life (with ornate whachamucallit) (1655, 105x88cm) _ This is a typical illustration of the type of still-life of which Kalf was an outstanding specialist. The still-lifes by Kalf look very different from those of his predecessors (like Pieter Claesz. and Willem Heda). They are, in a sense, much more theatrical; in their sonorous quality they bring to mind the landscapes of his contemporary, Jacob van Ruisdael. In the paintings by Head or Pieter Claesz., the objects are ordered in a simple way; they are just laid out on the table. The light is even; shadows are used only to emphasize each object's plastic form. The still-life is generally set in a rather wide space (the painting itself being oblong). In Kalf's paintings, however, the space is narrowed. The backgrounds is much darker; and in this narrow space, against this background, the still-life seems curiously isolated. A soft light picks out each different object, showing its unique quality and color, as spotlights focus on actors on a dark stage. In the narrow space, the arrangement too is much tighter. For this rich, glowing kind of still-life the 17th centuy used an apt term, "pronkstilleven" (still-life of ostentation); and part of the content of this term is certainly the choice of objects itself. In Heda and Claesz. food and utensils appear that belong to normal life: bread, beer, fish, plates and jugs of pewter or ordinary glass. Kalf (and his contemporary Abraham van Beyeren too) uses almost exclusively objects that are extraordinary: vessels of silver and gold, chalices of china, lobster, tropical fruit, displayed against rich Persian cloth. _ detail (wine glass and peach)
Still Life with the Drinking-Horn of the Saint Sebastian Archers' Guild, Lobster and Glasses (86x102cm)
Still Life with Chafing Dish, Pewter, Gold, Silver, and Glassware (125kb)
Dessert (1649, 151kb)
^ Born on 31 July 1881: Léontius~Petrus~Ludovicus Spilliaert, Flemish Symbolist painter and designer who died on 23 November 1946. — [There is no evidence that Spilliaert invented “spilly-art”, in which the silly spilly-artist dispenses with a brush and just pours, drips, or flings paint at a canvas, or vice-versa.]
— Spilliaert moved toward a form of Expressionism and his style sometimes recalls de Chirico. The son of an Ostend perfumer, his talent for drawing emerged in childhood and was constantly exercised. In 1902 he met Verhaeren with whom he struck up a lasting friendship. In Paris, he discovered the work of Gaugin, van Gogh and Picasso. He settled in Brussels in 1935. He was a member of various artistic circles: the Independents, Le Sillon, the Contemporary Art group and Les Compagnons de l'Art. His very personal technique combined watercolor, gouache, pastel and sometimes crayon on cardboard or paper. He brings together a naïve sincerity, sometimes containing a degree of eroticism, a very pure line in arabesque, and decorative surfaces akin to those of the the Nabis.
— His initial sources of inspiration were the bottles and flasks he saw in his father’s perfumery shop in Ostend. However, in 1889 he studied briefly at the Terenacademie in Bruges. His early work, already impregnated with Symbolism, was fed by his readings of Friedrich Nietzsche and Maurice Maeterlinck, for example. From February 1903 to January 1904 he worked for Edmond Deman, the Brussels publisher associated particularly with Emile Verhaeren, who encouraged him. In 1904 Spilliaert stayed in Paris, where he was on the fringe of Picasso’s circle and discovered the work of Munch and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose influences he acknowledged. He continued to spend most winters in Paris to keep in touch with the city’s cultural life. A stomach ulcer that gave him insomnia turned him into a nocturnal stroller, which gave rise to innumerable works in a mixture of watercolor, pastel, colored pencil and Chinese ink. They revealed the beauties of Ostend by night: deserted dykes and quays, arcades, street-lamps shining through fog and mist. Ditch and Casino at Ostend (1908) prefigures de Chirico. Between 1907 and 1913 he developed an original form of Symbolism, tinged with Expressionism and governed by a strict sense of synthesis. He painted numerous self-portraits, works steeped in mystery and melancholy (e.g. Woman in the Train, 1908) and those inspired by the contrast between a solitary figure and the vastness of the sea or sky (e.g. Woman Bather, 1910). He also created geometric landscapes that verged on abstraction and were unique for the period (e.g. Woman on the Dyke, 1908). At the same time he was developing Art Nouveau motifs as in Pietà (1910), where whiplash arabesques animate the waves. From 1912 he made large-scale pastels (90x70cm) of various harbor scenes, with large schematized figures that influenced Constant Permeke (e.g. Fisherman’s Wife, 1912). He moved in literary and cultural circles and was a friend of the Belgian playwright Fernand Crommelynck, as well as of Stefan Zweig who had followed his career from its beginnings.

Self-portrait (1907, 53x38cm; 635x450pix, 129kb) _ This watercolor is one in a series of self-portraits that Spilliaert executed in 1907 and 1908. He has depicted himself sitting astride a bentwood chair, his drawing board propped up before him, in the act of creating the very self-portrait that we are viewing. He is surrounded by the familiar, everyday objects of his studio—coat rack, umbrella, gas lamp—and yet the picture as a whole suggests the illusory nature of visual reality. Behind the artist hangs a rectangular mirror, reflecting yet another mirror with an ornate frame, which we can assume holds the image that the artist is copying. Moreover, the placement of the multiple mirrors over Spilliaert's head suggests a search for identity in the mental processes of his art. At this point in his career, at the age of twenty-six, Spilliaert had worked for the publisher Edmond Deman in Brussels and was on the verge of obtaining gallery representation in Paris.
Self-Portrait on Blue Background (400x321pix, 42kb)
Self-portrait (1908; 765x609pix, 62kb _ ZOOM to 1529x1217pix, 162kb) almost monochrome
The Crossing (1913, 90x70cm; 819x627pix, 94kb)
The Posts (1910, 65x50cm)
Vertigo, Magic Staircase (1908, 64x48cm)
Cygnes (50x65cm; 315x450pix, 44kb)
L'Ocuyene (1903; 468x361pix, 67kb)
Night (1908; 777x1020pix, 65kb _ ZOOM to 1166x1630pix, 168kb) monochrome

Died on a 31 July:

2003 - Guido Crepax, Italian comics artist (b. 1933)

^ 1926 Lionel Noël Royer, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, French painter of history, genre and portraiture from the French Academic School, born on 25 December 1852. He studied under Alexandre Cabanel [1823-1889] and William Aldophe William Bouguereau [1825-1905]. — {Faut-il rayer Royer de la liste des artistes convenablement représentés sur internet?}
Vercingétorix jette ses armes aux pieds de César (1899; 411x600pix, 45kb)
Diane Chasseresse (766x597pix, 54kb)
Femme lisant (39x27cm; 354x227pix, 27kb)

^ 1906 Ferdinand von Wright, Haminalahti (near Kuopio) Finnish orthonological illustrator, born on 19 March 1822. He grew up under the influence of his brothers Magnus von Wright [13 Jun 1805 – 05 Jul 1868] and Wilhelm von Wright [05 Apr 1810 – 02 Jul 1887]. He grew up, in a remote region in central Finland, under the influence of his brothers and became a skilled ornithological illustrator at a very young age. He remained in Sweden from 1837 until 1844 and worked as a draftsman, helping his brother Wilhelm. After returning to Finland he set his sights on a career as a painter. During the second half of the 1840s he was still searching for his proper path, and he experimented with a number of subjects: birds, still-lifes, landscapes and portraits.
Taistelevat metsot (The Fighting Capercaillies) (1886, 124x188cm; 505x793pix, 49kb) _ Far away from the life of the capital and the latest currents in art Ferdinand von Wright continued painting his birds and immediate surroundings from one decade to the next. Major trends in art changed course, new ideas won ground, Ferdinand continued with what he best knew. Eventually he became an oddity in Finnish art, a somewhat whimsical old man in the backwoods, who was really no longer taken seriously. This was so until Ferdinand, after a long illness and having contented himself with minor tasks, painted Taistelevat metsot. In this picture he returned to his earlier themes of struggle in nature; but this time it is not a struggle for survival, but for the favour of the female who is eyeing the two from the shade of a tree. Taistelevat metsot reinstated the ageing Ferdinand as part of the general picture of Finnish art. The painting was purchased for the Art Society's collections and it was received with spontaneous enthusiasm. Taistelevat metsot is a work that enjoys unfailing popularity. In the form of hand-painted copies, color prints, cross-stitch embroideries and tapestries it has spread over the decades into thousands of homes.
From the Garden: Flowers and Birds (1854, 81x113cm; 533x751pix, 63kb)
Chaffinches and Redpolls (1868, 33x44cm; 538x744pix, 54kb)
The Surprise (1880, 85x117cm; 534x750pix, 60kb) Three geese confront a young calf.
–- S#> Joutsenpari Lammella (whooper swans on a lake) (1891, 49x62cm; 350x452pix, 64kb)

1888 Frank Montague Holl, English painter born (full coverage) on 04 July 1845.

^ 1863 William Henry Knight, British painter born (main coverage) on 26 September 1823. —(090728)

1820 Carl Friedrich Zimmermann, German artist born on 31 March 1796.

^ 1819 Jurriaan (or Jurriaen) Andriessen, Dutch painter born on 12 June 1742. He and his brother Anthonie Andriessen [23 Jan 1747 – 19 Nov 1813] became successful painters, specializing in supplying painted wallpapers, which they made at their factory in Amsterdam. Jurriaan also produced work for the theatre. Both brothers were active in the Amsterdam Tekenacademie; their students included some of the best-known 19th-century Dutch artists, such as Wouter Johannes van Troostwijk, Hendrik Voogd and Jean Grandjean, as well as Jurriaan’s son Christiaan Andriessen and granddaughter Cornelia Aletta van Hulst.
     From 1754 to 1758 Jurriaan was apprenticed to Antoni Elliger and from 1759 to 1760 to Jan Maurits Quinkhard. Although he produced a few allegorical history paintings, his most important work was for the Amsterdam wallpaper factories, making painted wallcoverings for manufacture, mainly for private residences. He began as an assistant to Johannes van Dregt [1737–1807] but later worked with his brother Anthonie and Izaak Schmidt [1740–1818] in his own factory. He also attended classes two evenings a week at the Amsterdam Tekenacademie, where in 1766 he won first prize and became a teacher himself. The same year he joined the Guild of St Luke; by 1794 he had become co-director with Cornelis Buys of the Tekenacademie.
— Wouter Johannes van Troostwijk, Hendrik Voogd were among the students of Jurriaan Andriessen.
–- S#> Arcadian Landscape with a shepherd and his family resting near their flock (193x89cm; 870x422pix, 115kb)
–- S#> Arcadian Landscape with washerwomen on a road, a young family resting nearby (196x113cm; 870x531pix, 135kb)
— (Landscape with washerwoman and herdsman) (468x740pix, 76kb)
— (Landscape with milkman's cart) (468x740pix, 82kb)
— (Landscape with boy fishing) (468x740pix, 76kb)
— (Children with a bird) (466x744pix, 50kb)
— (Shepherdesses listen to Pan playing his flute) (743x467pix, 72kb)

^ 1760 Adrien Manglard, French painter, draftsman and engraver, active in Italy born on 10 (12?) March 1695. — {Did Manglard mangle art?}— The son of a modest Lyon painter and godson of Adriaen van der Cabel, he learnt figure painting with Frère Imbert in Lyon. Adrien Manglard went to Rome in 1715, where he spent much of his time making studies of ships, and even of Turks and camels. He also was trained in the studio of Bernardino Fergioni [1674–1738] and learnt from those artists in the circle of the sculptor Pierre Legros, who was to purchase two seascapes by Manglard before 1719. Manglard's skill as a marine painter was such that his career advanced rapidly: prestigious clients included Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and King of Piedmont, who bought two matching pieces from him in 1726, and Philip, Duke of Parma [–1765], who acquired a pair in 1759, and the Rospigliosi family in Rome, for whom he produced a number of pictures.
— Manglard is principally known to us today as a painter of marines and landscapes, though he also made a large number of religious pictures. Born in Lyon, Manglard first was taught figure painting by the local painter Frère Imbert, although it is highly possible that early in his career he also studied under his godfather, Adriaen van der Cabel (who settled in Lyon in 1688), whose style was to greatly influence his work. At the age of twenty he went to Rome and on his arrival he was to study with the landscape painter Bernardino Fergioni [1674-1738], alongside two of the other major protagonists of landscape painting in Rome during the first half of the 18th century: Paolo Anesi [1697-1773] and Andrea Locatelli [1695-1741]. Thereafter Manglard enjoyed considerable academic success, becoming a member of the Académie Royale in Paris in 1735, and of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome in 1736 the following year. He was also elected to the 'Congregazione dei Virtuosi del Pantheon' in 1741. Many of Manglard's have been for a long time misattributed; to Pieter Mulier called Tempesta or, more commonly, to Claude-Joseph Vernet, whose style greatly influenced Manglard's work. Manglard was a prolific draftsman and a large number of sheets with figure studies survive, showing him to be an acute observer, and the numerous studies of boats explain the accurate portrayal of vessels in all his marines.
–- S#> Coastal Seascape with a Ship and, on the shore, people (55x120cm; 432x900pix, 74kb) _ Though at one time misattributed to Pietro Antoniani, this painting is characteristic of Manglard. The principal subject is the sea itself: the figures are marginalized, the landscape merely acts as a backdrop or framing element, and the ship being tossed on choppy seas is moved to the far left of the composition. This composition was almost certainly the source of inspiration for an engraving by Manglard in which the overall design is reversed, and though there are marked differences between the two works the leaning boat and rock in the foreground are repeated.
–- S#> Mediterranean Harbor Scene (1758, 79x134cm; 520x900pix, 87kb) _ Merchants are selling their wares on the quay. This is the type of attractive Mediterranean coastal scene that made Manglard's reputation, and which soon ensured that he enjoyed the patronage of most of the leading Roman families, including the Orsini, Chigi, Colonna, Rondanini, and Rospigliosi, as well as patrons from further afield such as Victor Amadeus II Duke of Savoy and King of Piedmont, and Filippo Bordone, Duke of Parma (who alone commissioned more than 140 works from Manglard to decorate his palazzi).

Born on a 31 July:

1901 Jean Dubuffet, French painter and sculptor who died (main coverage) on 12 May 1985. —(090730)

^ 1886 Constant Permeke, Belgian painter, draftsman, and sculptor, who died on 04 January 1952. After spending his early childhood years in Antwerp and in Burght, a village on the Escaut, he settled with his family in Ostend. There his father, Henri-Louis Permeke [1849–1912], also a painter, founded in October 1893 the Musée Communal d’Ostende, of which he was the first curator. Constant attended the Bruges Academy in 1903 and the Ghent Academy in 1904, where he studied under Jean Delvin [1853–1922] and met Albert Servaes and Fritz Van den Berghe. His contact with these artists, and with Gustave De Smet, whom he met through Van den Berghe, encouraged him in 1909 to move with them to the artists’ colony of Laethem-Saint-Martin. There he was closely associated with the second group of Flemish Expressionists and met his future wife Marietje. — José Vermeersch was a student of Permeke.
–- S#> Vaas met Bloemen (1926, 85x65cm; 1115x841pix, 207kb)
–- S#> Landschap (100x130cm; 641x840pix, 68kb) mostly houses
+ ZOOM IN if you dare +–- Landschap (49x69cm; 1035x1472pix, 97kb) almost featureless monochrome, 1/3 yellow land, 1/3 slightly lighter yellow sky; the only distinct feature is the signature. Someone (applying the Greater Fool Theory?} paid €24'000 for this at Sotheby's in Amsterdam on 05 May 2005. _ So that you can appreciate right here (without copyright problems) the kind of picture this is, and with special regard to those who prefer feature-poor dirty red to feature-poor dirty yellow, the pseudonymous Inconstant Ekemrep has created this very similar and almost as worthless Loonscap >>>. If you agree with Ekemrep that this picture needs improvements, he has made a variety of them, which you can access through a slightly larger version of the smudgy Loonscap (320x427pix, 10 pix _ and, what is quite superfluous, you can even ZOOM to 960x1280pix, 72kb).
–- S#> Winterlandschap (80x100cm; 665x840pix, 104kb)
–- S#> Winterlandschap (50x70cm; 679x960pix, 165kb)
–- S#> Seascape (62x75cm; 679x840pix, 79kb) monochrome, greenish yellow.
–- S#> Landscape with Cows (60x80cm; 717x961pix, 148kb)
–- S#> Schelde Roeier (1921, 96x77cm; 1192x960pix, 221kb) _ Would it be /S#*>worth €313'998 to you?
click to ZOOM IN on Heckel
^ 1883 Erich Heckel, German Expressionist painter, printmaker, and sculptor, who died on 27 January 1970; one of the founders of Die Brücke group of Expressionist artists and one of its most influential and active members. His work was central to German Expressionism. [Self~Portrait >]LINKS
Selbstbildnis (1918; 560x484pix)
Self~Portrait (Bildnis E.H.) (1917)
Houses near Rome (1909, 68x76cm)
Landscape near Rome (1909, 68x73cm)
–- Young Clown (1930 2-color woodcut, 29x15cm; 680x359pix, 39kb _ .ZOOM to 1359x717pix, 130kb)
Zwei Verwundet
–- Mädchenkopf (1920 B&W woodcut; 424x642pix, 9kb _ .ZOOM to xpix, 250kb)
–- Sitzende (1913 woodcut, 31x32cm; 824x872pix, 102kb)
–- Hockende (1913 B&W woodcut, 40x32cm; 696x515pix, 16kb _ .ZOOM to 1160x859pix, 31kb)
Stilleben mit Dahlien vor einem Bild mit zwei Frauen (842x657pix, 92kb — ZOOM to 1496x1169pix, 170kb)
Landschaft bei Dresden (1910; 600x868pix)
Dorftanz (Dangast) (1908; 600x688pix)
Frauenbildnis (1906; 600x544pix)
Die beiden Schwestern (1910; 560x648pix)
Carolastraße in Dresden (1911; 588x696pix)
Landschaft mit Sonne (1918; 560x568pix)
Alpental (1921; 560x656pix)
Marienveste bei Würtzburg (1927; 560x688pix)
Dünenlandschaft auf Sylt (1931; 560x700pix)
Stilleben mit Dahlien vor einem Bild mit zwei Frauen (1906; 540x412pix)

1883 Paul Kleinschmidt, German artist who died in 1949. — {Dismiss this myth that if he had moved to an English-speaking country, he might have changed his name to Littlesmyth. — Not related to Klein nor to Schmidt. — Not to be confused with the fictional Grosschmidt or Kleinschneider.}
–- S#> Landschaft (1927, 70x90cm; 626x800pix, 141kb)
–- S#> Stillleben (1934, 90x70cm; 800x616pix, 162kb)
Garderobe der Zirkusdiva (1935, 62x48cm; 589x450pix, 81kb)

^ 1879 Léopold Survage (or Sturzwage), Russian painter, designer, and illustrator, who died on 01 November 1968. — {c'est quoi un survage? un super-sauvage? un survivant sauvage?}— He was directed to enter the piano factory operated by his Finnish father, and besides learning the piano he took a commercial diploma in 1897. After becoming severely ill at the age of 22, he rethought his career and entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Introduced to the modern movement through the collections of Sergey Shchukin and Ivan Morosov, he joined the ranks of the Moscow avant-garde and by 1906 was close to the circle associated with the magazine Zolotoye runo (Golden Fleece). He also met Alexander Archipenko, exhibiting with him in the company of David Burlyuk, Vladimir Burlyuk, Mikhail Larionov and Natal’ya Goncharova. With Hélène Moniuschko, whom he subsequently married, he travelled to Western Europe, visiting Paris in July 1908. The following August the couple settled in Paris, where Survage worked as a piano tuner and briefly attended the short-lived school run by Henri Matisse. He exhibited with the Jack of Diamonds group in Moscow in late 1910, but he first showed his work in France (at the urging of Archipenko) only in the Salon d’Automne of 1911.
Homme dans la ville (1917, 73x60cm)
Deux Hommes et un Cheval (dessin original à la mine de plomb, 27x21cm) {they want $2000 for this scribble. Has to be seen to be believed}

^ 1863 Ernest Bieler, Swiss painter who died in 1948. — Uncle and one of the teachers (fresco) of André Charles Bieler [1896-1989] — Ernest Bieler studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Lefebvre and Boulanger and exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon in 1887. The picture he sent, Pendant la Messe, á Savièse, was acquired by the Musée de Lausanne. He continued to exhibit frequently at the Salon in Switzerland and throughout Europe and was represented at the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1889 and 1900. Bieler was commissioned to paint the ceiling decoration for the Victoria Hall in Geneva.
Vue sur Savièse (90x70cm; 320x480pix, 29kb)
Parvis de l’église de Savièse (47x41cm; 650x560pix, 37kb) almost monochrome.

1860 Mary Vaux Walcott [–22 Aug 1940], US watercolor painter and naturalist. In 1914 she would marry the paleontologist Charles Doolittle Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
Blue Jasmine (736x492pix, 83kb)
Red Buckeye (540x403pix, 72kb)
Some 130 images at Southwest School of Botanical Medicine. —(080726)

^ 1848 Jean Baptiste Joseph Olive, French artist who died in 1936.
Nature-morte aux grenades (300x357pix, 30kb)
— {If that is not enough Olive, here is a link to a picture by Van Gogh of Women Picking Olives}

1844 Léon-Augustin L'Hermitte, French artist who died (full coverage) on 27 July 1925.

1830 Ignacio Suárez Llanos, Spanish painter born on this date (according to some) or on 30 June (according to others). He died (main coverage) on 25 December 1881. —(090730)

^ 1823 Germain Fabius Brest, French Austrian artist who died in November 1900. Élève d'Émile Loubon à Marseille, puis de Constant Troyon à Paris. Sur les conseils appuyés de son professeur, il fait un séjour en Turquie, de 1855 à 1859. Il en ramène des tableaux où sa connaissance de l'architecture ottomane et ses dons d'observateur font de ses toiles des documents sur la vie quotidienne en Turquie. Il peindra des thèmes orientalistes pendant près de vingt ans après ce voyage Il voyage aussi à Venise et en Algérie. Brest est surtout célèbre pour ses nombreuses vues de Constantinople et d'Asie Mineure, qu'il exposa régulièrement aux Salons de 1850 à 1896. Il a aussi peint Venise, dans des compositions équilibrées et des tonalités claires et raffinées qui traduisent bien la lumière et l'atmosphère vénitienne.
–- S#> Venise, la Salute sur le Grand Canal (38x55cm; 510x753pix, 60kb) _ Brest made another nearly identical version (Salon, 1891).
Arm & Hammer–- S#> Un Bazar à Constantinople (34x50cm; 510x755pix, 143kb)
–- S#> La traversée du pont (32x50cm; 510x826pix, 86kb)
Constantinople (1874, 80x60cm)
Worshippers Inside an Eastern Church (65x81cm)
Outside the Mosque (75x116cm)

hammer and sickle ^ 1821 William Hammer, Danish artist who died on 09 May 1889. — {Not related to Armand Hammer [21 May 1898 – 10 Dec 1990], Arm & Hammer, nor Hammer & Sickle}— Born in Copenhagen, he was trained as a decorative painter while studying drawing at the Danish Royal Academy. Working directly from nature in the tradition of Johan-Laurents Jensen [1800-1856], he celebrated its wonders with a devotion to detail and produced bounteous compositions.
Still Life With Fruits (500x641pix, 66kb) including a pear, but no watermelon.
Still Life With Fruits (500x678pix, 75kb) including a watermelon, but no pear.

^ 1819 Edouard Henri Girardet, Swiss painter and engraver who died on 05 March 1880. — Relative? of Jules Girardet [1856-1946]? — He was the son of the engraver Charles-Samuel Girardet [1780–1863] and the brother of the painters and engravers Karl Girardet [13 May 1813 – 1871] and Paul Girardet [1821–1893]. At an early age he joined his brother Karl in Paris, studying painting with him and attending the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He had practiced the techniques of wood-engraving from the age of nine and concentrated increasingly on the graphic arts after 1835. In 1836 he started work as a draftsman for Jacques-Dominique-Charles Gavard’s Les Galeries historiques de Versailles (1838–1849), a project that continued for the next 12 years. He made his début at the Salon in 1839 with The Communal Bath (1839), and he continued to submit works until 1876. These included such genre paintings as the Paternal Blessing (1842) and a number of engravings and aquatints after such artists as Paul Delaroche, Horace Vernet, and Jean-Léon Gérôme. Several of these engravings were published by the firm of Adolphe Goupil. In 1844 Girardet and his brother Karl were commissioned by the Musées Nationaux de Versailles to travel to Egypt to paint a historical scene from the Crusades. Edouard Girardet responded with The Capture of Jaffa (1844). He also went to England and frequently visited Switzerland, though most of his time was spent in France. In 1857 he finally settled in Paris and devoted himself largely to copperplate-engraving.
1191: Richard Coeur de Lion, roi d'Angleterre, reprend le château de Jaffa, qui avait été occupé par Saladin (1844; 287x319pix, 24kb)

1809 Jan Rutten, Dutch artist who died on 10 October 1884. — {Rutten pictures were not necessarily rotten pictures.}

^ 1804 George Baxter, English engraver and printmaker who died on 11 January 1867. His method of printing colored illustrations and prints was patented in 1835. It used a ‘key’ metal plate or stone on which a design was engraved, and the print from this was then colored in oil- or water-based inks by means of a succession of (generally) woodblocks (e.g. Belgian Section in the Great Exhibition, 1852). It was a relatively cheap process, the first commercially viable mechanical alternative to the hand-colored print, and for a quarter of a century it was the most successful color-printing process available. — LINKS
–- Descent From The Cross (17x11cm; 619x418pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 1238x836pix, 93kb)
–- Christ's Charge to Peter (13x20cm; 399x635pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 599x954pix, 61kb)
–- Her Majesty at Windsor (11x9cm; 730x672pix, 96kb)
–- Prince Consort (15x10cm; 637x402pix, 56kb)
–- So Nice (14x10cm; 852x608pix, 69kb)

1774 Charles Turner, English artist who died (full coverage) on 01 August 1857.

1702 Jean Denis Attiret [–08 Dec 1768], French Jesuit lay brother missionary-painter, born in a family of artists. He made studied art in Rome and after returning to France he became known as a portrait painter. In 1735 he entered the Jesuit novitiate as a lay brother and has left some specimens of his work in the Cathedral of Avignon and the Sodality chapel which he painted while a novice. The Jesuits had many of their men in China employed as painters. Attiret was sent to join them in 1737 and arrived in Pekin in 1739. He became Painter to the Emperor Qianlong, who visited his studio daily and finally made him a mandarin in spite of the Brother's unwillingness. To please the emperor, he had to paint not in oils but in watercolors and distemper, avoiding any shading. Thus Attiret became Chinese in his methods and style. He made portraits of many persons at the court, but most of his work was done on glass or silk and represented trees, fruits, fishes, and animals, etc. The emperor commisioned him and three other Jesuit brothers to make sixteen paintings of his victorious battles against the Tatars (they were engraved in France in 1774). When Attiret died, the aggrieved emperor bore the expenses of the obsequies, and sent a special representative to show his sorrow at the tomb. Attiret made at least 200 portraits.
A Concubine (592x438pix, 27kb) _ The pseudonymous Jacques Afirm Repoucet claims to have discovered three earlier versions which Attiret made before settling on this one. However most experts believe that they are simply modifications made by Repoucet himself:
Concubine in Blue-Green Dress (592x438pix, 41kb)
Concubine in Bright Dress (592x438pix, 32kb)
Concubine in Blue Dress (592x438pix, 27kb) —(080730)

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