ART 4 2-DAY 30 July v.9.60
Died on 30 July 1528: Jacopo d'Antonio
de Negreto (or Negretti) Palma il Vecchio, Italian
Renaissance painter born in 1480, great-uncle of Palma
Born near Bergamo, Palma il Vecchio was active for all his known career in Venice, where he is first documented in 1510. His original name was Jacopo d'Antonio Negretti, but he was using the name Palma by 1513. He is called Palma Vecchio to distinguish him from Palma Giovane, his great-nephew. Nothing is known of his training, and there is indeed very little secure knowledge about his life and works, none of his pictures being dated or reliably signed and very few of them being certainly identifiable from early sources. His style is distinctive, however, and in practice the definition of his oeuvre is much less problematic than with many of his contemporaries.
He painted a few altarpieces for Venetian churches, but most of his work was done for private clients, his specialty being half-length portrayals of beautiful and voluptuous blonde-haired women, sometimes in religious or mythological guise. In opulence of color and beauty of handling they show the influence of the early work of Titian, and the finest, such as the celebrated La Bella, are worthy of his name. Palma also painted some Giorgionesque reclining nudes and some male portraits. Sacre conversazioni is a subject he painted many times; in it, groupings of figures converse in a quiet landscape suffused in a golden glow. Noted examples are his Saint Barbara (1522) and Madonna with Saints (1512). Three Sisters (1520), also called Three Graces, is one of his best-known works. His work was influential on painters of the next generation in Venice, notably Bonifacio Veronese [1487-1553]
–- A Woman with Her Lover (82x114cm; 490x695pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 980x1390pix, 218kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1961x2781pix, 860kb) paint yellowed and cracked in places _ She is playing hard-to-get, which, considering an exposed nipple, is not very convincing.
The Three Sisters (detail) (1520, full painting is 88x123cm)
A Woman (La Bella) (700x615pix, 78kb)
Diana and Callisto (1525)
— A Sibyl (1520, 74x55cm)
A Man (1515, 94x72cm) but for the title, one might have thought that it was a woman.
Judith (90x71cm) quite fat.
A Young Man (39x29cm)
A Young Woman (39x29cm)
Jacob and Rachel (1525, 146x250cm) _ In the 18th century the painting was attributed to Giorgione.
Sacra Conversazione (1525, 127x195cm) _ In contrast with Lotto [1480-1556], Savoldo [1480-1548], Romanino [1484-1562] and Moretto [1498-1554], Palma il Vecchio worked wholly within the tradition of Venetian painting. Influenced in his early years by the example of the great painters of the fifteenth century, he soon absorbed the lessons of Giorgione's revolution and subsequently fell under the spell of the personality of Titian, with the result that in his paintings of the early 1520s figures and landscape are both rendered in the most sumptuous of colors, both inhabit a calm, restful, sentimental atmosphere whose climate is unchanging and unchangeable.
The canvas reveals utter fidelity to Titian's style of around 1520, above all in the head of Saint Catherine and the landscape with its castle which some critics believe was finished by Titian himself when Palma died and left some parts of the picture unfinished: for example the left hand of Saint Catherine and the right hand of Saint John the Baptist. The spacious, monumental cadence of the rhythms of the figures offers the colored passages the chance to spread in sumptuous zones defined by the polished refinement of his line, while shapes acquire a clean, plastic integrity through the effect of the limpid play of chiaroscuro. The opulent use of color to bind the figures together gives clear evidence of Palma il Vecchio's propensity for the re~creation of reality in an ideal model, unmoving and unmoved.
Same subject by other painters:
— Sacra Conversazione (1498) and a different Sacra Conversazione (1505) by Bellini
Sacra Conversazione (1505) by Giorgone
Sacra Conversazione by Vivarini
Sacra Conversazione by Moderno
Sacra Conversazione by Carpaccio (1500)
>Born on 30 July 1511: Giorgio Vasari,
writer and painter who died on 27 June 1574. He studied under Michelangelo
Buonarroti. Vasari's students included il
Poppi and Jacopo
Vasari was born in Arezzo. Trained in art as a child, he went to Florence, where he worked in the studio of Andrea del Sarto and won the patronage of the Medici family. Among Vasari's major surviving paintings are murals in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, and the Vatican in Rome. As an architect Vasari was a follower of his brilliant contemporary Michelangelo. Among the important buildings he designed are the Palazzo degli Uffizi in Florence, now a museum, and a number of palaces and churches in Pisa and Arezzo.
It is as a writer, however, that he is most famous. His Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors, from Cimabue Until Our Times (1550, revised 1568) [selections in English translation] [illustrations with quotes in English translation], one of the earliest works on art written by an artist of merit, is a primary source of information about the artists of the Italian Renaissance. The revised edition includes his autobiography in addition to the lives of Michelangelo [06 Mar 1475 18 Feb 1564] and other major painters of the time. Vasari's book offers his personal evaluation of the works of these artists, as well as discussions on the state of the arts. His easy, natural writing style helped to make his book one of the most enduring of art histories. He died in Florence.
Nato ad Arezzo nel 1511, Giorgio Vasari fu una delle personalità più eclettiche e interessanti del XVI secolo. A nove anni apprese i primi rudimenti del disegno, a tredici, condotto a Firenze, fu allievo di Michelangelo, poi di Andrea del Sarto [1486-1530] e di Baccio Bandinelli [1493-1560].
Nel 1531 seguì a Roma il cardinale Ippolito de' Medici. Tra il 1532 e il 1536 tornò di nuovo a Firenze e nel 1554 eseguì per incarico di Cosimo de' Medici alcune opere tra le quali le decorazioni pittoriche di Palazzo Vecchio e la progettazione della Fabbrica degli Uffizi. Negli stessi anni affrescò a Roma la cappella regia in Vaticano.
Nel 1540 cominciò a raccogliere notizie sulla vita e sulle opere degli artisti. Due anni più tardi prese ad ordinare questo materiale e a dargli forma letteraria in un'opera che intitolò Le vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri [1550, zipped] la cui prima edizione fu pubblicata nel 1550. Questo lavoro di scrittore e storico dell'arte lo portò alla fama. Morì in Firenze.
–- Self-Portrait in Allegory with the Goddess Diana, Fame and the River Arno, the City of Florence in the Distance (23x17cm; 595x438pix, 30kb) _ In an attempt to give prestige to the artistic community of Florence, Vasari conceived the idea of founding an academy for painters, sculptors, and architects, much on the lines of the existing literary Accademia Fiorentina (degli Umidi) which had been in existence since 1540. Under the patronage of Cosimo I, and with the aid of a number of the most important artistic and intellectual figures of the day (including Vincenzo Borghini who formulated the constitution of the institution and who would be Luogotenente from 1563 to 1565) the Accademia del Disegno was given official recognition on 13 January 1563. The inscription on the reverse of the present painting would seem to indicate that it was conceived of as a stemma or emblem for the Accademia, and the iconography would seem to support that. The goddess Diana is shown in the skies above the city of Florence in the distance, where the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore and Giotto's campanile are visible. The bearded recumbent figure of the River Arno accompanied by the Florentine Marzocco (or lion) occupies the entire lower section of the composition. Most intriguing however are the central two figures. A winged Fame, identifiable by the trumpets next to her, is shown by the figure of a bearded nude man, draped all'antica. It is probable that this represents Vasari himself, the founder of the Academy. The physiognomy is similar enough to the Self Portrait of Vasari to support this.
That designs for a stemma or impressa were undertaken is documented. The Accademia del Disegno, as the heir of the Compagnia di San Luca, a sort of religious cofraternity of artists in Florence, continued to use the symbol of the winged ox as its emblem until 1597. However, attempts were made from the foundation of the institution to adopt a new device. In a letter of 01 February 1563 to Cosimo I, Vasari minutely details the meeting of the members of the new academy the day before, confirming to the Grand Duke that he had been named “Principe e Signor Nostro e Capo di tutti.” He continues to describe other events, and noted that the meeting was suspended with unfinished business. This included the selection of a new emblem; the designs submitted by the various members were numerous and, as Vasari hastens to point out, unusual “con moltj stranj e beglj capriccj.” The point is reiterated in his own autobiographical Vita where he notes that the ideas for the emblem were “bei cappricci e le più stravaganti e belle fantasie che si possino imaginare.” The various designs were intended to be included in a book and then passed to the Grand Duke for inspection, although this may never have been done. Certainly the drawings which have been connected to the project were elaborate in their conception, such as two by Cellini, one of the Ephesian Diana and another of an Apollo. The present panel differs from the Cellini drawings in its medium but also in its conception, more suitable for an allegorical painting rather than a seal. In the end, the design that was used was not adopted until 1597, and is a simple device of three interlocking laurel wreaths, one for each of the disciplines to which the Accademia was devoted: painting, sculpture, and architecture.
–- The Holy Family with the Child Saint John the Baptist (1540, 107x82cm; 387x288pix, 25kb) _ The intense, bright colors and exaggerations in scale of this asymmetrical composition demonstrate Giorgio Vasari's close affiliation with the Mannerist style of painting. The Virgin Mary and Saint Joseph are shown as caring parents of the Christ Child, who holds a goldfinch in his left hand. The bird is seen as a foreshadowing of the Crucifixion, as is the inscription on the banderole, Agnus Dei, or Lamb of God. Saint John the Baptist is clad in the animal skins that foretell his preaching in the wilderness.
–- Christ at Gethsemani
–- The Prophet Elisha (1566, 40x29cm) _ The panel is a replica on a small scale after Vasari's 1566 painting for the Sacramento chapel in the church of San Pietro in Perugia. The subject is a scene from the life of the Prophet Elisha, who during famine saved his people by making wild herbs edible.
–- Perseo e Andromeda
— Adoration by the Shepherds (51x44cm; 1000x836pix, 429kb) _ This painting on slate relates in composition to a fresco formerly in the Convent of Santa Margherita, Arezzo, but with some differences. The figures of the Madonna and Saint Joseph kneeling behind her correspond closely. Vasari has added figures at the left as well as a group of small angels above. A drawing in the Uffizi (inv.1274F) as well as one formerly in the Michel Gaud collection appear to be preparatory designs for that fresco. It seems possible that the present painting is that mentioned by Vasari in a document of 1554: “Ricordo, come si fecie un quadretto piccolo in pietra, drentovi la nativita di Cristo, qual donai a Madonna Gostanza de Medici, moglie del conte Vgo et figliola de messer Ottaviano de Medici. Valeva [ducati] 10.” The Gostanza in question would appear to be Costanza, wife of Ugo della Gherardesca. She was the niece of Lucrezia Salviati (herself daughter of Lorenzo Magnifico and sister of Leo X).
— The Nativity (1546)
— Allegory of the Immaculate Conception (1541, 58x39cm)
— Lorenzo the Magnificent (90x72cm)
Died on 30 (29?) July 1899: Adolf Schreyer,
painter specialized in Orientalism
(more specifically: Arab cavalry), born on 09 July 1828.
— Best known as a Romantic painter of exotic scenes and battles, Schreyer is also considered by many German art historians as an important forerunner of Realism and Impressionism in that country. Born in Frankfurt, Schreyer first studied at the Städel Institute there. His teacher was Jakob Becker [1810 -1872], himself a noted painter of landscapes and genre works who had been trained in Düsseldorf. It was probably at Becker's urging that Schreyer soon moved to the more progressive academy in Düsseldorf, which at that time attracted artists from all over Europe and the United States.
After a period of study at the Academy, Schreyer began his Wanderjahre, which took him throughout Europe during the political ferment of the late 1840s and early 1850s. By 1854, Schreyer was in the Crimean Peninsula, observing and illustrating scenes of the war that had broken out there between Russia and a coalition consisting of Great Britain, France, and Turkey. At the conclusion of the war, immortalized in Tennyson's poem The Charge of the Light Brigade, the artist visited Syria and North Africa where he found the exotic subject matter that became central to many of his later paintings.
Settling in Paris in 1862, Schreyer very soon developed his mature style, reflecting the dominance of such French artists as Eugène Delacroix [1798-1863] and Eugène Fromentin [1820-1876]. The influence of Delacroix, who himself had used North African subject matter in his paintings, can be seen in many Schreyer paintings, which are spirited paraphrases of the French artist's earlier images of Bedouin horsemen. Schreyer left Paris in 1870 due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, and returned to Germany where he settled in Cronberg, a summer resort and artists' colony in the Taunus Mountains outside Frankfurt, actively painting until his death. Schreyer was widely recognized and honored during his lifetime, being awarded medals for his paintings at Paris in 1864, 1865 and 1867, and at Munich in 1876.
–- À la Fontaine (88x122cm; 432x621pix, 50kb _ .ZOOM to 898x1242pix, 225kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1796x2484pix, 849kb _ .ZOOM++ to 3592x4968pix, 3299kb)
— Arab Cavalry Approaching an Oasis (70x101cm)
— Arab Chieftain and his Entourage (46x65cm)
— Arab Horseman in a Landscape (52x84cm)
— Arab Horsemen on the March (81x127cm)
— Arab Warrior Leading a Charge (84x69cm)
— Arab Warriors on a Hillside (56x46cm)
— Arabian Horseman (87x119cm)
— Arab Horsemen by a Watering Hole (51x84cm)
— Arabian Horseman near a Watering Place (30x41cm)
— Arabs Watering their Horses (45x75cm)
— At the Watering Place (85x130cm)
— The Watering Place (104x173cm)
— Arabian Patrol (70x102cm)
— Arabs on Horseback (67x86cm)
— Hitching Horses to the Wagon (46x105cm)
— On the March (64x79cm)
— The Ambush (58x96cm)
— A Troika In Winter (68x100cm)
— Wallachian Blizzard (115x172cm)
— Horses Fleeing From Flames (29x38cm; 299x504pix, 24kb) _ This is a prime example of the dramatic scenes and brilliant painting style developed by Schreyer, whose fondness for depicting animals in motion, particularly horses, is vividly demonstrated in this composition. The panic and frenzied actions of the animals, heightened by the feathery touch of paint and swirl of color, immediately engage the viewer. Will the horses escape? The final outcome in doubt, the viewer searches the painting for clues but discovers none except the flimsy construction of the stable which may (or may not) give way under the impact of the horses. Certainly in the nineteenth century, when horses were a way of life, such a potential disaster would surely have wrung the hearts of many viewers.
Born on 30 July 1898: Henry
British sculptor, draftsman, etcher, lithographer.
— Organically shaped, abstract, bronze and stone figures constitute the major 20th-century manifestation of the humanist tradition in sculpture. Much of work is monumental, and he was particularly well known for his series of reclining nudes. Among his major commissions were sculptures for UNESCO headquarters in Paris (1957-58), for the Lincoln Center in New York City (1963-65), and for the East Building of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (1978).
As a child, he drew inspiration from the work of Renaissance master Michelangelo. Moore later developed a more personal modernist style, but it was some time before his radical but majestic stone figures began to win approval. Moore evoked form from empty space as much as he did from solids, and he claimed that it took a lifetime to learn how to set his sculptures into a landscape. (Vertebrae)
English sculptor Henry Moore is born in Castleford, Yorkshire. The son of a coal miner, he overcame early criticism of his work to become one of the most acclaimed sculptors of the 20th century. His majestic, semi-abstract sculptures of the human figure are characterized by their smooth, organic shape and often include empty hollows that evoke form as meaningfully as solid mass.
The seventh of eight children, Moore grew up in the small coal-mining town of Castleford in northern England. His father was an ambitious man who taught himself advanced mathematics in order to rise from ordinary miner to the position of mining engineer. Moore decided he wanted to become a sculptor at age 11, after hearing a Sunday school story about Michelangelo. He served in France during World War I and in 1917 was injured in a gas attack. After being demobilized in 1919, he won a veteran's grant to study at the Leeds School of Art in West Yorkshire. In 1921, he was awarded a scholarship to study at the Royal College of Art in London.
At London's libraries and museums, he studied Egyptian, Etruscan, Pre-Columbian, Oceanic, and African sculpture, and he brought the vital spirit of this artwork into his early sculpture. This effort was often ridiculed by his instructors, and in his first year at the Royal College one of his teachers remarked, "this young man has been feeding on garbage." He was also deeply influenced by the semi-abstract paintings of Paul Cézanne, such as the Large Bathers (1900-1905), which shows monumental reclining nudes integrated into an abstract landscape. The reclining human figure would become a central theme in Moore's sculpture.
After graduating from the Royal College in 1924, he traveled and taught art and in 1928 was given his first one-man exhibition at the Warren Gallery in London. Appreciated by his fellow avant-garde artists but lacking a wider public audience, Moore taught to support himself as he continued to develop his art. His first major mature work was Reclining Figure in Wood (1936), a highly abstract depiction of the human form. That year, Moore was included in the "Cubism and Abstract Art" show at New York City's Museum of Modern Art, which became an important patron of the English artist.
During World War II, Moore's studio was damaged by bombs, and sculpture material was difficult to come by. He turned to drawing and as a commissioned war artist produced a series of drawings of Londoners huddled in the underground bomb shelters. The Shelter Drawings (1940) seemed to capture the spirit of the times and brought Moore his first great fame. In 1946, he was given a major retrospective by the Museum of Modern Art, and in 1948 he won the Grand Prize for Sculpture at the 24th Venice Biennale. From thereon, Moore's reputation was firmly established, and he began to receive major public commissions for sculptures in bronze and marble.
In addition to the reclining figure, other common themes of Moore's sculpture includes the mother and child, family groups, and fallen warriors. For the last four decades of his life, he lived unostentatiously in a farmhouse in Much Hadham, 50 km north of London. He died on 31 August 1986.
photos of sculptures:
— Reclining Figure (1951) _ Almost any picture can serve the pseudonymous Enrique Semaz y Maas as the starting point toward a colorful 2-dimensional abstraction, usually a symmetrical one with an inane title. Thus from this photo he evolved Reclimbing Figures After Declining During the Depression Signal More and More Enrichment For Fig Marketers aka Gift Fig (2006; screen filling, 210kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1412kb).
Reclining Figure (1936 elmwood, 48x89x38cm)
Reclining Figure: Angles (1979 bronze, over-life-sized)
Draped Reclining Figure (1953, bronze, 102x152cm)
Four-Piece Composition: Reclining Figure (1934 Cumberland alabaster, 18x46x20cm)
Not to be confused with marine painter Henry Moore [1831 – 22 Jun 1895] or his brother Albert Joseph Moore [04 Sep 1841 – 25 Sep 1893] or their father William Moore, much less with Charles Willard Moore [31 Oct 1925~], or David Murray Moore [06 Apr 1927~], or Temple Lushington Moore [07 Jun 1856 – 30 Jun 1920].
Died on 30 July 1746: Francesco Trevisani,
cavaliere romano, Italian Rococo
Era painter who was born on 09 April 1656.
— He studied under Carlo Maratta [1625-1713], Joseph Heintz, and Antonio Zanchi. Antonio Trevisani painted altarpieces and cabinet paintings of biblical and mythological themes in a style that varies between the classicism of Maratti and the softer, sweeter manner of the Barocchetto. His portraits, both of noble Italian patrons and visiting Grand Tourists, are distinguished by their unusual informality and the sense of intimacy between artist and subject.
— The students of Trevisani included Claudio Francesco Beaumont, Carlo Innocenzo Carlone [1685-1775], Andrea Casali, Placido Costanzi, Giorgio Domenico Duprà, Gregorio Guglielmi, Girolamo Pesci, Pietro Antonio Rotari, Francisco Vieira Lusitano.
–- Apelles Painting Campaspe (1720, 49x60cm; 1082x868pix, 127kb) _ .main detail(1082x868pix, 140kb) _ The story comes from Pliny the Elder, who wrote that Campaspe was the favorite mistress of Alexander the Great and Apelles was his favorite painter. Alexander asks Apelles to paint a full-length portrait of Campaspe nude. In so doing, the painter falls in love with her. Upon seeing this, Alexander gives up his mistress to the painter. The idea behind Alexander's gesture is that love inspired by beauty is most appreciated by the one who discerns it best. This story was embraced by painters because it demonstrated that they were the best judges of beauty.
— Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni (134x98cm) _ Ottoboni, who became a cardinal in 1689, was the most important patron of the arts in early 18th century Rome, gathering about him the most prominent musicians (including the young Handel), writers and artists of his day.
— Festino di Marcantonio e Cleopatra (1702) _ L'opera fu commissionata da Fabrizio Spada e pagata nel 1702. La scena è tratta da Plinio (Hist. Nat. IX,cap. LVIII). Marcantonio, invitato da Cleopatra ad un banchetto, rimase colpito dal grande fasto. Per dimostrare la sua indifferenza alle ricchezze, Cleopatra tolse da un suo orecchino una perla preziosa e la sciolse nel vino. Mentre si accingeva a ripetere il gesto, Marcantonio la fermò, dichiarandosi vinto. Tutt'intorno i servitori che vanno e vengono con cibi e bevande; in primo piano un nano che tiene un cane al guinzaglio. Nell'episodio, descritto con gusto teatrale, trovano posto preziosi particolari che fondono insieme elementi della tradizione veneta cinquecentesca con quelli del classicismo romano.
— L'enfant Jésus Désignant à la Vierge les Fleurs de la Passion
— Le Christ mort porté par des anges (1710, 34x28cm) _ Reprise d'un grand tableau peut-être peint pour le pape Clément XI. Ignoré des Evangiles, le thème a été développé par les artistes de la Contre-Réforme : les anges semblent offrir le Christ à l'adoration des chrétiens.
Born on 30 July 1853: Julian
Falat, Polish painter who died on 19 (09?) July 1929.
— He studied (1869–1871) at the Kraków School of Fine Arts before working as a draftsman for the archaeologist Stanislaw Krzyzanowski [1841–1881] on excavations in the Ukraine, then for the architect Feliks Gsiorowski. With the latter’s support, Falat was able to study architecture in Zurich and Munich, but he gave up his studies to work as a technical draftsman in Zurich. He continued with his painting studies in Munich (1877–1880) under Alexander Strähuber [1814–1882] and Georg Raab [1821–1885]. Falat’s early work shows the influence of the watercolorists Hubert von Herkomer and Ludwig Passini [1832–1903], and of Eduard Grützner [1846–1925]. Falat’s own watercolor work was soon acclaimed both by the large group of Polish painters in Munich and also by those at home. In 1882–1886 Falat lived in Warsaw painting realistic genre scenes and landscapes and contributing illustrations to Polish and German periodicals, such as the Viennese Secession journal Ver Sacrum. He enjoyed living in style and traveled extensively, incorporating new settings into his work. During a journey to the East in 1885 he executed a series of ‘oriental’ watercolors, being among the first Polish artists to adopt Japanese motifs.
— Uczyl sie 1869-71 u W. Luszczkiewicza w krakowskiej SSP, 1878-80 w Akademii monachijskiej. Wiele podrózowal po Europie, w 1885 odbyl podróz dookola swiata. Zaproszony w nastepnym roku przez cesarza Wilhelma II (którego poznal na polowaniu na niedzwiedzie u Radziwillów w Nieswiezu) do Berlina, spedzil tam 10 lat, malujac sceny mysliwskie dla cesarza i dworu. Z W. Kossakiem i kilkoma innymi polskimi malarzami pracowal nad panorama Przejscie przez Berezyne. Mianowany w 1895 dyrektorem SSP w Krakowie, zreformowal system nauczania. W 1910 osiadl w Bystrej. W poczatkowym okresie duzo rysowal i malowal akwarela motywy pejazowe, rodzajowe i typy ludowe z najblizszego otoczenia. Od czasu pobytu w Nieswiezu czesto powracal do tematyki mysliwskiej w zimowej scenerii, do motywu dzikiej zwierzyny, malowal pejzaze z Litwy, Polesia, podgórza Beskidu Slaskiego, widoki starego Krakowa. Sceny z polowan i zimowe pejzaze z potokiem w sniegu przyniosly mu najwieksza popularnosc. Malowal tez portrety, liczne autoportrety, typy ludowe. Poslugiwal sie technika olejna, gwaszem, pastelem, najchetniej jednak akwarela. Wirtuozeria, wrazliwosc na kolor, umiejetnosc oddania najsubtelniejszych zjawisk barwy i swiatla pozwalaja zaliczyc go do najwybitniejszych polskich akwarelistów.
— Self-Portrait with Palette (1896; 800x524pix, 79kb)
— The Church at Mikuszowice (800x582pix, 124kb)
— The Battue (304x800pix, 72kb)
— Returning from the Hunt (1892; 467x800pix, 114kb)
— Lake Switez (1888; 474x800pix, 80kb)
— Snow (1907; 271x750pix, 27kb)
— Snow II (652x800pix, 56kb)
— Polowanie w Nieswiezu (386x800pix, 97kb)
— Oszczepnicy (800x596pix, 68kb)
— Cracow in Winter (364x800pix, 64kb)
— Widok Krakowa (343x800pix, 61kb)