ART 4 2-DAY 28 July v.9.60
>Born on 28 July 1819: Henri-Joseph
Harpignies, French artist specialized in landscapes,
who died on 28 August 1916.
Although Harpignies was already twenty-seven years old when he began to study painting with Jean Achard, he had a long and successful career. Best known for his paintings and watercolors of landscapes, he also made etchings, drypoints, and a small number of lithographs that represented rural subjects.
From the mid-1860s onward he received numerous medals and honors for his paintings and watercolors of French and Italian scenes.
Harpignies's work always showed a strong affinity with the ideas espoused since the 1830s by the Barbizon school. Both in his palette and treatment of light Harpignies's style owed its greatest debt to the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, whom he greatly admired.
In his later years Harpignies was clearly aware of theories given visual form by the Impressionists, but he remained an essentially conservative painter who carried on the Barbizon tradition through the end of the nineteenth century.
–- Landscape at Capri (21x32cm; 842x1107pix, 224kb)
–- Bords de l'Allier (1903, 70x101cm; 482x694pix, 54kb _ .ZOOM to 968x1394pix, 254kb)
–- untitled landscape (1903, 13x18cm; 457x633pix, 42kb)
Autumnal River Landscape (1905, 58x39cm)
Goats Grazing Beside a Lake at Sunset (1899, 124x150cm)
Midday in the Meadows (1886, 57x77cm)
Boys by the Sea (22x36cm)
Environs de Menton, Le Royal (66x81cm)
— Pont Neuf, Paris (21x33cm)
— A Wooded Landscape with a Stream (1903, 70x102cm)
— Landscape with Two Boys Carrying Firewood (1894)
— Moonlight on the Loire (1885, 61x82cm)
— Ravin, Souvenir de la Campagne de Rome (180x143cm)
— The Big Tree (50x66cm)
— Washer Women_on a Sandy Track with a Village Beyond (37x26cm)
— View of a Stream (1895, 27x46cm; 676x1200pix, 511kb _ ZOOM not recommended to 1519x2696pix, 2421kb) scratches all over the dark areas of trees, badly in need of restauration.
— Villefranche (1885, 33x23cm; 900x621pix, 343kb _ ZOOM not recommended to 2436x1681pix, 2539kb) almost monochrome
Died on 28 July 1711: Gérard
de Lairesse, Flemish Dutch Baroque
painter, etcher, and writer on art, born on 11 September 1641.
Born in Liège, de Lairesse settled in Amsterdam in 1665, and moved to The Hague in 1684. He was the leading decorative painter in Holland in the second half of the 17th century, working in an academic classical style that inspired his over-enthusiastic contemporaries to call him 'the Dutch Raphael' and 'the Dutch Poussin'. In about 1690, however, he went blind and thereafter devoted himself to art theory. His lectures were collected in two books: Foundation of Drawing (1701) and the Great Painting Book (1707) - which were translated and much reprinted during the 18th century. Lairesse's writings reveal the same academic approach as his paintings he somewhat naïvely confessed that he had a preference for Rembrandt until he learned 'the infallible rules of art'. Rembrandt had painted a
_ portrait of the young Lairesse in 1665, sympathetically showing his disease-disfigured face.
— The students of de Lairesse included Jan van Mieris.
Allegory of the Sciences (1683; 1600x883pix, 176kb)
Cleopatra's Banquet (1680; 1229x1600pix)
Selene and Endymion (1678; 1600x1070pix)
Allegory of the Freedom of Trade (1672; 907x891pix, 126kb) _ De Lairesse's large-scale historical, allegorical, and mythological paintings and grisailles, done in a style that is in accord with the precepts of classical art theory, won wide acclaim. He was called upon to decorate the ceilings and wall panels of numerous civic buildings, palaces, and stately homes. William III employed Lairesse at Soestdijk and The Hague. He can still be seen to good advantage at The Hague; his most famous work, a series of seven large paintings representing actual and mythological scenes from the ancient history of Rome, is at the Binnenhof there, and his allegorical ceiling celebrating Concord, Freedom of Trade, and Security, formerly installed in the home of a rich Amsterdam burgomaster, is now on view in the Peace Palace. One part of the ceiling, which comprised three sections, is illustrated here.
— Allegory of the Five Senses (1668; 785x1030pix, 133kb) _ The senses are represented as women and children engaged in some typical activity and with attributes. Hearing is associated with music. Sight holds a mirror. Taste has a fruit and Smell a bunch of flowers. Touch has a bird perching on her raised hand.
— Venus Presenting Weapons to Aeneas (162x166cm; 950x979pix, 97kb) _ The brilliant colors and dramatic lighting lend this fine baroque painting a peerless theatricality and pathos.
>Born on 28 July 1887: Henri~Robert~Marcel Duchamp,
French US part-time Dadaist
Conceptual painter, sculptor, and writer, who tried to shock people. He
died on 02 October 1968.
— The art and ideas of Duchamp, perhaps more than those of any other 20th-century artist, have served to exemplify the range of possibilities inherent in a more conceptual approach to the art-making process. Not only is his work of historical importance — from his early experiments with Cubism to his association with Dada and Surrealism — but his conception of the ready-made decisively altered our understanding of what constitutes an object of art. Duchamp refused to accept the standards and practices of an established art system, conventions that were considered essential to attain fame and financial success: he refused to repeat himself, to develop a recognizable style or to show his work regularly. It is the more theoretical aspects implicit to both his art and life that have had the most profound impact on artists later in the century, allowing us to identify Duchamp as one of the most influential artists of the modern era.
He was a French Dada artist, whose small but controversial output exerted a strong influence on the development of 20th-century avant-garde art. Born in Blainville, brother of the artist Raymond Duchamp-Villon [05 Nov 1876 – 07 Oct 1918] and half brother of the painter Jacques Villon [31 Jul 1875 – 09 Jun 1963], Duchamp began to paint in 1908. After producing several canvases in the current mode of Fauvism, he turned toward experimentation and the avant-garde, producing his most famous work,
_ Nu Descendant un Escalier Nº2, in 1912; portraying continuous movement through a chain of overlapping cubistic figures, the painting caused a furor at New York City's famous Armory Show in 1913.
Duchamp painted very little after 1915, although he continued until 1923 to work on his masterpiece, La mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, même, an abstract work, also known in another version as
_ The Large Glass, composed in oil and wire on glass. It was enthusiastically received by the Surrealists.
In sculpture, Duchamp pioneered two of the main innovations of the 20th century: kinetic art and ready~made art. His “ready-mades” consisted simply of everyday objects, such as a urinal and a bottle rack. His
_ Bicycle Wheel (1913 original lost; 3rd version, 1951), an early example of kinetic art, was mounted on a kitchen stool.
After his short creative period, Duchamp was content to let others develop the themes he had originated; his pervasive influence was crucial to the development of surrealism, Dada, and pop art. Duchamp became a US citizen in 1955. He died in Neuilly~sur~Seine.
–- Self-Portrait in Profile (1108x900pix, 60kb) _ Dark silhouette of face on off-white background. Not very interesting, but the pseudonymous Marvel Duchampion transformed it into the colorful
_ Shelf Shell Portraits in Profile File aka File Profile (2006; screen filling, 166kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2481kb) and then tranformed a minute detail of the computer image into the symmetrical abstraction
_ Shellfish Selfish Port Raid in Profit aka Flog Golf (2006; screen filling, 299kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1851kb).
Nu Descendant un Escalier Nº2 (1912, 147x89cm) _ no nude, just a multiple~exposure descending robot _ This painting created a sensation when it was exhibited in New York in February 1913 at the historic Armory Show of contemporary art, where perplexed US viewers saw it as representing all the tricks they felt European artists were playing at their expense. The picture's outrageousness surely lay in its seemingly mechanical portrayal of a subject at once so sensual and time-honored. The Nude's destiny as a symbol also stemmed from its remarkable aggregation of avant-garde concerns: the birth of cinema; the Cubists' fracturing of form; the Futurists' depiction of movement; the chromophotography of Étienne-Jules Marey, Eadweard Muybridge, and Thomas Eakins; and the redefinitions of time and space by scientists and philosophers. The painting was bought directly from the Armory Show for $300 by a San Francisco dealer. Marcel Duchamp's great collector-friend Walter Arensberg was able to buy the work in 1927, eleven years after Duchamp had obligingly made him a hand-colored, actual-size photographic copy.
–- Le Passage de la vierge à la mariée (949x858pix, 183kb _ ZOOM to 1424x1287pix)
–- L.H.O.O.Q. (look, then read the names of the letters in French)
–- The Large Glass (1923, 278x176cm) _ This is surely one of the most enigmatic works of art. Painstakingly executed on two planes of glass with unconventional materials such as lead foil, fuse wire, and dust, the appearance of the Glass is the result of an extraordinary combination of chance procedures, carefully plotted perspective studies, and laborious craftsmanship. As for its metaphysical aspect, Duchamp's voluminous preparatory notes, published in 1934, reveal that his "hilarious picture" is intended to diagram the erratic progress of an encounter between the "Bride," in the upper panel, and her nine "Bachelors" gathered timidly below amidst a wealth of mysterious mechanical apparatus. Exhibited only once (in 1926 at the Brooklyn Museum) before it was accidentally broken and laboriously repaired by the artist, the Glass has gradually become the subject of a vast scholarly literature and nonsense claiming it to be a witty, intelligent, and vastly liberating redefinition of what a work of art can be.
You and Me
Died on 28 July (June?) 1649: Gioacchino Assereto
(or Axereto, Asserto), Italian painter born in 1600. Assereto was a Caravaggio
follower in Genoa.
— At the age of 12 he studied under Luciano Borzone and in 1614 entered the Genoese studio of Andrea Ansaldo. Among a number of lost early paintings was a large Temptation of Saint Anthony done at the age of 16. Several complex compositions with small figures, including The Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas, The Last Supper, The Stoning of Saint Stephen and The Crowning of the Virgin, perhaps date from 1616–1626. These are close in style to works such as Bernardo Strozzi’s bozzetto (1620) for an altarpiece of Paradise (since destroyed) and to other contemporary works by Ansaldo [24 Aug 1584 – 18 Aug 1638], Giulio Benso and Giovanni Andrea de’ Ferrari, which also derive their figure style from Mannerism. Assereto’s earliest dated painting, SS John the Baptist, Bernard, Catherine, Lucy and George (1626), is distinguished by its silvery color and dramatic contrasts of light and dark, and by the powerful realism and vitality of the individual saints. Here he absorbed Borzone’s sfumato technique and skill as a portrait painter, while the crisp contours of the drapery suggest Ansaldo. Assereto’s work from 1626 to 1636 sparkles with rich color and detail, as in the strikingly naturalistic and intense Ecstasy of Saint Francis (1636). The work of the Lombard Mannerist painters Cerano, Morazzone and Giulio Cesare Procaccini that had influenced Strozzi and Ansaldo before 1620 also had an effect on Assereto’s early work. This is apparent in the elongated figures and high-keyed colors of his two octagonal vault frescoes, David and Abimelech and SS John and Peter Healing the Lame Man. Sharp-edged draperies, meticulous ornamental detail and jewel-like colors ranging from lime to pink and orange characterize Assereto’s vivid narrative painting Alexander and Diogenes (1630) and his altarpiece Saints Cosmas and Damian Curing the Sick, in which some of the figures resemble those by Orazio de’ Ferrari, who may have worked with Assereto in Ansaldo’s studio.
— Giovanni Battista Langetti was a student of Assereto.
–- David with the Head of Goliath (80x56cm; 1200x840pix, 120kb) — ZOOM to 1792x1252pix, 174kb) _ Paintings from Assereto's youth, such as this one, are distinguished by their silvery color and dramatic contrasts of light and dark, and by the powerful realism and vitality of the individuals shown. Assereto depicts David with his trophy of the head of Goliath, quietly contemplating this portentous occasion in which good has triumphed over evil.
— Moses Drawing Water from the Rock (254x300cm; 700x866pix, 155kb)
— Tobias Healing the Blindness of His Father (147x203cm; 750x1046pix, 95kb)
— Saint Anthony (120x96cm) almost monochrome
–- S#> The Finding of Moses (1640, 157x194cm) _ The half-dressed man lower left, holding up Moses, may be compared to a similar repoussoir figure in Assereto's painting of Servius Tullius with his hair on fire (162x136cm). The old woman and Pharaoh's daughter wearing a crown may be compared to two similar figures in Assereto's large signed painting (1645, 148x196cm), also of a subject taken from the legend of Servius Tullius. The disposition of a group of three-quarter length figures, gathered around a central point, seems to be a compositional motif which recurs in Assereto's large paintings at this date. The focal point here is the baby Moses and all the figures' gestures and expressions are directed towards him. The facial types, in particular those of the children, and the handling of paint (notably the highlights on the draperies) all find parallels in the works mentioned above, as well as in Assereto's painting of Alexander the Great (182x219cm)
— Alexander and Diogenes (1630; 600x488pix)
Baptized as an infant on 28 July 1609:
Judith Leyster, Dutch Baroque painter,
who was buried on 10 February 1660. She married Jan
Miense Molenaer [1610 – 15 Sep 1668] in 1636.
— She painted genre scenes, portraits and still-lifes, and she may also have made small etchings; no drawings by her are known. She specialized in small intimate genre scenes, usually with women seated by candlelight, and single half-length figures set against a neutral background. She was influenced by both the Utrecht Caravaggisti and Frans Hals, under whom both she and Molenaer studied.
— Judith Leyster was one of the few female artists of her era to have emerged from obscurity. Among her known works are portraits and genre and still-life paintings. Leyster was the daughter of a brewer. She began to paint while still quite young, and by the age of 24 she had become a member of the Haarlem painters' guild. Her subject matter embraced a greater range than was typicalof Dutch painters of the era, and she was one of the first to exploit the domestic genre scene. The influence of Frans Hals on her work is clear; she also, however, was interested in the tenebrist style of the Utrecht school. Themajority of her dated works were painted between 1629 and 1635. In 1636 she married genre painter Jan Miense Molenaer and moved with him to Amsterdam. Many of Leyster's works were in the past attributed to her male contemporaries. Among her best-known paintings are The Proposition (1631) and Boy Playing the Flute (c. 1635).
— Judith Leyster was born in Haarlem. Her father started in the textile trade but later became a brewer with his own brewery. Judith Leyster was probably taught by Frans de Grebber and apparently went on to work in Frans Hals' studio. Leyster's paintings reveal the influence of the latter, already a famous artist, and of his younger brother, Dirck Hals, as well as of the painter she was to marry in 1636, Jan Miense Molenaer. Like Dirck Hals, Leyster generally painted genre pieces depicting merry, music-making groups, although usually these companies were small.
— Leyster was extremely successful in her day as a portrait and genre specialist. Little is known about her early training but she was mentioned in about about Haarlem as being a local artist. In her early twenties she became the only female member of the Haarlem painters' guild and soon had students of her own. Even though her work is closely identified with that of Hals, their relationship remains unclear. What is known is that she successfully sued Hals for a breach of ethics after he took on one of her students. Judith Leyster is one of the very few women to have been accepted as a member of the Haarlem Guild of Painters.
Although a contemporary historian described her as a leading light in art (punning on her name Leyster, which means "lodestar") she remained unknown for a long time and her works were either believed lost, or were attributed to Frans Hals. She probably worked in his studio around 1630 and was also a friend of his family, for one year later she became godmother to Hals' daughter Maria. Like Hals at the same time, the young Leyster adopted the style of the Utrecht Caravaggisti, with their strong chiaroscuro modelling in the manner of Caravaggio. From the mid-1620, she concentrated more on vividly illuminated genre scenes, generally featuring half figures of merry musicians, gamblers and whores, strongly influenced by the painting of Terbrugghen and Honthorst. While the Utrecht school of painters still rounded the surfaces of their objects smoothly between light and shade, Hals and his school adopted a broad, vibrant and independent brushstroke. Leyster's work can be distinguished from that of Hals through her generally more discordant handling of color, her sketchier treatment of hands, the wryly distorted smiles of her figures and her altogether flightier brushwork.
— Self-Portrait (1635, 72x651007x887pix, 136kb)
— The Serenade (1629)
— Carousing Couple (1630, 68x54cm, 970x767pix, 130kb)
— A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel (59x49cm; 793x637pix, 40kb).