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ART “4” “2”-DAY  26 July v.9.60
^ Died on 26 July 1702: Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne I, Haarlem Flemish Mennonite painter and draftsman, best known for his travel diaries and sketches, born on 11 October 1629.
— He had three artist sons: Jan Vincentszoon van der Vinne [03 Feb 1663 – 01 Mar 1721], Izaak Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1665–1740], and Laurens Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1658–1729] who may be the author of some of the drawings attributed to his father. Three of Laurens’s children worked as painters and engravers: Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1686–1742], Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1688–1737] and Jan Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1699–1753]. In the next generation Jacob’s son Laurens Jacobszoon van der Vinne [1712–1742] became a flower painter, and two of Jan’s children, Jan Janszoon van der Vinne [1734–1805] and Vincent Janszoon van der Vinne [31 Jan 1736 – 15 Jan 1811], seem to have been the last artists active in the family.
— Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne was trained at a weaving mill. Then, when he was 18, he spent nine months as the student of Frans Hals (who later painted his portrait in 1660), and in 1649 he joined the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke. From 1652 to 1655 van der Vinne traveled through Germany, Switzerland, and France, accompanied some of the time by Guillam Dubois [1610–1680], Dirck Helmbreker, and Cornelis Bega. During the trip van der Vinne kept an illustrated diary and on his return worked this up in a second volume, copying his drawings and adding topographical prints by Matthäus Merian the elder and Jean Boisseau. He also filled a sketchbook with Rhineland landscapes. The year after he returned from this trip he married Anneke Jansdr de Gaver [–1668], and six months after her death he married Catalijntje Boekaert. Besides the drawings from his 1652–1655 travels, he produced a number of townscapes in pen and ink with gray wash, some on a journey through the Netherlands in 1680. He also made drawings in black and red chalk depicting the city gates of Haarlem and ruins found in the surrounding countryside. He received commissions for ceiling paintings, signboards, landscapes, portraits and other works, but his known painted work is confined to a few vanitas still-lifes, such as Vanitas Still-life with a Royal Cromn and a Print of Charles I of England, beheaded in 1649 (>1649, 95x69cm), leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi: «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.

Memento Mori (1656; 450x423pix, 36kb) _ Exquisite vanitas still lifes like this were widely popular in seventeenth-century Europe. They were meant to exhort the viewer to prepare for death. Vanitas still lifes are based on a biblical passage from Ecclesiastes, "Vanity of vanities, ... all is vanity," that urges the reader to remember that saving one's soul is more important than wordly gains. All objects in this painting have symbolic meaning intended to remind the viewer that wealth, power and knowledge acquired in this world are unimportant in the face of inevitable death. The watch and hourglass give notice of the passage of time. The plumed helmet, sword and gun refer to soldierly activities; the globe, maps and the money bags to worldly knowledge and material possessions. Books indicate scholarly pursuits, but warn as well against conceited pride that comes with learning. The overturned goblet cautions against overindulgence, but also symbolizes the Sense of Taste. The musical instruments refer to the Sense of Hearing, to Music — one of the Seven Liberal Arts — and, in case of the lute and flute, to carnal love. Since they wither and die, the cut flowers in a vase allude to the transience of life, as does the skull, a particularly stark reminder of death. But the ivy crowning the skull offers hope because it is a symbol for immortality. Apart from its allegorical meaning, the painting is a pleasure for the eye in its masterful representation of different materials, its color, and the organization of these diverse elements.
Memento Mori with Self-Portrait (30kb) _ Still-life with a globe, an hourglass, papers, a book of maps, a sketch of the painter, a shawm (an early double-reed woodwind instrument) and, inclined towards the top right hand corner, is the center joint of a wind instrument which may be a transverse- or duct- flute (flageolet or recorder). A ticket reads "Memento Mori".
Vanitas with a Royal Crown and the portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (95x69cm; 797x573pix, 55kb) _ Vincent van de Vinne is best known for his still-lifes. Beside Pieter van Roestraten, a genre and still-life painter (and the son-in-law of Frans Hals) Vinne is the only documented student of Hals, though not a trace of their contact with him is evident in their works.
     On a cloth-covered table lie all manner of objects including a globe, a shepherd's crook, a skull, papers, music, an illustration, a gourd, a feathered helmet, an hourglass, a violin, and a royal crown through which are threaded a shawm (only the bell of which is visible), and some books. Leaning against the violin is the center joint of a wind instrument which may be a transverse- or duct- flute (flageolet or recorder).
      Leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi : «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.
— a different Vanitas with a Royal Crown and a portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (24x36cm; 420x630pix, 9kb) _ Still-life with a crown, a skull, castanets, carnations in a glass vase, an hourglass, a scroll and an engraved portrait of King Charles I. The head of an alto recorder with a brass-sheathed beak and a long window/labium emerges from beneath the upside-down crown. The latter is surmounted by the skull.
Vanitas with a Crystal Ball and a portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (9kb) _ Still-life with the artist at his easel reflected in a crystal ball, and with a book, a lute, a flag, a chipped roemer, a document and seal, and an engraved portrait of King Charles I. The head of an alto recorder with a brass-sheathed beak and its characteristic window/labium emerges from beneath a book.
^ >Born on 26 July (June?) 1870: Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Basque artist who died on 31 October 1945.
— Zuloaga would become by 1921 the head of a definite school of Basque and Castilian painters, whose work would be marked by a realistic and decorative treatment of contemporary Spanish life, consciously based on Velazquez, El Greco and Goya. His art would show increasing emphasis on silhouette, simplification of form and use of broad masses of somber color relieved by splashes of more vivid tints.
— Born at Eibar in the Basque Pyrenées, son of a well-known goldsmith and metal worker, and of a long line of craftsmen. At fifteen visited the Prado and copied El Greco. Spent six months in Rome in 1889, then lived mainly in Paris for several years on friendly terms with Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin, Rodin, Mallarm-23 and the Spanish painter Rusifiol. Travel in 1892 in Andalusia aroused his passion for Spanish gypsies, bullfighters and peasants, who became the subjects for many of his later pictures; influenced by the tradition of Velazquez and Goya. Achieved success as a painter more rapidly abroad than in Spain. Lived between Spain (Seville, Segovia, Madrid) and Paris, later in the Basque fishing port of Zumaya. Awarded the Grand Prix at the 1912 Rome International Exhibition and the main painting prize at the 1938 Venice Biennale; his later work included a number of society portraits. Died in Madrid.
— He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly colored images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1913). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.
— José de Creeft was a student of Zuloaga.

Ignacio Zuloaga, herriak emandako pertsonaia ezagunena. Pintore moduan, zeharo espainola: toreroak eta señoritak marrazten nabarmendu zen. Bere pintura tonu ilunegatik eta bere lanean eratutako errealismo handiagatik bereizten da.

— Ignacio Zuloaga Zabaleta, pintor vasco quien nació en Eibar, Guipúzcoa, el 26 de junio 1870 y falleció en Madrid. En 1896 se traslada a Madrid y copió cuadros en el Museo del Prado. En 1889 viajó a Roma y un año más tarde a París, donde acudió a la Academia "La Palette", donde recibió clases de Puvis de Chavannes [14 Dec 1824 - 24 Oct 1898], Gervaux, y Carrière. Conoció a Degas [19 Jul 1834 - 26 Sep 1917], Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 - 08 May 1903] y Toulouse-Lautrec [24 Nov 1864 - 09 Sep 1901], y se sintió muy atraído por el impresionismo.
      A partir de ese momento, alternó su residencia entre París y España con viajes a otros países. En 1895 se instaló en Sevilla, donde desarrolló un gran interés por los temas taurinos y andaluces. En 1898 se trasladó a Segovia y allí da paso a un estilo de gran fuerza expresiva, en el que predomina el tema de paisaje y los hombres de Castilla, con los que se sentirá muy identificado..
      Consolidado su prestigio internacional, le encargaron decorados para las Operas de Berlín y Bruselas. En 1914 se instaló en Zumaya, pero siguió viajando a menudo. En la última etapa de su vida trabajó en su estudio de Madrid y recibió numerosos encargos de retratos, aunque sin abandonar el bodegón y el paisaje como su obra más personal.
      Rechazó el impresionismo y buscó una pintura con fuerza, que se caracteriza por un dibujo enérgico, una constructividad volumétrica en la línea de Cézanne, una pastosidad que deriva de Van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 - 29 Jul 1890] y unas curvas decorativas que proceden del modernismo y de Gauguin. Como Degas, hace las composiciones con el motivo principal descentrado. Su visión de España le relaciona con la generación del 98: paisajes yermos y ciudades decadentes, que evocan un pasado glorioso.

Dos Autoretratos
A young woman (60x46cm)
An Elegant Lady Fanning Herself (95x69cm)
Lola Con Vestido De Flores Blancas (78x100cm)
Torerillos de pueblo (1906; 792x600pix, 41kb)
— Crucifixión (621x739pix, 51kb)
— El Violinista Larrapidi (821x527pix, 28kb)
— Desnudo (1915; 517x739pix, 22kb)
— [Mucho Puerco?] (638x466pix, 26kb)
El Señor Beistegui (1093x929pix, 44kb)
Cuatro bebedores o Amarretako (1905)
–- Antonio de González Vigil (drawing 70x78cm; 1187x1350pix, 175kb)
–- La Calle de las Pasiones (1904, 202x296cm; 604x878pix, 47kb) _ La Calle de las Pasiones is the culmination of a series of large scale works that is the perfect expression of Zuloaga's quest to capture the rich variety of Spain’s history and the colorful culture of its people. Exhibited to great acclaim in Düsseldorf the year that it was painted, the work presents a rich panoply of the myriad regional types and local characters that capture the essence of Spanish street life: gypsies, workers, dancers, toreadors, clerics, and midgets; young and old, rich and poor, good and bad alike. The composition is pure theater. Gossiping and whispering, strutting and creeping, the characters that Zuloaga has chosen to portray are spot-lit to dramatic effect on a confined stage. The two contrasting leading ladies fix their audience intently with their gaze, the rest snake across the picture surface in a carefully orchestrated rhythmic shuffle. Zuloaga’s choice of motifs and his celebration of this theme of everyday Spanish life epitomizes the ideals of the Generación del 98, a group of writers and artists who sought to encourage the patriotic regeneration of their country’s culture in the wake of Spain’s loss of her colonial empire at the end of the Spanish American War in 1898. Zuloaga was Basque by birth, and he painted this while in Seville, yet, in the spirit of the time, he chose to represent the people of Segovia, the center of Spain’s Castilian heartland. Likewise, although essentially simply acting as a scenic backdrop, the buildings behind the figures were actual houses of artisans and laborers in the Casa del Botero, a street in the town of Lerma near Segovia (a subject to which Zuloaga returned again over twenty years later). One practical reason for basing the work in Castile was because it had been in Segovia that he had been able to take space in the studio of his uncle Don Daniel there. As important to Zuloaga, however, was his perception of himself as the heir to many of the great Castilian painters of the past, including El Greco. Perceived as the reviver of a great Spanish painterly tradition that had been broken with the death of Goya, in the present work Zuloaga combines the drama of El Greco, the theater of Velázquez and the sharp social commentary of Goya with his own unique take on contemporary Spanish life.
Poynter^ Died on 26 July 1919: Sir Edward John James Poynter, English Classicist painter born on 20 March 1836, brother-in-law of Edward Burne-Jones and Georgina Macdonald. [Did he give them a few pointers by giving them a few Poynters?]
— For much of his artistic life, Sir Edward Poynter, the neo-classical painter, lived under the shadow of M#>Lord Leighton, and as a result his work was unjustly neglected. Furthermore, his talents never quite matched those of Leighton and M#>Alma-Tadema, even though at times he could be a superb artist, as with his The Cave of the Storm Nymphs, which is one of his finest academic paintings. It was bought in 1891 for £203'500, one of the most expensive Victorian pictures ever sold at that time [the same-title painting listed below as of 1903 must be a different one, or else one of the dates is wrong].
      Unlike Leighton, whose flamboyant lifestyle matched his outgoing personality, Poynter was a reserved, cantankerous man who was unable to change with the times, with the result that his work was dismissed as prententious and uninteresting. When Leighton died, Poynter took over the role of President of the Royal Academy, where he remained for over twenty-two years, until many people began to wonder if he would ever retire. He resigned finally when he was over 80, but only because he was almost blind.
      Edward Poynter was born in Paris, the son of an architect, and after being educated at Westminster and Ipswich Grammar School, he went to Rome, where he met Leighton. Having decided to take up art as a career, as a direct result of meeting Leighton, he studied in Paris under Charles Gleyre [1808-1874], who had been a penniless artist before he opened an atelier, when he rapidly became a famous teacher.
      In 1859 Poynter returned to London, and for the next few years struggled to make a living from his painting with indifferent results. He desperately needed the RA to take one of his pictures in order to establish his name. Eventually Faithful Until Death was accepted by the RA in 1865. This picture, which shows a Roman soldier doggedly remaining at his post during the destruction of Pompeii, was a great success, and still remains Poynter's most famous work. This was followed by The Catapult and Atlanta's Race. [nothing to do with African-Americans in Georgia]. Among his famous paintings are The Fortune Teller (1877) and The Meeting between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
      Although by 1894 his powers were beginning to decline, he was still made the Director of the National Gallery and an RA in 1896. By 1900, however, his paintings began to be repetitious and uninteresting. When the end finally came there were some deeply felt sighs of relief from a large number of people who felt that he had already long overstayed his welcome.
— Early in his career Poynter studied in Rome, where he met Frederic Leighton, his greatest single artistic influence. He then moved to Paris in 1855. On returning to London, he became involved on book illustration. In 1865 he produced his first really successful picture, Faithful Unto Death, a Roman sentry staying at his post in Pompeii as Vesuvius overwhelmed the city. This dramatic painting was probably never bettered by Poynter throughout his whole long career. Poynter became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1869, at an unusually early age. Much of the rest of his life was devoted to the Academy, he was hardworking, conscientious, and a competent administrator.
      Poynter married Agnes MacDonald, the sister of Burne-Jones wife Georgiana. Burne-Jones disliked Poynter, who was an unsympathetic, brusque character. When Leighton died in 1896, he was succeeded as President of the Royal Academy by Millais, who was suffering from cancer of the throat. On the death of Millais a few months later, Poynter succeeded him, narrowly defeating Briton Riviere in the vote. He was PRA for the next two decades.
      From the turn of the century Poynter's paintings declined both in numbers and quality, his main priority being the running of the Academy. He lived to see the death of classicism, & the total eclipse of his own artistic standards, & those of his contemporaries. He adopted the approach of ignoring new developments of which he did not approve. Unhappily Poynter outstayed his welcome. One of the last duties of the eighty one year old PRA, was to attend the funeral of J. W. Waterhouse. There was, though, something splendid about the way he remained consistent to the last, resisting what he saw as the corruption, and denigration of all that was beautiful in art. He may even have been right.
Obituary in The Times
Portrait of Poynter by Cope

Israel in Egypt (1867 _ ZOOMable)
The Cave of the Storm Nymphs (1903, 145x109cm _ ZOOMable)
Andromeda (_ ZOOMable)
The Catapult (1868, 155x184cm)
Cressida (1888, 123x133cm)
Lesbia and her Sparrow
A Roman boat race (1889; 700x494pix, 103kb)
Psyche in the temple of love (1882)
At low tide (1913)
A visit to Aesculapius (1883, 151x229cm)
Reading (1871)
— On the Terrace
The fortune Teller (1877, 62x75cm)
The vision of Endymion
On the Temple Steps (1889; 700x468pix, 82kb)
A Corner of the Villa _ This painting provides us with a sense of space as we observe a private moment shared in an atrium among two women and a child. The artist's willingness to attempt a scene so full of different marbles, mosaics and stone reliefs is commendable and speaks well of his technical prowess. Not only was Poynter an accomplished painter, but as president of the Royal Academy for 23 year (1896-1919), he was responsible for the education of hundreds of other artists.

Died on a 26 July:

2005 Alvin Jacob Held, US Abstract Expressionist painter born on 12 October 1928. Held's first art training was at the Arts Students League, New York, in the late 1940s {Was Held held to strict standards there? Not likely}. He then studied at Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. From 1962 to 1980 he was a professor at Yale University. Held began an association with Crown Point Press with its woodcut program in Japan. In 1985, Crown Point founder, Kathan Brown, asked Held to submit a watercolor to be used a model for a woodblock print. This had ramifications for his later paintings. Although he had never worked seriously in watercolor, the results were so satisfying that he later produced and exhibited watercolors, and explored the coloristic effects of spit bite aquatint which looks like watercolor. He also worked in intaglio at the Press. Held designed a 134-meter-long glass mural for the new Washington DC National Airport terminal which opened in 1997. Fifty-five uniquely configured glass panels were made from Held's watercolor sketches. Mouth-blown glass was meticulously selected to match the more than 100 different colors in Held's original artwork. — LINKS
The Big A (1962; 572x816pix) B&W, which has inspired the pseudonymous Tenu-Bocage to create
      _ The small b, shown here full size (and copyright-free) [>>>]. Or you can
      _ ZOOM IN on The small b in THE BIG PICTURE.
+ ZOOM IN if you dare +The White Goddess (1964; 572x435pix) B&W. _ much improved in The Black Devil by Tenu-Bocage. [<<<]
if you insist, ZOOM !Black Nile III (1971; 449x448pix, 42kb) B&W. _ It's OK, if you like geometrical diagrams, but experts (especially racists) prefer White Mississippi MMV by Tenu-Bocage [>>>].
–- Putu (1989 color aquatint, 103x137cm; 153x200pix, 6kb, which is more than adequate to appreciate, but, if you must _ .ZOOM to 242x316pix, 11kb _ .ZOOM+ to 484x632pix, 32kb _ .ZOOM++ to 968x1265pix, 137kb _ .ZOOM+++ to 1936x2531pix, 499kb)
–- Indigo (1990, 91x114cm; 537x677pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 760x959pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1676x2100pix with margins, 545kb)
–- Liv (1992, 91x114cm; 723x910pix, 68kb _ .ZOOM to 1528x1912pix, 684kb)
–- Fly Away (1992, 91x114cm; 700x1009pix, 50kb _ .ZOOM to 1440x1987pix, 457kb)
–- Pachinko (1989; 710x957pix, 59kb _ .ZOOM 1706x2260pix, 646kb)
–- The Space Between the Two (1992, 83x73cm; 707x620pix, 32kb _ .ZOOM to 1907x1711pix with margins, 523kb)
–- Russell's Way (1989, 91x113cm; 644x862, 44kb _ .ZOOM to 1498x1865pix, 472kb)
–- Almost There (1988 color engraving; 720x532 size, 30kb _ .ZOOM to 1286x951pix, 102kb)
–- Out and In (1987; 685x870pix, 49kb _ .ZOOM to 1516x2016pix, 513kb)
–- Out (1184x1200pix, 53kb)
–- Untitled (1100x1400pix, 55kb)
–- Untitled (789x506pix, 6kb) on white, thick black bands trace a 5 and a triangle, both slightly trimmed. This seemed pathetic to Tenu-Bocage, so he produced a whole series of pictures of his own, starting with giving the 5 and the triangle each their separate unconfused pictures. First came the sarcastically minimalist
      _ Urgent Need To Institute The Long-Expected Design aka 5 (2006; screen filling, 4 kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 13kb) which is just a big fat 5, untrimmed; and its negative
      _ Design Expected The Institute To Need Urgently aka Negative of  5 (2006; screen filling, 4 kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 13kb). Doggedly continuing his sarcasm, the pseudonymous artist did the same for the triangle, but with a twist, because, if you look VERY carefully, you will see that it is no longer a triangle, but an extremely short-legged A, resulting in
      _ A Is Not A Triangle aka A (2006; screen filling, 4 kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 13kb); and its negative
      _ A Triangle A Is Not aka Negative of  A (2006; screen filling, 4 kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 13kb). However Tenu-Bocage is at his best as a maximalist, and he is working on megabyte pictures evolved from these.
–- S - E (800x800pix, 76kb) _ Tenu-Bocage is at his best as a maximalist, and he has transformed this simple picture into the wonderfully colorful and finelly detailed pair of abstractions
      _ Stupendous Explosion (2007; 550x778pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 331kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 656kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1611kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3860kb) and
      _ Stupefaction Exploded (2007; 550x778pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 331kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 656kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1611kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3860kb).
D-C (244x427cm; 1136x2000pix; 556kb) —(070725)

^ 1802 Rose Adélaïde Ducreux, French Neoclassical painter, born in 1761. — Relative? of Joseph Ducreux [1735-1802]? — LINKS
Self-portrait with a Harp (193x129cm; 454x300pix, 40kb) _ Inscribed: (on book) Opera; (on music) Romance / par Benoit pollet / [?] tendre amour . . . marit je rend l[es] / ar—me je rend les ar—me / il est pour moi si plein de / charme que j`en atta . . . (verses from an unidentified song by Jean Joseph Benoît Pollet [1753–1818])

^ 1728 (26 Jan?) Paolo di Matteis, Italian painter and silversmith born on 09 February 1662. He studied under Francesco di Maria. Di Matteis was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures. — De Matteis was first trained in Luca Giordano's workshop in Naples. Before 1683 he launched his career in Rome, where, according to legend, he was "discovered" by the Spanish ambassador while copying altarpieces in Saint Peter's Cathedral. When the ambassador was nominated Viceroy of Naples, de Matteis followed him there. Responding to changing tastes and Carlo Maratta's influence, de Matteis developed a delicate, graceful manner that broke with the vigor of the Baroque. Within ten years, his reputation was international, rivaling that of Francesco Solimena. From 1702 to 1705, de Matteis worked for the French court in Paris, where he met influential nobles and bankers; the elegant French style confirmed the direction his painting had already taken. Returning to Naples, which the Austrians had seized from Spain, de Matteis accepted commissions from both the Austrian aristocracy and intellectuals and nobility abroad. Renowned for his speed and virtuosity, he also painted decorative schemes for Neapolitan churches. In 1712 the third Earl of Shaftesbury, a renowned aesthetician, hired de Matteis to paint a canvas according to the Earl's own aesthetic theories. Between 1723 and 1725, de Matteis lived in Rome, where he received a commission from Pope Innocent XIII. In his final years, he made models for sculpture in silver. — Paolo de Matteis went to Naples as a young man and was trained there by Luca Giordano, whose influence permeates much of De Matteis' output. He then went to Rome where he began working for the Spanish ambassador, Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, and his works tend towards the classical style of Carlo Maratta, whom De Matteis came to admire greatly. In 1683 De Haro was appointed Viceroy of Naples and De Matteis followed his patron back there, remaining in Naples until 1701.— The students of de Matteis included Sarnelli, Inácio de Oliveira Bernardes, Francesco Peresi. — LINKS
–- Immacolata Concezione (110x77cm; 1575x1080pix, 111kb)
–- The Annunciation (1695, 130x100cm; 1575x1204pix, 152kb) _ This painting dates from after De Matteis' return from Rome to Naples. It illustrates De Matteis' characteristic mix of the classicism of the Carracci and Carlo Maratta (as exemplified by the Madonna) with the more painterly baroque style of Giordano, as seen in the angel, which is similar to Apollo in De Matteis' painting of Apollo and Daphne.
–- The Holy Family (1698, 29x38cm; 602x800pix, 55kb)
–- The Holy Family, St. Anne, St. John the Baptist (1698, 29x38cm; 592x665pix, 39kb)
–- The Penitent Saint Jerome (76x63cm; 892x725pix, 65kb)
The Choice of Hercules (1712; 461x600pix, 81kb) _ This painting reflects an intimate knowledge of its literary precursors. This portrayal of Hercules goes back to Prodicus’ story as recorded by Xenophon. The narrative is considered a paradigmatic ethical dilemma. The protagonist, at the crossroads between the two allegorical figures Virtue and Vice, opts for the arduous road of virtue, turning away from a lifestyle of lust and pleasure. The same subject would be treated
by Batoni [25 Jan 1708 – 04 Feb 1787] in Hercules at the Crossroads (1748, 99x74cm; 1250x920pix, 260kb _ ZOOM to 2500x1840pix, 1017kb) and again in the slightly different Hercules at the Crossroads (1765; 575x400pix, 89kb);
and had been treated
by Albrecht Dürer [1471–1528] in the unfinished engraving Hercules Choosing Between Virtue and Vice (1499, 323x223cm; 1000x689pix, 422kb)
by Veronese [1528 – 09 Apr 1588] in Allegory of Virtue and Vice (the choice of Hercules) (1580, 219x170cm; 400x313pix, 33kb),
by Annibale Carracci in Hercules at the Crossroads (1597; 380x551pix, 329kb)
An Allegory of Divine Wisdom and the Fine Arts (1685, 359x253cm; 480x340pix, 49kb) _ At the very top of the composition, a personification of Science extends her arm to Painting, while Architecture sits at her feet with a compass and a rolled-up architectural drawing. Virtue holds a laurel wreath over the head of the central figure, who displays a canvas of Time revealing Truth. Known for his facility, Paola de' Matteis supposedly completed this elaborate canvas, his earliest known painting, in only five days, soon after his return from Rome. The smooth, clear contours and idealized beauty of Virtue reflect the classicizing lessons he learned there, while the foreshortened figure of Science reveals his roots in the dramatic Neapolitan Baroque.
Galatea (768x784pix) —(080725)

^ 1671 Cornelis de Baellieur I, Flemish painter born on 05 February 1607. He was apprenticed to Anton Lisaert in 1617. Nine years later he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, of which he was dean in 1644–1645. His son, of the same name, also became a painter, but there is nothing left of his work. Cornelis de Baellieur the elder was a painter of small figures and was closely associated with Frans Francken the younger; he may even have worked in his studio. The only known signed and dated work by de Baellieur is the Interior of a Collector’s Cabinet (1637). This picture, which depicts a sumptuously decorated interior with visitors admiring the oil paintings and objets d’art, confirms the skill of this little-known artist. The influence of Francken is evident in de Baellieur’s frequently signed biblical paintings, for example Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery, the Idolatry of Solomon, and The Adoration by the Magi. Nevertheless, de Baellieur’s figures are striking for their meticulous quality. To the modern viewer, his compositions appear somewhat garish, since in his biblical paintings he favored juxtapositions of whitish-yellow, violet and pink tones. His style is easily recognizable: stereotypical figures with doll-like faces, slightly protruding eyes and steeply sloping shoulders. These characteristics do not appear in the Cabinet of Rubens formerly attributed to him (it is now thought to be by Willem van Herp).
The Adoration by the Magi (531x700pix, 167kb)

Born on a 26 July:

1964 Ralf Metzenmacher, German Retro-Art painter and designer.
      _ Photo of Metzenmacher (May 2007; 1704x2272pix, 813kb) next to a partial view of an example of his artwork. —(080725)

^ >1895 Jankel Adler, Polish painter who died on 25 April 1949. He underwent an apprenticeship in engraving in 1912 and in 1913 moved to Barmen (now Wuppertal) in Germany, where he studied under Gustav Wiethüchter at the Kunstgewerbeschule during World War I. In 1918 he came into contact with Das Junge Rheinland, a group of artists based in Düsseldorf. In the same year he visited Poland, where he was one of the founders of the Ing Idisz (Young Yiddish) group, an association of painters and writers in Lódz dedicated to the expression of their Jewish identity. The few surviving works produced by Adler during this period, all in an Expressionist style, with the human figure subjected to elongated and distorted proportions, reveal his own response to these concerns. The Rabbi’s Last Hour (1919), in which the influence of El Greco has been discerned, is a good example. His inventory of images included motifs from Jewish folk art and Hebrew calligraphy.
— Adler moved to Germany in 1913. In the 1920s he was a significant force in German painting, participating in every important Expressionist show. His studies with Gustav Wiethuechter, at the School of Arts and Crafts in Barmen influenced his persistent interest in technique and the exploration of new textures. He was also greatly influenced by Picasso and Klee, with whom he taught at the Düsseldorf Staatlich Kunstakademie and shared an adjoining studio. In 1933 he was forced to leave Germany and, after wandering through France, Poland, the Balkans and Spain, he finally settled in Glasgow in 1941, where he exerted a major influence on postwar British painting.
–- S#> A Man (1923, 56x44cm; x799pix, 113kb) monochrome. In the early twenties, the work of Adler's first period had found ready acceptance in Germany. Always haunted by the problem of formulating a Jewish style of art, Adler had tried to solve it, unlike Chagall and Ryback, by avoiding the anecdote aspects of Jewish folklore and humor so as to concentrate on those formal or architectonic elements which might be identified and defined as specially Jewish. His monumental figures, stripped of the individuality of his original models, are reduced to their basic character as symbols or types.
–- A Woman (1945, 65x50cm; 1200x894pix, 133kb)
–- Figures at a Table (24x33cm; 1190x845pix, 106kb)
–- Still Life 8 (24x33cm; 940x1400pix, 182kb)
–- S#> Cosmological Eye (26x34cm; 589x800pix, 141kb) monochrome and without much of a picture.—(090725)

1893 Georg Grosz, German painter who died (full coverage) on 06 July 1959.

^ 1846 Hermann Kaulbach, German history and genre painter who died on 09 December 1909. Son of Wilhelm von Kaulbach [15 Oct 1804 – 07 Apr 1874], who was a first cousin and a teacher of Friedrich Kaulbach [08 July 1822 – 17 Sep 1903], who was the father of Friedrich August von Kaulbach [02 Jun 1850 – 26 Jan 1920].
Allegory of Wisdom and Justice (1888, 96x66cm)
Portrait of a Lady with a Mandolin (150x73cm)
Reading the Bible (44x32cm)

^ 1800 Nicolas François Octave Tassaert, French painter and printmaker, who committed suicide on 24 April 1874. — Son of French engraver Jean-Joseph-François Tassaert [1765-1835], who was the brother of pastellist / engraver Henriette-Félicité Tassaert [05 Apr 1766 – 06 Aug 1818] and the son of Flemish sculptor Jean-Pierre-Antoine Tassaert [19 Aug 1727 – 21 Jan 1788] and miniaturist Marie-Edmée Moreau Tassaert. — Related? to British painter Philippe Joseph Tassaert [1732-1803]? — As a child Octave Tassaert worked with his brother Paul Tassaert [–1855], producing engravings, but he later turned to painting and from 1817 to 1825 studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, first under Alexis-François Girard [1787–1870] and then Guillaume Lethière. In 1823 and 1824 he tried unsuccessfully to win the Prix de Rome, an early failure that greatly disheartened him. For much of his career, until 1849, he continued to work in the graphic arts, as well as painting, producing lithographs and drawings on various subjects: historical scenes from the First Empire, portraits, and mythological and genre scenes. He also produced illustrations for the Romantic novels of Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas père and François-René Chateaubriand. Though he achieved moderate success at the Salon, it was the graphic work that provided his small income during this period. His impoverished lifestyle is reflected in the gloomy painting Corner of the Artist’s Studio (1845), which depicts a shabbily dressed young artist peeling potatoes to make a modest meal.
— Born into a family of Flemish origin that had already included several generations of artists, (Nicolas-François) Octave Tassaert was first taught by his father, Jean-Joseph-François Tassaert [1765-1835], and then by his older brother, Paul [–1855], who were both printmakers and print dealers. In 1816 Octave apprenticed with the engraver Alexis-François Girard [1787-1870], then studied at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1817 through 1825, under Guillaume Guillon-Lethière [1760-1832]. Yet, to his great disappointment Tassaert never succeeded in winning the Prix de Rome, nor the Legion of Honor later in his career. In the late 1820s and early 1830s, the artist painted history paintings and a few portraits, but in order to make ends meet, he worked for various publishers as an engraver and lithographer. His first success came when the duc d'Orléans purchased his canvas The Death of Correggio (1834).
     Tassaert's historical, religious, allegorical, and especially genre scenes of an often melodramatic character earned him such titles as "the poor man's Prud'hon," or "the attic Correggio." Although his works did not always meet with critical approval, during the 1850s he achieved some popular success with paintings depicting the lives of the poor: unhappy families, dying mothers, sick or abandoned children, and the like. While addressing social injustice, Tassaert attempted to strike the emotional chord of the viewer. Although his submission to the 1855 World Exhibition was well received by the critics, Tassaert became more and more withdrawn from the art world that he despised, and he no longer exhibited after the Salon of 1857. Although there were some collectors of his art, such as Alfred Bruyas and Alexandre Dumas fils, the artist sold all his remaining work to the dealer Père Martin in 1863 and ceased painting. Tassaert became an alcoholic and his health and eyesight deteriorated greatly. In 1865 he went for treatment to Montpellier where he stayed with Bruyas, but his recovery was short-lived after his return to Paris. Although he is said to have begun writing poetry, almost none of his literary output seems to have survived. Lacking any prospects for his situation to improve, Tassaert committed suicide, after which his reputation soon waned.
An Unhappy Family aka Suicide (1849, 115x76cm)
Studio Interior (1845, 46x38cm)
L'Abandonnée (1852, 46x38cm; 600x486pix, 102kb) _ A pregnant woman faints while her lover and his young betrothed walk down the aisle. In this moral tale, Octave Tassaert drew the attention of his contemporary audience to what was understood as a wide social problem, the plight of unmarried mothers. This was a subject that seemed to concern Tassaert greatly, considering he painted it a number of times. It was also a subject that found an eager market among Parisians at the time. Indeed, Tassaert found significant success following the Revolution of 1848 with his genre scenes covering the themes of moral and economic poverty, drawn from contemporary life. These paintings collectively describe French society as one fractured by social inequality, and one where the revolutionary tenets of liberty, equality, and fraternity were in need of continual reaffirmation.
–- S#> La Jeune Mère (1856, 41x32cm; 510x404pix, 30kb)
Heaven and Hell (1850, 100x70cm; 380x265pix, 17kb) _ This painting focuses upon the struggle between good and evil for the soul of a young woman. Looking out at the viewer, she is shown in the upper center of the composition, immediately below an angel and directly above Satan. At the upper right Saint Michael-holding scales for weighing the goodness of souls-admits the Blessed to Heaven. Below, the Damned struggle to avoid the firey pits of Hell and the demons that will torment them for eternity. At the time Tassaert painted this work, France was undergoing considerable political upheaval. In 1848, the country was wracked by a civil war between royalist and republican forces. Tassaert himself believed strongly in the Republic, and probably intended the young woman-caught between the sensual, worldy temptations of royalist excesses and the noble, pure ideals of the Republic-to personify the country of France.

^ >1749 John “Warwick” Smith, English painter who died on 22 March 1831. The son of a gardener to the Gilpin family, he studied under the animal painter Sawrey Gilpin. During a trip to Derbyshire with Gilpin he met George Greville, 2nd Earl of Warwick, who gave him financial support to go to Italy between 1776 and 1781. Smith spent 1778–1779 in Naples and was otherwise based in Rome, where he explored the Campagna and made sketches with William Pars and Francis Towne. The strong greens and purples and crisp pen outlines of some of Smith’s watercolors are strongly influenced by Towne’s style. Smith and Towne traveled together across the Alps on their way back to England in 1781, after which Smith settled in Warwick. He contributed six views to Samuel Middiman’s Select Views in Great Britain (1784–1785) and between 1784 and 1806 toured Wales 13 times in search of Picturesque and Sublime scenery. He also visited the Lake District between 1789 and 1792, which resulted in the publication of Twenty Views of the Lake District (1791–1795); he appears to have been in Devon and Worcestershire as well. Aquatints after Smith were used to illustrate William Sotheby’s Tour through Parts of Wales (1794), and engravings after his own work were used for Smith’s series of Select Views in Italy (1792–1799). By 1797 Smith had settled in London.
     In 1799 J. M. W. Turner criticized Smith's ‘mechanically systematic' watercolors, but Smith's use of strong local colors applied without gray underpainting and his abandonment of pen-and-ink outlines gives a forceful and painterly quality to his watercolors (e.g. the Villa of Maecenas, Tivoli). His Welsh views often include figures involved in agricultural or commercial activities (e.g. quarrying), and he very effectively brought out the potential drama to be found in landscapes of cliffs and waterfalls, using them to dwarf his figures in a manner that places him among the early Romantic watercolor artists. In 1805 he became an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-colors and a Member the following year. He exhibited with the Society between 1807 and 1823, mainly showing views of Swiss and Italian scenery, and was its Secretary in 1813 and President in 1814, 1817 and 1818. — LINKS
–- Monte Cassino (14x22cm, 637x979pix, 40kb)
A Distant View Of Clovelly Court, Devon (14x22cm)
A View From A Cave Near Tenby, South Wales (15x22cm)
–- S#> A Lake with Mountains Beyond (31x43cm; 510x708pix, 45kb) _ Smith was sent to Italy by the Earl of Warwick in 1776 and he stayed there until 1781, passing through Switzerland in both directions. It is likely that the present watercolor is a Swiss view and it relates closely to the watercolors Smith painted there. It can be closely compared, for example, to Scheidegg near Grindelwald and Uber, Switzerland. Both watercolours are on similar sized sheets of paper and are stylistically very similar, demonstrating Smith's loose brushwork and his preference for muted tones of blue and green.
–- Fonthill Abbey from the south (30x45 cm; 772x1195pix, 79kb)
–-Fonthill Abbey from the south-west (30x45 cm; 768x1195pix, 78kb) _ John Warwick Smith was one of the inner circle of artists and advisors who worked for William Beckford, who had for him a nick-name `Father Bestorum', possibly a reference to Smith being older than most of Beckford's circle. Smith visited Fonthill for several years and in a letter of 1811 to Franchi, Beckford wrote, `Father Bestorum is making pretty views of the Abbey and its surroundings, they will make a nice little volume like last years but much superior. I am not dissatisfied with him'. Smith exhibited views of the Abbey at the Society of Painters in Water-Colour in 1807, 1813, and 1815.
37 images at the Tate

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