ART 4 2-DAY 26 July v.9.60
Died on 26 July 1702: Vincent Laurenszoon
van der Vinne I, Haarlem Flemish Mennonite painter and draftsman,
best known for his travel diaries and sketches, born on 11 October 1629.
— He had three artist sons: Jan Vincentszoon van der Vinne [03 Feb 1663 – 01 Mar 1721], Izaak Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1665–1740], and Laurens Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1658–1729] who may be the author of some of the drawings attributed to his father. Three of Laurens’s children worked as painters and engravers: Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1686–1742], Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1688–1737] and Jan Laurenszoon van der Vinne [1699–1753]. In the next generation Jacob’s son Laurens Jacobszoon van der Vinne [1712–1742] became a flower painter, and two of Jan’s children, Jan Janszoon van der Vinne [1734–1805] and Vincent Janszoon van der Vinne [31 Jan 1736 – 15 Jan 1811], seem to have been the last artists active in the family.
— Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne was trained at a weaving mill. Then, when he was 18, he spent nine months as the student of Frans Hals (who later painted his portrait in 1660), and in 1649 he joined the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke. From 1652 to 1655 van der Vinne traveled through Germany, Switzerland, and France, accompanied some of the time by Guillam Dubois [1610–1680], Dirck Helmbreker, and Cornelis Bega. During the trip van der Vinne kept an illustrated diary and on his return worked this up in a second volume, copying his drawings and adding topographical prints by Matthäus Merian the elder and Jean Boisseau. He also filled a sketchbook with Rhineland landscapes. The year after he returned from this trip he married Anneke Jansdr de Gaver [–1668], and six months after her death he married Catalijntje Boekaert. Besides the drawings from his 1652–1655 travels, he produced a number of townscapes in pen and ink with gray wash, some on a journey through the Netherlands in 1680. He also made drawings in black and red chalk depicting the city gates of Haarlem and ruins found in the surrounding countryside. He received commissions for ceiling paintings, signboards, landscapes, portraits and other works, but his known painted work is confined to a few vanitas still-lifes, such as Vanitas Still-life with a Royal Cromn and a Print of Charles I of England, beheaded in 1649 (>1649, 95x69cm), leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi: «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.
Memento Mori (1656; 450x423pix, 36kb) _ Exquisite vanitas still lifes like this were widely popular in seventeenth-century Europe. They were meant to exhort the viewer to prepare for death. Vanitas still lifes are based on a biblical passage from Ecclesiastes, "Vanity of vanities, ... all is vanity," that urges the reader to remember that saving one's soul is more important than wordly gains. All objects in this painting have symbolic meaning intended to remind the viewer that wealth, power and knowledge acquired in this world are unimportant in the face of inevitable death. The watch and hourglass give notice of the passage of time. The plumed helmet, sword and gun refer to soldierly activities; the globe, maps and the money bags to worldly knowledge and material possessions. Books indicate scholarly pursuits, but warn as well against conceited pride that comes with learning. The overturned goblet cautions against overindulgence, but also symbolizes the Sense of Taste. The musical instruments refer to the Sense of Hearing, to Music — one of the Seven Liberal Arts — and, in case of the lute and flute, to carnal love. Since they wither and die, the cut flowers in a vase allude to the transience of life, as does the skull, a particularly stark reminder of death. But the ivy crowning the skull offers hope because it is a symbol for immortality. Apart from its allegorical meaning, the painting is a pleasure for the eye in its masterful representation of different materials, its color, and the organization of these diverse elements.
Memento Mori with Self-Portrait (30kb) _ Still-life with a globe, an hourglass, papers, a book of maps, a sketch of the painter, a shawm (an early double-reed woodwind instrument) and, inclined towards the top right hand corner, is the center joint of a wind instrument which may be a transverse- or duct- flute (flageolet or recorder). A ticket reads "Memento Mori".
— Vanitas with a Royal Crown and the portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (95x69cm; 797x573pix, 55kb) _ Vincent van de Vinne is best known for his still-lifes. Beside Pieter van Roestraten, a genre and still-life painter (and the son-in-law of Frans Hals) Vinne is the only documented student of Hals, though not a trace of their contact with him is evident in their works.
On a cloth-covered table lie all manner of objects including a globe, a shepherd's crook, a skull, papers, music, an illustration, a gourd, a feathered helmet, an hourglass, a violin, and a royal crown through which are threaded a shawm (only the bell of which is visible), and some books. Leaning against the violin is the center joint of a wind instrument which may be a transverse- or duct- flute (flageolet or recorder).
Leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi : «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.
— a different Vanitas with a Royal Crown and a portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (24x36cm; 420x630pix, 9kb) _ Still-life with a crown, a skull, castanets, carnations in a glass vase, an hourglass, a scroll and an engraved portrait of King Charles I. The head of an alto recorder with a brass-sheathed beak and a long window/labium emerges from beneath the upside-down crown. The latter is surmounted by the skull.
— Vanitas with a Crystal Ball and a portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (9kb) _ Still-life with the artist at his easel reflected in a crystal ball, and with a book, a lute, a flag, a chipped roemer, a document and seal, and an engraved portrait of King Charles I. The head of an alto recorder with a brass-sheathed beak and its characteristic window/labium emerges from beneath a book.
>Born on 26 July (June?) 1870: Ignacio
Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Basque artist who died on 31 October
Zuloaga would become by 1921 the head of a definite school of Basque and Castilian painters, whose work would be marked by a realistic and decorative treatment of contemporary Spanish life, consciously based on Velazquez, El Greco and Goya. His art would show increasing emphasis on silhouette, simplification of form and use of broad masses of somber color relieved by splashes of more vivid tints.
— Born at Eibar in the Basque Pyrenées, son of a well-known goldsmith and metal worker, and of a long line of craftsmen. At fifteen visited the Prado and copied El Greco. Spent six months in Rome in 1889, then lived mainly in Paris for several years on friendly terms with Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin, Rodin, Mallarm-23 and the Spanish painter Rusifiol. Travel in 1892 in Andalusia aroused his passion for Spanish gypsies, bullfighters and peasants, who became the subjects for many of his later pictures; influenced by the tradition of Velazquez and Goya. Achieved success as a painter more rapidly abroad than in Spain. Lived between Spain (Seville, Segovia, Madrid) and Paris, later in the Basque fishing port of Zumaya. Awarded the Grand Prix at the 1912 Rome International Exhibition and the main painting prize at the 1938 Venice Biennale; his later work included a number of society portraits. Died in Madrid.
— He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly colored images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1913). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.
— José de Creeft was a student of Zuloaga.
Ignacio Zuloaga, herriak emandako pertsonaia ezagunena. Pintore moduan, zeharo espainola: toreroak eta señoritak marrazten nabarmendu zen. Bere pintura tonu ilunegatik eta bere lanean eratutako errealismo handiagatik bereizten da.
Ignacio Zuloaga Zabaleta, pintor vasco quien nació en Eibar, Guipúzcoa, el 26 de junio 1870 y falleció en Madrid. En 1896 se traslada a Madrid y copió cuadros en el Museo del Prado. En 1889 viajó a Roma y un año más tarde a París, donde acudió a la Academia "La Palette", donde recibió clases de Puvis de Chavannes [14 Dec 1824 - 24 Oct 1898], Gervaux, y Carrière. Conoció a Degas [19 Jul 1834 - 26 Sep 1917], Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 - 08 May 1903] y Toulouse-Lautrec [24 Nov 1864 - 09 Sep 1901], y se sintió muy atraído por el impresionismo.
A partir de ese momento, alternó su residencia entre París y España con viajes a otros países. En 1895 se instaló en Sevilla, donde desarrolló un gran interés por los temas taurinos y andaluces. En 1898 se trasladó a Segovia y allí da paso a un estilo de gran fuerza expresiva, en el que predomina el tema de paisaje y los hombres de Castilla, con los que se sentirá muy identificado..
Consolidado su prestigio internacional, le encargaron decorados para las Operas de Berlín y Bruselas. En 1914 se instaló en Zumaya, pero siguió viajando a menudo. En la última etapa de su vida trabajó en su estudio de Madrid y recibió numerosos encargos de retratos, aunque sin abandonar el bodegón y el paisaje como su obra más personal.
Rechazó el impresionismo y buscó una pintura con fuerza, que se caracteriza por un dibujo enérgico, una constructividad volumétrica en la línea de Cézanne, una pastosidad que deriva de Van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 - 29 Jul 1890] y unas curvas decorativas que proceden del modernismo y de Gauguin. Como Degas, hace las composiciones con el motivo principal descentrado. Su visión de España le relaciona con la generación del 98: paisajes yermos y ciudades decadentes, que evocan un pasado glorioso.
— A young woman (60x46cm)
— An Elegant Lady Fanning Herself (95x69cm)
— Lola Con Vestido De Flores Blancas (78x100cm)
Torerillos de pueblo (1906; 792x600pix, 41kb)
Crucifixión (621x739pix, 51kb)
El Violinista Larrapidi (821x527pix, 28kb)
Desnudo (1915; 517x739pix, 22kb)
[Mucho Puerco?] (638x466pix, 26kb)
— El Señor Beistegui (1093x929pix, 44kb)
— Cuatro bebedores o Amarretako (1905)
–- Antonio de González Vigil (drawing 70x78cm; 1187x1350pix, 175kb)
–- La Calle de las Pasiones (1904, 202x296cm; 604x878pix, 47kb) _ La Calle de las Pasiones is the culmination of a series of large scale works that is the perfect expression of Zuloaga's quest to capture the rich variety of Spain’s history and the colorful culture of its people. Exhibited to great acclaim in Düsseldorf the year that it was painted, the work presents a rich panoply of the myriad regional types and local characters that capture the essence of Spanish street life: gypsies, workers, dancers, toreadors, clerics, and midgets; young and old, rich and poor, good and bad alike. The composition is pure theater. Gossiping and whispering, strutting and creeping, the characters that Zuloaga has chosen to portray are spot-lit to dramatic effect on a confined stage. The two contrasting leading ladies fix their audience intently with their gaze, the rest snake across the picture surface in a carefully orchestrated rhythmic shuffle. Zuloaga’s choice of motifs and his celebration of this theme of everyday Spanish life epitomizes the ideals of the Generación del 98, a group of writers and artists who sought to encourage the patriotic regeneration of their country’s culture in the wake of Spain’s loss of her colonial empire at the end of the Spanish American War in 1898. Zuloaga was Basque by birth, and he painted this while in Seville, yet, in the spirit of the time, he chose to represent the people of Segovia, the center of Spain’s Castilian heartland. Likewise, although essentially simply acting as a scenic backdrop, the buildings behind the figures were actual houses of artisans and laborers in the Casa del Botero, a street in the town of Lerma near Segovia (a subject to which Zuloaga returned again over twenty years later). One practical reason for basing the work in Castile was because it had been in Segovia that he had been able to take space in the studio of his uncle Don Daniel there. As important to Zuloaga, however, was his perception of himself as the heir to many of the great Castilian painters of the past, including El Greco. Perceived as the reviver of a great Spanish painterly tradition that had been broken with the death of Goya, in the present work Zuloaga combines the drama of El Greco, the theater of Velázquez and the sharp social commentary of Goya with his own unique take on contemporary Spanish life.
Died on 26 July 1919: Sir Edward John
James Poynter, English Classicist
painter born on 20 March 1836, brother-in-law of Edward
Burne-Jones and Georgina
Macdonald. [Did he give them a few pointers by giving them a few Poynters?]
For much of his artistic life, Sir Edward Poynter, the neo-classical painter, lived under the shadow of M#>Lord Leighton, and as a result his work was unjustly neglected. Furthermore, his talents never quite matched those of Leighton and M#>Alma-Tadema, even though at times he could be a superb artist, as with his The Cave of the Storm Nymphs, which is one of his finest academic paintings. It was bought in 1891 for £203'500, one of the most expensive Victorian pictures ever sold at that time [the same-title painting listed below as of 1903 must be a different one, or else one of the dates is wrong].
Unlike Leighton, whose flamboyant lifestyle matched his outgoing personality, Poynter was a reserved, cantankerous man who was unable to change with the times, with the result that his work was dismissed as prententious and uninteresting. When Leighton died, Poynter took over the role of President of the Royal Academy, where he remained for over twenty-two years, until many people began to wonder if he would ever retire. He resigned finally when he was over 80, but only because he was almost blind.
Edward Poynter was born in Paris, the son of an architect, and after being educated at Westminster and Ipswich Grammar School, he went to Rome, where he met Leighton. Having decided to take up art as a career, as a direct result of meeting Leighton, he studied in Paris under Charles Gleyre [1808-1874], who had been a penniless artist before he opened an atelier, when he rapidly became a famous teacher.
In 1859 Poynter returned to London, and for the next few years struggled to make a living from his painting with indifferent results. He desperately needed the RA to take one of his pictures in order to establish his name. Eventually Faithful Until Death was accepted by the RA in 1865. This picture, which shows a Roman soldier doggedly remaining at his post during the destruction of Pompeii, was a great success, and still remains Poynter's most famous work. This was followed by The Catapult and Atlanta's Race. [nothing to do with African-Americans in Georgia]. Among his famous paintings are The Fortune Teller (1877) and The Meeting between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
Although by 1894 his powers were beginning to decline, he was still made the Director of the National Gallery and an RA in 1896. By 1900, however, his paintings began to be repetitious and uninteresting. When the end finally came there were some deeply felt sighs of relief from a large number of people who felt that he had already long overstayed his welcome.
Early in his career Poynter studied in Rome, where he met Frederic Leighton, his greatest single artistic influence. He then moved to Paris in 1855. On returning to London, he became involved on book illustration. In 1865 he produced his first really successful picture, Faithful Unto Death, a Roman sentry staying at his post in Pompeii as Vesuvius overwhelmed the city. This dramatic painting was probably never bettered by Poynter throughout his whole long career. Poynter became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1869, at an unusually early age. Much of the rest of his life was devoted to the Academy, he was hardworking, conscientious, and a competent administrator.
Poynter married Agnes MacDonald, the sister of Burne-Jones wife Georgiana. Burne-Jones disliked Poynter, who was an unsympathetic, brusque character. When Leighton died in 1896, he was succeeded as President of the Royal Academy by Millais, who was suffering from cancer of the throat. On the death of Millais a few months later, Poynter succeeded him, narrowly defeating Briton Riviere in the vote. He was PRA for the next two decades.
From the turn of the century Poynter's paintings declined both in numbers and quality, his main priority being the running of the Academy. He lived to see the death of classicism, & the total eclipse of his own artistic standards, & those of his contemporaries. He adopted the approach of ignoring new developments of which he did not approve. Unhappily Poynter outstayed his welcome. One of the last duties of the eighty one year old PRA, was to attend the funeral of J. W. Waterhouse. There was, though, something splendid about the way he remained consistent to the last, resisting what he saw as the corruption, and denigration of all that was beautiful in art. He may even have been right.
— Obituary in The Times
— Portrait of Poynter by Cope
Israel in Egypt (1867 _ ZOOMable)
The Cave of the Storm Nymphs (1903, 145x109cm _ ZOOMable)
Andromeda (_ ZOOMable)
— The Catapult (1868, 155x184cm)
— Cressida (1888, 123x133cm)
— Lesbia and her Sparrow
— A Roman boat race (1889; 700x494pix, 103kb)
— Psyche in the temple of love (1882)
— At low tide (1913)
— A visit to Aesculapius (1883, 151x229cm)
— Reading (1871)
— On the Terrace
— The fortune Teller (1877, 62x75cm)
— The vision of Endymion
— On the Temple Steps (1889; 700x468pix, 82kb)
— A Corner of the Villa _ This painting provides us with a sense of space as we observe a private moment shared in an atrium among two women and a child. The artist's willingness to attempt a scene so full of different marbles, mosaics and stone reliefs is commendable and speaks well of his technical prowess. Not only was Poynter an accomplished painter, but as president of the Royal Academy for 23 year (1896-1919), he was responsible for the education of hundreds of other artists.