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ART “4” “2”-DAY  23 July v.8.60
^ Born on 23 July 1477 (1469?): Francesco Granacci, Florentine painter and draftsman who died on 30 November 1543.
— Granacci was of the generation immediately preceding Michelangelo whose friend and admirer he was from early youth. Like Michelangelo, Granacci was a student of Domenico Ghirlandaio, whose assistant later he became. Granacci was one of the assistants engaged by Michelangelo in 1508 for the beginning of the Sistine ceiling but, like the others, was dismissed after about one month. On his return to Florence Granacci fell under the influence of Fra Bartolomeo, and his later works have elongated figures in an attempt at monumentality. The Dublin Holy Family, which is usually attributed to him, has also been attributed to Michelangelo and shows the approximation of their styles. Basically, however, Granacci was a quattrocento artist and is thus very similar to such transitional painters as Ridolfo Ghirlandaio and Franciabigio.
— A contemporary of Michelangelo and Fra Bartolommeo, Granacci was trained in Florence, with Michelangelo, in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and the two then studied sculpture in the Medici garden at S. Marco under the supervision of Bertoldo di Giovanni. After Ghirlandaio’s death in 1492, Granacci completed the altarpiece of Saint Vincent Ferrer, probably painting the figure of Saint Roch. His first documented works date from 1515, but the paintings identified with his earlier period are done in a competent, inexpressive version of Ghirlandaio’s style. These include The Holy Family, which is awkwardly composed for the tondo format, and a conventional Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saint John the Baptist and the Archangel Michael. Ambitions for a more monumental style are apparent in The Rest on the Flight to Egypt (1494), which is notable for its charming exotic setting and luminous color. The sculptural emphasis and compact figure grouping in this painting may reflect Michelangelo’s influence. Four lively narrative scenes from the Life of Saint John the Baptist, not entirely autograph, also probably date from this period. In 1508 Granacci went to Rome to assist Michelangelo in painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican but was dismissed after only a brief stay.

–- Madonna and Child (85x64cm; 649x484pix, 34kb _ .ZOOM to 1298x968pix, 117kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2592x1937pix, 806kb)
Joseph Presents his Father and Brothers to the Pharaoh (1515; 100kb)
Entry of Charles VIII into Florence (1518; 132kb) — Granacci seems precociously to have assimilated ideas from the activity of Michelangelo - who was his friend — although he later fell back more modestly on the monumental breadth of figures in the style of Fra Bartolommeo. His finest achievements can be seen in works like this, with a narrative content, full of highly individual stylized touches inspired by Pontormo.
A Man in Armor (1510; 420x320pix, 28kb) _ The man in armor has not been identified; but the tiny white figure in the background is Michelangelo's David. This painting is a celebration of Florence, manhood, and Michelangelo. The man in armor, gripping his sword to defend his city, is an embodiment of courage and readiness. His armor is beautiful in its decorative, engraved lines. His face is sensitive and cultured, the beard finely trimmed, the eyes grave. He is a soldier for the city of the arts, whose symbolic heart, the Piazza della Signoria, is seen behind him. Here, men of importance debate politics and culture on the big coral-colored grid of a square. The new Florentine republic, established after the downfall of the religious zealot Savonarola at the end of the 15th century, was a people's government, with a Grand Council of more than 3000 men. It took the biblical giant-killer David as its hero and commissioned its most exciting young artist, Michelangelo, to make a colossal statue of him. This was a major public event, and the committee responsible for deciding where to place the statue on its completion in 1504 included Leonardo and Botticelli. During the two days it took to move David — on wooden rollers — to the Piazza della Signoria, stones were thrown at it, probably by supporters of the Medici, who hated the Republic.
      This painting is a portrait of a man embodying Florence and taking upon himself the martial qualities of David, whose statue stands guarding the Palazzo Vecchio. Standing in front of the Piazza — with David at his right arm — this man has taken on the qualities of the biblical hero: he is youthful, strong and wise. His cold, unyielding armor perhaps also evokes Michelangelo's marble — steel and stone protecting the Republic.
      War was relished in Renaissance Florence, and this portrait's taste for cold steel has antecedents that stretch from the ecstatic, hallucinatory painting of Uccello [1397-1475]The Battle of San Romano (1460) — which was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici — with its robotic knights lightly hacking each other to pieces, to the drawings of grotesque armor and designs for lethal war machines of Leonardo.
— NOT by Granacci: /S#*>The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian (21x31cm; 510x429pix, 74kb) _ This painting is now attributed to the “Pseudo-Granacci”, probably also a follower of Ghirlandajo, formerly known as the Master of the Spiridon Story of Saint Joseph, whose eponymous work, a panel depicting scenes from the life of Saint Joseph, was formerly in the Spiridon collection in Paris. This hand has often been confused with the early works of Francesco Granacci. Probably from the same artist there is also a Noli Me Tangere, of slightly larger dimensions.
^ Died on 23 July 1840: Karl Blechen, German Romantic painter born on 29 July 1799 (1798?).
— Despite early artistic inclinations, he was trained as a bank clerk and then worked as one from 1814 to 1822 before studying at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin. Here Heinrich Anton Dähling [1773–1850] sharpened his interest in Romantic and poetic subjects, while Peter Ludwig Lütke [1759–1831] encouraged his eye for the potential expressiveness of observed language. Blechen was also strongly influenced by the paintings of Caspar David Friedrich, which he was able to study in Berlin at this time. In 1823 he went to Dresden, where he visited Johann Christian Clausen Dahl and probably also met Friedrich, who shared the same house. Here Dahl impressed Blechen with his impulsive style of oil sketching. Studies of Meissen, especially of the cathedral, and of the dramatic landscape of the surrounding parts of Saxony reveal the early development of Blechen’s tendency to perceive landscape and architecture, especially ruins, as allegories of his own usually rather depressed moods. This passionately subjective use of imagery distinguishes Blechen from Friedrich, whose work shows a far more level-headed deployment of landscape symbols as religious allegory.

–- Walzwerk bei Eberswalde (1835; 882x1182pix, 104kb — .ZOOM to 1210x1576pix, 183kb)
–- Palmenhaus auf der Pfaueninsel bei Potsdam (1834; 861X750pix, 73kb — .ZOOM to 1148X1000pix, 116kb)
–- In the Villa Borghese Park(1835; 861x750pix, 73kb — .ZOOM to 1555x1256pix, 154kb)
–- Die Waldschlucht (1825; 901x630pix, 65kb — .ZOOM to 2252x1576pix, 370kb)
The Ruins of the Septizonium on the Palatine in Rome, (1829)
Woodland with Brook (1835)
The Building of the Devil's Bridge (1833)
Monastery in the Wood (1835)
Sunset at Sea
The Woods near Spandau (1834; 73x102cm)
Alpine Pass in Winter with Monks (1833, 230x320cm)
Building the Devil's Bridge (1833, 30x46cm)
Gorge at Amalfi (1831, 110x 77cm)
Grotto in the Gulf of Naples (1829, 38x29cm)
The Bay of Rapallo (1830, 25x34cm)
–- S#> Felsental des Anio bei Tivoli (1829, 37x32cm; 510x429pix, 74kb)
379 images at Bildindex
^ Born on 23 July 1614: Bonaventura Peeters I, Flemish marine painter and satirical poet, who died on 25 July 1652. — [If ever the reputation of Peeters peters out, it'll be a sign that pitiful pea-brained peasants have taken power.]
the painter that was not
[Please, without panting or petering, repeat as promptly as possible to people present prepared to pay heed:
Poet painter Peeters did not paint on paper a poster of a pretty peck of pickled peppers. A poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers painter poet Peeters painted not. If you pretend that Peter Piper picked the peck of pickled pretty peppers painter Peeters painted on paper, where is the pretty poster of a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked and painter Peeters painted on paper?]
— [Oh!... excuse me... are you saying that it is not painter Peeters but painter Pater who painted on paper a poster of the peck of pretty pickled peppers that Peter Piper picked? Well, I remain positive that neither painter Pater nor painter Peeters painted a poster of a pretty peck of pickled peppers on paper. A poster of a peck of pickled pretty peppers painter Pater and painter Peeters painted not. If you say that Peter Piper picked the pretty peck of pickled peppers painter Pater painted on paper, where is the poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers Peter Piper picked, painter Pater painted on paper, and painter Peeters painted not?]
— {Note: the poster of a peck of pickled peppers that was never painted was not pretty... it was beautiful!}

a pick that Peeters didn't paint

— Bonaventura Peeters was almost the only noteworthy Flemish painter of seascapes [seascapes, NOT peppers!], much more a Dutch speciality. He was the leading member of a family of marine and landscape painters. Nothing is known about his training; Andries van Eertvelt, whose paintings of stormy seas appear to have influenced Bonaventura’s treatment of the subject, may have been his teacher. In his early works Peeters was also influenced by other Dutch masters such as Simon de Vlieger, but later he tended to introduce elaborate motifs and bright color in a decorative vein less impressive than his earlier style.      Peeters became a master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1634. He shared a studio in Antwerp with his brother Gillis Peeters I [born 12, bap. 23 Jan 1612 – 12 Mar 1653 bur.], a landscape painter. In 1639 Bonaventura and Gillis Peeters painted The Siege of Callão for the Antwerp municipal authorities. Bonaventura Peeters spent the last years of his life in Hoboken, together with his sister Catharina Peeters [16 Aug 1615 – >1676], a seascape and still-life painter, who collaborated with him, and his brother and student Jan Peeters I [bap. 24 April 1624 – 1679]. Clara Peeters [1594-1657], an outstanding Antwerp still-life painter, was no relation.

An Oriental Harbor (1650, 66x95cm; 750x1093pix, 143kb) _ In a cove overlooking a turbulent sea and under fast-moving clouds, a fortified harbor stretches out on a hill in the right foreground. Crowned by a central building with a western-style entrance, this is nonetheless a Turkish area, as can be seen from the crescent moon on the flag above the fortress and the turbans of the harbour dwellers. Outside the port western ships lie at anchor, one of them flying the English St George's cross from its mizzen mast. The most striking vessel, in the left foreground, a heavily-armed three-master with the Dutch tricolor in front and the arms of Amsterdam on the escutcheon, is still under sail and approaching the harbor. A sloop has been set out from this vessel. In the right foreground a heavy trunk is being heaved ashore with considerable difficulty from a moored sloop carrying two distinguished men, one wearing a turban, another a fur hat.
      The painting is signed with monogram and dated in the center right. However, the two final figures of the date are difficult to read. Reading the third number as a 5, which is the most probable solution, this situates the composition in the painter's later career, when he concentrated on harbor views having a reference to the Levant, or eastern Mediterranean, which the Venetians first reinforced with trading posts until these were later conquered by the Turks.
      The introduction of an exotic touch in Peeters' oeuvre is contemporaneous with a growing international demand for Italianising landscapes. Bonaventura Peeters the Elder, who became a free master of Antwerp in 1634, originally painted shipwrecks and rough seas, along with calmer Scheldt and coastal views and a subtly gradated palette. During the 17th century he was the leading marine painter in the Spanish Netherlands. His artistic importance can be cause for surprise because sea paintings are generally associated with the Dutch art of the Golden Age. However, like so many other genres, marine painting also originated in the Spanish Netherlands. With the migration of innovative artists like Adam Willaerts and Jan Porcellis from and to the United Provinces, the genre developed more or less in parallel in the North and the South. In terms of their quality and the finesse of their painting, the South Netherlandish seascapes deserve more attention and more detailed study than they have received until now.
Tenerife Harbor (484x633pix _ ZOOM to 1130x1478pix, 630kb)
–- S#> The Great Flood (900x1624pix, 230kb) Noah's Ark is atop Mount Ararat. There is an uncolored rainbow.
–- A River With Dutch Smalschips {Not to be confused with PA Dutch Chips, which are a lot smaller} _ Compare:
      _ Calm - Dutch Smalschips and a Rowing Boat (1662, 33x37cm; 890x1004pix, 83kb) by Willem Van de Velde II [18 Dec 1633 – 06 Apr 1707]
–- S#> A Storm at Sea
–- S#> Breezy Estuary With a Dutch Man-Of-War Before a Castle
A Dismasted Ship in a Rough Sea (406x711cm) _ An interpretation of a rough sea, where a dismasted ship is shown in port-broadside view. Although a stormy squall is indicated on the left there is blue sky on the right. The ship has lost its mainmast and although its sails have been lowered it appears to be heading for the rocks on the left. Three Moorish figures are seated on these rocks watching the struggles of the ship. An English ship on far right flies the 1625-1707 pattern red ensign. In the background, a mountainous Mediterranean island looms up, its peaks lost in clouds, while a fort stands on an outcrop on the coastline. There are also ships in the far distance to right, together with a wreck on the coast to the left. While the presence of the three Moors may imply a romantic visualization of the Straits of Gibraltar, another reading of the painting identifies the scene as a representation of the shipwreck of St Paul on Malta. Although the work is painted in a broad atmospheric and realistic style a further interpretation identifies symbolic allusions. The ship may be understood either as the ship of the Church, or the human soul, steered through the stormy seas of human life. Safety is assured so long as the mast, in the form of the Cross, remains unbroken. The rock of Christ, whose figure may be represented in a lighted doorway on the right, offers sanctuary to the souls of men. Thus, a ship is wrecked through the lack of human faith. Peeters specialized in such work and the increasing affluence of the Dutch merchant classes led to a demand for small-scale cabinet pictures like this to hang in domestic interiors.
Dutch Fishing Boats in a Fresh Breeze (20x25cm) _ Dutch boats are in a fresh breeze. Two boats are laden with passengers and are ferrying people to and from the town visible on the far right in the distance. The boat to the left of center sails away from the viewer and holds people sitting around its sides. One man wearing a hat faces the viewer, the others are turned inwards to face each other and one man is attending to the rigging. It flies the Dutch double-prince flag of the Amsterdam Admiralty. The other craft to the right is smaller, of a flatter construction and lower in the water, where the waves in the foreground depict a choppy sea. The passengers are seated in the bow and a crew member is busy at the stern. Sails of other craft are visible in the distance, together with a church, roofs and a windmill on the skyline. A merchant ship is at anchor on the far left. Two-thirds of the painting is occupied with the sky. A storm cloud sits over the center of the painting and, to the left, shafts of bright light indicate that the sun is concealed behind it. The increasing affluence of the Dutch merchant classes led to a demand for small-scale cabinet pictures to hang in domestic interiors, and Peeters seems to have specialized in this type of work. The artist was born in Antwerp and produced some of the finest Flemish marine paintings. The city harbor was a popular subject in 17th-century Holland and those painters who could represent the city's economic link with the sea found great success. Peeters was commissioned to paint harbor views by several city authorities. The Dutch port cities had reason to be proud, since Holland's extraordinary wealth hinged on the pursuit and defense of global shipping.
Seascape with Sailors Sheltering from a Rainstorm _ A group of sailors is sheltering from a rainstorm. Positioned under a rocky outcrop they are variously occupied. One drinks from a barrel on the far left. Next to him a man huddles wrapped in a shawl, while other figures stand nearby or are seated. One looks out towards the center of the picture, to a sailor still on the boat, who in turn looks over towards the sheltering group. A rainbow appears on the right through the driving rain, and land and the skyline of a town are visible in the distance. Stylistically Peeters portrayed storm scenes as dramatic, theatrical interpretations. However, he also remained generally attached to observable reality, restrained by the Dutch tradition of realism and to the naturalistic mode evolved by Jan Porcellis [<1584-1632]. Peeters began his storm scenes in the 1630s using van Eeertvelt's high-keyed color effects and created bursts of light breaking through thickly layered clouds to activate compositions. The drama of his tempests is enhanced by prominently featured figural elements such as vessels struggling in the waves or threatened amid rocks. He elaborates this mood of evocation by piling rocks into distinctive bizarre thrusting shapes that sometimes form natural arches. This motif has been adopted in this seascape, where the undercut jagged forms standing against the battering of the elements suggest the endurance of the land in its conflict with the sea. His storms combine the basic compositions, ship types, and use of flickering chiaroscuro and strong color contrasts of Dutch art, with a treatment of figures and coastlines deriving from the Italian tradition.
Sunlight on a Stormy Sea (18x24cm) _ A ship is running before the wind in port-broadside view in a rough sea, under fore-course and lateen mizzen, with figures visible on the deck and the main yard sent down to the gunwale. The outline of another ship is visible in the far left distance. The painting is broadly treated in the Dutch realist style and while the gray palette evokes an impression of a storm, shafts of sunlight pierce through the clouds highlighting the central ship and the high waves in the foreground. In the foreground a wooden spar floats in the water on the left, and a pair of dolphins on the right swim horizontally across the picture.
The Hercules and Eenhorn off Hoorn (1634, 81x150cm) The Hercules and the Eenhorn are shown off the port of Hoorn. The city harbor was a popular subject in 17th-century Holland and those painters who could represent the city's economic link with the sea found great success. The Dutch port cities had reason to be proud, since Holland's extraordinary wealth hinged on the pursuit and defense of global shipping. Peeters the Elder was born in Antwerp and he produced some of the finest Flemish marine paintings. He was commissioned to paint harbor views such as this by several proud city authorities, and he was made a Master of the Guild of Antwerp in the same year that he produced this painting, when he was only twenty. The port of Hoorn is visible in the background, with the buildings of the town, such as the church tower and the fortifications on the far left, dominating the skyline. Best known for his dramatic shipwreck and storm pictures, in this painting Peeters works in a naturalistic idiom, evoking a breezy day in the roads off Hoorn. This was one of the most prosperous ports of the Zuider Zee and prominent for its involvement with East Indies trade and the fishing industry. The Dutch warship depicted on the right of the picture is the Hercules, which has just come to anchor and is lowering the sails on its fore and main masts. It flies the Dutch flag at the fore, and the flag of Hoorn. On its stern is a depiction of Hercules and the Lion and the motif of Hoorn. A man standing in the stern blows a trumpet and sailors are visible in the rigging. Immediately ahead of it, the stern of a small merchantman is visible. Beyond lies a second warship, the Eenhorn, with sails furled flying the Dutch double-prince flag of the Amsterdam Admiralty, together with the province of Holland's sailing flag. On the left is a single-masted speeljacht, a type of Dutch pleasure yacht common in the 17th century, flying the States General flag from mid-17th century. The identity of the Eenhorn is uncertain since two ships called Eenhorn are recorded; a warship of 34 guns built in 1623 and one of 30 guns built in 1625.
The Port of Archangel (1644, 39x67cm) _ The partly iced-up harbor of Archangel is visible with a large ship in the central foreground probably flying the Danish flag. The foreground is frozen and sleighs are depicted, pulled by elk or reindeer. The town with the awnings of its market is visible on the right, and on the promontory in the distance. There are snow-capped cliffs to the right. In the foreground, a sleigh conveys a variety of goods. The artist has adopted a high viewpoint to convey the scene. Archangel was a northern Arctic port much used by English and Dutch ships trading with Russia. It was named after the archangel Michael, and was established as the major port for the Russian trade by the English in the 16th century. In the 18th century, despite its remote location on the Arctic coast, it remained Russia's principal port. It stands on the Northern Dvina River, near the White Sea, and is icebound for half the year. It was Russia's only port until the time of Peter the Great. Peeters has conveyed the intense cold characteristic of the port and, since he traveled extensively, he may have experienced this first hand.
Storm on the Sea (1632, 58x84cm) _ one of the rare paintings signed and dated by the artist. Shipwreck is a companion-piece.
Shipwreck (60x85cm)
Coast With Agitated Sea (600x788pix)

Self-Portrait, detail of On Skagen Beach ^ >Born on 23 July 1851: Feder Severin (or Søren) Krøyer, Danish painter, sculptor and draftsman, who died on 21 November 1909.
— He was a leading member of the artists’ colony at Skagen in Jutland (where he died) and a sought-after portrait painter, noted for his treatment of light and color. — Krøyer's students included Vilhelm Hammershøi [15 May – 13 Feb 1916], Carl Holsøe, Laurits Andersen Ring, Johan Rohde, Agnes Rambusch Slott-Møller [10 Jun 1862 – 11 Jun 1937], her husband Georg Harald Slott-Møller [17 Aug 1864 – 20 Oct 1937], Jens Ferdinand Willumsen.

      P.S. Krøyer blev født den 23. juli 1851 i Stavanger i Norge, men da hans moder, Ellen Cecilie Gjesdahl [1824-1893], led af depressioner, blev han sat i pleje på Christianshavn i København hos sin moster, Bertha Cecilie Krøyer [1817-1892], og hendes mand, marinezoologen Henrik Nikolaj Krøyer [1796-1870]. Krøyer begyndte 1861 på Teknisk Institut i København efter at have vist evner for at tegne ved at illustrere en af plejefaderens publikationer. Han fortsatte 1864-1870 studierne på Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi med Frederik Vermehren [1823-1910] som professor, og han malede ved siden af studierne portrætter. Et af dem forestiller Professorinde Bertha Cecilie Krøyer. Krøyer debuterede 1871 på Charlottenborg med et maleri af vennen fra kunstakademiet Frans Schwartz [1850-1917].
     Krøyer modtog 1873 en lille guldmedalje og et stipendium for kartonen David fremstiller sig for Saul efter have dræbt Goliath, da den blev udstillet på Charlottenborg. Han brugte stipendiet til et sommerophold i det afsides beliggende fiskerleje Hornbæk i selskab med malerne Kristian Zahrtmann [1843-1917], Holger Roed [1846-1874], Frants Henningsen [1850-1908], Bernhard Middelboe [1850-1931] og Viggo Johansen [1851-1935]. De seks malere dannede en lille kunstnerkoloni, hvor de malede naturen eller folkelivet i dagtimerne og morede sig hos den lokale kromand om aftenen. De foretrak som noget nyt at male deres billeder udendørs. Krøyer blev grebet af stemningen i Hornbæk og vendte tilbage i de tre følgende somre, hvor han bl.a. malede Morgen ved Hornbæk. Fiskerne kommer i land.

     P.S. Krøyer tog i forsommeren 1875 på sin første udlandsrejse til Tyskland i selskab med vennen fra kunstakademiet Frans Schwartz [1850-1917]. De besøgte Berlin, Dresden, München og Tyrol. I München mødtes de med den norske maler Eilif Peterssen [1852-1928], som senere blev Krøyers ven i Italien og på Skagen.
      Kunstakademiet tildelte 1877 Krøyer Det Stoltenbergske Legat, der sammen med Heinrich Hirschsprungs støtte finansierede et fireårigt udlandsophold. Krøyer bosatte sig i juni på Montmatre i Paris blandt andre skandinaviske kunstnere. Han studerede samtidens moderne kunst på bl.a. de nye Salonudstillinger og modtog undervisning hos maleren Léon Bonnat [1833-1922]. Undervisningen krævede, at Krøyer arbejdede hårdt, og den introducerede ham for traditionel fransk kunst, som havde lighedspunkter med spansk barokkunst. Bonnat vægtede, at malerierne optrådte som enkle og klare helheder med underordnede detaljer, og han fremhævede valørernes betydning, dvs. at lyset i de enkelte farver harmonerer indbyrdes.
      Krøyer afbrød i februar 1878 undervisningen hos Bonnat for at rejse til Madrid i selskab med malerkammeraterne Frans Schwartz og Frants Henningsen [1850-1908] samt kunsthistorikeren Julius Lange [1838-1896], hvis forelæsninger han havde fulgt med stor interesse på kunstakademiet. De studerede spansk barokkunst på Prado og var især imponerede af maleren Diego Velázquez [1599-1660]. Krøyer fortsatte i marts til Granada, hvor han boede næsten et halvt år for at male det store friluftsmaleri Søndagmorgen uden for en Ghitanobolig, inden han i november vendte tilbage til Paris. Han rejste i april 1879 til Cernay-la-Ville, hvor han et par måneder tegnede portrætter og malede Franske skovarbejdere vender hjem gennem en hulvej. Efter ophold i Paris og Pont-Aven tilsluttede han sig i august den franske kunstnerkoloni i Concarneau og malede Et sardineri i Concarneau.
      Krøyer afsluttede i oktober 1879 undervisningen hos Bonnat og rejste over bl.a. Firenze og Siena til Rom. Han studerede kunst på museerne og dyrkede det livlige fornøjelsesliv i selskab med de øvrige skandinaviske kunstnere. Han tog i maj 1880 på en kort rejse til Paris for at se Salonen, hvor han var repræsenteret med billedet fra Concarneau. Han bosatte sig henover sommeren i landsbyen Sora di Campagna syd for Rom for at male bl.a. Italienske landsbyhattemagere. Han rejste i efteråret videre til Capri og Napoli, hvor han på bestilling af Hirschsprung udførte Nannina. En neapolitansk blomstersælgerske, men vendte tilbage til Rom for at fejre julen og nytåret. Rejseårene er rigt illustreret i en række vignetter, som Krøyer forsynede sine breve til vennerne og familien med.

Mødet med Skagen
P.S. Krøyer var i maj 1882 i Paris for at se Salonen. Han fortsatte til Wien for at se en international kunstudstilling, hvor han var repræsenteret med bl.a. Italienske landsbyhattemagere. Her mødte han ægteparret Anna [1859-1935] og Michael Ancher [1849-1927], der lovpriste Skagen. Krøyer havde tidligere hørt lignende begejstrede beretninger fra digteren Holger Drachmann [1846-1908] samt malerne Laurits Tuxen [1853-1927] og Karl Madsen [1855-1938], der alle havde besøgt Skagen i 1870'erne, og da han længe havde ønsket at se Jylland, rejste han samme sommer dertil. Krøyer blev imponeret af Skagens barske natur og de seje fiskere. Han begyndte straks at male og færdiggjorde hurtigt I købmandens bod, når der ikke fiskes. Der er bevaret samtidige fotografier af såvel Brøndums Hotel som den tilhørende købmandsforretning.

Krøyer beskrev kammeratskabet på Skagen i et brev til moderen den 2. august 1882: Ellers har vi et meget hyggeligt Kammeratliv heroppe. Drachmann, Ancher og en svensk Maler Björck bestaaer Selskabet af. Drachmanns og Anchers holder Husholdning selv, men vi mødes dog hver Dag og er jævnlig sammen om Aftenen. Jeg har derfor ikke faaet læst synderligt, skøndt jeg havde mange Bøger med. Man foretrækker i Regelen Kammeraterne.

Livet på Skagen
I 1880'erne malede P.S. Krøyer bestillingsportrætter i København i vintermånederne. Et af dem forestillede Arkitekten Ferdinand Meldahl, 1882 (Statens Museum for Kunst. Deponeret i Den Hirschsprungske Samling). Han tilbragte forårene i udlandet, hvor han besøgte Salonen og de øvrige store kunstudstillinger i Paris, London, Amsterdam eller Stockholm. Somrene blev brugt på Skagen. Han indrettede et atelier i et havehus, der lå ved Brøndums Hotel, og færdiggjorde her Sommerdag ved Skagens Sønderstrand efter at have malet nogle af skitserne udendørs. Han malede også Fiskerne trækker vod på Skagen Nordstrand (1883), Ved frokosten (1883) og Hip, hip, hurra! (1888).
      Krøyer var med sit vindende væsen et samlende midtpunkt for kunstnerne på Skagen, som bl.a. var malerne Michael Ancher [1849-1927], Viggo Johansen [1851-1935], Christian Krohg [1852-1925], Anna Ancher [1859-1935] og Oscar Björck [1860-1929] samt digteren Holger Drachmann [1846-1908]. Krøyer deltog ivrigt i bl.a. jagter og er fotograferet sammen med Anna og Michael Ancher foran en redningsbåd. De er ledsaget af en jagthund, og Michael Ancher har en bøsse under armen. Krøyer var blevet inspireret af de franske kunstnerkolonier til 1883 at oprette den selskabelige kunstnerforening Aften-academiet, der havde til huse på Brøndums Hotel. Kunstnerne festede, diskuterede og musicerede, og fiskerne deltog som dekorative statister. Særlig mindeværdig var Krøyers 37-års fødselsdagsfest, som han beskrev i et brev til moderen den 31. juli 1888: Modtagelsen [på] min Fødselsdag var storartet. Hele Befolkningen var samlet dernede paa Stranden, der var Æreport og flere af Badegæsterne var klædt ud og der var Kanonskud og Tromme og Champagne paa Stranden. Saa drog vi i stort Tog op til Kroen hvor vi fik større Frokost.

På bryllups- og studierejse
     P.S. Krøyer blev i foråret 1889 forlovet i Paris med Marie Triepcke [1867-1940], der var en smuk, ung malerinde. Hun var veninde med Heinrich Hirschsprungs niece, Ida Hirschsprung, og havde været elev på Krøyers private kunstskole for kvinder i København. Krøyer skrev i et brev til moderen den 29. maj 1889: Ja - tænk hvilken Forandring - ja jeg synes det er aldeles forunderligt at jeg nu snart skal være Ægtemand - jeg, som næsten rent havde opgivet den Tanke - som mente at ende som Pebersvend. Og saa at faa til Hustru den yndigste, elskeligste unge Pige der kan gaa paa Jorden - ja jeg maa være en Lykkens Yndling. Lykken har virkelig fulgt mig i en forunderlig Grad. Jeg haaber den vil blive ved at følge med. Forlovelsen blev markeret med et fotografi optaget i Paris.
      Brylluppet blev afholdt på Krøyers fødselsdag den 23. juli samme år hos svigerfamilien, der ejede et væveri i Augsburg i Tyskland. Umiddelbart efter brylluppet begav de nygifte sig ud på en kombineret studie- og bryllupsrejse, der varede i over to år. De rejste først over Paris til Stenbjerg i Thy, hvor de opholdt sig indtil slutningen af oktober. Krøyer udførte her et interiørmaleri af sin hustru. De drog herefter igen til Augsburg og fortsatte over Tyrol til Italien, hvor de bl.a. besøgte Firenze, Rom og Napoli. De bosatte sig i maj 1890 i Ravello, men rejste den følgende måned videre til Amalfi, hvor Krøyer malede Bugten ved Amalfi. De besøgte maleren Kristian Zahrtmann [1843-1917] i Civita d'Antino, før de i oktober påbegyndte hjemrejsen. Ankomsten til København i februar 1891 blev fejret med en forsinket bryllupsfest. De indlogerede sig efterfølgende et par måneder i maleren Carl Lochers [1851-1915] hus i Hornbæk, hvor Krøyer malede Hornbæk ved vintertid, som blev erhvervet af Hirschsprung samme år.

— 1890'erne på Skagen
     Marie og P.S. Krøyer lejede i somrene 1891-1893 den tidligere postgård, kaldet Madam Bendtsens Hus, på Skagen. Krøyer omtalte den begejstret i et brev til moderen den 22. august 1891: Vi er særdeles tilfreds med den og her er jo alt hvad man kan ønske: Strand, Hede, Skov, Have og Fiskere og et velindrettet Hus. Krøyer havde allerede 1885 købt et fotografiapparat, og han optog en række fotografier af familielivet, hvoraf flere blev anvendt som forlæg for bl.a. Ved frokosten. Kunstneren og hans hustru med forfatteren Otto Benzon. Skagen og Roser. Haveparti fra Skagen med kunstnerens hustru (1893). Krøyer begyndte også at arbejde med en blå farveskala, der fulgte ham resten af livet. Den ses bl.a. i Badende drenge. Solskin og Sommeraften på Skagens Sønderstrand.
      Ægteparret overtog 1894 den idylliske byfogedgård, kaldet Krøyers Hus, i Skagens plantage til helårsbrug. Den blev ombygget af arkitekten Ulrik Plesner [1861-1933], og Marie tegnede møbler, der var inspirerede af Arts and Crafts-bevægelsen. Året efter blev datteren Vibeke [1895-1986] født. Krøyer var beskæftiget med at male portrætter og udførte bl.a. gruppebillederne Fra Københavns Børs (1894), Et møde i Videnskabernes Selskab (1897) og Skagens jægere (1898). Den Hirschsprungske Samling har forarbejder til dem alle. Han malede også kunstnerportrætter af bl.a. Digteren Holger Drachmann.

De sidste år
     Livet på Skagen syntes ved udgangen af 1890'erne idyllisk, men sygdomme lurede. P.S. Krøyers syn blev gradvist dårligere som følge af kviksølvsbehandlinger mod syfilis i ungdomsårene. Han led yderligere af melankoli og hallucinationer og måtte periodisk indlægges på Middelfart Sindssygehospital. Marie Krøyer havde også et svageligt helbred. Krøyer formåede trods omstændighederne indimellem at male og rejse, og han udførte bl.a. Sommeraften ved Skagens strand. Kunstneren og hans hustru og Digteren Holger Drachmann i Skagens plantage, der leder tankerne hen på impressionismen.
      Marie forelskede sig i foråret 1902 i den svenske komponist Hugo Alfvén [1872-1960], som hun mødte under et rekreationsophold i Taormina på Sicilien, mens Krøyer malede portrætter i Paris. Krøyer accepterede Alfvén som en ven af huset på Skagen, men Marie foretrak 1903 at flytte med Alfvén til Sverige. Krøyer forblev på Skagen, hvor han færdiggjorde Skt. Hansblus på Skagens strand (1906), der havde været undervejs siden 1892. Han fandt støtte hos veninden Henny Brodersen [1868-1960], der 1896 var flyttet til byen med sin familie. Krøyers sygdomme tiltog gradvist, og han døde den 21. november 1909 på Skagen. De sidste års kvaler er fastholdt på fotografier, og et tegnet selvportræt viser en ældet kunstner.

Self Portrait (1893; 749x619pix, 62kb) head and shoulders, facing slightly away from the viewer.
Self Portrait (1879) head, facing viewer almost squarely.
Self Portrait seated at the easel at the beach, painting the viewer.
Marie in the Garden (1895) walking away from the viewer.
Marie in the Garden (1893) seated, reading
Marie in the Garden (1893, 43x58cm; 635x717pix, 96kb) seated in the distance, reading; a tree in bloom in the foreground. _ a slightly cropped, degraded, grossly yellow image of the same painting is available, retitled Les Roses (723x1000pix, 248kb)
Hip, Hip Hurrah, Artists' Party (1888; 757x1000pix, 123kb) _ detail
Summer Evening in Skagen (1899; 800x464pix, 37kb)
Summer Evening in Skagen (1892) woman, wearing floor-length dress, standing on the beach at the edge of the water, with a sitting dog next to her.
Skagen Artists' Luncheon (800x587pix, 71kb)
The Bentzon Sisters (1897)
Sommeraften ved Skagens strand. Kunstneren og hans hustru (1899, 135x187cm)
–- S**#>Solnedgang over Himmel og Hav (1908, 32x42cm; 493x655pix, 39kb)

Died on a 23 July:

^ 1927 Josef Wopfner, Austrian artist born on 19 March 1843. 1860 kam Wopfner nach München, wo er zunächst als Stubenmaler und Lithograph arbeitete. 1864 bezog er die Akademie und war von 1864-1872 Schüler von Karl von Piloty. Gleichzeitig bildet er sich privat bei Eduard Schleich d.A., was später bestimmend für seine Chiemseebilder wurde. Er war befreundet mit Wilhelm Leibl, Prinzregent Luitpold und König Ludwig III. 1872 erstmals auf Frauenchiemsee und machte sich als Chiemseemaler bald einen geachteten Namen. Wurde zusammen mit Karl Raupp der Chiemseemaler schlechhin. Begründer der Malerkolonie auf Frauenwörth. 1885 Ehrenbürger von Schwaz und 1886 von Frauenchiemsee. 1888 erhielt er den Professorentitel und 1890 die II. Goldene Medaille im Münchner Glaspalast. Wurde 1896 Ehrenmitglied der Münchner Akademie. Wopfner schuf bevorzugt Chiemseebilder mit Fischerstaffage und grossräumiger Landschaftskulisse, meist mit ruhiger See, zuweilen jedoch auch dramatische Schilderungen. Sein populärstes Bild "Ave Maria" malte er gleich 25 mal. Wopfner gelang es vorzüglich, die Schönheit der bayerischen Heimat in die zeitlose Sprache der Kunst umzusetzen. Als Porträtist auch mit der Figurenmalerei vertraut, vermag Wopfner nicht nur seine im ganzen dem Impressionismus zuzuordnende Landschaftsmalerei mit guter Staffage auszustatten, sondern auch anspruchsvolle figürliche Kompositionen zu schaffen Er litt zuletzt unter Farbenvergiftung, die ihn zwang, mit verbundenen Händen zu malen.
–- S#> Going to the Rescue (115x180cm; 520x799pix, 89kb)
Harvesters By The Chiemsee (1912, 31x41cm)
An Afternoon's Boating (1882, 60x107cm)
Kreuzenthüllung auf dem Hochfelln im Chiemgau (22 Aug 1886, 23x31cm; 523x700pix, 398kb _ .ZOOM to 785x1050pix, 101kb) _ Der seit 1860 in München ansässige Tiroler Maler Josef Wopfner gehört zum Kreis um Karl Raupp, des Begründers der Malerkolonie auf Frauenwörth am Chiemsee. Gemeinsam mit ihm gilt er als der Chiemseemaler. Von 1869 bis 1872 ist Wopfner an der Münchner Akademie Schüler bei Karl Theodor von Piloty. Daneben verarbeitet er Impulse des Landschaftsmalers Eduard Schleich d. Ä., die bestimmend für seine Chiemseebilder werden. Nach einer frühen Schaffensphase mit großformatigen Werken malt er nicht zuletzt unter dem Eindruck einer Frankreichreise 1887 zumeist kleinformatige Bilder, in denen er in impressionistischer Gestaltung die unterschiedlichen Stimmungen des Sees, die Fischer und Bauern sowie die Landschaft am Chiemsee zum Ausdruck bringt. Im Gemälde "Kreuzenthüllung auf dem Hochfelln im Chiemgau" macht sich dies bereits sichtbar. Im Gegensatz zu seinen Bildern der Frühzeit, in denen der Künstler noch versuchte, die Gruppen und größeren Ansammlungen von Menschen mittels klarer Umrisse in den Griff zu bekommen, werden hier sowohl die Menschengruppe als auch die Landschaft zu einem einzigen Gewebe von Licht- und Farbtupfern. Zwar hält sich Wopfner bei der Gestaltung im Sinne der Piloty-Schule an die historische Treue. Zugleich entwickelt er jedoch eine stärkere Sensibilität in der Schilderung der zufälligen Lichterscheinung im Naturraum. In ungekünstelter Nuancierung der Farb- und Lichtwerte integriert der Künstler die Menschen in die sie umgebende Natur.
Am Chiemsee (1890; 412x600pix, 39kb)
Kühe auf der Herreninsel (433x600pix, 78kb)
Torfstich bei Harras am Chiemsee (1915; 442x538pix, 52kb)
Heuschiff (300x600pix, 46kb)
Frau im Heuboot (1895, 39x48cm; 332x442pix, 28kb)
Hay Harvest (398x217pix, 27kb) _ detail (466x600pix, 50kb)

^ 1905 Jean-Jacques Henner, French academic painter born on 05 March 1829. The sixth and last child of Alsatian peasants, Jean-Jacques Henner became an extremely successful portraitist and painter of female nudes in Second Empire and Third Republic Paris. His oeuvre included religious pictures, landscapes, and still lifes as well.
     Henner received his first training from Charles Goutzwiller (1810-1900) in Altkirch, and in 1844 he went to Strasbourg to study under Gabriel Guérin (1790-1846) at his private academy. Upon Guérin's death Henner moved to Paris and enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts as a student of Alsatian compatriot Michel-Martin Drolling (1786-1851). Drolling helped obtain a grant from the home region that made the young artist's continued Parisian training possible. When Drolling died Henner became a student of François-Édouard Picot (1786-1868).
      Henner's first known works are family portraits, which he continued to produce alongside the portrayals of notables commissioned later. Although he had won some medals in the early 1850s, Henner's failure to obtain the Prix de Rome in 1855 discouraged him and he returned home for two years. During this stay he visited Basel, where he saw the Dead Christ (1521, 30x200cm; 350x2218pix, 131kb) of Holbein, a continuing source of inspiration for Henner's religious pictures.
      Back in Paris, Henner achieved the Prix de Rome in 1858 with Adam and Eve Finding the Body of Abel, which several critics considered one of the most original entries in the competition's history. During his subsequent five years in Italy, Henner was inspired by the landscapes of Rome and its environs, which he painted in a manner reminiscent of the early Corot. He also discovered the Italian masters such as Titian (active 1508-1576) and Giorgione (1477-1510). The most significant influences on Henner's popular female nudes, however, were the works of Correggio (ca. 1489/94-1534), and those by the French artist Prud'hon, whom he had admired earlier in Paris.
      Debuting at the Salon of 1863 with Young Bather Asleep (1862) and two portraits, Henner won a third-class medal. He exhibited regularly for the next forty years and eventually won almost every award then available to artists. Henner painted his famous nudes with broad heavy strokes and used sfumato to soften their contours. Endowed with milky flesh and russet hair, they were consistently set against shadowy brown-toned landscapes.
      Favorite idyllic authors such as Virgil and Ovid inspired early examples, but after 1870 Henner began to move toward allegory and even symbolism, concentrating increasingly on the theme of death. Likewise, his earlier pictures' Italian settings were progressively replaced by Alsatian surroundings, prompted by nostalgia and by the 1871 loss of Alsace to Prussia, an event that affected Henner deeply.
–- Rebecca at the Well (100x68cm; 741x491pix, 28kb _ .ZOOM to 1512x982pix, 174kb _ .ZOOM+ not recommended to 2965x1965pix, 766kb)
La Fillette au Chapeau (1873, 27x19cm)
Jeune Alsacienne (1870, 54x41cm; 1064x803pix, 50kb)
Study of a Woman in Red (1890)
Jesus in the Tomb (1879) much inferior imitation of Holbein.
Un Homme (44x32cm)
Carolus-Duran (785x548pix, 31kb)
Le réveil de l'enfant
Baigneuse (1885, 97x71cm)
A la fontaine (1880; 640x419pix, 16kb) and a /S#*>preliminary study (1880, 81x46cm; 600x488pix, 44kb)
Donna sul divano nero (1865, 193x180cm; _ ZOOMable)
The Chaste Susannah

^ 1865 Petrus Johannes (or Jan) Schotel, Dutch painter and lithographer born on 19 August (11 Nov?) 1808. He was a student of his father Johannes Christiaan Schotel [11 Nov 1787 – 21 Dec 1838] and like him specialized in sea and river views. While his work clearly shows his father’s influence, it is often less brilliant and more dramatic: The Zeeland Waters at Schouwen (1827) and the watercolor Shipwreck on a Rocky Coast, both show his more somber style. Journeys to France in 1827–8 and 1829 gave his work a warmer tone, as in Evening with Calm Sea at Den Helder. From 1830 to 1848 he taught drawing at the Marine Instituut in Medemblik. He was an expert on the technical and historical details of ships. In 1831–1832 he painted two scenes depicting the naval hero Jan Carel Josephus van Speyk [1802–1831]. He also drew dozens of lithographs for the illustrated book Heldendaden der Nederlanders ter Zee (1850). In 1856, after a short stay in Kampen, he moved to Germany. — Father of Petronella Elisabeth Schotel [1834-1917] — Relative? of Anthonie Pieter Schotel [1890-1958]?
Sailing Vessels on the Zuiderzee (46x62cm; 703x1000pix, 843kb _ /S#*>ZOOM to 1458x2039pix, 225kb)
–- S#> Sailing Vessels in Rough Seas (115x150cm; 609x800pix, 71kb)
The Battle Of Kamperduin (1799, 48x64cm)
Harbor Scene (76x96cm; 462x700pix, 44kb)
Schepen voor de kust, op de achtergrond een schoener (400x542pix, 35kb)
–- S#> Shipping in a Calm (71x89cm; 381x482pix, 24kb)

Born on a 23 July:

1876 Ricardo Verde Rubio [–29 Mar 1954], pintor y grabador español. Estudió en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de su ciudad natal, Valencia. En un principio se dedicó a la pintura al aire libre, pero posteriormente se declinó por el retrato. Fue profesor de pintura de la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Valencia y académico de la de San Carlos, de Valencia. Entre sus obras destacan: Retrato de mi madre, Fiesta valenciana, Último toque, Sacando la barca, Le moulin de la Galette, Inocencia, Celestina, Zola, Cuevas de Benimamel, Autorretrato, Maruja, Mirando al modelo, Paisaje valenciano, Huertana valenciana, Mercado de Játiva, Convento de Sancti-Spiritu.
(farm in winter?) (1898, 46x61cm; 1107x900pix, 740kb)
(landscape) (1898, 46x61cm; 679x900pix, 511kb)
Labores del campo (1898, 46x61cm; 597x800pix, 346kb)
Mercado de Valencia (1915, 65x47cm; 800x563pix, 171kb) —(080722)

^ 1844 Hermann David Salomon Corrodi, Italian painter and printmaker who died on 30 (20?) January 1905. Hermann Corrodi studied at the Accademia di S. Luca under his father, Salomon Corrodi [19 Apr 1810 – 04 Jul 1892], and in Paris (1872). Hermann Corrodi received commissions for history paintings from the British royal family and traveled widely in the Far East, which provided the subject-matter for many of his landscape paintings and etchings. He was the brother of Arnold Corrodi [12 Jan 1846 – 07 May 1874].
Arab Carpet Merchants (100x65cm)
At the Water's Edge (73x45cm)
Italian Fisherfolk by the Sea, Southern Italy
Processione a Sorrento (1892, 160x138cm)
The Ambush (101x66cm)
–- S#> Amalfi, Convento dei Cappucini (613x900pix, 100kb)
–- S#> The Galata Bridge and the Yeni Valide Djami, Constantinople (x800pix, 53kb)
–- S#> In the Courtyard (800x503pix, 99kb) — (060722)

Happened on a 23 July:

^ 2006: Killer “Artwork”
killer "work of art" One of the many replicas of the walk-in, 2500-sq-m inflatable Dreamspace “work of art” [< photo] by Maurice Agis [1931~], is lifted some 15 meters by a gust of wind at 15:30 (14:30 UT) at the Riverside Park, near County Cricket Club in Durham, England. Claire Furmedge, 38; and Elizabeth Collings, 68; fall out and are killed. Some 15 of the possibly 30 persons in the “bouncy castle” are injured.

— Photos of the inside of Dreamspace, 29 Aug 2005:
In the Basement ( _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
Just Landed (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix, 164kb)
Frog's Innards (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix, kb _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
At Large (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix, 167kb)
Baby on the Loose (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
Playschool (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
A Progressive Education (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
Bifidus Digestivum (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
In the Dreamspace 3 (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix)
Remember Logan's Run? (500x333pix _ ZOOM to 1024x683pix _ ZOOM+ to 2048x1365pix, 140kb)

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