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ART “4” “2”-DAY  21 July v.8.60
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SUICIDE: 1948 “GORKY”
BIRTHS: 1854 MARAIS-MILTON — 1854 EDELFELT — 1858 CORINTH
^ Born on 21 July 1872: Victor Marais-Milton, French painter who died in 1948 (1944? 1968?).
— Genre painting made a comeback during the late nineteenth century in France, where eager patrons searched for images reminiscent of another time. Some were also looking for more humorous depictions which lightly poked fun at some established members of society, such as the clerics. Victor Marais-Milton spoke to both audiences, occasionally depicting a stroll in the park, but also finding considerable humor in the life of the clergy. His genre paintings have meticulous sense of detail which imbues them with qualities of reality sufficient to fully document the subtly comical exploits of his subjects.
      Victor Marais-Milton was born in Puteaux, a suburb west of Paris on the Seine River. Early in his career he lived in Paris but later moved to the Sèvres suburb where he remained until his death. He studied in the atelier of Jonchère, but has also been linked to Ernest Meissonnier, who by the end of his career had become a master of genre painting and an inspiration to many artists while working as a teacher in his own atelier for the École des Beaux-Arts. But this was a period when different styles were emerging, each taught by various masters at different ateliers. Quarreling factions grew up among the different teachers, one of which was between the “Bouguereauistes,” those working in the tradition of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and the “Meissonnieristes,” those, like Marais-Milton, who were trained under Ernest Meissonnier. This became one of the great competitions between two ateliers steeped in the academic tradition. Even if Marais-Milton was not directly involved in Meissonnier’s atelier, he still worked in a style that was very similar to his and his students.
      Working as a “Meissonnieriste” was not harmful to his public career which began at the 1898 Salon where he submitted a portrait of Mademoiselle Marguerite Picard of the Opera, at which time he had not yet begun his training with Jonchère. From then on Marais-Milton was mysteriously absent from many of the Salons during his early career. It was not until 1909 that he began to exhibit more consistently. But one must add, at this time Milton was exhibiting with the most conservative Salon groups, shunning the Salon des Independents and remaining oblivious to the achievements of the avant-garde.
      His imagery, therefore, often relied on impersonations of clergy members similar to Jehan-Georges Vibert and also Meissonnier; it is steeped in the established norms of the nineteenth century. This type of anecdotal genre painting had reached a point of tremendous popularity with Salon audiences earlier in time.
      The popularity of these themes is related to the contemporary social, political, and cultural trends of the era. Both Meissonnier’s and his followers’ evocations of an age of cavaliers and guardrooms mirror not only the growing taste for Dutch art but also what Hook and Poltimore refer to as ‘the development of the historical novel as a popular literary form’
      Nineteenth century France also nurtured a fascination in previous periods of their history, and artists took advantage of this in their evocations of bygone eras. This took several forms ranging from artists such as Henri-Victor Lesur who depicted beautifully-adorned women reminiscent of those found in Jean-Antoine Watteau’s paintings of the eighteenth century, to other works such as Marais-Milton, Jehan-Georges Vibert, and Meissonnier who treated religious subjects.
      Relevant to the increase in religious images, anticlericalism had been growing since before the French Revolution. As the twentieth century approached, it was almost an established trend to mock this institution and its representatives, thus providing artists with the opportunity to create satirical images of clerics. Artists began to establish these images as an accepted form of art, made easier by graphic artists such as Honoré Daumier who also created images of amusement, though more politically-oriented, in the many illustrated journals of the period. Thus, images such as these were widely disseminated to the masses and fully understood by those who were viewing them.
      Still, the paintings featuring the clerics carousing was a far cry from the overtly political and harsh work of many graphic artists, since the paintings were amusing and more suitable for display. This specific choice of clerical subjects was very popular during the period and many important artists dedicated their careers to similar themes, among them were Vibert, Landini, Croegaert and Brunery.
      The reason for this is that the supposed domestic antics of members of the higher echelons of the Roman Catholic Church exercised a powerful fascination for a number of popular painters and their patrons in the second half of the nineteenth century. These intimate scenes, set behind closed doors of the private quarters of a cardinal’s palace, constitute a clearly-defined genre of painting in their own right. There is also the fact that the bright red of a cardinal's robes could add to the color value of the painting. But to understand the original motivation behind this choice of subject, one must not overlook the element, present in varying degrees in most such works, of anti-clericalism. There is no doubt that contemporary collectors and spectators took great pleasure in the sight of noble figureheads of the church reduced to banal, even undignified proportions. The comedy was appealing, and the anti-clerical message suited the prevailing political mood of the buying public.
      Marais-Milton’s images showed a fine attention to detail in every aspect of the paintings. At some point in Marais-Milton’s career, it is not fully known when, he established a studio in the floor of his house in Sèvres which had a large window which allowed a flood of light to illuminate his subjects, many of which are seen posed against the window or at least illuminated by light coming from it. He would use models, whether his maid, neighbors or Italian faces especially for his ecclesiastical subjects, to compose the layout, dressing them in suitable clothing which would then be in his paintings. Some of the furniture that was housed in his residence in Sèvres was also featured in his paintings.
      He stayed at this studio all his life, remaining true to this type of art with its precise rendering of detail despite other creative advances of the time. Along with his achievements at the exhibitions in Paris, the artist found great success in Monte Carlo, London and the United States. He also exhibited at the private galleries of Allard and Simonson, as well as at provincial Salons such as those in Mulhouse and other international showing such as in Antwerp. According to family records, Victor died in Sèvres in 1944 (1948? 1968?), worn out by the war which had exacerbated his already fragile health condition.
      Whether it was Parisian leisure scenes or humorous depictions of the clergy, Marais-Milton’s images satisfied the rekindled desire for genre painting in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century France. It was equally popular in the US where they eagerly collected this type of work. His sensitivities to detail and to a constructed veracity allowed viewers to engage with his subjects and earned him a place in the history of genre painting, even during a period of time when genre painting was no longer valued at all and was often seen to be regressive.
      His Salon works include: Une querelle à l’office (1909), Les cadeaux du missionnaire (1910), L’œuvre du moine (1911), Un cas de conscience (1911), L’aveu difficile (1912), Lassitude (1912), Une histoire amusante (1913), Le grain de beauté (1914)

–- S#> Le Sermon (62x50cm; 1096x900pix, 200kb)
Le Nouveau Cuisinier (35 x 45 inches; 750x983pix, 633kb)
Éducation (796x650pix, 379kb)
Ses Petits Compagnons (46x38cm; 750x622pix, 345kb)
–- S#> Le Jeu de Cartes (51x61cm; 510x601pix, 90kb _ ZOOM to 750x905pix, 477kb)
–- S#> Les Connaisseurs (66x55cm; 510x421pix, 47kb _ ZOOM to 750x623pix, 331kb _ ZOOM+ to 1000x824pix, 1569kb, and admire the texture of the canvas)
La Sieste (34x26cm; 560x438pix, 82kb)
Un Bon Cru (61x73cm; 480x585pix, 59kb)
Clumsy Kitten (47x38cm; 480x394pix, 30kb _ ZOOM to 750x615pix, 80kb)
 
^ Born on 21 July 1854: Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt, Finnish Academic painter, illustrator, and etcher, who died on 18 August 1905. — {According to an apocryphal story exclusive to this web site, he favored a rich shade of off-white, which became known as Edelfelt Weiß, soon abbreviated to Edelweiss.}
— He was Finland’s leading artist in the late 19th century, introducing French influences into Finnish art but also helping to gain a broader international interest in his country’s culture. He was not a great innovator, however, and although his reputation in Finland remained firm, international recognition dwindled after his death until the renewal of interest in realism that took place in the late 20th century.
     Throughout Edelfelt's career portraiture occupied a central place in his work. In 1883 Edelfelt built a studio for himself, now a museum, in Haikko, near Porvoo, and the 1880s was a period prolific in studio interiors. Edelfelt's depictions of beautiful women, displaying his affinity with French naturalism combined with a skilful insight and empathy with his subject brought him international acclaim; he was the first Finnish artist to be awarded a medal at the Paris Salon. Edelfelt's masterpiece Chez l'artiste (1881) featured a magnificent dress lent by Edelfelt's friend Princess Troubetskoy and the success of this portrait secured his career as one of the most sought after portraitists of the 1880s.
— Albert Edelfelt was born into an aristocratic Swedish-speaking family. Despite this background, his childhood was financially strained. The father of the family died when Albert was only fifteen, leaving large debts behind. Nevertheless, Albert’s mother supported his artistic interest and ambitions throughout his formative years as a painter.
      Though Edelfelt received art tutoring while studying languages and history at the Imperial University in Helsinki, he found art teaching in Finland backward. There were few art collections and the country lacked an inspiring artistic culture. He eventually gave up university and enrolled in the Antwerp Academy of Art in 1873. After studying historical painting for six months, he moved to Paris to continue his learning process.
      From the outset, Edelfelt was certain that Paris was the right place for him to develop as a painter. The city’s museums and galleries provided endless possibilities to view paintings. The presence of like-minded artists and an ever-expanding circle of friends enabled him to have rousing discussions on art.
       He was inspired by his contemporaries but was also strongly influenced by past masters such as Velazquez and Goya. Edelfelt went back to Finland in 1875 with a strong resolve to return to Paris as soon as possible.
      The initial purpose of Edelfelt’s studies abroad was to become a history painter. Indeed, his first work to gain public recognition in Paris was Queen Bianca (1877; 500x388pix, 42kb) a portrait depicting mediaeval times.
      However, in France Edelfelt soon realized that plein air painting, illustrating contemporary reality rather than historical scenes, was what dominated the capital’s art world.
      However, although Edelfelt lived in Paris for over fifteen years, he only painted one large outdoor work there: The Luxembourg Gardens, Paris (1887; 415x550pix, 57kb). The inspiration for his other, comparable works came from Finnish subjects.
      In the late 19th century, Paris epitomized all the attractions contemporary life had to offer. Besides art, Paris was also the capital city of consumption, technology, pleasure, and sensuality. While living there, Edelfelt painted numerous portraits of beautiful Parisian women, a few of whom were also objects of his affection. Most importantly, the city provided an opportunity to sell his paintings. The rich and powerful of Paris formed a clientèle impossible to attain in Finland.
      About half of Edelfelt’s works are portraits. Besides painting often unnamed female models, he also did several commissioned portraits. The most famous of these is the Portrait of Louis Pasteur (1885). Edelfelt was fascinated by the scientific accomplishments of Pasteur and he spent several months studying his work and laboratory settings.
      When the painting was finally finished, its popularity elevated Edelfelt to a celebrated position as one of the most proficient portraitists in Europe. Some years before this van Gogh had expressed his admiration of Edelfelt’s talent to show humane feelings in his works.
      Queen Bianca became Edelfelt’s first work to appear in a public exhibition in Russia. At that time, Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy of Russia and the painting was included in the Russian section at the 1878 World Exhibition in Paris. The painter had close and confidential ties to the Russian court for years and was even granted sittings with Tsar Nicholas II in the Winter Palace. He was also commissioned to paint a number of portraits of the children of the Imperial Family.
      Edelfelt was appointed a Full Member of the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1895. A year later, he was approached by Ilya Repin who offered him a professorship at the Academy. Feeling that St. Petersburg lacked the vibrant artistic life offered by Paris, he declined the offer.
      The late 19th century saw growing concern in Finland over Russia’s policy of Russification. This played a significant role in the rise of nationalist and patriotic sentiments among Finns. Even though a goodwill ambassador between the two countries, Edelfelt never totally excluded himself from all this, and he did indeed contribute to the pro-Finland movement with illustrations and paintings on the 1808-1809 Russo-Swedish War.
      After his initial years of history painting, Edelfelt did not go truly back to this genre until the Inauguration of the Academy of Turku. This large scale work, depicting the founding of the Academy (later the University) in Turku in 1640, was to be placed to the Great Hall of the University of Helsinki.
      After meticulous preparation, Edelfelt began the actual work of painting in September 1904 and presented the finished work to the University in January 1905. The painting is widely regarded as the apex of his work, reflecting his roles as artist, cultural diplomat, and historian.
— Photo of Edelfelt (450x345pix, 20kb).
— 1900 photo of Edelfelt in his Paris studio (410x550pix, 48kb).

LINKS
Naisen Pää (1885, 32x27cm; _ ZOOMable) _ The spirit in which Edelfelt assimilated the impressions of P.S. Kroyer is perhaps most evident in this painting, which also characterizes his standpoint vis-a-vis French impressionism at a time when, through shared exhibitions at Georges Petit, Edelfelt had established personal contact with many of its leading representatives. Naisen Pää is a masterpiece of fresh and sensitive light-painting, yet its strong design relates more closely to Greek marble reliefs than to Kroyer's striking plein-air painting, or to the vibrant palettes of French impressionism. For Edelfelt the rendition of light was a central problem, but rather than a goal per se it provided the means of expressing the ideal beauty that interested him most.
Louis Pasteur (1885; 600x492pix, 62kb) _ Pasteur [27 Dec 1822 – 28 Sept 1895] was a French chemist and microbiologist whose contributions were among the most varied and valuable in the history of science and industry. It was he who proved that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease; he who originated and was the first to use vaccines for rabies, anthrax, and chicken cholera; he who saved the beer, wine, and silk industries of France and other countries; he who performed important pioneer work in stereochemistry; and he who originated the process known as pasteurization.
Madame Vallery-Radot (1888, 45x31cm), Marie-Louise Pasteur [19 Jul 1858 – 09 Sep 1934], daughter of Louis Pasteur, married, on 04 November 1879, René Vallery-Radot [01 Oct 1853 – 24 Jan 1933], who would write Histoire d'un Savant par un ignorant (1884, a biography of Pasteur), Vie de Pasteur (1900), and Madame Pasteur (1913); and edit the album of portraits Pasteur, dessinateur et pastelliste (1912).
Mother of the Artist (1883)
A Child's Funeral (1879, 120x205cm)
Kaarle-herttua [1550-1611], myöhemmin Ruotsin kuningas Kaarle IX, häpäisee Klaus Flemingin ruumista (1878; 637x850pix, 143kb)
Virginie (1883; 314x400pix, 113kb)
Kirsikkatyttö (1878; 547x463pix, 72kb)
Leikkiviä poikia rannalla (1884; 273x330pix, 17kb)
Näköala Haikkoon kuistilta (1896, 497x350pix, 70kb)
Old Village in Häme (1889, 69x85cm; 422x540pix, 54kb)
Karelian Women (1887; 539x460pix, 50kb)
At the Piano (1884, 74x65cm; 375x315pix, 36kb)
Dancing Gypsy I (1881, 65x54cm; 350x277pix, 26kb) _ Albert Edelfeltin käsityksiä romaneista leimasivat paljolti samanlaiset asenteet kuin juutalaisistakin. Niin ghetoissa kuin Espanjan mustalaiskortteleissakin hän näki yleensä vain likaa ja kurjuutta. Ajan ja tutustumisen myötä myös suhde romaneihin alkoi pehmentyä. Toisena pääsiäispäivänä, vuonna 1881, taiteilija kirjoitti Granadasta äidilleen:
      "Olen aloittanut tutkielman tanssivasta gitanasta, 13-vuotiaasta tytöstä. Olen sen vuoksi ollut näiden mustalaisten luona, käynyt heidän murjuissaan, ja olen nyt heidän kanssaan hyvin 'snakom' (tuttu)."
      Edelfeltin maalaus Tanssiva Gitana puhutteli aikakauden makumieltymyksiä. Jo samana vuonna hän maalasikin Suomessa teoksesta toisinnon, jonka taustaan hän pyrki lisäämään aksentin paikallisväriä - tosin sillä kustannuksella, että mallin asennon teatraalisuus korostui entisestään.
      Albert Edelfelt oli ennen kaikkea sensualisti, joka irrotti erityisesti miehistä katsetta puhuttelevan viehkeän mallin sosiaalisesta ja kulttuurisesta taustastaan.
–- S#> Vanhasta Hedelmatarhasta (1896, 60x79cm; 350x461pix, 79kb) _ This painting, made at the height of Edelfelt's fame, numbers among the greatest examples of his impressionist idiom. From beginnings in the studio of Berndt Lindholm, whom he joined in 1869, the year of Eramaanakyma, Edelfelt had by 1896 become the first Finn to truly secure a position among the artistic elite of Europe.
      Just as Lindholm appropriated German romanticism and French naturalism, his student would continually enrich his vision through contact with mainstream aesthetic currents on the Continent. Edelfelt settled in Paris in 1874 where, like many of his Nordic peers, he was seduced by the plein air realism of Jules Bastien-Lepage. But, as a whole, Nordic art stepped around impressionism and progressed directly from realism to symbolism. The importance of impressionism was largely technical, providing a model for a freer and more painterly method and suggesting new possibilities, through hard cropping and the apparently arbitrary segmentation of motifs.
      With its stress on optical reality, impressionism per se was perceived by many Nordic artists to lack the depth their ideological agendas often required. Symbolism, by contrast, was easily harnessed into nationalist service. In certain works, Edelfelt, like Frits Thaulow, was a key exception here. His seminal Jardins du Luxembourg (1887) shows a masterly grasp of impressionist light, handling and subject matter. During periods spent in Finland in the eighties and nineties Edelfelt applied these same principles to native subjects.
      The impulsive freshness of glowing late-summer is clear in Vanhasta Hedelmatarhasta, but should not overshadow its nationalist significance. The picture's warm fecundity parallels closely the Dalarna imagery of Anders Zorn, who was in regular contact with Edelfelt at this time. Like the customs and costumes celebrated by Zorn in Mora, Vanhasta Hedelmatarhasta invokes the local folk heritage so central to the discourse of national romanticism.
–- S#> Kesailta Haikon selalla (1899, 92x114cm; 350x439pix, 39kb) _ Perhaps the ultimate expression of Edelfelt's native Finland, this painting looks out from Lennatinvuori, across Tammela, towards the Haiko fjord.
     In these Edelfelt's 1899 landscapes, he interprets a strong, lyrical atmosphere in a dark, dense palette that contrasts sharply with his light and sunny work of the eighties. This interpretation is simply a logical extension of his own earlier attempts, particularly in his lake views from the late 1880s, to interpret the fluid, twilight poetry of the Nordic landscape. These efforts were fully resolved in Kesailta Haikon selalla. The coloring reaches saturated depths that point up the transparency of his treatment of light and cast a powerful mood over the sweeping panorama of the archipelago, with its dusky shores and calm mirror-like surface. Here Edelfelt not only displays his imaginative insight and sensitivity, but also a true greatness of aesthetic power that brings together in consummate synthesis his tribute to a beloved landscape bathed in glorious light. The romantic and the realist, the painter of light and the poet of mood find each other in this one work that fuses all the antitheses of Edelfelt's multi-faceted character.
      The painting reprises the bird's-eye viewpoint of Kaukolan harju auringonlaskun aikaan (1889). This technique had been used to sublime effect by earlier Düsseldorf School artists including Berndt Lindholm, but was updated in Edelfelt's hands through a juxtaposition with synthetist principles of composition. A decade later, his interest was renewed in viewing the Paris Salon, where he noted a “tendency for beautiful, dusky and deep tones, dark pictures, twilight - in a word, Whistler” (01 May 1899 letter to his mother).
      But the nocturne landscape, at this moment, also evoked a more sinister reality for the Finn. During the 1890s Russia tightened her grip on the Grand Duchy of Finland, threatening the relative autonomy the nation had enjoyed since 1809. Agitation escalated with the publication of Nicholas II's February Manifesto of 1899, culminating in the murder of the Russian Governor General in 1904. In this climate, art was a crucial vehicle for proclaiming national sentiment. The Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris offered Finland an ideal shop window in which to demonstrate her identity to the world and her contribution was deliberately designed to do this. Edelfelt, placed in charge of the Finnish Pavilion in Paris, painted a larger replica of Kesailta Haikon selalla for it.
— Final Study for The Inauguration of the Academy in Turku 1640 (1902) _ detail (500x410pix, 58kb)
 
^ >Suicide on 21 July 1948: “Arshile Gorky” hangs himself, cancerous, his neck broken in a June 1948 automobile accident, and his wife has left him for another man.
— He was a US painter important as the direct link between the European Surrealists and the US Abstract Expressionists. He was born Vosdanig Manoog Adoian on 15 April 1904 in Turkish Armenia, and had emigrated to the US in 1920. After many years of imitating in turn such masters Cézanne, Miró, and Picasso, he was inspired to originality after meeting Chilean Surrealist painter Roberto Matta. Gorky's students included Nan Greacen.
— Arshile Gorky takes his place among the tragic heroes of art history. A survivor of the Armenian genocide at the beginning of the twentieth century, he was haunted for the rest of his life by the specters of his lost homeland. His vivid, expressionist masterpieces, which anticipated Abstract Expressionism by some 10 years and pioneered abstract art in North America, reflect his enormous suffering as an exile and outsider in America. His work also shows the depth and breadth of his emotional capacity, and the intensity with which he experienced the brief interludes of joy and peace in his life.
      Born Vosdanig Adoian, he changed his name to Arshile Gorky when he moved to the US, for reasons both personal and practical. His birthplace was the now-demolished city of Khorkom, a tiny village near the beautiful Lake Van in the Western Armenian countryside. His mother, Shushan, introduced Gorky to art before he could even speak, taking him to admire Armenian architecture and ancient painted manuscripts. When Gorky was only six years old, his father, Setrag Adoian, moved to the US to find work, like many Armenian men who wanted to avoid conscription while sending money to support their families back home. Gorky stayed with his mother and sisters in Armenia, moving with them first to Van, Old City, in 1910, and later to Aykesdan, Garden City. This separation from his father caused Gorky to feel abandoned and estranged from Setrag for the rest of his life; meanwhile, Gorky's nostalgia for home and especially for his mother, whom he described as "the queen of the aesthetic domain," influenced his work immensely. He referenced the landscape of farm country, rolling hills, and sparkling lakes directly in his later works, such as The Plough and the Song, Garden in Sochi, and The Sun. In addition, his mother is resurrected in two portraits, both entitled The Artist and his Mother, as well as in the seemingly abstract How my Mother's Apron Unfolds in my Life.
      The Armenian people had been ruled by the corrupt and tyrannical Ottoman Empire for three centuries, and their history of subjugation by Turkish peoples extends back to the fifteenth century. The beginning of the twentieth century marked the crumbling of the Ottoman Empire, which was accompanied by mounting debt and political corruption. Turkish leaders found a scapegoat in the Armenian people, gradually taking away their civil rights until in 1915 the systematic extermination of Turkey's Armenian population was officially declared. Between 1915 and 1918, 1'000'000 Armenians were killed and another 1'000'000 were exiled. Khorkom was destroyed, and the city of Van was bombarded for six months. On 15 June 1915, Gorky's family was forced to embark upon a death march 250 km north to the border of Russian Armenia. [The Turks deny the Armenian Genocide to this day]. They reached the city of Yerevan on 16 July, where they lived on the brink of starvation, with young Vosdanig taking odd jobs as carpenter and printer's assistant, and carving women's combs from bull and ox horns. In 1919, when the boy was just 14 years old, his beloved mother died of starvation in his arms.
      Gorky and his sister Vartoosh fled to New York, arriving at Ellis Island in February of 1920. He moved to Watertown, Massachusetts, to live with his sister, and he got his first taste of art at the Boston Museum of Fine Art, where he spent most of his time after he was fired from his job at a rubber factory for “drawing on the job.” Mostly self-educated, Gorky took some painting lessons in the early 1920s from a woman who told him that an Armenian could not be a painter; whereas Russians were considered chic and artistic, Armenians were associated with starving refugees. Gorky thus created a Russian past for himself, sometimes claiming to be a Georgian prince. He wanted to be free of his real past, yet after much consideration he settled on a name that reflected his tormenting experiences: "Arshile" is Russian for Achilles. "Gorky" translates into "the bitter one" and had been adopted as a pseudonym by writer Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov [28 Mar 1868 – 14 June 1936] famous as “Maksim Gorky”. After intermittently attending the School of Fine Art and Design in Boston, Arshile Gorky moved to New York City to attend the National Academy of Design, and he took several teaching jobs as well. Within a few years, "the bitter one" had established himself as a teacher at the New School of Design in New York and gained a small circle of admirers, among them Mark Rothko, who studied under Gorky. During this period, he was doing mostly portraits in an abstract style that was greatly influenced by painters of the School of Paris, such as Matisse, Picasso, and Miró.
      In 1930, when Alfred H. Barr was preparing a group show for the Museum of Modern Art entitled “The Exhibition of Works by 46 Painters and Sculptors Under 35 Years of Age”, Gorky had his first big break. After visiting Gorky's studio, Barr chose three still lifes to include in the show, which was to be Gorky's first. Following this show, Gorky was included in an exhibit at the New School, and he was exhibited twice at the Downtown Gallery. In 1935, he achieved even more critical attention by appearing at the Whitney Museum of American Art in a show called Abstract Painting in America, which exhibited four of his works. The Whitney would continue to show his work annually for the next eight years.
      Gorky was one of the first artists to enlist with the Public Works of Art project in 1933, formed to give artists work during the Depression. He joined the Artists' Union, which began in 1935 as the first attempt ever to organize artists as workers in the US. Much of the art being created showed a social realist influence, and many of the murals being painted by the PWA resembled propaganda. This context of art "for the masses" and artists as "cultural workers" frustrated Gorky, who believed in the hallowed transcendence of the artist over politics. In a lecture at the Artists' League, he finally broke with the current prominence of overtly political art when he declared it "poor art for poor people!" Despite this antipathy toward political art, he applied to the newly formed Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project in 1935, and began work on a series of murals on the theme of aviation that would occupy much of his attention until he left the WPA in 1939. He also had multiple shows during this time, including a one-person exhibit at the Guild Art Gallery that was highly praised in the New York Post. Around this time he also painted his famous Nighttime, Enigma, and Nostalgia series. However, despite the fact that Gorky was well known and respected among artists in New York, he suffered great financial strife. Like many artists who received critical attention during the Depression, he did not reap the rewards until much later, as the few collectors still buying art during this time refused to take chances on newcomers. Gorky often spontaneously sold paintings and drawings for as little as five dollars out of desperation, using the money to buy more painting supplies.
      Gorky always worked hard for little material reward, and he was as uncompromising in his personal life as he was in his art. He searched for years to find the "perfect" woman, falling in love three times and getting married once before he finally found her. When he met Agnes Magruder, a wealthy American socialite, he was 40 and she was only 20. When they married, Gorky embarked upon the most productive period of his career, finally coming into his own as an artist. Beginning in 1941 with the Garden in Sochi series, and continuing up to his death in 1948, Gorky created such masterpieces as The Liver is the Cock's Comb, One Year the Milkweed, and Waterfall. He gained much of his inspiration from the landscape surrounding his wife's country home in Connecticut, where they often stayed for extended periods of time, and which reminded him of his lost Armenian homeland.
      Gorky and Agnes enjoyed five years of marriage and had two daughters before tragedy returned to Gorky's life. In January of 1946, Gorky's studio, a converted barn on his wife's Connecticut property, burned down, taking with it many of the paintings, drawings, and books Gorky owned. One month later, he was diagnosed with colon cancer and underwent a colostomy, which left him physically handicapped and emotionally scarred. His deteriorating marriage finally exploded when he discovered that Agnes was having an affair with Gorky's friend Matta Echaurren, the Surrealist painter. Soon thereafter, she left, taking his beloved children with him. The same week as his breakup, Gorky was involved in a car accident when the New York gallery owner Julien Levy, who was driving under the influence of alcohol, brought the artist home. Gorky suffered a fractured back and neck and was put in an enormous leather neck brace that held his head up. Shattered physically, emotionally, and spiritually, betrayed by or estranged from everyone he most loved, Gorky retreated to his house in Connecticut, where he hung himself from the rafters of the barn on 21 July 1948. His parting phrase was written in chalk on a crate: "Goodbye, my loveds."
      To Gorky, art was nothing short of a necessity; he put his painting before all else, and when all else failed him, he relied upon painting to pull him through. He faced more than his share of misfortunes, which began in his early life and brought him to an early death. In his art he sought to reclaim the past that had been stolen from him, and to shape his future, which always, and ultimately tragically, fell short of his expectations and ambitions.
— Gorky was a forerunner of Abstract Expressionism. Gorky unquestioninly accepted art as developing in history. To Gorky, progress of art itself was not the erratic course of unrelated inspirations, but an evolution.
      One of the most illustrious artists of the post-war New York School, he began his life in possibly the most obscure circumstances of any international modern master. In 1910 his father, Setrag Adoian, emigrated to the USA to find work and to avoid conscription into the Turkish Army. During the Turkish persecution of the Armenians, Gorky’s mother died in her son’s arms after a 200-km forced march. With his sister (who later figured prominently in his paintings) Gorky made his way to the coast and then, by ship, to the US, arriving at New York in April 1920.
— He was so uncertain about how to make sense of his Armenian origins that he adopted a Russian surname, telling people he was the nephew of the writer Maxim Gorky - implausibly, since this was a pen name. In a form for an exhibition of 10 November to 12 December 1937, the artist not only gives only his assumed name, but also changes his birth place to “Tiflis, Georgia, Russia” and birth date to “October, 25 - 1904”.
      Arshile Gorky's real name was Vostanig Adoian. Born in Khorkom, on the shores of Lake Van in eastern Turkey, he had a childhood dominated by nature, folklore and religion, marred only by the departure of his father for the US. In 1915 Turkey decided to get rid of its Armenian minority. Throughout eastern Turkey, Armenian men were taken out of their villages and murdered, women and children driven on forced marches causing mass starvation. An estimated million people died. Vostanig, his sister, and his mother were, starting on 15 June 1915, chased from their homes on a 200-km death march which they somehow survived. Then they fled to Yerevan, now capital of Armenia. After his mother died of starvation in 1918, Gorky and his sister made it to Ellis Island. With a habit of making up stories about his meetings with famous artists, he became an art teacher and avant-garde painter in New York. He was connected with artists who would, with him, become known as the Abstract Expressionists - including his student Mark Rothko [25 Sep 1903 – 25 Feb 1970] and close friend Willem de Kooning. Gorky hit his stride when he returned imaginatively to the landscape of Lake Van, resurrecting it in dream paintings such as The Waterfall (1943). In 1948 Gorky - who had jokingly given himself a first name that in Armenian means "accursed" - hanged himself.
— Born in Khorkom (province Van), Haiyotz Dzur, a village in Turkish Armenia, Gorky later emigrated to the United States in 1920 where he lived first in Boston, Providence and Watertown, Massachusetts. With his education, he studied at the Rhode Island School of Design and the New School of Design, Boston. After his formal education he changed his name from Vosdanig Manoog Adoian to Arshile Gorky, inspired by Homer's Achilles and by the Russian writer Maksim Gorky (also a pseudonym, meaning “the bitter one”) [28 March 1868 – 14 June 1936]. Then he moved in 1925 to New York where he now studied and taught at Grand Central Art School in 1925 to 1931. Gorky painted pictures that where strongly influenced by Cézanne, then later by Picasso (1928). Friendships in 1929 to 1934 with Stuart Davis and later with Willem de Kooning also influenced him as well. The first one-man exhibition for him was at the Mellon Galleries in Philadelphia, 1934. He also did social work where, during 1935 to 1939, he worked on the WPA Federal Art Project as a mural painter. Gorky developed an increasingly personal style from 1941 to 1942, with hybrid biomorphic imagery and a more fluid handling of paint. He met André Breton and the Surrealist artists then living in the US, which also had a great influence on him.
     Although Gorky was strongly influenced by Surrealist painters, he used the organic shapes similar of Mirò, and the free abstraction of Kandinsky, to create actively brushed abstractions that moved away from cubist space. Gorky spent much of his later life in the countryside at Sherman, Connecticut where he died by suicide after a succession of misfortunes, including a fire in his studio and being severely injured in a car accident. Arshile Gorky studied the old and modern masters, similar to other students in art schools throughout the country at that time. He began with the subjects-landscapes, still lifes, portraits and Post-Impressionism in particular. He began to question the historical direction of art, and set himself to a search for the next modern phase of art. When studying past art, Gorky was influenced by primitive art and then on through the clumsy archaic and later Greek art. His Renaissance knowledge illuminated medieval Dark Ages with technical discoveries that opened new paths; perspective breaking out of the prison of flat dimensions; oil paint liberating; chiaroscuro supplementing flat lighting; Baroque flamboyancy adding action to the poses; and chemistry further enriching the palette. Some of his favorite landmarks: Mantegna, Uccello, Bosch, Piero della Francesca, Tintoretto, Ingres-to Picasso and Cezanne, whom he chose as the keystone of all that was then called the "modern movement."ambitions.
     “Arshile Gorky: Memorial Exhibition” opened at the Whitney Museum on 05 January 1951, with fifty-five oils, three gouaches, and thirty-six drawings, presenting the full range of Gorky's work from 1922 through 1948.
— Mina Metzger and Ethel Schwabacher were Gorky's only private students. Schwabacher wrote the book Gorky (1957).

LINKS
–- The Artist and His Mother (1936, 152x127cm; 750x621pix, 32kb) “white version” _ Gorky's mother, Shushan der Marderosian, was widowed with two daughters when she married Gorky's father at the age of 16, both had lost spouses in a Turkish massacre of Armenians in 1896. Shushan was a pious woman with a deep feeling for the Van landscape. When they fled she became malnourished, and although Gorky and his sister desperately tried to get food, she made them eat it. On the morning she died in March 1918 she was dictating a letter in which she said she wanted to go back to Van.
      The mask-like face of Gorky's mother evokes the Portrait of Gertrude Stein by Picasso, whom Gorky admired. This is one of the most distressing and powerful of portraits. Even without knowing the story you know it is about loss. The face, as if hewn in stone, the ghost-white fall of the dress, and the flatness of the woman's body on the canvas, all tells us that this is an image of someone dead. There is a monumental distance between us and her, she is remote as a statue. The boy standing by her is distant too, in his formal coat, clutching a pink flower. He has signs of life. Dressed as if he cares about himself, he is future-bound. But his face is deeply sad.
      The wall behind them is strange, its location indiscernible. The painting is derived from a photograph of them taken at a studio in Van before the first world war, to send to Gorky's father in the US. Gorky found the photograph in his father's US home in the 1920s. This painting is testimony to how much it anguished him. The transformation of the image into cubistic planes of color emphasises Gorky's complex reaction to the photograph, as he remade it in his mind. He gives it color, animation, but cannot bring his mother back. While the boy moves in three dimensions, she remains fixed, a flat ghost. Armenia itself is a no-place. Gorky paints a brown square behind his mother's head resembling a window. But it is opaque, no view. Her landscape is gone.
   _ This painting is based on a 1912 photograph. A few years after it was taken, Gorky and his family were among the two million Armenians who were victims of the Armenian genocide perpetrated by the Turks. The artist and his sister survived the ordeal, and emigrated separately to the US, where they rejoined. This painting was done when the mother had been long dead. She had died in his arms, of starvation, when he was 14. This may be a picture which has to do with redemption of the mother, meaning a particular theme, of the child bringing the mother to rest, or laying to rest a memory of the mother which haunts him. He is guiding, somehow, or presenting the mother, and guiding her like a psychopompos, like a herald or a guide of the soul of the departed, and bringing her to a place of rest. It's clear in the picture that there may have been some painting of actual hands, at least the right hand. But there does seem to be a violence in erasing the two hands. There is a muteness here: very tightly closed mouths. But there may be other things which point to that quality of muteness, also. Of course, we know that trauma often produces muteness. Sometimes psychologists call it elective silence, especially in the young child. That is, a refusal to speak or a difficulty of speaking. That is when you begin to stutter, for instance. One could very metaphorically say, there is some stuttering there, around the hands.
 _ The Artist and His Mother (152x127cm; 390x327pix, 43kb) “pink” version _ detail 1 half~length mother and son _ detail 2 son head and shoulders _ detail 3 mother head and shoulders
 _ The Artist and His Mother (61x48cm; 390x310pix, 46kb) preliminary drawing
Composition (1939, 76x91cm; 400x486pix, 55kb _ ZOOM to 800x972pix, 578kb _ ZOOM+ to 1836x2230pix, 2617kb)
Organization (1936, 126x152cm; 418x500pix, 24kb)
Painting (1937, 97x122cm)
Garden in Sochi (1941, 112x158cm) _ This is the most famous version of a series, of which the number is uncertain. Gorky described the paintings as drawing thematic elements from his father's garden, where he often witnessed his mother and other village women rubbing their breasts on the rock beneath a sacred tree. This holy tree was decorated with strips of cloth, torn from the clothing of passersby and attached in homage. The first of the series shows a still recognizable, bare-breasted figure, with a butterfly overhead, the trunk of a tree in the upper center, and what appear to be pennants of cloth in the upper right. The paintings gradually grow more abstract as the series progresses, as Gorky incorporated the appearance of automatic drawing, which he had been exposed to in the Surrealist circles of André Breton, with his biomorphic abstraction of natural subjects. Although Gorky's flat, metamorphic shapes are heavily indebted to Miró, this series marks a breakthrough, a step away from a style modeled after Picasso. Furthermore, the series allows Gorky's strong drawing skills to show through in his precise edges, strong, thin lines, and vibrant colors.
–- Calendars
–- The Liver is the Cock's Comb(1944) _ This painting contains many veiled references to Gorky's life and history, while it simultaneously creates visual puns and double meanings that function on many levels. The liver is often referred to in ancient texts as the center for passion, instead of the heart. The “cock's comb” is both the headdress, and a kind of feathered genitalia for the figure on the right, becoming a dual sign of the mind and body, both of which are incorporated in the process of painting. The vanity of the headdress and an excessive pride in masculinity are both lightly mocked as signs of the artist's ego (the cock's comb), while intimating in a much more serious vein that living itself is vanity (the "liver" meaning "one who lives"). In a letter to his sister describing this painting, Gorky claimed that he was repossessing in his art "our beautiful Armenia which we lost." The paintings of this period also all contain references to his wife and child, who were immensely important to the artist. Thus Gorky disguises figures and images from his life, describing them with flowing lines that remain independent from the brilliant, voluptuous color. What appears on the canvas as a spontaneous explosion of line and color is actually a carefully premeditated and highly symbolic collection of images from a turbulent, emotional life.
–- Abstraction With Artist's Materials (1934, 66x25cm)
–- In the Garden
–- Mannequin
Nighttime, Enigma, and Nostalgia (1932 drawing, 61x79cm)
Painter and Model aka The Creation Chamber (1931 lithograph, 29x25cm; 416x375pix, 55kb)
Drawing (1946, 49x64cm)
—(060719)
^ Born on 21 July 1858: Lovis Corinth, German painter, etcher, lithographer, and writer who died on 12 July 1925.
— He grew up on his family’s farm and tannery in East Prussia. As a child he showed interest in art, taking informal lessons in drawing from a local carpenter and caricaturing his primary school teachers. Corinth’s father sent him to secondary school in the nearby city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad), where he lived with his widowed aunt. A superstitious woman fond of story-telling, she possessed what Corinth later described as a coarse temperament and an unrestrained, ‘demonic’ humor. These qualities and his aunt’s bohemian acquaintances, including fortune-tellers and soothsayers, fascinated the young Corinth, accustomed to his more reserved parents. In this environment Corinth began to develop the rich imagination and love of anecdote that came to play such an important role in the evolution of his art.
     Corinth spent almost the entirety of his training and career in Munich and Berlin. However, from 1884 to 1887 the artist — who aspired to be a history painter — went to Paris to train at the Académie Julian under the two celebrated painters, Tony Robert-Fleury and Adolphe William Bouguereau. Their teaching focused on life drawing — an approach that was particularly suited to the large figural compositions of history paintings.
— Born in Tapiau, East Prussia. 1876-80 studied at the K-10nigsberg Academy, then from 1880 at Munich under Loefftz. 1884-1887 a student of Bouguereau at the Académie Julian in Paris. Influenced by Rembrandt, Hals and Rubens. In the next years in Königsberg and then Munich active mainly as a painter of portraits and nudes, but also of occasional religious compositions. Moved in 1901 to Berlin where he became with Liebermann and Slevogt one of the leaders of German Impressionism. First one-man exhibition in 1913 organised by Paul Cassirer in the rooms of the Berlin Secession and in 1915 was made President of the Secession. Suffered partial paralysis as the result of a stroke in 1911, his later work becoming more agitated and expressionistic, with frenzied brushstrokes. From 1918 spent the summers in Urfeld by the Walchensee (Bavaria), where he painted a number of landscapes. Died in Zandvoort, Holland.
— The students of Corinth included Martin Bloch, August Macke, Ewald Mataré, Oskar Moll, Lasar Segall, Jacob Steinhardt, August Zamoyski.

LINKS
Ecce Homo
Samson Blinded
Das trojanische Pferd
Die Versuchung des heil. Antonius nach Gustave Flaubert (1908, 135x200cm) _ As well as portraits, still lifes and landscapes, Corinth painted many mythological and religious subjects throughout his career. This work is closely based on an episode in La tentation de Saint-Antoine of Flaubert [1821-1880], in which Saint Anthony is tempted by the Queen of Sheba. She appears before him with a train of exotic attendants, including an elephant, camels and women astride piebald horses. Professional models posed for Corinth, including a wrestler for the figure of Saint Anthony. Corinth frequently painted several versions of his subjects, often years apart. His first version of this theme was painted in 1897 and is more conventional, depicting an aged hermit tormented by naked women.
Walchensee-Panorama (1924; 600x1204pix)
Kreuzabnahme (1895; 600x756pix)
Die Familie des Malers Fritz Rumpf (1901; 600x768pix)
Inntal-Landschaft (1910; 600x804pix)
Großes Stilleben mit der Frau des Künstlers, Geburtstagsbild (1911; 600x804pix)
Nude Girl (1886, 76x64cm; 2205x1857pix)
13 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia
32 images at ARC50 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
124 images at Bildindex mostly monochrome prints
—(060716)

Died on a 21 July:


^ 2002 Esphyr Slobodkina-Urquhart, Siberian-born on 22 September 1908, US Abstract painter and sculptor, author-illustrator of children's books:Caps for Sale (1940, about a cap peddler and a band of mischievous monkeys who steal his caps), The Wonderful Feast (1955), The Clock (1956), Little Dog Lost, Little Dog Found (1956), Behind the Dark Window Shade (1958), The Little Dinghy (1958), Pinky and the Petunias (1959), Moving Day for the Middlemans (1960), Jack and Jim (1961), The Long Island Ducklings (1961), Pezzo the Peddler and the Thirteen Silly Thieves (1970), Pezzo the Peddler and the Circus Elephant (1967) = Circus Caps for Sale (2002), The Flame, the Breeze, and the Shadow (1969), A Portable Library of Slobodkina Children’s Books (1988).
Deus ex Machina (1960, 116x133cm; 650x749pix, 40kb)
Under the Eves of Old Hoboken (1965, 131x150cm; 662x750pix, 46kb)
–- S#> Abstract Composition (1950, 31x54cm; 492x900pix, 306kb)
— different /S#*>Abstract Composition (x800pix, 44kb) monochrome brown — (060716)

^ 1964 Jean Fautrier, French painter, printmaker, illustrator, and sculptor, born on 16 May 1898. — {Il faut trier Fautrier?}— An illegitimate child, he was given his mother’s surname but was brought up by his grandmother. On the death of both his father and grandmother in 1908 he joined his mother in London, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1912. Finding the teaching too traditional, he left to enrol at the Slade School of Fine Art, which had a reputation for being more avant-garde, though he was again disappointed. He then decided to work alone and devoted himself to painting, concentrating on nudes and still-lifes. He also regularly visited the Tate Gallery, where he was particularly impressed by the works of Turner. In 1917 he was called up for the French Army, but because of his poor health he was soon transferred to the auxiliary corps. Suffering from a pulmonary complaint, he lived in the Tyrol from 1920 to 1921 and was finally discharged from the army in 1921. — LINKS
Promenade du dimanche (1921)
La Juive abstraction (1943)
C'est comme tu voudras abstraction (1958, 98x146cm)
L'écorché représentation non figurative (1945, 80x115cm)
Nu noir (1926, 117x89cm)
Femme douce représentation non figurative (1946, 146x97cm)
Lilienstauss (1926)
Swirls (557x902pix, 294kb)
— /S#*>35 images at Sotheby's
Old Man in a Chair
^ 1888 Henri de Braekeleer, Antwerp Flemish painter born in 1840. — The breakthrough of Realism in Belgium took place in about 1850. The lifelike depiction of everyday life reached a peak in the work of the Antwerp master painter Henri de Braekeleer. His intimate interiors (< The Old Man in the Chair) and picturesque townscapes (Tenierssquare in Antwerp) are imbued with an atmosphere of silence and solitude. — {Did Braekeleer break clear of certain traditions? It seem so.}— Relative of Ferdinand de Braekeleer [1792-1883]? of Adrien Ferdinand de Braekeleer [1818-1904]?
Vieux Bibelots (38x56cm)

1886 Karl Theodor von Piloty, German painter born (main coverage) on 01 October 1826. — (050930)

^ 1873 Louis-Charles-Auguste Couder, French painter born on 01 April 1790. A student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault and David, he exhibited for the first time in the Salon of 1814 with The Death of General Moreau. In 1817 The Levite of Ephraïm was widely praised by the critics. In 1818 he received his first official commission, for the decoration of the vaulted ceiling of the vestibule to the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre. Couder’s reputation as a history painter was based on the commissions he executed for the Musée Historique in Versailles. In addition to many portraits, he produced large paintings, in which rich coloring was combined with precise academic drawing: for example, La Bataille de Lawfeld (1836) and Le Siège de Yorktown (1837), both painted for the Galerie des Batailles; La Fédération du 14 Juillet 1790 (1844); and Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1848), which was inspired very directly by the unfinished Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1791) of David {representing the event of 20 Jun 1789 and also imitated in Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1791; 460x701pix, 82kb) by Merson [21 May 1846 – 13 Nov 1920]. L'Ouverture des États Généraux à Versailles le 5 Mai 1789 (1840) is a good illustration of his ability to present a historical reconstruction containing a large number of figures without monotony, thanks to his talent for portraiture and the skilful disposition of light. — Relative? of Gustave-Émile Couder [1845-1903]?
The Death of Masaccio (1817, 45x38 cm)

^ 1761 Louis Galloche, Parisian painter born (main coverage) on 24 August 1670.


Born on a 21 July:


^ 1882 David Davidovich Burliuk, Ukrainian Futurist and Neo-Primitivist painter, book illustrator, publicist, and author, who died on 15 January 1967 in Long Island, New York.
Vasily Kamensky (600x700pix, 110kb_ ZOOM to 1200x1400pix, 1105kb) _ Kamensky [1864-1961] was a poet, an early member of Burliuk's cube-futurist group. Probably his most important work is Tango With Cows (1914). — 20 Feb 1914 photo of Kamensky
— /S#*>Hommage à Cézanne (1318x900pix, 189kb)
Geisha (1921; 480x800pix, 171kb _ ZOOM to 600x999pix, 304kb)
Revolution (1917; 600x763pix, 111kb)
— (Still life of flowers, sea shell, Don Quijote book, in a seaside landscape) (690x534pix, 222kb)
Portrait of the Mother (1913; 600x473pix, 126kb)
Banya aka Taking Bath (1914; 600x463pix, 79kb)
Time (1915, 80x75cm; 498x425pix, 90kb)
Untitled (1908, 18x20cm; 480x452pix, 37kb)
Wind (31x31cm; 480x468pix, 88kb) abstract
Cover of the book David Burliuk (with a 1912 picture by him; 31kb)
9 images at Artnet — (060617).

^ 1875 Oskar Moll, German painter and collector who died on 19 August 1947. — Husband of sculptor “Marg” Moll [02 Aug 1884 – 15 Mar 1977] — After studying natural science, briefly, he took private drawing and painting lessons from Lovis Corinth and others (1897) in Berlin. From 1898 to 1906 he traveled widely {but not necessarily wildly}, and in 1907 he moved to Paris. Through contact with the German painter Hans Purrmann and the group of artists centred around the Café du Dôme, he participated in the formation of the Académie Matisse. From then on his rather solid impressionistic style, for example Côte d’Azur, remained the basis of his work, with only brief experiments with Cubism. After his return to Berlin, he acquired a fine collection of modern French art. By 1914 he had the largest collection of works by Matisse in Germany; it was eventually sold in Berlin. — Born in Brieg near Breslau, Oskar Moll belongs to that group of German artists who early on had leanings towards French painting. After being trained in Berlin, primarily under Lovis Corinth, Moll went to Paris in 1907. There he joined forces with Hans Purrmann, Rudolf Levy and other contemporaries to found the Académie Matisse and became a member of the legendary circle of artists at the Café du Dôme. Never wavering in his lifelong allegiance to Henri Matisse, Moll became one of the first Germans to collect the work of that celebrated artist. The Master's influence and especially Moll's encounter with Paul Cézanne's work would shape his own early efforts. Appointed professor at the Breslau Art Academy in 1918, Moll became its director in 1926. He worked again in Berlin from 1936 but, branded as 'degenerate' in 1937, he was forbidden to show any work. Withdrawing to his house on the shores of Lake Hallensee, Moll turned to painting nudes to supplement the landscapes and still lifes which had hitherto been his favorite genres but still painting in a style blending Impressionism and Cubism. His house in Berlin was destroyed in an air raid in 1944 and with it numerous pictures and sculptures. Although his health was deteriorating, he was showing work at exhibitions by the time the war ended. Oskar Moll died in Berlin. — Relative? of the Austrian Carl Moll [1861-1945]? of the Dutch Evert Moll [1878-1955]?
–- S#> Coastline (38x46cm; 768x932pix, 137kb)
Südfranzösische Landschaft (1919, 50x61cm; 325x400pix, 20kb)
Blumenstrauß mit Fensterausblick (1925, 100x75cm; 397x302pix, 43kb)
Koenigsalleebrücke (1919; 258x302pix, 77kb)
Schwarze Vase mit ziehenden Wolken (1942; 221x301pix, 55kb)
Garten im Schnee (1917; 341x282pix, 84kb)

1870 Emil Orlik [–28 Sep 1932], Czech painter, etcher, and lithographer. He lived and worked in Prague (then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), where he was born, and also in Austria and in Germany.
Zinnien (38x40cm; 619x650pix, 529kb _ .ZOOM to 1857x1950pix, 231kb) —(080720)

^ 1858 Alfred Henry O'Keeffe [–27 Jul 1941], New Zealand painter and art teacher.
Sergeant D F Brown, VC (1922, 138x105cm; 1805x1270pix, 3656kb _ .ZOOM to cropped 2744x1531pix, 242kb) yellowed and, in parts, seemingly misdewed _ This is a posthumous portrait of Donald Forrester Brown [1890 – 01 Oct 1916], who enlisted in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in October 1915, and sailed with the 9th Reinforcements that arrived in Egypt in January 1916. He was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously for showing "conspicuous bravery and determination in attack" on 15 September 1916, during the Battle of the Somme. He charged and destroyed enemy machine-gun positions on three occassions, while under heavy artillery fire. He was killed in action in France. —(080720)

^ 1856 Rudolf Otto von Ottenfeld, Austrian (South Tyrol?) artist who died on 26 July 1913. Il étudia à Vienne à partir de 1874. En 1879 il étudia auprès de Léopold Carl Müller pendant 3 ans. En 1886-1887 il voyagea sur les lieux de combat de la guerre russo-turque en compagnie de Franz Roubaud. Il alla certainement jusqu'à Constantinople.
Ansicht einer Hafenstadt mit Booten (80x120cm; 619x940pix, 61kb)
–- S#> Balkan Street Scene (1885, 22x33cm; 583x900pix, 98kb)
–- S#> An Egyptian Merchant's Stall (1891, 38x50cm; 378x510pix, 42kb) _ The scene is near the Tomb of Mehu at Saqqara in Egypt.
Backgammon (1890; 246x344pix 57kb)
Austrian Cavalryman and Infantryman (975x658pix, 243kb)
Austrian Cavalryman (965x660pix, 193kb)
Gallop (971x670pix, 197kb)
Austrian Soldiers, Invalid, and Children Dressed as Soldiers (946x664pix, 220kb)
On the Shooting Range (931x655pix, 206kb)
Landmine Detection (956x661pix, 256kb)
87 images of Austrian soldiers color lithographs for Die österreichische Armee von 1700 bis 1867 (1895) by Oscar Teuber [1852-1901].

^ 1800 Ignaz Raffalt, Austrian landscape, genre, and portrait painter who died on 06 July 1857. Studierte an der Wr. Akad., zunächst in der Stmk. und in Kä. nur nebenberufl. künstlerisch tätig, ab 1840 in Wien. In seinen frühen Jahren v. a. Porträt- und Genremaler, widmete sich später der Darstellung stimmungsvoller Landschaften aus den ö. Alpen- und Donaugegenden — Der Sohn eines Gastwirtes, der ursprünglich Kaufmann werden sollte, malte jedoch bereits während seiner Lehre und studierte schließlich 1820–1825 an der Wiener Akademie unter Anton Petter und Johann Peter Krafft. Zugleich besuchte er auch die Landschaftsklasse von Josef Mössmer. 1833 übernahm Raffalt, der auch passionierter Kunstsammler und -händler war, die väterliche Gastwirtschaft in Murau, malte aber weiterhin Porträts und Genrebilder und veranstaltete 1837 in Graz eine erste sehr erfolgreiche Ausstellung. 1848 wurde der Künstler Mitglied der Wiener Akademie und stellte ab 1851 regelmäßig im Österreichischen Kunstverein aus. Bestimmten bis etwa 1840 – das Jahr seiner Übersiedlung nach Wien – vorwiegend Genremotive sein Schaffen, so wandte sich Ignaz Raffalt ab diesem Zeitpunkt bevorzugt der Landschaft und ihren vielfältigen atmosphärischen Erscheinungen zu. — Father of Johann Gualbert Raffalt [1836-1865].
Selbstbildnis (drawing; 395x261pix, 31kb)
Abendstimmung (1854, 82x120cm; 748x1109pix, 71kb)
Abendstimmung am Bauernhof (1855, 48x64cm; 338x450pix, 84kb) _ Diese Gemälde ist exemplarisch für die verfeinerte Landschaftsmalerei des Künstlers ab den 1840er Jahren, in der atmosphärische Ereignisse und Stimmungen oft zum eigentlichen Bildinhalt wurden. Auch unsere „Abendstimmung am Bauernhof“ wird dominiert von einer eindrucksvollen Gegenlicht-Situation eines zur Neige gehenden Tages. Die goldgelbe Sonne beginnt sich im Firmament in zarte Blau-Töne aufzulösen und schimmert vibrierend durch das feine Geäst der hochgewachsenen Bäume. Trotz des Zwielichtes ist das Bauerngehöft im Vordergrund mit sämtlichen liebevollen Details in fein abgestuftem Couleur wiedergegeben. Reizvoll belebt wird diese stimmungsvolle, sehr fein gemalte Szenerie durch eine Geschirr putzende Mutter mit zwei Kindern, sowie einen heimkehrenden, seine kleine Viehherde vor sich hertreibenden Bauern. Gemälde wie dieses waren in ihrer „neuartigen“ Landschaftsauffassung wegweisend für die nachfolgende Generation von Landschaftsmalern, die als österreichische „Stimmungsimpressionisten“ berühmt wurden.
Jägerromanze (1840, 36x50cm; 329x450pix, 62kb) _ Diese Gemälde ist ein schönes Beispiel für die reife Genremalerei des Künstlers, deren Motive und Bildaufbau – auf sehr eigenständige und unverwechselbare Weise - immer wieder die niederländische Malerei des 17. Jahrhunderts reflektieren. Umgeben von Bergen und dichter Natur befindet sich in einem Tal eine einsame kleine Siedlung, die durch zwei Bäuernhäuser und eine Viehtränke charakterisiert ist. Bei einsetzender Dämmerung rasten im Vordergrund zwei Jäger an einem Tisch und umwerben die schöne junge Bäuerin. Die reizvolle ländliche Szene besticht durch die altmeisterlich feine Pinselhandschrift, mit der jedes Detail liebevoll geschildert ist, sowie durch die sorgfältig modulierte Farbigkeit.

^ 1669 Hendrik Govaerts (or Goovaerts), Flemish artist who died on 10 February 1720. — Relative? of Abraham Govaerts [1581-1642]?
The Bloodletting (258x300pix, 16kb) _ Blick in eine bürgerliche Stube, in der sich Gelehrte und Mediziner über einen sitzenden Kranken beugen.
Carnival in a Venetian Palace (70x87cm; 425x530pix, 263kb) image with very poor contrast (as if smoke or a thick fog filled the room).
–- A Painter's Studio (102x122cm; 489x588pix, 29kb) — (060719)

^ 1611 (baptized) Jan van Balen, Flemish artist who died on 13 (14?) March 1654, one of the three painter sons of Hendrik van Balen I [1575 – 17 Jul 1632] . — {Y a-t-il quelque chose d'emballant dans Balen?}
Athene Pallas and the Muses (483x612pix, 77kb)
Allegory of Hearing (420x533pix, 82 Kb)
Allegory of Music (420x585pix, 42 Kb)

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