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ART “4” “2”-DAY  17 July v.9.80
^ Born on 17 July 1797: Hippolyte “Paul” Delaroche, French Academic painter who died on 04 November 1856.
— Born in Paris, Delaroche studied under Gros, and specialized in romantic historical subjects such as the Death of Queen Elizabeth (1827), Jeanne d'Arc en Prison (1824), Napoléon Crossing the Alps (1850; ZOOMable), Princes in the Tower (1830), and the .Execution of Lady Jane Grey (1834).
      From this period until 1841 he was engaged on his grandest work — the mural Apotheosis of Art in the École des Beaux-Arts, in which he was aided by Armitage and others of his students.
      Delaroche is best known today for his painting La Jeune Martyre (1855; ZOOMable).
— Delaroche was born in Paris. His father was an expert who had made a fortune, to some extent, by negotiating and cataloguing, buying and selling. He was proud of his son’s talent, and able to provide for his artistic education. The master selected was Gros, then painting life-size historical scenes, and surrounded by many students. Deroche's first exhibited picture was a large one, Josabeth saving Joas (1822). This picture led to his acquaintance with Géricault and Delacroix, with whom he remained on the most friendly terms, the three forming the central group of a numerous body of historical painters, such as perhaps never before lived in one locality and at one time.
     From 1822 the record of his life is to be found in the successive works coming from his hand. In 1838 and 1843 he visited Italy, where his father-in-law, Horace Vernet, was director of the French Academy. Delaroche's studio in Paris was in the rue Mazarine. He treated his subjects in a manner that was popular with those who held certain views of history, sometimes controversial. Yet they had a romantic appeal to the general public. They were painted with a solid, smooth surface, found also in the works of Vernet, Scheffer, Leopold Robert, and Ingres. This was a rejection of the technical charm of texture and variety of handling which the English school had inherited as a tradition from the time of Reynolds. But it made the pictures more easily appreciated by the general public, more interested in the history, scene in nature, or object depicted, than in the technical skill of the painter.
      The scenes painted by Delaroche were not always historically correct. Cromwell lifting the Coffin-lid and looking at the Body of Charles is an incident based on an improbable tradition; but The King in the Guard-Room, with villainous roundhead soldiers blowing tobacco smoke in his patient face, is an attack on the Puritans; and La Mort de la Reine Elizabeth (1828; ZOOMable) on the ground, like a she-dragon no one dares to touch, is sensationalist; while The Execution of Lady Jane Grey is represented as taking place in a dungeon, which was not the case. But little matters this slight inaccuracy, compared with the admirable treatment of Lady Jane, with bandaged sight, feeling for the block (detail, ZOOMable), her maids covering their faces. On the other hand, Strafford led to Execution (1836; ZOOMable), when Laud stretches his lawn-covered arms out of the small high window of his cell to give him a blessing as he passes along the corridor, is perfect; and the splendid scene of Richelieu in his gorgeous barge, preceding the boat containing Cinq-Mars and De Thou carried to execution by their guards, is perhaps the most dramatic semi-historical work ever done. The Princes in the Tower is a complete invention; and La Jeune Martyre (1855) floating dead on the Tiber is so pathetic that any criticism would be callous. As authentic history, again, no picture can surpass L'Assassinat du duc de Guise à Blois (1834; ZOOMable). The expression of the murdered man stretched out by the side of the bed, the conspirators all massed together towards the door and far from the body, reveal Delaroche's careful research as well as his insight into human nature. This work was exhibited in Delaroche's heyday, 1835; and in the same year he exhibited the Head of an Angel, a study of Horace Vernet’s young daughter Louise, his love for whom was the absorbing passion of his life, and from the shock of whose death, in 1845, it is said he never quite recovered. By far his finest productions after her death are of the most serious character, a sequence of small elaborate pictures of incidents in the Passion. Two of these, The Virgin and the other Maries, with the apostles Peter and John, within a nearly dark apartment, hearing the crowd accompanying Christ on his way to Calvary, and Saint John accompanying the Virgin home again after all is over, are beyond all praise as exhibiting the divine story from a simply human point of view. They are pure and elevated, and also dramatic and painful.
      Delaroche was not moved by ideals, nor did he pretend to be. His sound but hard-headed approach allowed no mystery to intervene between him and his work, which was always intelligible to the millions, so that he avoided all the waste of energy expended by painters who try to be poets on canvas. Thus it is that essentially the same treatment was applied by him to the characters of distant historical times, the founders of the Christian religion, and the real people of his own day, such as Napoleon at Fontainebleau, or Napoleon at Saint-Helena, or Marie Antoinette leaving the Convention after being sentenced to death.
      In 1837 Delaroche received the commission for the great picture, 27 meters long, in the hemicycle of the lecture theatre of the École des Beaux Arts. This represents the great artists of the modern ages assembled in groups on either hand of a central elevation of white marble steps, on the topmost of which are three thrones filled by the architects and sculptors of the Parthenon. To supply the female element in this vast composition he introduced the genii or muses, who symbolize or reign over the arts, leaning against the balustrade of the steps, beautiful and queenly figures with a certain antique perfection of form, but not showing any remarkable or profound expression. The portrait figures are nearly all accurate and admirable. This great and successful work is on the wall itself, an inner wall however, and is painted in oil. It was finished in 1841. In 1855 a fire inflicted considerable damage, which Delaroche immediately started repairing; but he died before he could finish, which was then done by Robert-Fleury.
      Delaroche had perhaps an even greater influence in person than by his works. Though short and not muscular, he impressed every one as rather tall; his physiognomy was accentuated and firm, and his fine forehead gave him the air of a minister of state.
— Delaroche's students included Tony Robert-Fleury, Gustave Boulanger, Gérôme, Louis Gallait, François Gignoux, Ernest Hébert, Charles Landelle.

Self-Portrait (1838 drawing; _ ZOOMable)
–- Pierre le Grand (119x88cm; quarter-size 1208x984pix, 164kb — .ZOOM to half-size 2416x1968pix, 630kb)
–- Cromwell looking at Charles I in his Coffin (1831; main detail 883x1187pix, 128kb — .ZOOM to full picture; 2023x2446pix, 627kb)
–- Assassinat du duc de Guise (1834; 769x1182pix, 129kb — .ZOOM to 1537x2694pix, 838kb)
–- L'ultime adieu des Girondins le 31 octobre 1793 (1856; detail 941x1737pix, 199kb — .ZOOM to full picture; 1555x2768pix, 425kb)
L'enfance de Pico della Mirandola (1842; _ ZOOMable)
— Hemicycle de l'École des Beaux-Arts: Gauche (ZOOMable to 1210x1837pix, 537kb) _ Centre (ZOOMable) _ Droite (ZOOMable) _ détail (extrème gauche) (ZOOMable)
Cardinal Mazarin Dying (1830; _ ZOOMable) _ (about Jules Mazarin [14 Jul 1602 – 09 Mar 1661])
Herodias (1843; _ ZOOMable)
Marquis de Pastoret (1829)
Strafford (1836)
Head of a Camoldine Monk (1834; _ ZOOMable)
Saint Veronica (1865; _ ZOOMable)
Charles de Remusat (1845; _ ZOOMable)
Girl in a Basin (1845; _ ZOOMable)
A Family Scene (1847; _ ZOOMable)
Virgin and Child (1844; _ ZOOMable)
Cromwell and Charles I (1831; _ ZOOMable)
Cardinal Richelieu (1829; _ ZOOMable) left view — same situation, right view Cardinal Richelieu (1829; _ ZOOMable) _ (about Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu [05 Sep 1585 – 04 Dec 1642])
Mother and Children (ZOOMable)
Resting on the Banks of the Tiber (1840; 575x721pix, 96kb)
^Died on 17 July 1632: Hendrick van Balen I, Antwerp Flemish painter and stained-glass designer born in 1575.
— He was in Italy in the 1590s. His specialty was mythological scenes painted in the highly finished manner of Jan Brueghel, one of the numerous artists with whom he collaborated. Van Balen specialized in human figures and was often asked to add staffage to landscapes painted by his colleagues. He had three painter sons and was a popular teacher.
— Despite humble beginnings as the son of a dry goods merchant, Hendrik van Balen was probably well-educated, for on his death he left numerous books in different languages. He may have been trained by one of Antwerp's Italianate painters, or he may have absorbed the influence of Italian painting on a trip he took to Italy between 1595 and 1600. Van Balen became a master in Antwerp's Guild of Saint Luke about 1592; from 1602 he is recorded regularly, especially as a teacher. For thirty years he ran a successful studio, counting among his students Anthony van Dyck and Frans Snyders; three of his sons became painters. Van Balen painted numerous large altarpieces, but he is best known for his cabinet pictures, often depicting mythological or allegorical subjects in which nudes lounge in paradise-like settings. He also painted landscapes, usually small in scale and painted on copper or oak. He often provided figures for landscapes by his friend Jan Brueghel the Elder, as well as for Jan Brueghel the Younger, Snyders, and Frans Francken. Van Balen's work has sometimes been ascribed to Jan the Elder.
— His approximate date of birth can be deduced from a document dated 28 August 1618, in which he gives his age as 43. His father was a merchant of oil, candles and groceries; yet it seems likely that Hendrik’s formal education was good, as on his death he left a considerable number of books in different languages. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1592–1593. Van Mander stated that Adam van Noort was van Balen’s teacher; the name of Marten de Vos has also been suggested. Between 1595 and 1600 van Balen traveled to Italy, presumably visiting Rome, Venice, and other cities. Although there is no record of his travels, on his return to Antwerp he became a member of the Guild of the Romanists, so it is clear he had visited Rome. Once back in Antwerp, van Balen collaborated with Abel Grimmer on a View of Antwerp (1600), depicting God, Christ and the Virgin in clouds above Grimmer’s cityscape. From 1602 onwards van Balen’s name appears regularly in the records of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, especially as a teacher. He married in 1605, and three of his sons became painters: Jan van Balen [bapt. 21 Jul 1611 – 14 March 1654], Gaspard van Balen [bapt. 12 May 1615 – 07 March 1641] and Hendrik van Balen II [16 Jan 1623 – 02 March 1661]. His daughter Maria married Theodoor van Thulden. Van Balen ran a successful studio for 30 years and had many students, including Anthony Van Dyck in 1609 (the same year he was head dean of the Guild), and Frans Snyders, and Gerard Seghers. In 1613 van Balen traveled to the northern Netherlands with Rubens and Jan Breughel the elder; otherwise he remained in Antwerp.

The Judgement of Paris (1599, 173kb) [see The Judgement of Paris by many other artists]
The Holy Trinity (1625)
The Abduction of Europa (50x74cm; 511x768pix, 105kb)
Wings of an Altarpiece (1620, 270x85cm each) _ The two panels, Virgin and Child with Angels and John the Baptist rebuking King Herod, served originally as the shutters of a triptych. The centre panel was Saint John Preaching to the Multitude. The left wing shows angels preparing Jesus' bath. One of them is about to take the Infant from his mother's arms, while another carries a basin and a third angel a pair of towels. Other little angels look down from a cloudy sky. The charming scene prefigures the Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist. By using such a familiar scene from everyday life, the artist was able to intensify the spiritual appeal to the ordinary viewer. The scene in the right wing is much more dramatic. Inside a classical palace, John the Baptist rebukes Herod Antipas, the King of Palestine, for his adulterous marriage to Herodias, who, together with a lady-in-waiting, witnesses the confrontation. The preacher duly paid for his accusations with his life.
Landscape with Ceres (Allegory of Earth) (1635, 53x81cm) landscape by Jan Brueghel the Younger; with figures by van Balen. _ Shown separately or together, as in Landscape with Allegories of the Four Elements (52x72cm; 512x718pix, 118kb), the four elements were a popular subject for Jan Brueghel the Younger and his collaborator Hendrik van Balen. Here earth is represented by the goddess Ceres, who is surrounded with a satyr, putti, and a figure holding a sheaf of wheat. Ceres, whose name means “creator,” was the goddess of agriculture, worshiped over a large part of ancient Italy Together Jan the Younger and Van Balen often painted the four elements, which had also been part of the repertoire of Jan the Younger’s father, Jan Brueghel the Elder. Brueghel the Elder taught his son the lush, decorative, yet highly detailed landscape and still life style seen in this painting. Van Balen, one of Jan the Younger’s most consistent collaborators, was known for his attractive nudes. This panel was probably one of his latest works; he had begun painting figures for the Brueghel family years before, working with his friend Jan the Elder in addition to collaborating with Frans Snyders and Frans Francken II.
^ >Born on 17 July 1871: Lyonel Charles Adrian Feininger, US Cubist and Expressionist painter whose paintings and teaching activities at the Bauhaus brought a new compositional discipline and lyrical use of color into the predominantly Expressionistic art of Germany. He died on 13 January 1956, in New York City, where he was also born.
Biografie (auf Deutsch)
— An abstract modernist who in 1919 with Walter Gropius was part of the founding of the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany where he stayed for the next six years. He completed a number of abstract architectural works and in 1921 had a joint exhibition with Paul Klee at the Weimar Museum. He was also an accomplished pianist and composed fugues, which reflected his art that explored interrelationships, synchronization, and overlapping in the building of an overall sense of order.
— The US-born painter and printmaker Lyonel Feininger had a career unlike that of any other US artist of his generation–the first generation of US modernists that included Alfred Maurer (born 1868), John Marin (born 1870) and Marsden Hartley (born 1877), all of whom Feininger outlived. Feininger was himself born in New York into a German-American musical family, and it was to study music (violin and composition) that he went off to Germany at the age of 16. It wasn’t until half a century later–in 1937, when his paintings were included in the infamous Degenerate Art exhibition in Munich–that he quit Germany for good and re-established himself in the city of his birth.
      Before he was known as a modern painter, however, Feininger had achieved considerable success as a caricaturist and cartoonist, drawing political cartoons for German newspapers and then a well-known comic strip for the Chicago Tribune. It was his contract with the Tribune that enabled him to spend two years in Paris (1906-08), where the influence of Cubism and Futurism–especially the Orphic Cubism of Robert Delaunay–became the basis of his later work as a painter on both sides of the Atlantic.
     After the artist’s early work, comes the period in which elements of caricature and folklore are gradually but decisively supplanted by Cubist form and the aesthetics of abstraction. For reasons beyond the artist’s control, much of his early work as a painter remained unknown in the US until the mid-1980’s. For it was only then–and after considerable legal wrangling–that the Feininger estate was able to retrieve the large quantity of Feininger’s early oeuvre that he left in the safekeeping of a German friend when the artist and his wife (who was Jewish) fled Nazi Germany for New York in 1937. That important body of work was shown for the first time in the US in 1985. One of these paintings is The Carnival in Gelmeroda (1908). Feininger’s principal motif in the painting–the church in the center of the village of Gelmeroda–was subsequently transformed into the language of Cubism. Feininger often returned to this motif in the years that followed the completion of the Carnival painting, and these drawings give us a detailed account of his development in this crucial period of his work.
      Feininger was an artist of far more versatile talents than he is usually given credit for. His is, after all, one of the few 20th-century oeuvres in which the modernist movements in Germany, France and the United States live on remarkably easy terms with each other. In Paris, he was on friendly terms with Delaunay; at the Bauhaus, he was close to Klee and Kandinsky (though he loathed László Moholy-Nagy and lamented his influence); and in the United States, he developed an important friendship with Mark Tobey, with whom he carried on an extensive correspondence. The young artist who entertained newspaper readers in Germany and the U.S. with political cartoons and comic strips was also the man who created the signature image — the woodcut of the so-called Cathedral of Socialism — for Walter Gropius’ first Bauhaus manifesto. Still later, after his return to New York, he created a memorable series of mystical Cubist paintings of Manhattan skyscrapers–paintings in which the vertical cityscape, newly discovered after half a century abroad, is depicted in highly poetic crystalline structures of light. They remain some of the most beautiful paintings ever inspired by the Manhattan skyline.

Self-Portrait (1915, 100x77cm) [looks angry]
–- Hopfgarten (1920, 64x82cm; 766x980pix, 101kb _ .ZOOM to 1530x1960pix, 446kb)
–- Grosse-Kromsdorf I (1915, 99x80cm; 800x634pix, 42kb; .ZOOM to 2000x1585pix, 277kb) _ Born in New York City, Lyonel Feininger lived in Germany, his parent's homeland, for most of his life. After a brief stay in Paris in 1911, Feininger embraced Cubism, declaring that "What one sees must be transformed in the mind and crystallized." However, he preferred to call his style "prism-ism," saying it was "based upon the principle of monumentality." While living in Weimar in 1913, Feininger began exploring such nearby villages as Grosse-Kromsdorf, the subject of this painting. Attracted to the town's medieval architecture, he spent hours studying its churches and other structures to find “the secret of their form.”
–- Untitled (mother and child in lane) (04 Sep 1909, 17x21cm; 900x1115pix, 192kb) hasty colored drawing made (in no more than 5 minutes probably) in the town of Korswandt on Usedom, the island off the Baltic coast, where Feininger spent the summers of 1909 and 1910. _ The pseudonymous Toulonel Burnles Awetan Einfinger has applied the power of negative thinking to this picture, resulting in
      _ Unentitled (2009; 900x1115pix, 196kb) which somehow doesn't seem so sketchy.
–- S#> Marktplatz (28 Aug 1925, 25x43cm; 850x1368pix, 233kb) monochrome hasty sketch
–- S#> Hohe Häuser V (March 1917, 32x23cm; 820x685pix, 224kb) _ Starting with Hohe Häuser I (1912) Feininger turned to pure architectural compositions.
–- S#> Draisinenfahrer (1910, 96x84cm; 900x795pix, 156kb) flat poster-like colors, no shading, no shadows, no rendering of depth _ It depicts fashionably dressed people pursuing outdoor activities. The elongated mannerist style of his works from this period reflects Feininger’s previous career in graphic art, incorporating its linear aesthetic into his oil paintings. Having spent the first fifteen years of his career as successful illustrator for periodicals in Berlin and Paris, Feininger only turned his attention to painting in 1907 at the age of 36, adapting one of his published cartoons into a composition in oil. With this new medium, he was able to take greater compositional risks, creating striking tonal contrasts and using daring color combinations in a similar manner to the Fauves. But Feininger would never completely abandon his allegiance to draftsmanship and increasingly emphasized its importance in his oil compositions over the next few years, many of which are now considered amongst the finest works of his career {which still leaves them behind the worst of most artists prior to him}.
     Feininger’s experience as a graphic artist gave him a creative advantage when it came to rendering dimension in his painting, as he was extraordinarily capable of conveying spatial depth without being reliant upon gradations of color or traditional rendering of perspective. In Draisinenfahrer he varies the scale and proportion of each figure in order to create the illusion of distance. Painted in bright monochrome pink, the background does not offer any clues as to the location of the scene we are witnessing, but rather offers a vibrant backdrop onto which the figures appear to be superimposed. Rather than depicting an event from everyday life, the artist has chosen here to represent an imaginary scene, depicting the figures in nineteenth-century costume and with old-fashioned bicycles. The women’s veils, bonnets, long dresses and gloves, and the men’s top hats and tailcoats add a romantic note to an otherwise everyday activity.
      The sport of cycling is a frequent subject in Feininger’s cartoons. An enthusiastic cyclist, always up-to-date on the latest technology, he found a public eager for drawings on this theme in such Berlin magazines as Das Narrenrad (1899) and Das Schnauferl. Blätter für Sporthumor (1907-1910). But his best achievements were his cartoons of cyclists. He is the psychologist of the bicycle and the sportsman, of the professional cyclist and the long-distance rider, indeed of all who use the machine to get around. He has translated this modern cultural artifact into cartoon. And how he sees the bicycle! Not as a simple construction in steel; this is almost a living being, drawn with love and delight, and with such penetration of all its qualities! Feininger’s satires on the doggedness of sport, that truly useless world, are among the best jokes we have on a sport that is in fact as useful as it seems meaningless in this exaggeration of it.
      Rendering the cyclists in bright color planes, and with exaggerated, elongated features typical of his early mannerist style, Feininger delights in representing each figure as a sort of caricature, a practice that was common in the medium of illustration. Through these pictorial devices of perspective and figural distortions, as well as eccentricities of color, the artist transforms an otherwise mundane scene into a world where the strange and the familiar are inextricably wound. Unlike the more serene, even macabre atmosphere of some of Feininger’s works from this period, with its almost dizzying palette and its playful subject matter, Draisinenfahrer is a joyful evocation of past times.
      When Feininger moved to the US in 1937, this painting and the next were among some 50 from his early œuvre that he left in the care of an associate in Quedlinburg, Germany. Although the artist made several futile attempts during his lifetime to have these works shipped from East Germany to his new residence in New York, it was not until 1984 that the pictures were finally returned to Feininger’s heirs in the United States.
–- S#> Diabolospielerinnen I (March 1909, 40x66cm; 900x1536pix, 273kb) flat colors, no rendering of depth. Now the auction house blah blah blah (it got the poster-like painting sold, below estimate, for £1'103'200 on 03 February 2004): This is one of Feininger’s rare and remarkable early works that combines the linear aesthetic of graphic art with the fluidity of oil paint. Having spent the first fifteen years of his career as a successful illustrator for periodicals in Berlin and Paris, Feininger only turned his attention to painting in 1907 at the age of 36, adapting one of his published cartoons into a composition in oil. With this new medium, he was able to take greater compositional risks, creating striking tonal contrasts and using daring color combinations in a similar manner to the Fauves. But Feininger would never completely abandon his allegiance to draftsmanship and increasingly emphasized its importance in his oil compositions over the next few years. Writing to his wife Julia in 1908 about his new series of paintings underway at his Berlin-Zehlendorf studio, he explained that he had become more adept as a painter, incorporating more readily the ‘impressionistic’ modes of execution that he had learned while working as a young illustrator in France: “My approach has become looser and is closer to my way of drawing again… for in the past three-and-a-half months here I have been through various stages, and now come back to my Paris style… It must be right for me to be returning to the way I naturally draw and perceive, for it gives me so much confidence. This time I am using color more energetically, and I have a number of pictures in the pipeline, dear God, they only need to be painted”. Over the course of the next decade, the artist completed several figural compositions in oil that are now considered some of the finest works of his career. As the focus of his paintings gradually shifted toward architecture, nothing that he would produce in later decades would even come close to the whimsical spirit of these early pictures.
      Feininger’s experience as a graphic artist gave him a creative advantage when it came to rendering dimension in his painting, as he was remarkably effective at conveying spatial depth without being reliant upon gradations of color or excessive details. In Diabolospielerinnen I he varies the scale and proportion of each figure in order to create the illusion of distance. Rendering only the path, some tree trunks and chairs, he relies on a paucity of visual cues to locate the given scene. The viewer is enticed to look at the composition in its entirety by the sweep of the curve in the gravel path, which leads the eye from the upper-right corner, across the upper register and then down toward the bottom center of the canvas. Despite the abstract leanings of this approach, Feininger maintains the continuity of the composition and creates a scene that is both visually engaging and formally sophisticated.
      The scene of Diabolospielerinnen I is taking place in the Jardin de Luxembourg in Paris. Feininger moved to Paris in July 1906 where he stayed until 1908, renting a studio at 242 Boulevard Raspail. Fascinated by its atmosphere and its citizens, Feininger executed a number of works representing the elegantly dressed bourgeoisie, as well as eccentric looking characters one encountered on the streets of Paris. The focus of the present painting is a girl in the foreground playing with a diabolo, a spool-shaped object balanced on a string that is attached at each end to a stick, her image echoed by two diabolo players in the background. The motif of a girl with a diabolo also occurs in another painting of 1909, Figuren in Abenddämmerung. In the present work, another nine figures are scattered around the composition, walking in all directions. Rendering them in bright color planes, and with elongated features typical of his early mannerist style, Feininger delights in representing each figure as some sort of caricature, a practice that was common in the medium of illustration. Perhaps the most spirited and progressive aspect of the composition is the sharp outlining the individual figures who appear to be pasted onto the surface of the picture. Through these pictorial devices of perspective and figural distortions, as well as eccentricities of color, the artist transforms an otherwise mundane scene into a world where the strange and the familiar are inextricably wound. Unlike the more serene, even macabre atmosphere of some of Feininger’s works from this period, the curving form of the path and of the figures’ clothes and hats, alluding to the dizzying rotations of the diabolo ball after it has been cast into the air, Diabolospielerinnen I is a celebration of playfulness, youth, hope and life.
–- On the Beach aka Figures on the Seashore (1933, 40x52cm; 1212x1575pix, 179kb) they look like tilted buildings rather than people.
–- S#> Gables III (Lüneburg II) (1929, 109x88cm; 1122x900pix, 279kb) _ The beauty inherent in architecture was of primary importance in Feininger’s art. With his paintings as well as his graphic work, he continuously developed new approaches to rendering the complexity of three-dimensional form through the use of line and color. Many of these compositions were influenced by his involvement with the Bauhaus, the avant-garde architecture and design school located in Dessau, where the artist lived between 1926 and 1932. During these years he frequently visited the cities of Deep, Halle and Lüneburg and painted several compositions of the attenuated spires, peaks and gables of the local Gothic architecture. Among these were a series of paintings depicting gabled roofs, two of which he identified as having been completed in Lüneburg, as well as a number of drawings and sketches. Lüneburg, near Hamburg, was particularly appealing to Feininger for its relationship to the composer Johannes Sebastian Bach [1685-1750], who spent his formative years in the city as a member of the choir of the church of Saint Michael. Feininger was a life-long admirer of Bach’s organ works, and the paintings that he completed in Lüneburg reinforced the deep connection that he felt with the eminent composer.
      In this picture Feininger used a network of overlapping geometric shapes that vary in degrees of opacity: solid earth-tones for the architecture and transparent shades of green and grey for the sky. The aesthetic is similar to that of the Cubists but the effect here is much more legible; the edifices are abstracted but without compromising their structural integrity. Feininger repeated the interlacing of geometric forms in the sky, but used transparent colors that dissolve the shapes into air. This technique, which the artist called "dual sky," heightens the dimensionality of the negative space while maintaining the ethereal quality of the sky. At the tops of the roofs he uses sharp, intersecting lines, indicative of his skills as a graphic artist, which aid in uniting the architecture with its surrounding space. The harmonious interplay of solids and voids in this picture can indeed be likened to the terse elegance and refinement of a Baroque prelude or fugue; Feininger wrote: “Bach’s spirit is contained in my painting also, and finds its expression there in a different form.”
–- Bollwerk (1929, black ink and watercolor, 28x40cm; full size, 252kb) sketch
–- Sailing Ships (1931, 22x29cm; 1067x1592pix, 159kb) colored sketch
The River (1940)
–- S#> Angler mit blauem Fisch II (1912, 57x75cm; kb) _ This simplistic, poster-like painting was bought by a greater fool for £4'152'000 at a Sotheby's auction in London on 19 June 2006. _ The sea, ships and people on the beach were recurring subjects throughout Lyonel Feininger’s œuvre, and Angler mit blauem Fisch II is his usual uninspired rendering of one of his favorite themes. This “work” (using the word loosely) belongs to the period when the artist was strongly influenced by the Cubists' technique of breaking up forms. Feininger adapted their geometrical style while retaining the use of bright colors characteristic of his early work. In May 1911, Feininger spent two weeks in Paris where he discovered Cubism – a style he had never encountered before, but which offered a pictorial solution to his own “artistic” (using the word loosely) enquiries and experimentations.
     The familiar depiction of the beach is beginning to fuse into individual forms; beach and sea become clearly defined planes stretching to the horizon line, and they are no longer only linear but are conceived as volume. Even more striking is the cloud formation reflected in the sea, where form is reinterpreted as corporeal plasticity. It looks much more like the backdrop of a stage than a landscape. This development was to give rise to the major paintings of Feininger's early period, works in which he was able to move away from his previous approach, in form as well as content. Angler with Blue Fish marks the turning point. Although its figures, silhouetted against the sea, still relate to the early masquerades, Feininger's new approach to form predominates. The clear division of beach, sea, and sky into three dissimilar planes gives each element its own formal structure. The beach becomes a firm basic substance, firmly colored; the sea is a rhythmic movement of waves; the rays of the sun fan out into the layered atmosphere of the sky. The figures, the boats, the smoke from the paddle steamer - all are coordinated with this tripartite division. Only the two fishing rods, meeting to form an angle in the top right corner, break out of the scheme and create a spatial relationship that is ignorant of perspective.
      The key event in the development of Feininger's art was the Salon des Indépendants held in Paris from April until June 1911, where he exhibited six of his paintings alongside works by artists such as Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Wassily Kandinsky as well as the Cubists who were displaying their discoveries for the first time. The Cubists’ concept of constructing a composition was very close to Feininger’s passion for architecture, and enabled him to ‘build’ a picture piece by piece. Angler mit blauem Fisch II is therefore not only one of the first works executed after the artist’s discovery of Cubism, but also an important painting in Feininger’s development and understanding of the notion of cubist compositions.With the new spirit gained during 1911, what mattered to the artists was the possibility of daring that had come into the world of painting. The break-up of form, the break-up of light, and the freedom to treat each picture as a new reality were common to all, and one pioneer gave courage to the others. What Feininger gained in Paris was new hope for his own endeavors. The year 1912 thus became a year of further experiments for Feininger.
      With its pictorial style and its color scheme, the present work is a synthesis of various developments that marked the artist's œuvre. His choice of a bright palette and striking tonal contrasts, as well as the subject of mannerist, caricature-style figures, are reminiscent of Feininger's early city scenes dominated by folkloric characters scattered across the composition. The sharp, straight lines and a geometric forms, on the other hand, anticipate his increasingly abstract style that was to dominate his later work. Feininger began to compose pictures with strollers and bathers at the seaside, unifying the movements of waves and people, the sky and boats, in one angular rhythm. In the first of these pictures, Angler mit blauem Fisch II, the carnival people once more come back into a picture; large figures on the shore are silhouetted against the sea. As a painting of space relations outside formal perspective the picture contains new thought. The angler’s rods form a big triangle declaring the interrelation of men and space and give shape to a new order arising from the accident of their meeting. The human fate of the lucky fisherman with a fish and the one without, meet in the prolongation of their personality – the overlapping rods. Behind them life goes on, as always unaware of the success or failure of men.
      Feininger’s experience as a graphic artist gave him a creative advantage when it came to rendering dimension in his painting, as he was extraordinarily capable of conveying spatial depth without being reliant upon gradations of color or excessive details. In the present work he varies the scale and proportion of each figure in an exaggerated manner in order to suggest the notion of distance, while manifestly creating a flat surface in which the beach, the figures and the sea with the ships on the horizon become one continuous entity. The individual elements of the composition are constructed out of geometric, mostly triangular shapes, and appear to be pasted onto the surface of the picture – an aesthetic that foreshadows Matisse’s cut-outs of the 1940s. His choice of palette, comprised of vibrant and powerful colors, is also noteworthy: the yellow-green sea, the brilliant pink used for the strolling lady with her parasol, the striking blue fish and the different shades of green, orange and brown make this painting a feast for the eye and at the same time a magnificent example of Modernism. The perspective of space and the interconnection of events appear to be Feininger’s main interest in this painting. The interpretation of events is a Futurist discovery, the revelation of simultaneous view is a Cubist discovery, and the summary presentation of the sequence of events is Feininger’s contribution.
      The artist was fascinated by the sea and the landscape of northern Germany and he regularly visited the Baltic and North Sea from 1892 until 1936, just before he left Germany. The island of Rügen inspired him as much as it had inspired Caspar David Friedrich before him. He also frequently returned to other seaside towns such as Ribnitz, Deep, Heringsdorf and Swinemünde, to name only a few places in northern Germany which became very important to the artist. Some of his most magnificent and significant works resulted from visits to those towns and reflect Feininger’s strong and lasting admiration for this part of the world and its elements.
The Bicycle Race (1912, 80x100cm; 390x490pix, 78kb) _ detail 1 (390x520pix, 110kb) last cyclist _ detail 2 (390x520pix, 110kb) face and hands of foreground cyclist
The Village Pond of Gelmeroda (1922, 86x112cm; 204x270pix, 76kb) _ In countless preparatory studies and paintings for this, Feininger addressed the phenomenon of reflections in water. The composition of the half-timbered village, fragmented through color and form, shows how the Cubists and Futurists influenced his work. Since 1913 Feininger had been experimenting with a series of paintings on the same subject. The painter, who was also a musician, often pointed out the resemblance of his pictorial and musical compositions.
Zirchow I (1912, 80x100cm)
Storm Brewing (1939, 48x77cm) _ (detail)
Harbor (1944, 28x45cm; 300x670pix, 41kb) hasty colored sketch

Died on a 17 July:

2007 Jeremy Blake [04 Oct 1971–], US digital video artist, commits suicide by drowning himself.. His mate, Theresa Duncan [26 Oct 1966 – 10 Jul 2007], a writer, filmmaker, and former video-game designer, had committed suicide in their apartment one week earlier. —(080721)

1959 Alfred James Munnings, French painter born (full coverage) on 08 October 1878. — (050907)

^ 1909 Pincus (or Pinckney, Pinky) Marcius Simons, US artist born in 1867. Born in New York in 1867, he began painting at twelve years of age. Chiefly self-taught, haunting the studios of artist and studying architecture, perspective, and anatomy. First known for his genre pictures; his success was attained in his ideal works, culminating in the poetic rendering of the “Nibelungen Ring”, a series of elaborate pictures, wherein he tried to orchestrate his pictures as a musician scores. Underscoring this methodology was his work as an operatic set designer at Wagner Theatre, Bayreuth, Germany, 1894, until the time of his death, 1909. — LINKS
Taking Over (74x137cm)
Canova, the Boy Sculptor (1885, 60x74cm)
Guardian Angels (79x112cm)
Parsifal and the Knights of the Holy Grail: Scenes from Act I (1902, 115x144cm)
Toilette de Nature (114x143cm)

1903 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, US painter born (full coverage) on 14 July 1834.

^ 1895 Henri Pierre Picou, French painter born on 27 February 1824. Picou, like his friends Gérôme, Boulanger, and Hamon, studied in the ateliers of Delaroche and Gleyre. Like them, he also debuted at the 1847 Salon and later received a second Grand Prix de Rome (in 1853) for his painting, The Moneylenders Chased from the Temple. Although he shared in their enthusiasm for mythological and classical subjects, he received commissions for religious painting, such as the frescoes in the church of Bon Secours in Nantes (1858) and canvases for the Chapel of the Holy Apostles in the church of Saint-Roch in Paris. His style had classicizing elements but often demonstrated a neo-rococo tendency in the dancelike poses and light, pastel palette.
–- S#> Watching the Goldfish (1859, 55x65cm; 645x900pix, 120kb)
–- S#> Ronde de Mai (1873, 101x75cm; 800x581pix, 80kb _ ZOOM to 1353x1000pix, 209kb)
–- S#> Venus and Cupid (1889, 24x33cm; 564x799pix, 83kb)
Angel of Love (1884, 60x51cm)
The Hammock (1884, 60x80cm)
At the Fountain (1880, 81x61cm)
Jeu D'Echecs Indien (1876, 191x282cm)
Clipping Cupid's Wings (62x77cm)
Venus (61x82cm)
Artist Painting Cupid and Psyche (40x32cm; 640x511pix, 38kb) the artist's imagination is so vivid that Cupid and Psyche have materialized in his studio to pose for him.

Hebrew Gottlieb^ >1879 Maurycy Moses Gottlieb, Polish painter born on 12 (or between 21 and 28) February 1856. He was the elder brother of the painters Filip Gottlieb [1870–], Marceli Gottlieb, Marcin Gottlieb [1867–1936] and Leopold Gottlieb [1879/83–1934]. He came from a wealthy, orthodox Jewish family and his artistic talent manifested itself very early in his life. From 1869 he studied drawing from Michal Goldewski the elder [1799–1875], an amateur painter in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine). In October 1871 he went to Vienna, where in 1872 he studied under Karl Mayer [1810–1876], and subsequently under Karl von Blaas at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. In 1873–1874 he studied with Jan Matejko at the School of Fine Arts, Kraków, but soon returned to Vienna to study historical composition under Carl Wurzinger [1817–1883]. He painted a number of works in Kraków, partly completing them in Vienna in 1875. These include a Self-portrait in the magnificent costume of a Polish nobleman as well as unsuccessful historical compositions, for example The Investiture of Albert of Brandenburg by Sigismund I.
     In 1875 Gottlieb left Vienna, staying briefly in Kraków and Drohobycz; towards the end of the year, with a letter of recommendation from Jan Matejko, he studied under Karl von Piloty at the Munich Akademie der Bildenden Künste. In Munich he painted one of his most outstanding early works, Shylock and Jessica, after Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice. This painting was highly praised both in Poland and abroad, and brought fame to the young artist. Filip Gottlieb (in 1886) and Marcin Gottlieb (in 1887) both produced copies of the painting. In 1875 Gottlieb also painted a Self-portrait as Ahasuerus. In 1876 he was again in Drohobycz, where he made a number of sketches for his Jewish Wedding-feast.
     At the end of 1876 Gottlieb returned to Vienna, to study under Heinrich von Angeli in the Akademie. Through this teacher he came under the influence of Hans Makart, as may be seen in his lyrical costume-composition of 1877, Uriel and Judith, after Karl Gutzkow’s Uriel Acosta. The Self-portrait in Arab Costume (?destr.), copied by his brother Marcin, belongs to this period, as do The Shulamite Woman and The Slave-girls’ Market in Cairo, copied by his brother Filip, and a number of portraits of men, women and children. In 1878 Gottlieb painted the portrait of Ignacy Kuranda, leader of the Jewish community in Vienna, and in the same year he went to St. Petersburg and Munich in order to work on illustrations for Lessing’s Nathan der Weise, commissioned by the publisher Bruckmann. Here he painted the religious composition Jews Praying on the Day of Atonement. In the second half of 1878 he left Munich and, with a grant from the Fanni Jejtteles Foundation, went to Italy. There he met Matejko, and, at his prompting, he returned to the School of Fine Arts in Kraków to study composition. In Kraków in 1879 he painted a striking portrait of a Jewish Woman, and he also worked on the painting Christ Preaching at Capharnum, which he never finished. In his early youth Gottlieb had had little contact with Polish society, but later on he was torn between his attachment to the Jewish people and his Polish patriotism. — LINKS
Self-portrait (1876; 963x750pix, 55kb) a poor imitation of the experimental Self Portrait at an Early Age (1628, 23x19cm) by Rembrandt [15 Jul 1606 – 04 Oct 1669]
–- Ahasverus (1876; 957x750pix, 67kb) a self-portrait. Gottlieb portrayed himself as the Persian king Xerxes I [486-465 BC], who is called Ahasuerus or Ahasverus in the biblical books of Ecclesiastes and of Esther. That name has also been applied to the Wandering Jew of legend, but that is clearly not what Gottlieb had in mind.
–- Day of Atonement (1878; .ZOOM to 702x542pix, 56kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1054x813pix, 119kb _ ZOOM 2 off-site to 2130x1647pix, 959kb _ .ZOOM d3 to main detail 1798x2780pix, 309kb _ .ZOOM 3 to 3596x2780pix, 554kb) _ This painting was done in Vienna, and is one of three masterpieces on religious themes painted by Gottlieb which reflect the personal conflict of the artist as to his identity as a Jew, a Polish citizen, or a man of the Enlightenment. However, in this painting, Gottlieb does not hesitate to depict himself as a Jew among his fellow-Jews, in the synagogue, on the Jews' holiest day of the year. It is possible that towards the end of his short life Gottlieb resolved his conflict of identity. In his work, he chose to depict himself in the context of Jewish tradition and culture, but also, as an independent person, enlightened, unafraid to stand up on his own. The painting is based on the artist's memories of the synagogue in his childhood home. Of the 20 persons in the painting, 15 are of those closest to the artist: his parents, his fiancée Laura and her family, and his three self-portrait at different ages: In the center he appears to be 22, as he was at the time the picture was painted; on his neck lies a medallion with a Star of David and his initials in Hebrew. On the left, Gottlieb as a young child, dressed in holiday finery with an open prayer book before him, and with the same medallion. On the right, Gottlieb as a youth looking aside from his prayer book. His fiancée, Laura, appears twice. On the left, she stands up in the women's gallery, holding a closed prayer book and on the right, she bends over, whispering to her mother. The painting excels in masterful techniques, beginning with the layers of color, some semi-transparent and others opaque, and ending with an rich impasto of three-dimensional brush strokes and engravings in the paint with the help of the sharp point of the brush handle. The drapes and rugs are depicted in exquisite detail. One year following the completion of the picture, Laura Rosenfeld married Leo Henschel. Two weeks later, following a short illness, Gottlieb died suddenly, probably from suicide. On the Torah mantle there is an inscription dedicated to the memory of the dear, departed Moshe (Maurycy) Gottlieb of blessed memory. Gottlieb explained that an urge came upon him to write his own epitaph. His father, who saw the work, strongly protested and Gottlieb rubbed it out, but later replaced it. The painting may indeed be an epitaph to the life and world view of Maurycy Gottlieb.
Shylock and Jessica (1876; 705x400pix, 39kb) characters in The Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare.
–- A Woman (1879; 974x750pix, 32kb).
–- Czaty (955x700pix, 80kb) illustration of a ballad by A.Mickiewicza; badly in need of restauration.
–- Synagogue (653x700pix, 73kb) badly in need of restauration.—(090903)

1869 Hanno Rhomberg, German artist born in 1820.

^ 1863 Jakob Ber Moise “Jacobber”, French painter born in 1786.
Fleurs et Fruits (500x379pix, 47kb)
Roses, Dahlias et Lilas

^ 1747 Jacques Ignace de Roore (or Rorus), Flemish painter and dealer born on 20 July 1686. He was a fairly mediocre Antwerp painter and can be numbered among those tempted by the scholarly and mythological subjects typical of the period. He studied first under Abraham Genoels II and in 1699 under Lucas Schoor [1666–1710]. In 1703 de Roore worked in Brussels with Kaspar van Optsal (fl 1632–after 1661). De Roore returned to Antwerp, where he became a master in 1707. The cathedral of Saint Michel in Brussels contains one of his paintings, The Sick Invoking the Miracle of the Host. De Roore visited several Dutch cities and was accepted as a master by the painters’ guild in The Hague in 1722. He was best known for his painted ceilings and his tapestry cartoons and was one of three artists, the others being P. J. Kerrickx and Jan van Helmont [1650–1740], noted for their imitations and copies of the great Flemish masters such as Rubens, van Dyck and David Teniers II. De Roore and the Dutch painter Gerard Hoet formed an association to deal in works of art and negotiated an agreement for van Dyck’s Saint Martin Dividing his Cloak (1621).
Antverpia with Ceres, Scaldis, and Mercury (359x718pix, 64kb)
Apotheosis of Antverpia (368x569pix, 31kb)
Two images on one page: Mars destroys the temple of Minerva and Time reveals Truth, while the Arts flower

^ 1686 (buried) Nicolaes “Claes” Franszoon Hals, Dutch landscape painter and printmaker baptized on 25 July 1628. In his landscapes he was clearly influenced by Jacob van Ruisdael [1599-1677] — son of Frans Hals [1582 – 29 Aug 1666], nephew of Dirk Hals [bapt. 19 Mar 1591 – 17 May 1656 bur.]
–- S#> Dune Landscape with a Sportsman and his Dogs on a Path Near a Cottage (49x73cm; 632x960pix, 142kb)

^ 1497 Benedetto Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter born in 1458, brother of Davide Bigordi Ghirlandaio [14 Mar 1452 – 10 Apr 1525] and of the better known Domenico di Tomaso Bigordi Ghirlandaio [1449 – 11 Jan 1494], uncle of Ridolfo Bigordi Ghirlandaio [1483-1561], and presumably great-uncle of Michele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio [1503-1577], all descended from goldsmith Tomaso Bigordi the “garland maker”. — Benedetto Ghirlandaio was admitted to the confraternity of San Paolo on 29 January 1479. He spent many years in France (including the autumn of 1486). The one painting reasonably attributable to him is a panel of the Nativity, inscribed with his name and an illegible date. The panel is painted in a thoroughly Frenchified version of Domenico Ghirlandaio’s style, in which the thin, stiffly drawn forms, reminiscent of Davide’s rather than Domenico’s work, are clad in a veneer of Flemish detail. Benedetto returned to Florence about the time of Domenico’s death. His participation in the decoration of the Tornabuoni Chapel in S. Maria Novella, Florence, often posited, is therefore impossible. — LINKS
–- Portrait of a Lady (1480, 41x30cm; 1467x1081pix, 156kb)

Born on a 17 July:

^ 1940 Francisco Toledo, Mexican painter. — LINKS
Self Portrait (1990; 800x602pix, 156kb)
Self Portrait (1054x763pix, 217kb)
Chivo (646x800pix, 198kb)
–- Sin Título (1045x1400pix, 97kb) monochrome, almost flat dark brown. The almost invisible texture shall be brought out, and colors and symmetry introduced by the pseudonymous Italisco Segovia, who metamorphosed Toledo's boring minimalism into the intricate maximalist
      _ Sin of Titus, Low, aka Tole Lot (2006; screen filling, 327kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2253kb).
–- Sin Título (1095x1400pix, 80kb)
–- S#> Sin Título (631x800pix, 61kb)
–- Tamzaul (1086x1398pix, 231kb) _ Segovia has combined these three pictures, given them vivid colors and symmetry, and transformed them into
      _ It Is a Sin to Loose a Mat, aka Mire Rim (2006; screen filling, 239kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1698kb) and
      _ Me Da Más Azul Sin Tí, Tu Lo Sabes, aka Maori Roam (2006; screen filling, 239kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1696kb).
untitled (647x800pix, 149kb) a cubist puppet pierced by a beam of light emanating from an arc-of-circle reflector? mostly in dark tones of brown, red, and orange.
–- S#> Birds (x800pix, 55kb) sketchy outlines of a few birds scratched into a brown surface.
–- Vol et Départ (943x1392pix, 160kb) brown, yellow, green, and white; a bull, a dolphin, two men, and the outline of a third one made of a jumble of short line segments, all more or less randomly placed _ Segovia remade this into the lushly tropical
      _ Il Volait des Parts aka Trap Art (2006; screen filling, 294kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2189kb).
–- S#> Elefante (x800pix, 61kb)
86 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(080716)

1871 Lyonel Feiniger [–13 Jan 1956], New York (sic) German painter.. —(080716)

1849 Emmerich Alexius Swoboda von Wikingen, Austrian artist who died on 26 January 1914. — {free from Vikings?}

^ 1817 Frederik Marianus (or Marinus) Kruseman, Dutch painter who died in 1882. For most of his paintings he chose really cool subjects. He came from an important family of artists. He was the cousin of both Cornelis Kruseman, a historical painter and Director of the Amsterdam Academy, and Jan Adam Kruseman, a historical painter and portraitist. He grew up in Haarlem, where he received his first painting lessons from Jan Reekers [1790-1858] and Nicolaas Johannes Roosenboom [1805-1880], student and son-in-law of Andreas Schelfhout, who occasionally visited the studio. Roosenboom taught Kruseman the rudiments of landscape painting and most certainly also raised his interest in winter scenes. Encouraged by Roosenboom, he exhibited his first work at the Living Masters Exhibition in 1833 in The Hague. Two years later, he moved to Hilversum for a year, where he studied with Jan van Ravenswaay [1789-1869]. In 1837 Kruseman went to Cleves and became heavily influenced by Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, who had settled there in 1834. As Jan de Meere suggests in his biography of the artist (1998), Kruseman most probably accompanied B.C. Koekkoek on a journey to the Ahr valley and the village Altenahr in 1837. Koekkoek, one of the founding fathers of Dutch Romantic landscape painting, was to have a lasting influence on both his subject matter and style. From him Kruseman adopted his superb technique and secure handling of paint. From 1841 onwards, Kruseman spent most of his time in Brussels. The Belgian capital was the center of artistic activity in the nineteenth century and it was here, in the house at the Eikstraat, where he met Basile de Loose, who since 1837 rented a studio at the same address. According to Jan de Meere it might be possible that De Loose used Kruseman as a model in his painting A landscape artist in his studio. During his second stay in Brussels, from 1856 onwards until his death in 1882, Kruseman painted his most important pictures: highly finished, fairy-like, Arcadian winter landscapes, populated with many figures. The delicately painted trees with their coral-shaped twigs are a recurrent and highly recognizable element in Kruseman’s paintings.
–- A Snowy Landscape with People by a Gothic Ruin (1851, 50x68cm; 1827x2522pix, 435kb) _ This is a highly finished, almost fairy-like, arcadian view of a gothic ruin. Only the travelers and faggot-gatherers appear to link it to the real world. This combination of real and idealized, of splendid natural settings with ruins and figures, reflects the influence of the teaching of Barend Cornelis Koekkoek and was adapted by Kruseman to suit his own artistic ideals.
Ice Skating (1882, 48.3x68cm)
People in a Winter Landscape (28x35cm)
Skating in the Midst of Winter (1875, 50x70cm)
Winter: townsfolk skating on a frozen waterway near a fortified mansion at dusk (1867, 81x108cm)
An Extensive River Landscape With a Castle on a Hill Beyond (1865, 38x52cm)
Figures in a Summer Landscape (1860, 46x61cm)
A Blustery Summer Landscape (1855, 29x39cm)
A Frozen Winter Landscape (1855, 29x39cm)
Wolves in a Winter Landscape (1851, 54x64cm)
A Winterlandscape With a Horserider on a Track Passing a Farmhouse, Skaters on the Ice Beyond (1845, 38x50cm)
People in a Frozen Winter Landscape (49x65cm)
Winter Landscape with Skaters on a Frozen River beside Castle Ruins (40x57cm)
Sunday Skaters (297x450pix, 17kb)
Winter landscape with ice amusements and people crossing a bridge near a towngate (1850, 25x35cm; 473x640pix, 331kb)
–- S#> A Winter Landscape with People by a Gothic Ruin (1862, 70x110cm; 411x595pix, 48kb) _ The motif of Gothic architecture became more and more prominent in Romantic painting. In many cases this theme is seen as a reference to a long-lost age of Christian faith. However, it was also the organic aspects of Gothic architecture that appealed to Romantic artists. The feeling that it is virtually a God-made object, in forms almost identical to the growth of leaves and branches, made this a popular subject matter. Kruseman was using this motif already in the 1850’s, when he made several paintings of the ruins of the Abbey of Villers-la-Ville. The overgrown ruin, flanked by trees, is strongly reminiscent of the work of the German, early Romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich [1774-1840], as in Ruins of abbey at Eldena (1824). Friedrich also used this motif more often, apparently casually, but always too prominently present to be a merely picturesque relic of a bygone age.
–- S#> A Winter Landscape with Skaters Near a Hamlet (70x100cm; 410x595pix, 53kb) For a long time this painting was attributed to Barend Cornelis Koekkoek.
–- Winter Landscape with Skaters near a Town (1855, 48x65cm; 684x936pix, 41kb) —(090716)

1718 Nicolas Desportes, French artist who died on 26 September 1787.— Relative? of Alexandre-François Desportes [1661-1743]

1693 Gerard Melder, Dutch artist who died in 1754.

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