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ART “4” “2”-DAY  13 July v.9.60
^ Died on 13 July (or any day until 16 September) 1530: Quentin (or Quinten) Metsys (or Massys, Matsys, Messys) “de Smit”, of the plague, Flemish artist born between 04 April and 10 September 1466.
— Quinten Metsys was the son of a Leuven blacksmith, Joost Massys [–1483], and his wife, Katharina van Kinckem. About 1492 Quinten married Alyt van Tuylt [–1507], by whom he had three children: Quinten, Pawel and Katelijne. He was by then already living in Antwerp. In 1508 he married Catherina Heyns, with whom he had ten more children: Jan Massys [1509 – <08 Oct 1575] and Cornelis Massys [1510-1556], as well as Quinten II, Maria, Hubrecht, Abraham, Peternella, Katelijne II, Sara, and Susannah. Both Jan and Cornelis became artists
— Metsys was the first important painter of the Antwerp school. Trained as a blacksmith in his native Leuven, Matsys is said to have studied painting after falling in love with an artist's daughter (or girlfriend). In 1491 he went to Antwerp and was admitted into the painters' guild.
     There are various stories about Quentin Metsys’s early training: according to Lampsonius, he was a blacksmith who took up painting in order to woo his sweetheart away from a painter she admired. Van Mander alleged that Metsys was entirely self-taught as a painter, having taken to hand-coloring woodcuts when severe illness prevented his being able to practise the blacksmith’s trade. Despite the unlikelihood of a young painter, however gifted, being permitted to ignore guild restrictions controlling the training of apprentices, there may be an element of truth to both stories. Metsys’s elder brother, Joost II, did join the family trade, and it is possible that their father, who died when Quinten was about 17, expected both sons to become partners. A consequent traditional attribution to Metsys is the late 15th-century wrought-iron housing of the so-called Massys Well in the Handschoenmarkt near the west front of Antwerp Cathedral
      Among Massys' early works are two pictures of the Virgin and Child. His most celebrated paintings are two large triptych altarpieces, The Holy Kinship, (or St Anne Altarpiece) ordered for the St. Pieterskerk in Leuven (1508), and The Entombment of the Lord (c. 1510), both of which exhibit strong religious feeling and precision of detail. His tendency to accentuate individual expression is demonstrated in such pictures as The Old Man and the Courtesan and The Moneylender and His Wife (detail). Christus Salvator Mundi and The Virgin in Prayer display serene dignity. Pictures with figures on a smaller scale are a polyptych, the scattered parts of which have been reassembled, and a later Virgin and Child. His landscape backgrounds are in the style of one of his contemporaries, the Flemish artist Joachim Patinier; the landscape depicted in Messys' The Crucifixion is believed to be the work of Patinier. Metsys painted many notable portraits, including one of his friend Erasmus.
      Although his portraiture is more subjective and personal than that of Albrecht Dürer or Hans Holbein, Matsys' painting may have been influenced by both German masters. Messys' lost St Jerome in His Study, of which a copy survives, is indebted to Dürer's St Jerome. Some Italian influence may also be detected, as in Virgin and Child, in which the figures are obviously copied from Leonardo da Vinci's Virgin of the Rocks
Joachim Patinir was a student of Massys.

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1517, 59x46cm)
The Adoration by the Magi (1526)
Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels _ In this undated early work can be detected the influence of earlier Flemish masters in their intense religious feeling, sumptuous colors, and lavish attention to detail.
Portrait of an Old Man (1517, 48x37cm; 172kb) _ Even more than in Massys's other portraits, this one shows the influence of Leonardo da Vinci in its unflinchingly honest, somewhat grotesque, physiognomy.
Money Changer and His Wife (1514, 71x68cm) _ The subtly hinted conflict between greed and prayer is seen in this couple. This satirical quality now enters Massys's paintings.
The Ugly Duchess (1530, 64x45cm) {I suspect that she was reincarnated in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (chapter 6)} _ This is probably not a portrait of an actual person but an illustration Massys created for The Praise of Folie, by Desiderius Erasmus. It raises Massys’s secular and satirical style to its culmination.
The Virgin Enthroned (1525, 135x90cm) kissing the baby Jesus; no angels.
Christ on the Cross with Donors (1520, 156x93cm triptych)
John the Baptist and Saint Agnes (1520, 48x13cm two panels)
Ecce Homo (1515, 160x120cm)
^ Died on 13 July 1954: Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón, Mexico City painter born on 06 July 1907.
— She began to paint while recovering in bed from a bus accident in 1925 that left her seriously disabled. Although she made a partial recovery, she was never able to bear a child, and she underwent some 32 operations before her death in 1954. Her life’s work of about 200 paintings, mostly self-portraits, deals directly with her battle to survive. They are a kind of exorcism by which she projected her anguish on to another Frida, in order to separate herself from pain and at the same time confirm her hold on reality. Her international reputation dates from the 1970s; her work has a particular following among Latin Americans living in the US.
— On a rainy day in September 1925, Frida Kahlo and her boyfriend Alejandro Gómez Arias were in Mexico City waiting for a bus that would take them to her home in Coyoacán, Mexico. The bus came, and they climbed on. As Frida and Alejandro chattered about her plans for medical school, the driver approached a risky intersection and decided to take his chances. Seconds later, an electric trolley rammed into the bus, destroying it and launching bodies everywhere. 18 year-old Frida disappeared in this confusion, and Alejandro, also injured, discovered her with a metal pole protruding from her abdomen. After someone pulled the pole out, an ambulance rushed her to the hospital, where doctors treated a fractured pelvis, a dislocated shoulder, two broken ribs, and shattered bones in the right leg and foot. This accident was the beginning of an unbearably painful series of physical ailments that would persist for the rest of Kahlo’s short life. Only two things would offer solace: painting and muralist Diego Rivera.
     Frida Kahlo was born in 1907 to two Jewish immigrants. A poster child for Freud’s theories, she adored her father and resented her mother. The family home in Coyoacán, Mexico was painted cobalt blue outside, and for this reason it became known as the Blue House. Frida had three sisters, and though her status as daddy’s favorite set her apart from the others, her affliction with polio beginning in 1913 would forever mark her as different. After she healed, Frida was left with a withered right leg that she covered with pants and long skirts. During her recuperation, her father lavished attention on his favorite child, who had once been an energetic tomboy. He helped Frida exercise and, in an attempt to find ways of entertaining her, he gave his daughter some paints.
      Guillermo Kahlo preferred Frida to his other children because she was the most intelligent. And in 1922, Frida made Guillermo even prouder when she became one of 35 women from a student body of 2,000 to be admitted to the prestigious National Preparatory School, or El Prepo, in Mexico City. She wanted to study medicine, but upon arriving to the vibrant intellectual center of her country, she discovered political activists, artists, communists, and other people who dared to dream and question. Lopping off her hair and switching to overalls from the drab outfits of a good Catholic girl, Frida fell in with the Cachets, a group of pranksters led by Alejandro Gómez. One of the Cachets’ victims of trickery was a tall and fat muralist, Diego Rivera, who was commissioned by the school to paint its auditorium. Spunky Frida stopped at nothing to annoy Rivera, 20 years her senior. She and the Cachets soaped the stairs so Diego would slip and fall, stole his lunch, and popped water balloons over his head. Only years later would her taunting and teasing of Diego evolve into a love affair.
      In 1925, Kahlo suffered the bus crash and turned to art during her recovery. During this period, Alejandro never returned her letters. After one frustrating year of prolific painting and painful progress, she encountered Diego again when he was working on a mural in Mexico City. Summoning him impetuously from his spot high near the roof, she asked his honest, unflattering opinion of her work. Rivera inspected her canvas and told her, "Keep it up, little girl." Then he asked if she had any more, and Kahlo seized the opportunity to invite him to the Blue House to show off the rest of her work. Critics have often said that the two artists had a lot in common, with their love of iconoclasm and Mexico being among the strongest bonds. In 1929, when Kahlo was 22 and Rivera 42, the two were married in the Coyoacán courthouse, though Kahlo’s mother did not attend the wedding because she hoped her daughter could find a more attractive, conventional match. Kahlo officially retained her own name, and the newlyweds moved into a stylish house in Mexico City shared by some other communists. Later that same year, Kahlo became pregnant, though she had an abortion because her damaged body could not handle the pregnancy without putting her own life at risk. Her repeated inability to have children was a source of pain for Kahlo, who expressed this frustration in her paintings through the major themes of childbirth, blood and fertility.
      In 1930, Kahlo went with her husband to America. During this time, and for much of her conjugal life with Rivera, Kahlo did not receive recognition as an artist in her own right. "Wife of the master mural painter gleefully dabbles in works of art," read one headline when the couple visited Detroit. Rivera was used to being the center of attention, and he often neglected Kahlo for his art — not to mention for numerous extramarital trysts (one of the cruelest affairs Rivera had was with his wife’s own sister, Cristina). When Kahlo saw that she was second in line, she abandoned her own artistic aspirations and became a good housewife, bringing lunch to Rivera’s workplace and devotedly hanging around him. Unfortunately, these years proved to be some of Kahlo’s loneliest and unhappiest. Though she was good at keeping up appearances, always witty and charming in public, Kahlo intensely hated America, with its extremes of poverty and wealth. In addition, her withered right leg also made it difficult for her to keep up with Diego, as he rushed about from commission to commission. Nonetheless, Kahlo produced some great works during this period, specifically her first fantasy or symbolist paintings, including Self-Portrait on the Border Line.
      The couple returned to Mexico in 1933, though not exactly in a state of marital bliss. Both Kahlo and Rivera had many extramarital affairs during this time. Among Kahlo’s many lovers — both male and female — was Leon Trotsky. Exiled from Russia by Stalin, Troktsy and his wife Natalia Sedova came to stay with Kahlo and Rivera at the Blue House in 1937 after the Mexican couple had moved back home. While Sedova and Rivera were in the hospital for various ailments, friendship, flirtation and ultimately romance grew between the spunky Kahlo and the older, gallant Trotsky. This romance inspired Kahlo to paint again, and she dedicated one of her numerous self-portraits to Trotsky. In 1938, Kahlo met André Breton, who helped arrange for some exhibits of her work. After a few minor exhibitions as well as one major solo exhibit at the Julian Levy Gallery of New York City, word about Kahlo’s art started to spread. Nickolas Muray, a photographer and future lover, set up the New York show for her, where she exhibited 25 paintings. She sold a number of them and returned to Mexico with jubilance. At 31, she was finally financially independent and established in her own career.
      Rivera called Kahlo’s art "agonized poetry," and Kahlo’s physical suffering and emotional loneliness provided material for her primitivistic, Surrealist paintings. At the core of this agonized poetry were Kahlo’s unhappiness with and adoration of Rivera. When Kahlo and Rivera ultimately divorced in 1940, the periods before and after their separation were among Kahlo’s most difficult and most productive. Turning to religious symbolism and themes of death, Kahlo solidified her position among the Surrealists with continued support from Breton, though she allegedly denied any affiliation with the Surrealists. Whatever her official artistic designation, Kahlo was at last cherished as a respected artist and no longer simply considered Rivera’s girlish wife.
      In the last decade of her life, Kahlo enjoyed a more peaceful existence, teaching for a while at the renowned Mexican art institute, La Esmeralda. Assailed by new health problems, this time with her spinal cord, Kahlo turned to her art as an outlet for her pain. Easel propped up, she painted directly from the hospital bed. In 1950, she returned to the Blue House, and a year later she and Rivera remarried. In 1953, Kahlo and her four poster bed were transported to Mexico City’s National Institute of Fine Arts for the first solo exhibit of her work in her homeland.
      While Diego Rivera had greatly influenced her life, Kahlo’s distinct style eliminated any doubts that he might have influenced her art. Fragile and sensitive, Kahlo developed her own themes, her own form of fierce nationalism, and her own social consciousness. When she died in 1957, hundreds of admirers came to see the diminutive woman of great importance asleep in her coffin, flowers woven into her hair.
— Her Journal was published posthumously in 1980. It is definitely an artist’s journal. Upon turning page after page of fantastic, whorled patterns, sketches and drawings, the reader gets a feeling of the organized passion and the crazy processes that converged to produce Kahlo’s artwork. She kept the book from 1944 to 1954. The journal contains sketches and thoughts jumbled together often in different layers — words written over phrases written over sentences, all in different colors, so that the text itself forms a sort of visual picture of what was preoccupying Kahlo during the last years of her life. Included in the piece are visual and verbal memories of the bus accident, reflections on art, and scattered ideas that give outsiders a glimpse of the fantastic maze that constituted Kahlo’s mind.
— Juan O’Gorman and Antonio Peláez were students of Kahlo.

Self-portrait in a Velvet Dress half-length
Autorretrato con collar de espinas y colibrí
Autorretrato con el Doctor Juan Farill _ She is in a wheelchair; the doctor is a large head portrait on an easel.
Autorretrato con pelo corto
Autorretrato con un Retrato de Diego en el pecho y María entre las cejas
Diego en mi pensamiento aka Frida de Tehuana ()
Diego y yo
My Nurse and I (1937) when she was a baby
Self-Portrait on the US-Mexico Border
Self-Portrait with Braid
Autorretrato con el pelo suelto
Autorretrato con mono
Autorretrato con monos = Self-Portrait with Monkeys
Autorretrato dedicado a Leon Trotsky
Autorretrato dedicado al Dr. Eloesser y a sus hijas
Me and my Parrots
Self-Portrait with Itzcuintli
Henry Ford Hospital (1932; 637x800pix, 104kb) _ Kahlo’s paintings are never comforting and rarely pleasant. Kahlo went to the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit when she miscarried a baby, and this Surrealist painting shows Frida lying down naked in a hospital bed with six items floating around her, including a fetus, a pelvis, and a lower spinal chord. Blood and fertility, recurrent themes in her artwork, figure prominently in this piece. In the background, Detroit’s industrial skyline suggests Kahlo’s abhorrence for the city she considered metallic, polluted, and unfriendly. A tear is flowing down her cheek to reveal her sadness due to her inability to have children.
Las Dos Fridas (1940) _ This double self-portrait portrays the simultaneous disjunction and synthesis between the two essences comprising Kahlo. The two women, clad in long dresses with hair swept up in typical Kahlo fashion, sit on adjacent chairs and hold hands. They are connected by a joint circulatory system with hearts exposed. On the left side there is the "Victorian" Frida, who controls the blood flow with surgical clamps. On the right is classically Mexican "Tehuana" Frida, clasping a portrait of Diego Rivera. Which is the real Frida and which is the alter ego? This painting seems to say that the two are symbiotic, just as an object and its reflection become conjoined and inseparable on the plane of a mirror.
Frida y Diego Rivera
–- Roots aka El Pedregal (1943, 30x50cm; 835x1400pix, 119kb) _ This is one of Frida Kahlo’s least anguished and most beautiful self-portraits. Like its counterpart, My Nurse and I (1937), it is a passionate expression of Kahlo’s deep identification with nature. In the earlier painting Frida is an infant suckling at her Mexican Indian wet nurse’s plant-like breast. From this earth mother, she imbibes not only her Indian heritage, but also the essence of her native land. In Roots, on the other hand, it is Frida who nourishes that land by giving birth to a vine. Curiouslythe vine's roots come out of its leaves and seem to be reaching out in vain for moisture. Yet the leaves look green and healthy. They must, therefore, draw their moisture from Frida. Frida, lying on a barren creviced landscape, and the vine which goes through an opening in her chest, are painted in a much larger scale than the landscape.
      The year she painted Roots, Kahlo was engrossed in a project that would bind her to her husband, Diego Rivera, and that would connect both spouses to the Mexican earth. In 1942, on a piece of land bought with Kahlo’s money in a section of Mexico City called the Pedregal (meaning stony ground), the Riveras began to build a temple for Rivera’s collection of pre-Columbian idols. They called it Anahuacalli, meaning house of gods. Rivera said that during the war years Anahuacalli was “home” for himself and Frida. Kahlo adored the Pedregal’s rough, uningratiating expanse of grey, pitted rocks, and it is this landscape that appears in Roots. A few years later, when the museum was finished, she wrote that, “like the magnificent terrain on which it is built, it embraces the earth with the firmness of a living and permanent plant.” So too, does Frida embrace the vast sea of dry, volcanic earth in Roots, which, a decade later, she titled El Pedregal.
      Creating bonds with Rivera, be they political, artistic, domestic or social, was crucial to Kahlo. Two years before she painted Roots she had remarried him after a painful year of separation. She remarried knowing that their relationship would remain difficult and that it would be based on the idea of mutual independence. As she put it, “Being the wife of Diego is the most marvelous thing in the world…. I let him play matrimony with other women. Diego is not anybody’s husband and never will be, but he is a great comrade.” But even as she insisted that Rivera should be free, Kahlo kept trying to hold him. Her need for possession can be seen in another work from 1943, Self-Portrait as a Tehuana. Here Kahlo has captured her husband as an obsessive thought represented as a miniature portrait in her forehead. As in Roots, strangely animate tendrils that could be veins or roots grow out of the tips of leaves, seeming to extend Frida’s life force out into space.
      A third 1943 self-portrait that gives insight into Kahlo’s state of mind at the time she painted Roots is Thinking About Death. She has placed a skull and bone set in a desert landscape upon her brow. To accentuate her despair, Kahlo closed in space with a wall of leaves, the serrated stems of which have blood-red thorns that echo the zigzag pattern on her Tehuana blouse. According to scholar Gannit Ankori, this is the same plant that Kahlo depicted in Roots. Called Calotropis procera, its large veins are filled with a poison that was once used by Latin American Indians to commit suicide.
      The stems of the vine in Roots, however, have no thorns. Instead this vine has thirteen cut off stems. These leafless stems might stand for Kahlo’s losses—her unborn children, her wounded body, her lost loves. The image recalls the truncated branches in Kahlo’s 1947 drawing, Ruin, which, she said, stood for Rivera’s infidelities.
      Roots can be seen as a straightforward image of a childless woman’s dream that her torso opens up to give birth to a vine through which her blood flows into the parched Mexican earth. Certainly Kahlo’s fascination with roots and her need to root herself in the earth became all the more intense in 1932, when she suffered a miscarriage and realized that she would never bear a child. In Self-Portrait Dreaming, drawn shortly after she miscarried, Kahlo lies naked in a hospital bed dreaming of rooted objects—a leaf, a hand—and of her long hair turning into roots. Like the veins, ribbons and strands of hair seen in so many of her self-portraits, roots express Kahlo’s longing for connection. In almost all of her self-portraits she is alone, disconnected from anything but herself. Her need for connection encompassed a vision of the interconnectedness of all things—animals, plants, rocks, sun, moon and human beings. In some of her late still lives Kahlo depicted the sun’s rays as roots linking the life-giving sun to the fruit of the earth.
      In Roots Kahlo’s vine grows right through the window in her womb-less body. All of the leaves move toward us as if we, the viewer, were the source of light. By means of her vine, Kahlo reaches out to us, demands our attention. As she fixes us with her steadfast but impassive gaze, she insists that we confront her predicament.
      If Roots is a dream of oneness with nature, it also has somber overtones. Kahlo could be dreaming of roots growing through her body after death. As her blood flows into the earth, she seems to accept mortality. Just in front of her the earth cracks open forming a dark ravine. At her feet a volcanic boulder that resembles a skull floats in a grave-like crater. Similarly, a ravine opens up in front of the skull in Thinking About Death, and in Tree of Hope, painted after Kahlo underwent a spinal fusion in 1946, Frida the heroic survivor and Frida the victim are trapped between a precipice and a grave. The ravines cut between waves of igneous rock in the backgrounds of Kahlo’s self-portraits suggest explosive feelings. But in Roots Frida levitates above the earth, refusing to be overwhelmed.
      In The Broken Column, painted the following year, the artist’s split torso is echoed by the crevassed land, and a broken ionic column replaces Roots’ vine. Here again, Kahlo refuses to capitulate to death or pain. For Frida Kahlo, there was no running away from mortality. Ever since her near fatal bus accident in 1925 she felt death as a constant companion. In The Dream (1940), yet another painting closely related to Roots, Frida lies dreaming of death while a vine that begins in the embroidery on her bedspread, sprouts roots at her feet and leaves around her head. Her counterpart, a paper mâché skeleton, is equally entwined. As we explore Roots’ many layers of meaning, we are brought back to everyday life by the reassuring bed pillow upon which she props her elbow.
      In Roots Frida dreams of fecundity even as she seems to relinquish life. She lets life go with equanimity, perhaps with the kind of pleasure we might feel during those moments when, embraced by nature’s beauty, we are not afraid to die. Roots holds in precarious balance themes of birth and death, contentment and pain, fulfillment and loss, connection and solitude. It may even hold a message of love. In one of the letters to Rivera that she wrote in her diary, Kahlo said, “my blood is the miracle that travels in the veins of the air from my heart to yours.”
51 images at Ciudad de la Pintura

Died on a 13 July:

1998 Lucio Costa, Brazilian architect born in France on 27 February 1902. — Relative? of Artur Timóteo da Costa [Brazilian, 1882-1923]? — (060711)

^ >1990 Alejandro Otero, Venezuelan abstract painter born on 07 March 1921.
–- Vers le Blanc (1200x960pix, 87kb) very pale monochrome cyan.
–- Coloritmo #23 (1199x306pix, 47kb) on an off-white background nine vertical thick black lines partly covering slightly angled red and yellow segments, better appreciated in its larger, horizontal version, provided by the pseudonymous Alejando Otelero:
      _ . Coloritmo #23 (acostado) (408x1598pix, 63kb).
–- B de la serie Las Cafeteras (1200x987pix, 118kb) —(080712)

^ 1986 Brion Gysin, US so-called artist born in the UK on 19 January 1916, dies in Paris.
Allen Ginsberg (drawing; 90kb)
Play It Cool (1963, 20x10cm; 633x400pix, 81kb) red and black scribbling on ruled paper _ An original Permutations so-called poem elaborating the line ‘Play it cool’ into Gysin’s characteristic so-called artwork {no art, not much work}. Gysin had introduced Burroughs to the cut-up technique, who used it to write The Soft Machine, Nova Express and The Ticket That Exploded. But in the early 1960s Gysin left this to Burroughs, and began working with a new form of word art he called Permutations. As with the present piece, a single phrase is run through every possible possibility of order, making apparent new shades of meaning. The semantic permutations exhausted, Gysin's artwork begins by echoing the last line and progressively morphing. His characteristic style derives from his interest in Arabic and Japanese calligraphy, which use the plane of the paper in perpendicular but complementary ways, and Moroccan magic, where, to form a cabalistic grid, phrases are written cross-ways. Burroughs once described Gysin’s “art” as being directly concerned ‘with the magical roots of art. His paintings are formulae designed to produce in the viewer the timeless ever changing world of magic caught in the painter’s brush – bits of vivid and vanishing detail ... The pictures constantly change because you are drawn into time travel on a network of associations. Bryon Gysin paints from the viewpoint of timeless space.’
     _ This nonsense was taken as a challenge by the pseudonymous Guy Vurtew and he added many colors to Gysin's non-art, transformed it, overdrew it with much bolder multicolored random scribbling of his own, and got it to make sense by making the whole picture symmetrical:
      _ One Plays It Cool, One Plays It Hot; One Is a Fool, One Is Not aka Tip It (2006, screen filling, 280kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2562kb). Inspired by the alternate title, Vurtew angled his picture, took a part of it and made it symmetrical, resulting in
      _ One Plays the Fool, One Plays It Not; One Is Cool, One Is Not aka Tip Pit (2006, screen filling, 280kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2562kb) —(060711)

1979 Juraj Neidhardt, Yugoslav architect and urbanist born on 15 October 1901. —(060713)

^ 1978 Philippe Hosiasson, French abstract expressionist (mostly) painter born in Odessa on 15 February 1898. As other artists of that tendency, he painted abstract pictures allright, but all they express is the painter's laziness, which however is less extreme than that of the minimalists.
Adolphe Feder (1925; 153kb), realistic style; Feder is seated, sketching.
–- Incandescence (1113x1398pix, 173kb) globs of mostly dark red and dark green paint.
Composition (1966, 56x46cm; 480x403, 55kb) globs of mostly red and blue paint. —(060712)

1978 Oliver Messel, British architect and stage designer born on 13 January 1904. —(080712)

1974 Raul Lino, Lisbon Portuguese architect born on 21 November 1879 —(060712)

1971 Pere Catala Pic, Catalan {what did you think?} artist born on 14 September 1889. — {Was he picky? Did he pick picturesque pictures to paint?}

1968 Christoforos Savva, Cypriot painter born on 08 June 1924, dies in England. — {Savva, ça va?) — In 1943 he joined the Cyprus Regiment and fought in WW2. At his discharge in 1946, he went to England. In 1948 he enrolled at St. Martin's School of Art and the following year at Heatherley's School, where he studied for the next six years. In 1954 he returned to Cyprus and exhibited his work for the first time, together with his friend Roddy Maude-Roxby at the British Council. In 1956 he went to Paris where he studied at Andre Lhote's Atelier. In 1959 he returned to Cyprus for good.
(woman fixing her hair) (598x227pix, 35kb) very clumsily drawn —(080712)

1966 Victorio Macho, Spanish sculptor born on 23 December 1887. —(060712)

^ 1965 Fotis (or Phôtês) Kontoglou, Greek icon painter and hagiographer born on 08 November 1896 (1895?). He was born in Aivali, Turkey. His surname was Apostolelis. His mother Despoina Kontoglou and her brother Stefanos Kontoglou, who used to be the abbot of the monastery of Aghia Paraskevi, brought him up. In this monastery, close to the sea and its people, he lived his childhood and due to his great love for the sea, at the beginning he wanted to be a captain. In 1913 his uncle Stefanos registered Fotis in the School of Fine Arts in Athens, which he leaves in 1915 to travel to France, Spain, Portugal, Angola, and elsewhere. He settled in Paris where he received an award for the illustration he made for Knout Hamsoun's Hunger. He wrotes and illustrated the book Pedro Kazas and became well known. He went back to Greece as a refugee from the 1922 Turkish genocide of ethnic Greeks, and in 1923 he visited the Mount Athos Monasteries for the first time, there he studied Byzantine hagiography, which became the principal theme of his paintings. In 1925 he married Maria Hatzikambouri from his native town Aivali and, together with his apprentices Yannis Tsarouchis and N. Engonopoulos, he painted a fresco on the walls of the front room of his house. In 1933 the Egyptian Government invited him to work at the Coptic Museum. He became a a painting professor at the Athens College. In the following years he restaured the wall paintings of the Perivleptos Church in Mystras, he created hagiographies for many churches, and undertooks the monumental wall painting of the Athenian Municipality where the ''uniformity of the race'' is depicted, from the Greek Patriarchs until the 19th century. He translates a Molière play, and he made the portrait of Hatzi Ousta Iordanoglou and his son Homer. He published more than 3000 studies and articles, in support of the Orthodox Church and the Greek Tradition.
Autoprosopographia (400x276pix, 33kb)
The Final Resurrection (22kb)
Madonna and Child (400x334pix, 44kb) just their heads. —(060712)

1951 Arnold Franz Walter Schönberg, artist born on 13 September 1874 in Austria, dies in Los Angeles. —(060713)

1946 Alfred Stieglitz, US photographer born on 01 January 1864. —(060713)

1937 Walter Gay, US artist born on 22 January 1856, dies in France. —(060711)

1937 Victor-Alexandre-Frederic Laloux, French architect born on 15 December 1850, who designed the Gare d'Orsay. — Portrait of Laloux (1400x1168pix, 257kb) by Adolphe Deschenaux —(060712)

1935 Rafael Maso i Valenti, Girona Catalan architect born on 16 August 1880. — Relative? of Felipe Maso [1850–]? —(060712)

1933 Piero Manzoni, Italian artist who died on 06 February 1963. —(060712)

1914 Prosper d'Epinay, French artist born on 13 July 1836. —(060711)

1909 Jules-Clement Chaplain, French medallist born on 12 July 1839. —(060711)

1902 Jesús Fructuoso Contreras, Mexican sculptor born on 20 January 1866. —(060711)

1891 Shibata Zeshin (aka Junzo; Koma; Reisai; Tairyukyo; Tanzen), Tokyo Japanese artist born in 1807. —(060713)

^ 1870 Johan Fredrik Eckersberg, Norwegian painter born on 16 June 1822. — Not to be confused with the Dane Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg [02 Jan 1783 – 22 Jul 1853]. — Axel Hjalmar Ender [1853-1920] was a student of J. F. Eckersberg.
From the farm Rudningen, Nesbyen (1868, 213x332cm; 411x640pix, 56kb)
Fra Romsdalen (23x17cm; 564x392pix, 211kb)
Solnedgang på fjellet (1869, 69x106cm; 364x550pix, 128kb)
Landsby nær Dusseldorf med kirke og Synagoge, Mølle og gårdshus(42kb)
Heron Feeding on the Marsh (53x91cm; 265x450pix, 28kb) —(060711)

1870 Christian Albrecht Jensen, Danish artist born ot 26 June 1792. —(060712)

^ 1852 (1844?) Ádám Sándor Ehrenreich, Hungarian engraver, publisher, and dealer, born in 1784. — He studied under his father Jozsef Ehrenreich [1765-1842], a seal engraver {+ ZOOM IN on better picture +? No! not this kind}, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibanyi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788/1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, Jozsef Urmenyi, Miklos Wesselenyi, Laszlo Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, Istvan Ferenczy, Ferdinand Jakab Miller and Benedek Virag. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudomanyos Gyujtemeny (1817, 1818, 1830). From 1823 until the early 1840s he undertook the huge task of engraving over 100 portraits of Hungarian historical figures and famous contemporary people; he called the collection Icones Principum. Although other engravers also worked on this project, most of the portraits were made by Ehrenreich. The engravings of historical figures were taken from portraits, while those of contemporary figures were based on drawings and paintings by foreign and Hungarian artists. The majority were made very precisely, and they vary in quality depending on the artistic merit of the original drawing or painting. Although Ehrenreich moved to Vienna in 1825, he continued the series. A book dealer in Pest {this Pest is neither contagious nor vermin} republished them in 1904. From 1840 to 1842 he was a dealer and publisher on Szervita Square in Pest, and in 1842-1843 he published a series of lithographs about the history of Hungary and Transylvania with the history painter Johann Geiger [1805-1870] and the historian Gusztav Wenzel [1812-1891].
János Zsámboky (or Sambucus) [01 Jul 1531 – 13 Jun 1584] (1823 engraving; 71kb) —(060711)

^ 1831 James Northcote, English painter and writer born on 22 October 1746. He was largely self-taught before his arrival in London in 1771, when he entered the Royal Academy Schools and joined Joshua Reynolds [16 Jul 1723 – 23 Feb 1792] as a student and assistant, remaining with Reynolds until 1776. From 1773 to 1776 he exhibited portraits at the Royal Academy, for example Miss Chatfield as Saint Catherine (1774). Northcote practiced portraiture at Plymouth until 1777, when he went to Italy to study, before settling in London in 1781, where he attempted to establish himself as a painter of history scenes. He won some recognition for these, appealing as they did to the era’s tastes; his Alexander I of Russia Rescuing a Peasant Boy from Drowning, for example, won a gold medal from the Royal Humane Society. Northcote was also among the contributors to Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery. However, to modern tastes, his appeal lies in his portraits. His representation of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, for example, is immediately striking, seeming to capture the astute, appraising quality in Hood’s expression. This proved a popular image and Northcote painted various copies and versions after it. A copy of the head, for example, was priced at eight guineas. In 1787, Northcote was elected Royal Academician. He was also an active chronicler, publishing a popular Life of Reynolds (1813) and Conversations with Hazlitt (1830) (William Hazlitt [10 Apr 1778 – 18 Sep 1830] was a writer with a first-rate intellect not matched by his mediocre talent as a writer). Nortcote died in London.. For much of his career his paintings depended heavily on Reynolds’s style, and while his intellect was first-rate, his artistic talent did not match that of his master..— LINKS
Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood (1784, 76x64cm; 837x700pix, 91kb) _ A half-length portrait to right, wearing flag officer's full-dress uniform, 1767-83, and white wig. The background consists of blue sky and the lower half forms a painted oval. Hood [12 Dec 1724 – 27 Jan 1816] served under Sir George Rodney [bap.13 Feb 1718 – 24 May 1792] in the West Indies and as commander of the rear squadron at the Battle of the Saints, 1782, he received the surrender of the French Admiral de Grasse [13 Sep 1722 – 11 Jan 1788]. In 1793, when Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean, he occupied Toulon. This was his last active service before he became Governor of Greenwich Hospital until his death. There is another version of this portrait. The battlecruiser HMS Hood was the largest warship in the world when it was commissioned in 1920 in memory of Admiral Hood, and it became sadly famous for being destroyed by the German battleship Bismarck on 24 May 1941.
Captain Charles Saxton [1732-1808] (1795, 158x122cm; 903x700pix, 105kb) _ A three-quarter-length to left portrait of Saxton wearing a blue coat with silver edging, and breeches. His left hand is on an anchor fluke, while his right rests on a dress sword. He wears his own white hair. Saxton joined the Navy in 1745 and was promoted to lieutenant on the East Indies station by Rear-Admiral Watson in 1757. A captain in 1762, he commanded the Magnanime, 74 guns, in home waters until the end of the Seven Years War in 1763. In the following year he was given command of the Pearl, 40 guns, and was sent to the Gulf of St Lawrence. In 1778, in the War Against American Independence, he commanded the Invincible, 74 guns, and went with Hood to the West Indies to reinforce Rodney. He was thus present at the action off St Kitts in January 1782 but missed the Battle of the Saints in April the same year, since the Invicible had already been despatched to Jamaica. In 1789 he was appointed the resident Commissioner at Portsmouth dockyard, and was made a baronet by George III when the king visited Portsmouth in 1794. He is believed to be wearing his commissioner's uniform in the portrait, which has incorporated the main gates of Portsmouth dockyard in the left background with the royal standard on a staff, commemorating the king's visit.
Captain Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine [1718-1786] (1780, 76x64cm; 829x700pix, 100kb) _ A half-length portrait in captain's, over three years, full-dress uniform, 1774-87. The sitter wears his own hair, powdered as a scratch wig and holds a telescope in his left hand. At an advanced age, in 1780, he was Captain of the Gibraltar, 80 guns, under Sir Samuel Hood and was present at Rodney's capture of Saint-Eustatius in the West Indies from the Dutch in 1781. He was selected to take dispatches home and was knighted on arrival. In 1782, he was Commodore at the Nore. The background consists of rock with a glimpse of the sea on the left.
Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Graves [1747-1814] (1802, 179x136cm; 932x700pix, 84kb) A three-quarter-length portrait to left wearing rear admiral's full-dress uniform, 1795-1812. The star of the KB is visible on his coat. His dress sword is in his left hand and his right hand rests on a rock. In the left background is the Defiance, 74 guns, in action at Copenhagen, 1801, and in the right background, a large urn has been included, in memory of the sitter's wife. As a lieutenant, Graves served with Phipps's Arctic expedition of 1773. The following year he went to North America with his uncle, Admiral Samuel Graves. While there he was employed in the prevention of smuggling and was badly burnt in an encounter with American Patriots on the Charles River. As captain of the Bedford, 74 guns, he fought at the Battle of Chesapeake (1781), where his cousin Admiral Thomas Graves commanded the fleet. As Commodore Affleck's flag captain he also fought in the Bedford at the Battles of Frigate Bay, St Kitts, January 1782, and the Saints, April 1782. In the French Wars, 1793-1815, Graves remained unemployed until his appointment to the Cumberland, 74 guns, in 1800. In 1801, as Rear-Admiral of the White, he was Nelson's second-in-command at the Battle of Copenhagen, flying his flag in the Defiance, 74 guns, as shown in this painting, which was painted when Graves had retired from active service due to poor health.
Tiger Hunting (1804, 191x214 cm)
A Negro (600x500pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1167pix) —(060713)

1820 Jeremiah Paul, US artist active since 1795. —(060713)

1784 Johann Baptist Straub, German artist baptized as an infant on 01 June 1704.

1777 Guillaume Coustou II, Parisian artist born on 19 March 1716. — Not to be confused with Guillaume Coustou I “le jeune” [29 Nov 1677 – 22 Feb 1746], who was presumably his father. —(060711)

1740 Arcangelo Resani, Italian artist born in 1668 or 1670 {what was wrong with 1669?. —(060713)

1675 Georg Strauch, Nuremberg German artist born on 17 September 1613. —(060713)

1654 Francesco Guarino (or Guarini), Italian artist born in 1611. —(060711)

Born on a 13 July:

1936 Joan Jonas, US performance and video artist. —(060712)

^ >1935 Jean-Pierre Cassigneul, French painter.
–- Femme au Bois (116x89cm; 1398x1068pix, 141kb) _ The pseudonymous Jenperd Caslagueul claims to have discovered that the original title of this painting was Labêle au Bois d'Orman because the model for this painting was named Labêle; and that she was one of non-identical triplet women, the other two of which Cassigneul had painted earlier portraits that he never presented in public:
     _ Lobez qui Bois (116x100cm; 1398x1208pix, 156kb) and
     _ Laminsse aux Abois (116x77cm; 1398x928pix, 125kb)
–- S#> Élégante au Chapeau (1964+1974, 100x73cm; 799x584pix, 77kb)
–- S#> La Vague (81x66cm; 799x643pix, 79kb)
–- S#> Au Balcon (91x65cm; 800x556pix, 55kb)
–- S#> Deux Femmes au Parc (92x73cm; 800x627pix, 76kb)
–- S#> Le Banc (81x60cm; 800x580pix, 78kb)
Worth 60'000 euros?
^ 1933 Piero Manzoni, Italian Arte Povera (poor pretense of art) Conceptual (the concept: you can always fool fools) artist (if you can call his excentricities “art”) who died on 06 February 1933. — Manzoni is known chiefly for his white monochrome paintings and as a precursor of Conceptual art. Born at Soncino (Cremona), he began by painting landscapes in a traditional style 1951-1955, then turned to making works with impressions left by keys, scissors, etc., which had been dipped in tar. Partly under the influence of Yves Klein and Burri started in 1957 to make textured white paintings which he called 'Achromes'. First one-man exhibition in the foyer of the Teatro delle Maschere, Milan, 1957. Close contact with the Gruppo Nucleare, particularly Baj, 1957-1959, then with Castellani and Agnetti; founded with Castellani in 1959-1960 a short-lived review called Azimut and an avant-garde gallery in Milan, the Galleria Azimut. From 1959 devised a variety of cerebral, provocatively controversial works: 'lines' of various lengths, signing the bodies of living people, tins of the artist's shit, bases for people to stand on as 'living sculptures', etc. He died in Milan. An exemple of Manzoni's “art“ is his Merda d'Artista, constructed in 1961. It is not a painting but a series of 30-gramme cans [foto >] labeled (in Italian, German, and English) “Merda d'artista — CONSERVATA AL NATURALE”, which sit in piles or randomly on a surface. Ninety versions were made, each designed to be sold for its weight in gold. — LINKSComments on a 1998 Manzoni exhibitionLinks to photos of some Manzoni “artwork”.

1925 Gustavo Torner, Spanish painter and sculptor. Cursó estudios de Ingeniero de Montes. En 1955 hizo su primera exposición de pinturas individual. En 1965 renunció a la ingeniería para dedicarse al arte a tiempo completo. A partir de la pintura figurativa de sus comienzos, evolucionó hacia el informalismo. En 1966 fundó con Zóbel el Museo de Arte Abstracto de Cuenca e inició su actividad en el campo de la escultura (Laberinto, 1973; El recuerdo de Parménides, 1976). Es importante también su labor como grabador y diseñador.
Composition (1961, 195x162cm; 510x429pix, 10kb) almost black, very little to be seen _ The artist wrote (letter of 29 January 1970): “This picture in fact immediately preceded a period of great anguish. In trying to draw a kind of more or less objective analogy, we could call it cold, formal expressionism rather than a personal exploitation of human sorrow. Tormented material and empty space, in this case almost black but not entirely so. 'Of course it so happens that a work which has a very solid area and another area which is rather insubstantial, and which has the parts separated by a horizontal, always takes on the appearance of a landscape ... 'My reason for using unorthodox materials is simple. The principal contribution of non-formal abstraction (after surrealism and dada) has been to reveal that pictorial material and everyday material have their own expressive qualities, regardless of size, form, colour, etc. I am personally very conscious of this. 'From the technical point of view I am constantly varying my materials and methods just as earlier artists used to change their colours and especially their compositions. I try to devise textures rather than forms, just as in contemporary music one can compose with sounds without using the notes of the musical scale. And that is why I do not believe in experimental art, for art is necessarily experimental and should be so. Almost invariably works which are called "experimental" are simply studies which it has proved impossible to carry through to a final conclusion. 'Possibly my work is concerned with discovering relationships between contradictory elements so as to achieve a unity, which is the aspect of reality that impresses me most. All this is approached from an exclusively plastic point of view - to create a plastic unity - although it does not disturb me that my work also has literary, humorous, scientific or pseudo-scientific aspects.”
— (untitled?) (23x19cm including margins; 452x409pix, 16kb)
Reserva Especial 00 (1998; 345x199pix, 6kb) to decorate a label for a bottle of Enate wine. —(090612)

1924 Harold Town, Canadian artist who died on 27 December 1990. —(060713)

^ 1920 Jean Messagier, French painter who died on 10 September 1999.
Apocalypse du printemps (469x685pix, 81kb) _ Seulement comme en pluies s'abattent les nues mauves annonciatrices de la longue mèche d'encre foncée qui quelques heures cachera l'azur, dans ce silence rabattu au flanc des monts tremblants que l'ombre dessine, à main levée dirait-on, sur la toile réfléchie des lunes. Comme un présent qui dans l'éteint se révèle au précieux...
Continents Retractiles (78x58cm; 650x485pix, 353kb)
Untitled (132x200cm; 410x639pix, 21kb)
Les corbeaux blessés (1962, 190x220cm; 480x548pix, 45kb) almost monochrome largely featureless abstraction; the pseudonymous John Messagain has made (not “executed” whether by firing squad, burning at the stake, or any other way, though he did consider hanging) a greatly enhanced transformation of this picture: Les Beaux Corps Baisés aka Cor Roc (2006; screen filling, 293kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2090kb) —(060712)

1918 Ronald Bladen, Canadian-born US sculptor who died on 03 Feb 1988 . — LINKS —(060711)

1912 Dmitry Nikolaevich Bal'termants, born in Warsaw, Russian photographer who died in Moscow on 11 June 1990. —(060710)

1902 Hipólito Hidalgo de Caviedes, Spanish painter. —(060712)

^ >1896 Max Bronstein “Mordecai Ardon”, Polish-born Israeli painter and teacher who died on 18 June 1992. As a young boy he greatly admired El Greco, Goya and Rembrandt. From 1920 to 1925 he studied at the Bauhaus, Weimar, under Klee, Kandinsky, Johannes Itten and Lyonel Feininger and the following year studied painting techniques at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under Max Doerner. During the 1920s he changed his name from Max Bronstein to Mordecai Ardon. He taught at the Kunstschule Itten in Berlin from 1929 to 1933, when Nazi persecution forced him to flee to Jerusalem. Though he had been an active Communist in Germany, in Jerusalem he soon found a great affinity with Jewish religion and culture. In 1935 he was made a professor at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, and was its Director from 1940 to 1952.
     Many of his works are deeply impregnated with Jewish mysticism and religion. Born in the village of Tuchow in Poland, as Max Bronstein. His father was a Hassidic Jew and a watchmaker. Became a student at the Bauhaus first in Weimar and then in Dessau 1920-1925, where he formed a friendship with Paul Klee. Went to Munich in 1926 to study the technique of the Old Masters at the Academy under Max Doerner. Taught at Itten's art school in Berlin 1929-1933, then emigrated to Jerusalem after the rise to power of the Nazis and changed his name to Ardon. Teacher at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts, Jerusalem, 1935-1952; Director from 1940-1952. Artistic Adviser to the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture 1952-1962. Lived in Jerusalem and Paris.
     Yaacov Agam [11 May 1928~] was a student of Ardon. — LINKS
Ein Karem (1944, 143x112cm)
For the Fallen (1956 Triptych) _ Center panel: The House of Cards _ Left-hand panel: The Traps _ Right-hand panel: The Unborn
Testament of a Dead Leaf (1959)
Tammuz (1962)
To the Morning Star (1968; 718x661pix, 97kb)
Last Curtain Call of the Palettes (1978)
La Grande Poupée (1985)
La Rosette pour Rikuda (1987)
Missa Dura: The Knight, Crystal Night, House No. 5 (1960, 20x52cm)
–- S#> Night (800xpix, 82kb)
Red Sun in the Landscape (45x54cm with margins, 537x700pix id., 69kb)
50 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(080712)

1879 Eugène Freyssinet, French artist who died on 08 June 1962. —(060711)

^ 1878 Maurice Sterne, in Libau, Latvia, US painter of figures, landscape and still life, sculptor, and lithographer, who died on 23 July 1957. His family moved to Moscow, then in 1889 it fled from anti-Jewish pogroms to New York. He studied mechanical drawing at Cooper Union from 1892, and then painting and drawing at the National Academy of Design (1894-1899), where he studied anatomy under Thomas Eakins and later served as an assistant instructor. In 1904 he won a traveling scholarship and went to Paris, where he studied Cézanne and was introduced to early French modernism by Leo Stein. He went on to Italy, where he was influenced by Piero della Francesca, and to Greece, where he studied 4th and 5th century Greek art and became interested in sculpture. He lived in India, Burma and Bali (1911-1914), then mainly at Anticoli-Corrado in Italy and in the US. He made mural paintings for the Department of Justice building in Washington DC (1935-1939). He spent a large part of his later years at Provincetown, Massachusetts, painting seascapes of Cape Cod Bay. He died at his home in Mount Kisco, New York.— LINKS
–- S#> Western Landscape (x800pix, 63kb)
After Rain (1947, 61x76cm; 510x640pix, 46kb)
Afternoon (1924)
Girl with Pink Kerchief (1924)
Mother and Child
Still Life (1925)
Temple Feast, Bali (1913)
The Reapers (1925) —(060713)

^ 1876 Josef Oppenheimer, German artist who died in 1966.
–- S#> Am Wannsee, Berlin (26x34cm; 510x653pix, 244kb)

1875 date sometimes given for the birth of Arthur Segal, which on this site is covered on 13 June. —(060710)

1873 Bernhard Henri (or Heinrich) Wilhelm Berssenbrugge, Dutch photographer who died ot 04 May 1959. —(060710)

1856 Eugène Vallin, French artist who died on 21 July 1922. —(070613)

1849 Herman Helmer, in Harburg, artist who died on 02 Feb 1919. —(060712)

^ 1845 Robert Schleich, German artist who died in 1934.
The Haystacks (23x39cm; 577x1000pix, 100kb)

1841 Otto Koloman Wagner, Austrian architect who died on 11 April 1918. — Not to be confused with the German painter Otto Wagner [1803-1961] nor with Otto Erich Wagner [1895-1979]. —(060713)

>1839 Modest Urgell i Inglada [–03 Apr 1919], Barcelona Catalan painter. Tras intentar dedicarse al teatro y llegar a actuar en el Teatro de Santa Cruz de Barcelona, la prohibición familiar de seguir por ese camino lo lleva a dedicarse a la pintura. Comenzó su formación en la Escuela de La Lonja de la Ciudad Condal, por entonces dirigida por Ramón Martí Alsina, donde trabó amistad con Joaquín y Mariano Vayreda, José y Francisco Masriera, Simón Gómez, José Luis Pellicer y Ramón Padró, entre otros. Estudió en la Escuela de San Jorge de Barcelona. Son años en los que alterna con la juventud artítica y bohemia de Barcelona. Comienza a destacar como dibujante antes que como pintor. Posteriormente, su familia, que gozaba de buena posición económica, le paga una larga estancia en París, en la que conoció la obra de Gustave Courbet. Desde 1896, fue profesor de paisaje en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Barcelona. Fue fundador de la Sociedad Artística y Literaria de Barcelona. Se especializó en la representación de cementerios, ermitas desoladas y paisajes crepusculares. Como escritor destacan sus obras tituladas Cataluña y El murciélago.
Barcas contraluz (26x54cm; 388x800pix, 34kb)
— (Iglesia abandonada?) (312x573pix, 12kb)
Cementerio y gallinas (38x23cm; 800x633pix, 88kb).
157 images at Ciudad de la Pintura. —(080713)

1798 William Harvey, English artist who died on 13 January 1866. —(060712)

1768 Peter Joseph Imhoff, Cologne German sculptor who died on 20 December 1844. —(060712)
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